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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928335

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effects of different bone cement morphology distribution on the clinical efficacy of unilateral percutaneous vertebroplasty(PVP) for spinal osteoporotic fractures.@*METHODS@#The clinical data of 66 patients with osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures received unilateral PVP treatment from January 2019 to April 2020 were retrospectively analyzed. There were 16 males and 50 females, including 83 vertebral bodies, 45 thoracic vertebrae and 38 lumbar vertebrae, and 55 patients with single-segment, 6 double-segment, 4 three-segment and 1 four-segment. The age ranged from 60 to 93 years with an average of (76.83±8.65) years. The included patients were admitted to hospital 1 to 10 days after onset, and were diagnosed by anteroposterior and lateral X-rays, MRI and bone density examination before surgery. According to the shape of bone cement in postoperative X-ray, the patients were divided into O-shaped group (28 cases) and H-shaped group (38 cases). In O-shaped group, the bone cement presented agglomeration mass distribution in the affected vertebra in postoperative X-ray while the bone cement presented disseminated honeycomb distribution in the affected vertebrae in H-shaped group. Bone cement injection volume was collected in two groups. The intraoperative bone cement leakage and postoperative adjacent vertebral fractures were observed. The VAS of the two groups before operation and 1 day, 1 month, 6 months and 1 year after operation were compared;and ODI of the two groups 1 day, 6 months and 1 year after operation were compared. The kyphosis angle and anterior height of the affected vertebrae were measured before operation and 1 week, 1 year after operation.@*RESULTS@#All 66 patients completed 1-year follow-up, and all patients healed well at the puncture site after surgery. There were 1 case and 8 cases of bone cement leakage in O-shaped group and H-shaped group during surgery respectively (P<0.05), but no serious complications occurred. One case occurred adjacent vertebral fracture in both groups during one-year follow-up (P>0.05). There was no statistical significance in injection amount of bone cement between the two groups (P>0.05). The VAS scores of O-shaped group and H-shaped group were 7.89±0.79, 2.75±1.08, 0.46±0.58, 0.36±0.49 and 8.00±1.04, 2.58±1.15, 0.53±0.56, 0.42±0.50 before operation, 1 day, 6 months, 1 year after operation respectively, and there was no statistical significance(P>0.05), and the VAS scores were 0.96±0.58 and 1.18±0.83 at 1 month after operation respectively, with statistical significance(P<0.05). The ODI scores of O-shaped group and H-shaped group were 12.43±3.78, 10.00±2.46, 8.43±1.50 and 12.11±3.68, 9.53±2.35, 8.32±1.51 at 1 day, 6 months and 1 year after surgery respectively, and there was no statistical significance between the two groups(P>0.05). There were no statistical significance in kyphotic angles and anterior height before surgery and 1 week, 1 year after surgery between two groups (P>0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#No matter the distribution of bone cement is O-shape or H-shape, it can achieve good clinical effect, and the prognosis effect is equivalent. Therefore, when performing unilateral puncture PVP surgery, it is not necessary to deliberately increase the puncture angle of the puncture needle in order to achieve the full diffusion of the affected vertebrae, so as to reduce the risk of damaging important structures and bone cement leakage.


Subject(s)
Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Bone Cements/therapeutic use , Female , Fractures, Compression/surgery , Humans , Kyphosis , Male , Middle Aged , Osteoporotic Fractures/surgery , Retrospective Studies , Spinal Fractures/surgery , Spinal Puncture , Treatment Outcome , Vertebroplasty
2.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1353935

ABSTRACT

La presencia de elementos extraños dentro del canal raquídeo es infrecuente y no hay claro consenso respecto de su tratamiento. Las publicaciones sobre fragmentos de proyectil de arma de fuego intracanal recomiendan la exéresis de los fragmentos ante la posibilidad de migración, sobre todo, cuando están en una zona próxima al cono medular. Se debería proceder del mismo modo ante una aguja dentro del canal espinal. Presentamos a una paciente con dolor radicular invalidante provocado por un fragmento de aguja dentro del canal espinal luego de una cesárea. Nivel de Evidencia: IV


The presence of foreign elements within the spinal canal is rare and there is no clear consensus regarding its treatment. The publications on intracanal firearm projectile fragments recommend exeresis of the fragments due to the possibility of migration, especially when they are in an area close to the medullary cone. The same procedure should be applied to a needle inside the spinal canal. We present a patient with disabling radicular pain caused by a needle fragment within the spinal canal after cesarean section. Level of Evidence: IV


Subject(s)
Adult , Rupture , Spinal Diseases , Spinal Puncture , Cesarean Section/adverse effects , Anesthesia, Epidural/adverse effects , Needles/adverse effects
3.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 40(4): 656-663, oct.-dic. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142431

ABSTRACT

Abstract. Introduction: Normotensive hydrocephalus is a differential diagnosis in the evaluation of the dementia syndrome. The diagnostic protocols would allow detecting this pathology that has more effective treatment than other dementias. Objective: To describe a population with clinical suspicion of normal pressure hydrocephalus evaluated in a Colombian psychiatric hospital and discuss the possible reasons for its diagnostic and therapeutic delay. Materials and methods: We conducted a retrospective study of medical records to identify patients with suspected normal pressure hydrocephalus during a 5-year period. Results: Thirty-five patients with suspected normal pressure hydrocephalus underwent diagnostic lumbar puncture and five of them were considered candidates for a peritoneal-venous shunt, but none underwent this surgical procedure. After three to six months of the lumbar puncture, the gait pattern improved in 22.8% of the patients, cognition in 22.8%, and sphincter control in 11.4%. Improvement was not sustained in the long term (1 year) in any of them. Conclusion: This study suggests the poor implementation of the protocols for evaluating patients with cognitive deficits and delays in the diagnosis of normal pressure hydrocephalus. A small number of patients were identified as candidates for treatment. Normal pressure hydrocephalus is a potentially reversible clinical entity with the placement of a peritoneal ventricular shunt, but delays in diagnosis and treatment have deleterious consequences for patients and their families.


Resumen. Introducción. La hidrocefalia normotensiva es un diagnóstico diferencial en la evaluación del síndrome demencial. Los protocolos diagnósticos permitirían detectar esta condición, cuyo tratamiento es más efectivo que el de otras demencias. Objetivo. Describir una población con sospecha clínica de hidrocefalia normotensiva evaluada en un hospital psiquiátrico colombiano y discutir las posibles razones de la demora en el diagnóstico y en la terapia de esta condición clínica. Materiales y métodos. Se hizo un estudio retrospectivo de los registros médicos para detectar pacientes con sospecha de hidrocefalia normotensiva durante un período de cinco años. Resultados. A 35 pacientes con sospecha de hidrocefalia normotensiva se les hizo una punción lumbar diagnóstica. Cinco de ellos se consideraron candidatos para una derivación ventrículo-peritoneal, pero ninguno se sometió a este procedimiento quirúrgico. A los 3-6 meses de la punción lumbar, se observó una mejoría del patrón de la marcha en el 22,8 % de los pacientes, de la cognición en el 22,8 % y del control del esfínter en el 11,4 %. La mejoría no se mantuvo a largo plazo (un año) en ningún paciente. Conclusión. Se encontró una implementación deficiente de los protocolos de evaluación de los pacientes con déficit cognitivos y demoras en el diagnóstico de la hidrocefalia normotensiva, así como un número reducido de pacientes clasificados como candidatos para el tratamiento. La hidrocefalia normotensiva es una condición clínica potencialmente reversible con la colocación de una derivación ventrículo-peritoneal. Los retrasos en el diagnóstico y en el tratamiento tienen consecuencias perjudiciales para los pacientes y sus familias.


Subject(s)
Hydrocephalus/diagnosis , Hydrocephalus, Normal Pressure , Primary Health Care , Spinal Puncture , Dementia , Ageism
4.
Gac. méd. boliv ; 43(2): 184-189, dic. 2020. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249982

ABSTRACT

La ecografía es una herramienta de gran ayuda en medicina, rápido, tecnología portátil y segura. Así por ejemplo realización de la punción lumbar (accesos vasculares y bloqueos regionales) para la obtención de líquido cefalorraquídeo por médicos de emergencia y anestesiólogos, etc. Como ventajas tenemos: disminución del número de punciones lumbares, satisfacción del paciente. Es una alternativa en pacientes con alta probabilidad de punción lumbar difícil como por ejemplo: pacientes obesos, pacientes con edema, con antecedentes de cirugía columna previa, escoliosis. En el presente artículo tiene como objetivo brindar información sobre la utilidad de la ecografía en la punción lumbar en adultos y la obtención del líquido cefalorraquídeo. Proponer una abordaje metódico para puncion lumbar y el bloqueo neuroaxial en tiempo estático por ecografía de la columna lumbar del adulto. Se realizó la búsqueda de la bibliografía de revistas académicas de medicina y anestesiología disponibles en base de datos confiables.


Ultrasound is a tool of great help in medicine, fast, portable and safe technology. Thus, for example, the performance of lumbar punctures (vascular accesses and regional blocks) to obtain cerebrospinal fluid by emergency physicians and anesthesiologists, etc. As advantages we have: decrease in the number of lumbar punctures, patient satisfaction. It is an alternative in patients with a high probability of difficult lumbar puncture such as: obese patients, patients with edema, with a history of previous spinal surgery, scoliosis. The aim of this article is to provide information on the usefulness of ultrasound in lumbar puncture in adults and obtaining cerebrospinal fluid. To propose a methodical approach for lumbar puncture and neuraxial block in static time by ultrasound of the lumbar spine in adults. A search was made of the bibliography of academic journals of medicine and anesthesiology available in reliable databases.


Subject(s)
Spinal Puncture , Ultrasonography , Scoliosis , Spine , Cerebrospinal Fluid , Anesthesiologists
5.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 40(5): 346-354, May 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1135630

ABSTRACT

Ruminants may be affected by a wide variety of central nervous system (CNS) diseases. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis forms the basis for ante mortem diagnostic evaluation of ruminants with clinical signs involving the CNS. Despite its importance as a tool to aid diagnosis, data regarding CSF examinations in spontaneous cases of CNS diseases in ruminants from Brazil are limited, and most reports involve experimental studies. Therefore, this study aimed to report the results of CSF analysis in 58 ruminants showing signs of neurological disorders. CSF samples for analysis were obtained from 32 cattle, 20 sheep, and 6 goats by cerebello-medullary cistern (n=54) or lumbosacral space (n=4) puncture. These ruminants showed neurological signs related to viral (n=13), mycotic (n=3), or bacterial (n=15) infections, and toxic (n=21), traumatic (n=4), or congenital disorders (n=2). CSF analysis from ruminants with viral infections presented lymphocytic pleocytosis, even though CSF showed no changes in several cases of rabies. Neutrophilic pleocytosis, cloudiness, presence of fibrin clots, and abnormal coloration were evident in the CSF of most cases of CNS bacterial infection, such as meningoencephalitis, meningitis, abscesses, myelitis, and a case of conidiobolomycosis. On the other hand, CSF was unchanged in most cases of toxic disorders, as botulism and hepatic encephalopathy. Elevated CSF density was observed in 60% of ruminants diagnosed with polioencephalomalacia. Our findings show that evaluation of CSF is a valuable diagnostic tool when used in association with epidemiological, clinical and pathological findings for diagnosis of CNS diseases in ruminants.(AU)


Os ruminantes podem ser afetados por uma grande variedade de doenças do sistema nervoso central (SNC). A análise do líquido cefalorraquidiano (LCR) constitui a base da avaliação diagnóstica ante mortem de ruminantes com sinais clínicos envolvendo o SNC. Apesar de sua importância como ferramenta para auxiliar no diagnóstico, os dados referentes aos exames do LCR em casos espontâneos de doenças do SNC em ruminantes no Brasil são limitados, e, a maioria dos relatos envolve estudos experimentais. Portanto, este trabalho teve como objetivo relatar os resultados da análise do LCR em 58 ruminantes com distúrbios neurológicos. Amostras do LCR foram obtidas de 32 bovinos, 20 ovinos e 6 caprinos por punção da cisterna cerebelo-medular (n=54) ou espaço lombossacro (n=4) para posterior análise. Esses ruminantes apresentaram sinais neurológicos relacionados a infecções virais (n=13), micóticas (n=3) ou bacterianas (n=15), e desordens tóxicas (n=21), traumáticas (n=4) ou congênitas (n=2) A análise do LCR de ruminantes com infecções virais apresentou pleocitose linfocítica, embora, em vários casos de raiva, o LCR não tenha apresentado alterações. Pleocitose neutrofílica, turbidez, presença de coágulos de fibrina e coloração anormal foram evidentes no LCR da maioria dos casos de infecções bacterianas do SNC, como meningoencefalites, meningites, abscessos, mielite e um caso de conidiobolomicose. Por outro lado, o LCR não foi alterado na maioria dos casos dos distúrbios tóxicos, como botulismo e encefalopatia hepática. A densidade elevada no LCR foi observada em 60% dos ruminantes diagnosticados com polioencefalomalácia. Nossos resultados mostram que a avaliação do LCR é uma valiosa ferramenta de diagnóstico, quando usada em associação com os achados epidemiológicos, clínicos e patológicos para o diagnóstico de doenças do SNC em ruminantes.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Goats/cerebrospinal fluid , Sheep/cerebrospinal fluid , Cerebrospinal Fluid , Nervous System Diseases/diagnosis , Nervous System Diseases/pathology , Spinal Puncture/veterinary , Nervous System Diseases/veterinary
6.
Rev. cuba. anestesiol. reanim ; 19(1): e576, ene.-abr. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1093132

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El abordaje del espacio subaracnoideo fue descrito por Quincke en el 1891. En la actualidad es práctica común para la realización de la anestesia neuroaxial subaracnoidea en las pacientes obstétricas. Las complicaciones descritas, asociadas a esto, son varias. Dentro de estas, la parálisis del nervio abducens o VI par no es frecuente y en ocasiones, no está relacionada a la punción ya que se produce días después del evento. Objetivo: Revisar la información relacionada con la complicación de parálisis del VI par. Presentación del caso: Paciente de 33 años de edad, femenina, de profesión médico, con antecedentes personales de migraña, historia de anestesia neuroaxial epidural sin complicaciones, que para la realización de una cesárea de segmento arciforme y salpinguectomia parcial bilateral, recibió una anestesia combinada peridural-espinal. El transoperatorio transcurre con estabilidad hemodinámica, hizo cefalea al tercer día del posoperatorio, que la atribuyó al antecedente de migraña y fue tratada sin evaluación por anestesiología con dipirona. A los 10 días de operada hace desviación de la mirada y diplopia, se diagnostica parálisis del VI par. Fue tratada por Neurología y se plantean varios diagnósticos diferenciales. Los estudios imagenológicos resultan negativos, se trató con vitaminas y se produjo remisión a las 6 semanas. Conclusiones: El diagnóstico de esta complicación es necesario ya que puede pasar inadvertida la relación con la anestesia y, por tanto, ser mal conducido su tratamiento(AU)


Introduction: The approach to the subarachnoid space was described by Quincke in 1891. It is now a common practice to perform subarachnoid neuroaxial anesthesia in obstetric patients. The complications described, associated with this, are several. Within these, the paralysis of the abducens nerve or sixth pair is not frequent and sometimes is not related to the puncture, since it occurs days after the event. Objective: To review the information related to the complication of paralysis of the sixth pair. Case presentation: A 33-year-old female patient, a physician, with a personal history of migraine, a history of epidural neuroaxial anesthesia without complications, who underwent combined epidural-spinal anesthesia for performing a cranial segment cesarean section and bilateral partial salpingectomy. The transoperative period runs with hemodynamic stability. There was headache three days after surgery, which was attributed to the migraine history and the patient was treated, without evaluation by anesthesiology, with dipyrone. At 10 days after surgery, the eyes are diverted and diplopia is manifested, paralysis of the sixth pair is diagnosed. She was treated by neurology and several differential diagnoses were proposed. Imaging studies are negative. She was treated with vitamins and remission occurred at six weeks. Conclusions: The diagnosis of this complication is necessary, since the relationship with anesthesia may go unnoticed and, therefore, its treatment may be poorly conducted(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Spinal Puncture/adverse effects , Abducens Nerve Diseases/complications , Anesthesia, Spinal/adverse effects , Diplopia/etiology
7.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 78(4): 187-192, Apr. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1098089

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Post-dural puncture headache (PDPH) is an iatrogenic condition following lumbar puncture (LP). Incidence is variable and often associated with young females. Technical features of the procedure (i.e. needle gauge) have been investigated; however there is no investigation on the method of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) collection. Objective: To investigate whether mild CSF aspiration is associated with increased PDPH in selected patients. Methods: 336 subjects were eligible to the study. Data on 237 patients from a tertiary neurology hospital who underwent diagnostic LP from February 2010 to December 2012 were analysed. Patient demographics, lumbar puncture method, CSF biochemical characteristics, opening pressures, and a follow-up inquire on PDPH occurrence were collected. CSF was collected either by allowing free flow or by mild aspiration. Results: The aspiration arm (n=163) was comprised of 55.8% females with mean age of 52(35‒69) years. Sex distribution was not different between the two arms (p=0.191). A significant larger amount of CSF was obtained in the aspiration arm (p=0.011). The incidence of PDPH in the aspiration arm was 16.5% versus 20.2% in the free flow arm, not statistically significant (p=0.489). No relevant associations emerged from the analyses in the subgroup aged <65 years. Conclusions: Aspiration of the CSF during LP was not associated with increased rates of PDPH compared to the standard method, particularly when larger amounts of CSF are required and ideal conditions are met. This is the first study looking into this matter, aiming to add safety to the procedure. Further randomized trials are required.


Resumo Introdução: Cefaleia pós-punção dural (CPPD) é uma condição iatrogênica após punção lombar (LP). Incidência é variável; frequentemente associada a mulheres jovens. Características técnicas do procedimento (ex: calibre da agulha) foram investigadas; no entanto, não há investigação sobre o método de coleta do líquido cefalorraquidiano (LCR). Objetivo: Avaliar se aspiração leve do LCR está associada ao aumento da CPPD em pacientes selecionados. Métodos: 336 indivíduos foram elegíveis para o estudo. Dados de 237 pacientes em um hospital neurológico terciário que foram submetidos à PL diagnóstica de fevereiro de 2010 a dezembro de 2012 foram analisados. Coletamos dados demográficos dos pacientes, método da PL, características bioquímicas do LCR, pressões de abertura e ocorrência da CPPD. Todos as PLs ocorreram em decúbito lateral. O LCR foi coletado permitindo livre fluxo ou aspiração leve. Resultados: O grupo aspiração (n=163) apresentava 55,8% de mulheres, idade média de 52(35‒69) anos. A distribuição por sexo não foi diferente entre os dois grupos (p=0,191). Uma quantidade maior de LCR foi obtida no grupo aspiração (p=0,011). A incidência de CPPD no grupo de aspiração foi de 16,5% versus 20,2% no fluxo livre, não estatisticamente significante (p=0,489). Nenhuma associação emergiu das análises no subgrupo com idades <65 anos. Conclusões: A aspiração do LCR durante PL não está associada ao aumento da CPPD em comparação com a método padrão, particularmente quando quantidades maiores de LCR são necessárias e condições ideais são satisfeitas. Este é o primeiro estudo a investigar o topico, visando aumentar a segurança do procedimento. Necessita-se futuros estudos randomizados.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Post-Dural Puncture Headache , Spinal Puncture , Incidence , Prospective Studies , Needles
8.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 78(3): 176-178, Mar. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1098073

ABSTRACT

Abstract At the beginning of the 20th century, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) collection and analysis emerged as a promising aid in the diagnosis of diseases of the central nervous system. It was obtained through the established procedure of lumbar puncture, described by Heinrich Quinke in 1891. The search for an alternative way to gather the CSF emerged in animal research, highlighting the cisterna magna as a promising source, with relative safety when performed by someone trained. Described initially and in detail by James Ayer in 1920, the procedure was widely adopted by neurologists and psychiatrists at the time, featuring its multiple advantages and clinical applications. After a period of great procedure use and exponential data collection, its complications and risks relegated the puncture of the cisterna magna as an alternative route that causes fear and fascination in modern Neurology.


Resumo No início do século XX, a coleta e análise do líquido cefalorraquidiano (LCR) despontavam como um promissor auxílio no diagnóstico das doenças do sistema nervoso central. Sua obtenção se dava através do consagrado procedimento de punção lombar, descrito por Heinrich Quinke em 1891. A busca por uma via alternativa na obtenção do LCR ganhou destaque nas pesquisas animais, destacando-se na cisterna magna promissora fonte, com relativa segurança quando executada por alguém treinado. Descrito inicialmente e de maneira pormenorizada por James Ayer em 1920, o procedimento foi amplamente adotado por neurologistas e psiquiatras à época, com destaque para suas múltiplas vantagens e aplicações clínicas. Após um período de grande uso do procedimento e exponencial obtenção de dados, suas complicações e riscos relegaram a punção da cisterna magna como via alternativa que causa medo e fascínio na Neurologia moderna.


Subject(s)
Animals , History, 19th Century , History, 20th Century , Spinal Puncture/history , Cerebrospinal Fluid , Cisterna Magna/surgery , Spinal Puncture/methods , Punctures
9.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057214

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To describe a case of a male adolescent with symptomatic idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) associated with obesity treated with bariatric surgery. Case description: A 16-year-and-6-month-old severely obese boy [weight: 133.6 kg; height: 1.74 m (Z score: +0.14); BMI: 44.1 kg/m2 (Z score: +4.4)], Tanner pubertal stage 5, presented biparietal, high-intensity, and pulsatile headaches, about five times per week, associated with nocturnal awakenings, and partial improvement with common analgesics, for three months. Ophthalmologic evaluation evidenced bilateral papilledema. Cranial computed tomography revealed no mass or anatomic abnormalities. Lumbar puncture showed increased intracranial pressure of 40 cmH2O (reference value: <28 cmH2O) with a normal content. After being diagnosed with IIH, the patient was started on acetazolamide. However, after three months, he was still symptomatic. He was diagnosed with obesity due to excess energy intake and, as he had failed to lose weight after a conventional clinical treatment, bariatric surgery was indicated. The patient (at 16 years and nine months) underwent an uncomplicated laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy. Ophthalmologic evaluation, performed five months after surgery, revealed normal visual acuity in both eyes and improvement of bilateral papilledema. Follow-up at 18 months showed a 67.5% loss of excess weight (weight: 94.5 kg and BMI: 31.2 kg/m2) and complete resolution of IIH symptoms. Comments: IIH is characterized by increased intracranial pressure with no evidence of deformity or obstruction of the ventricular system on neuroimaging. It has been associated with obesity. Bariatric surgery may be a valid alternative approach for morbidly obese adolescent patients with refractory symptoms.


RESUMO Objetivo: Descrever um caso de cirurgia bariátrica como tratamento de pseudotumor cerebral primário (PTCP) em adolescente do sexo masculino com obesidade. Descrição do caso: Adolescente, sexo masculino, 16 anos e 6 meses, com obesidade exógena [peso:133,6 kg; estatura:1,74 m (escore z: +0,14); IMC: 44,1 kg/m2 (escore z: +4,4)], estadiamento puberal de Tanner 5, apresentando cefaleia bi-parietal, pulsátil e de alta-intensidade, cerca de cinco vezes por semana, associada a despertares noturnos, e com melhora parcial com analgésicos comuns, há três meses. A avaliação oftalmológica evidenciou papiledema bilateral e a tomografia computadorizada de crânio não revelou massas ou alterações anatômicas. A punção lombar mostrou pressão intracraniana elevada de 40 cmH2O (Referência: <28 cmH2O) com conteúdo normal. Feito o diagnóstico, o paciente foi iniciou uso de acetazolamida. No entanto, após 3 meses, o paciente mantinha-se sintomático. Ele foi diagnosticado com obesidade devido ao consumo calórico excessivo e, como não havia obtido sucesso na perda de peso com tratamento clínico convencional, a cirurgia bariátrica foi indicada. Aos 16 anos e 9 meses, o paciente foi submetido a gastrectomia vertical laparoscópica sem complicações. A avaliação oftalmológica, cinco meses após a cirurgia, revelou melhora do papiledema bilateral com acuidade visual normal em ambos os olhos. Apresentou perda de excesso de peso de 67,5% (peso: 94,5 kg e IMC:31,2 kg/m2) e resolução completa dos sintomas de PPTC 18 meses após a cirurgia. Comentários: O PTCP é caracterizado pelo aumento da pressão intracraniana, sem evidência de deformidade ou obstrução do sistema ventricular na neuroimagem. Está associado à obesidade. A cirurgia bariátrica pode ser uma alternativa terapêutica válida para pacientes adolescentes obesos graves com sintomas refratários.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Bariatric Surgery/methods , Acetazolamide/therapeutic use , Spinal Puncture/methods , Obesity, Morbid/surgery , Pseudotumor Cerebri/diagnosis , Pseudotumor Cerebri/physiopathology , Pseudotumor Cerebri/drug therapy , Weight Loss/physiology , Papilledema/diagnostic imaging , Treatment Outcome , Aftercare , Diuretics/therapeutic use , Fundus Oculi , Headache/diagnosis , Headache/etiology
10.
Dement. neuropsychol ; 13(2): 133-143, Apr.-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011963

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT. Normal-pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) is a potentially reversible syndrome characterized by enlarged cerebral ventricles (ventriculomegaly), cognitive impairment, gait apraxia and urinary incontinence. A critical review of the concept, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of both idiopathic and secondary NPH was conducted. We searched Medline and PubMed databases from January 2012 to December 2018 using the keywords "normal-pressure hydrocephalus" / "idiopathic normal-pressure hydrocephalus" / "secondary normal-pressure hydrocephalus" / "NPH" / "ventriculoperitoneal shunt". The initial search produced 341 hits. After careful selection, a total of 54 articles were chosen and additional relevant studies were included during the process of writing this article. NPH is an important cause of potentially reversible dementia, frequent falls and recurrent urinary infections in the elderly. The clinical and imaging features of NPH may be incomplete or nonspecific, posing a diagnostic challenge for medical doctors and often requiring expert assessment to minimize unsuccessful surgical treatments. Recent advances resulting from the use of non-invasive MRI methods for quantifying cerebral blood flow, in particular arterial spin-labeling (ASL), and the frequent association of NPH and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), offer new avenues to understand and treat NPH.


RESUMO. A hidrocefalia de pressão normal (HPN) é uma síndrome potencialmente reversível marcada por ventrículos cerebrais alargados (ventriculomegalia), declínio cognitivo, apraxia da marcha e incontinência urinária. Revisar criticamente o conceito, a fisiopatologia, o diagnóstico e o tratamento da HPN idiopática e secundária. Os autores acessaram as bases de dados Medline e Pubmed entre janeiro de 2012 e dezembro de 2018, utilizando as palavras-chave "normal-pressure hydrocephalus" / "idiopathic normal-pressure hydrocephalus" / "secondary normal-pressure hydrocephalus" / "NPH" / "ventriculoperitoneal shunt". A busca inicial resultou em 341 artigos. Após cuidadosa seleção, 54 estudos foram escolhidos e pesquisas adicionais foram incluídas durante o processo de elaboração do manuscrito. A HPN é uma importante causa de demência potencialmente reversível, quedas frequentes e infecção urinária recorrente em idosos. As características clínicas e de imagem da HPN podem ser incompletas ou inespecíficas, de modo que este se torna um diagnóstico difícil para médicos. Não raro uma avaliação por especialista é necessária, visando minimizar tratamentos cirúrgicos ineficazes. Avanços recentes advindos do uso não invasivo de ressonância magnética para quantificação do fluxo sanguíneo cerebral, em particular arterial spin-labeling (ASL), assim como a usual associação entre HPN e apneia obstrutiva do sono representam novos meios de entender e de tratar a HPN.


Subject(s)
Humans , Spinal Puncture , Urinary Incontinence , Accidental Falls , Dementia , Hydrocephalus, Normal Pressure
11.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-738584

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We report an unusual case of Leber hereditary optic neuropathy presenting with optic disc hyperfluorescence. CASE SUMMARY: A 17-year-old male with sequential painless visual loss 3 weeks apart affecting first the left and then the right eye presented to our neuro-ophthalmology clinic. His best-corrected visual acuity was counting fingers in the right eye and 0.32 in the left eye. Fundus examination showed mild optic disc edema and hyperemia in both eyes, which were worse in the right eye. Fluorescein angiography revealed dye leakage from the right optic disc in the late phase. The results of magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and spinal cord were normal, and lumbar puncture study was unremarkable. Mitochondrial DNA sequencing revealed a pathognomonic 11778 mutation for Leber hereditary optic neuropathy. His vision deteriorated to 0.03 in both eyes 6 months later, but slowly started to improve 11 months after onset. At 2 years, his corrected visual acuity was 0.2 in both eyes. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first report of optic disc hyperfluorescence in Leber hereditary optic neuropathy. This finding suggests that this mitochondrial optic neuropathy can masquerade as optic neuritis.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Brain , DNA, Mitochondrial , Edema , Fingers , Fluorescein Angiography , Humans , Hyperemia , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Optic Atrophy , Optic Atrophy, Hereditary, Leber , Optic Nerve Diseases , Optic Neuritis , Spinal Cord , Spinal Puncture , Visual Acuity
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771850

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To assess the analgesic efficacy of compound lidocaine cream in lumbar puncture of children with leukemia and lymphoma.@*METHODS@#312 leukemia and lymphoma children necessarily undergone lumbar puncture were divided into compound lidocaine cream (cream) group and compound lidocaine injection (injation) group as control with 156 cases respectively according to the will of inpatient children and their family. For cream group, compound lidocaine cream was smeared on the skin around the lumbar puncture point evenly and covered with sterile and transparent dressing for about one hour before lumbar puncture. Then the cream and transparent dressing were removed and lumbar puncture was performed after regular disinfection. For control group, 2% compound lidocaine was injected as local anesthesia before lumbar puncture. The extent of pain was evaluated by Wong-Baker Faces Pain Rating Scale and FLACC Scale as well as children's physiological indexes (heart rate, breathing, blood pressure). The lumbar puncture success rate and the discomfortableness as well as family satisfaction were recorded by special person.@*RESULTS@#Compared with control group, the incidence of pain and discomfortableness in cream group significantly reduced, and the family satisfaction significantly increased (P<0.05). There were obviously differences in the physiological indexes (heart rate, breathing, systolic blood pressure) before and after lumbar puncture in control group (P<0.05). However, the physiological indexes in cream group had no obvious change. There was no difference on the success rate of lumbar puncture between the two methods of anesthesia.@*CONCLUSION@#Compound lidocaine cream has significantly analgesic effect which can relieving pain caused by lumbar puncture for children.


Subject(s)
Analgesics , Anesthetics, Local , Child , Hematologic Neoplasms , Humans , Lidocaine , Lidocaine, Prilocaine Drug Combination , Spinal Puncture
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759991

ABSTRACT

Spinal subdural hematoma (SDH) is rarely reported, and their simultaneous occurrence with intracranial SDH is even more rare. A 67-year-old male patient with a history of posterolateral fusion to treat an L2 burst fracture came to our outpatient clinic due to an inability to walk by himself over the previous 3 weeks. A neurological examination revealed that the patient was alert with occasional confusion and slight motor weakness in the lower extremities. Brain and lumbar spine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was then performed. A brain MRI revealed a large subacute SDH along the right cerebral convexity and falx cerebri with midline shifting, and a spine MRI revealed a right side-predominant subacute SDH extending from L4 to S1. For treatment, burr hole trephination of the intracranial SDH and fluoroscopy-guided lumbar puncture of the spinal SDH were performed and resulted in a favorable outcome. This is a report of a rare case of spontaneous intracranial and lumbar spine SDH. We include a review of the current literature and a discussion of the pathogenesis of this condition in this report.


Subject(s)
Aged , Ambulatory Care Facilities , Brain , Hematoma, Subdural , Hematoma, Subdural, Spinal , Humans , Lower Extremity , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Neurologic Examination , Spinal Cord , Spinal Puncture , Spine , Trephining
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759974

ABSTRACT

Most cases of spinal subdural hematoma are very rare and result from iatrogenic causes, such as coagulopathy or a spinal puncture. Cases of non-traumatic spinal subdural hematoma accompanied by intracranial hemorrhage are even more rare. There are a few reports of spontaneous spinal subdural hematoma with concomitant intracranial subdural or subarachnoid hemorrhage, but not with intracerebral hemorrhage. Especially in our case, the evaluation and diagnosis were delayed because the spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage accompanying the unilateral spinal subdural and subarachnoid hemorrhages caused hemiplegia. We report a case of spinal subdural and subarachnoid hemorrhage with concomitant intracerebral hemorrhage, for the first time, with a relevant literature review.


Subject(s)
Cerebral Hemorrhage , Diagnosis , Hematoma , Hematoma, Subdural, Spinal , Hemiplegia , Intracranial Hemorrhages , Spinal Puncture , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage
15.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-758459

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study examined the characteristics of febrile young infants with a serious bacterial infection (SBI) who visited emergency centers in Korea and validated the Philadelphia criteria and modified Philadelphia criteria to predict the risk of SBI. METHODS: This was a retrospective study conducted on 450 infants aged 31 days to 56 days who visited three emergency centers with fever from September 2014 to August 2017. The characteristics of the SBI patients were analyzed, and the validation of the Philadelphia and modified Philadelphia criteria sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and accuracy were checked. RESULTS: Of 450 patients, 165 patients (36.7%) had SBI, such as urinary tract infection (33.3%), bacteremia (4.0%), acute osteomyelitis (0.2%), and bacterial meningitis (BM) in two patients (0.4%). The most common pathogen of invasive bacterial infection was Escherichia coli. In the Philadelphia criteria, the sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, and accuracy were 73.9%, 47.0%, 44.7%, 75.7%, and 56.9%, respectively. In the modified Philadelphia criteria that excluded lumbar puncture as a predictor, the sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, and accuracy were 93.3%, 31.9%, 44.3%, 89.2%, and 54.4%, respectively. The most common failed low risk criteria was appearance (43.3%). Two patients with bacterial meningitis were excluded from low risk group by the modified Philadelphia criteria. Although one out of 2 patients met the failed low risk criteria due to their poor condition, this factor is not objective, so BM can be missed. CONCLUSION: Bacterial meningitis was too rare in this study. New criteria are needed to predict SBI. The Philadelphia and modified Philadelphia criteria were not useful for predicting SBI in this study. Other prediction models will be needed to predict SBI in the vaccination era.


Subject(s)
Bacteremia , Bacterial Infections , Emergencies , Emergency Service, Hospital , Escherichia coli , Fever , Fibrinogen , Humans , Infant , Korea , Meningitis , Meningitis, Bacterial , Osteomyelitis , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Spinal Puncture , Urinary Tract Infections , Vaccination
16.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-758439

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to identify the characteristics of early infants with urinary tract infection (UTI) who visited the pediatric emergency department (PED) and to investigate the characteristics of patients with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pleocytosis and incidence of bacterial meningitis. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the records of UTI infants aged 31 to 90 days presenting at PED whom had lumbar puncture. From September 1, 2014 to August 31, 2017, a total of 225 infants were enrolled. RESULTS: Twenty three patients had CSF pleocytosis. Of these, two patients were positive for CSF enteroviral polymerase chain reaction, while none were positive for bacterial culture. We compared the characteristics of infants with CSF pleocystosis. There were not diffences in sex, vaccination before fever, general condition, peak body temperature, peripheral white blood cell, C-reactive protein, and procalcitonin between two groups. However, in patients with prematurity history, incidence of CSF pleocytosis was high. Four infants hot bacteremia, and organism of these patients was all Escherichia coli. All of them had negative CSF culture and normal CSF findings. CONCLUSION: No febrile early infants with UTI had bacterial meningitis. As a result, we must not do conventional test of CSF in patients with UTI.


Subject(s)
Bacteremia , Body Temperature , C-Reactive Protein , Cerebrospinal Fluid , Emergencies , Emergency Service, Hospital , Escherichia coli , Fever , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Leukocytes , Leukocytosis , Meningitis , Meningitis, Bacterial , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Retrospective Studies , Spinal Puncture , Urinary Tract Infections , Urinary Tract , Vaccination
17.
Rev. med. Risaralda ; 24(2): 139-142, jul.-dic. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-985686

ABSTRACT

Resumen: La mielitis transversa es una enfermedad inflamatoria y desmielinizante aguda o subaguda que se desarrolla en ausencia de afectación neurológica previa y compromete las vías sensitiva y motora además del control autónomo de la medula espinal. El cuadro se presenta como un dolor lumbar localizado, parestesias de inicio súbito en miembros inferiores con pérdida de la sensibilidad y paraparesia que puede evolucionar a paraplejia a lo que se suma comúnmente la disfunción vesical e intestinal; la coordinación y la sensibilidad de los miembros superiores también puede verse comprometida La incidencia de esta patología es baja, en los Estados Unidos oscila entre 14.000 casos nuevos en el año, de los cuales 33.000 persisten con secuelas. Afecta a hombres, mujeres y niños de todas las razas por igual, presentándose con más frecuencia entre los 10-19 años y los 30-39 años de edad. El diagnóstico diferencial incluye: síndrome de Guillain-Barré, compresión medular por tumores, mielopatías de origen vascular, esclerosis múltiple, neuromielitis óptica entre otros. El diagnóstico se basa en la presunción clínica, ante la cual debe solicitarse una resonancia magnética de manera urgente. El siguiente paso es realizar una punción lumbar para estudio en líquido cefalorraaquídeo (LCR) de células blancas, IgG y albúmina. El tratamiento de la mielitis transversa va encaminado hacia la resolución del proceso inflamatorio a nivel medular y la detención del avance del mismo.


Abstract Transverse myelitis is an acute or subacute inflammatory demyelinating disease that develops in the absence of previous neurological involvement and compromises the sensory and motor pathways in addition to the autonomous control of the spinal cord, the table is presented as a localized back pain, sudden paresthesia in lower limbs with loss of sensation and paraparesis which may progress to paraplegia commonly associated with bladder and bowel dysfunction; coordination and sensitivity of the upper limbs may also be compromised The incidence of this disease is low, in the United States ranges from 14,000 new cases per year of which 33,000 remain with sequelae. It affects men, women and children of all races equally predominantly between 10-19 years and 30-39 years of age. Differential diagnoses include Guillain- Barré syndrome, compression by spinal cord tumors, vascular myelopathy, multiple sclerosis, neuromyelitis óptica spectrum diseases amongst others. Diagnosis is based on clinical suspicion upon which an MRI should be requested urgently, the next step is to perform a lumbar puncture to study CSF white cell count, IgG and albumin. The treatment of transverse myelitis is aimed towards resolution of the inflammatory process in the spinal cord and avoiding neural deficit progression.


Subject(s)
Humans , Spinal Cord Diseases , Demyelinating Diseases , Myelitis, Transverse , Spinal Cord Neoplasms , Spinal Puncture , Bereavement , Cell Count , Neuromyelitis Optica , Albumins , Absenteeism
18.
Prensa méd. argent ; 104(2): 100-102, 20180000. fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1370698

ABSTRACT

Los quistes aracnoideos son lesiones malformativas que contienen en su interior un líquido de características similares al líquido cefalorraquídeo. Constituyen alrededor del 1% de todos los procesos ocupantes de espacio a nivel intracraneal y, en menor número de casos pueden localizarse a nivel espinal. Presentamos una asociación de aracnoiditis espinal y posterior cavitación.


Arachnoid cysts are malformative lesions that contain a liquid with characteristics similar to cerebrospinal fluid. They constitute about 1% of all space-occupying processes at the intracranial level and, in a smaller number of cases, they can be located at the spinal level. We present an association of spinal arachnoiditis and posterior cavitation


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Arachnoiditis/pathology , Spinal Puncture , Arachnoid Cysts/surgery , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
19.
Rev. med. Risaralda ; 24(1): 64-69, ene.-jun. 2018. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-902097

ABSTRACT

Resumen: la neuritis óptica es infrecuente como manifestación de sífilis ocular, la falta de características típicas genera retraso en el diagnóstico. Describimos el caso de una mujer de 47 años , inmunocompetente con historia de 4 meses de disminución progresiva de la agudeza visual de predominio izquierdo, asociado a dolor, inyección conjuntival y cefalea, al examen físico con visión de bultos y al fondo de ojo con signos de inflamación ocular dentro de la evaluación diagnostica presenta: VDRL y FTA-ABS positivo en suero, positividad de ANAS y anticuerpos anticardiolipinas igG, LCR con VDRL reactivo, se diagnostica neuritis óptica por neurosifilis en presencia de anticuerpos antifosfolipidos, iniciando tratamiento con penicilina cristalina 24 000 000 de unidades día por 14 días. En pacientes con signos de inflamación ocular debe realizarse VDRL, confirmarse con prueba treponemica, y realizar punción lumbar, el tratamiento precoz se asocia a mejora de desenlaces visuales.


Abstract :optic neuritis is uncommon as an ocular syphilis clinical presentation; the lack of typical features generates delay in the diagnosis. We describe the case of a 47-year-old woman, immunocompetent with a 4-month history of left visual acuity progressive of left side reduction, associated with pain, conjunctival injection and headache, physical examination with lumpy vision and fundus with signs of ocular inflammation, within the diagnostic evaluation, serum VDRL, FTA-ABS was reactive, with ANAS and IgG anticardiolipin antibodies serum positivity, lumbar punction was taken with reactive VDRL, optic neuritis by neurosyphilis was diagnosed, with antiphospholipid antibodies cross reactivity , treatment with crystalline penicillin 24 000 000 of units day for 14 days was started . In patients with signs of ocular inflammation, VDRL should be performed, confirmed with a treponemal test, and a lumbar puncture should be performed. Early treatment is associated with improvement of visual outcomes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Vision, Ocular , Syphilis , Optic Neuritis , Antibodies, Antiphospholipid , Fundus Oculi , Antibodies , Pain , Spinal Puncture , Immunoglobulin G , Visual Acuity , Antibodies, Anticardiolipin
20.
Medwave ; 18(7): e7321, 2018.
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-966430

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: La hemorragia subaracnoidea es una urgencia neuroquirúrgica que requiere un diagnóstico oportuno, debido a su gravedad y a la existencia de medidas terapéuticas que son efectivas cuando se llevan a cabo a tiempo. La secuencia diagnóstica más utilizada para descartarla es la tomografía computarizada sin contraste, que de ser negativa es seguida de una punción lumbar. Sin embargo, se ha planteado que la tomografía computarizada sin contraste negativa podría bastar por sí sola. MÉTODOS: Para responder esta pregunta utilizamos Epistemonikos, la mayor base de datos de revisiones sistemáticas en salud, la cual es mantenida mediante búsquedas en múltiples fuentes de información, incluyendo MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane, entre otras. Extrajimos los datos desde las revisiones identificadas, reanalizamos los datos de los estudios primarios y preparamos una tabla de resumen de los resultados utilizando el método GRADE. RESULTADOS Y CONCLUSIONES: Identificamos tres revisiones sistemáticas que en conjunto incluyeron nueve estudios primarios. Concluimos que la exactitud diagnóstica de la tomografía computarizada sin contraste es probablemente muy alta, aunque aún existen estudios que evalúen el impacto clínico de basar las decisiones clínicas únicamente en este test.


INTRODUCTION: Subarachnoid hemorrhage is a neurosurgical emergency that requires timely diagnosis due to its severity and the existence of therapeutic measures that are effective when carried out in time. The most used diagnostic sequence to rule it out is computed tomography without contrast which, if negative, is followed by lumbar puncture. However, it has been suggested that a negative non-contrast computed tomography (without blood) may rule out the diagnosis. METHODS: To answer this question we used Epistemonikos, the largest database of systematic reviews in health, which is maintained by screening multiple information sources, including MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane, among others. We extracted data from the systematic reviews, reanalyzed data of primary studies, conducted a meta-analysis and generated a summary of findings table using the GRADE approach. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: We identified three systematic reviews including nine studies. We concluded the diagnostic accuracy of non-contrast computed tomography is probably very high, but the clinical impact of relying only on this test has not yet been evaluated.


Subject(s)
Humans , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Spinal Puncture/methods , Reproducibility of Results , Databases, Factual
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