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Int. j. morphol ; 41(3): 975-984, jun. 2023. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1514313


SUMMARY: The toxic effects of acetaminophen appear primarily in the liver and kidney. The protective effect of blue green alga Arthrospira platensis on hepato-renal toxicity caused by acetaminophen was evaluated in male rats. The obtained results showed that subcutaneous injection of acetaminophen at a dose 120 &240 սl acetaminophen/kg by weight resulted in an observed elevation in the enzyme activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), serum total lipids, total cholesterol, creatinine, total bilirubin, urea, nitric oxide (NO), L- malondialdehyde (MDA) and interleukins (IL-2 &IL-6). However, there is a decrease in the serum total protein, albumin and loss in antioxidant enzyme activities in liver including; superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione reductase (GSH). This effect was found to be dose and time dependent. In spite of, pre- oral administration of Arthrospira platensis 1000 mg/kg .b. wt. prior acetaminophen injection succeeded to modulate the effect of the observed abnormalities caused by acetaminophen. Moreover, there were no remarkable changes in serum biomarkers of rats received Arthrospira platensis only at a dose of 1000 mg/kg by weight (group 2). The histopathological findings confirm the biochemical results that indicates the safety use of Arthrospira platensis at the selected dose in this study. Therefore, the present results clarified the protective effect of blue green alga Arthrospira platensis on oxidative stress, hepatic and nephrotoxicity induced by acetaminophen in male Wister rats.

Los efectos tóxicos del paracetamol aparecen principalmente en el hígado y el riñón. Se evaluó en ratas macho Wistar el efecto protector del alga verde azulada Arthrospira platensis sobre la toxicidad hepatorrenal causada por paracetamol. Los resultados obtenidos mostraron que la inyección subcutánea de paracetamol a dosis de 120 y 240 µl de paracetamol/kg, resultó en una elevación en las actividades enzimáticas de la aspartato aminotransferasa (AST), alanina aminotransferasa (ALT) y fosfatasa alcalina (ALP), lípidos séricos totales, colesterol total, creatinina, bilirrubina total, urea, óxido nítrico (NO), L- malondialdehído (MDA) e interleucinas (IL-2 e IL-6). Sin embargo, hay una disminución en la proteína sérica total, albúmina y pérdida en las actividades de las enzimas antioxidantes en el hígado, incluyendo; superóxido dismutasa (SOD), catalasa (CAT) y glutatión reductasa (GSH). Se encontró que este efecto era dependiente de la dosis y el tiempo. A pesar de la administración preoral de Arthrospira platensis 1000 mg/kg, la inyección previa de acetaminofeno logró modular el efecto de las anormalidades observadas causadas por el acetaminofeno. Además, no hubo cambios notables en los biomarcadores séricos de ratas que recibieron Arthrospira platensis solo a una dosis de 1000 mg/kg (Grupo 2). Los hallazgos histopatológicos confirman los resultados bioquímicos que indican la seguridad del uso de Arthrospira platensis a la dosis seleccionada en este estudio. Por lo tanto, los presentes resultados aclararon el efecto protector del alga verde azulada Arthrospira platensis sobre el estrés oxidativo, la toxicidad hepática y la nefrotoxicidad inducida por paracetamol en ratas Wistar macho.

Animals , Male , Rats , Plant Preparations/administration & dosage , Spirulina , Kidney/drug effects , Liver/drug effects , Acetaminophen/toxicity , Aspartate Aminotransferases/analysis , Superoxide Dismutase , Lipid Peroxidation , Interleukins , Rats, Wistar , Alanine Transaminase/analysis , Alkaline Phosphatase/analysis
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e18665, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1374559


Abstract Suitability of developing Spirulina incorporated cereal based low cost nutritious extrudates was analysed against extrusion processing parameters. Most significant extrusion processing parameters considered for present study were feed moisture (20-25%), die temperature (100-120 °C) and screw speed (50-100 rpm). Different extrusion conditions were used to obtain most acceptable rice: Spirulina blend extrudates. In present study before extrusion processing different additives (citric acid and sodium bicarbonate) were added in rice: Spirulina blend and checked its effect on colour degradation kinetics at varied packaging and storage conditions. Higher screw speed (100 rpm) indicating less residence time of feed material inside the barrel resulted in higher colour retention of rice: Spirulina (97:03) blend extrudates. Kinetics for rice: Spirulina (97:03) blend extrudates indicates faster rate of colour degradation in terms of lightness (half-life of 4 days) when packed in metalized polyethylene at 50°C with 65% relative humidity. Increased concentration of Spirulina (1-3%) in raw formulations resulted in increase in concentration of all amino acids. Impact of extrusion processing has shown non-significant (p ≤ 0.05) effect on amino acid concentrations of rice: Spirulina blend extrudates. Also, all the spirulina added samples showed good consumer acceptability with the score of 6.7

Edible Grain/classification , Biomass , Microalgae/classification , Amino Acids/adverse effects , Oryza/classification , Low Cost Technology , Product Packaging/instrumentation , Residence Time , Spirulina/metabolism , Half-Life , Humidity/adverse effects
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e191140, 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394053


Abstract The study aimed to assess possible spirulina effects on lipid profile, glucose, and malondialdehyde levels in new cases of type 2 diabetes. The subjects consisted of 30 new cases of types 2 diabetes that divided into two groups; each consisted of 15 diabetic patients. Group I did not take any functional food or supplement and received no spirulina supplementation. Group II or experimental group also did not take any functional food or supplement but received spirulina supplementation. Analysis of data was done using SPSS 16.0. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, paired t-test, Wilcoxon test, and Spearman correlation analysis were used to analyze the data. After eight weeks of spirulina supplementation, significant differences were shown in the serum levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, triglyceride, and malondialdehyde. The serum fasting blood glucose, lipid profiles, and malondialdehyde levels at baseline were negatively and positively correlated with changes in these parameters. Spirulina supplementation may have a beneficial effect on lipid profile and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels through an interventional 8 weeks. This effect may protect subjects against free radicals and the development of some diseases such as atherosclerosis. The spirulina supplementation also showed a potential lipid-lowering effect on new case type 2 diabetic patients which may help the diabetics to have control on lipid levels. In addition, spirulina may be used as a functional food for the management of lipid profiles and MDA levels.

Patients/classification , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/pathology , Spirulina/classification , Glucose/administration & dosage , Malondialdehyde/administration & dosage
Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B ; (12): 481-501, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939821


Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic and recurrent inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that has become a major gastroenterologic problem during recent decades. Numerous complicating factors are involved in UC development such as oxidative stress, inflammation, and microbiota disorder. These factors exacerbate damage to the intestinal mucosal barrier. Spirulina platensis is a commercial alga with various biological activity that is widely used as a functional ingredient in food and beverage products. However, there have been few studies on the treatment of UC using S. platensis aqueous extracts (SP), and the underlying mechanism of action of SP against UC has not yet been elucidated. Herein, we aimed to investigate the modulatory effect of SP on microbiota disorders in UC mice and clarify the underlying mechanisms by which SP alleviates damage to the intestinal mucosal barrier. Dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) was used to establish a normal human colonic epithelial cell (NCM460) injury model and UC animal model. The mitochondrial membrane potential assay 3-‍‍(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,‍5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and staining with Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)/propidium iodide (PI) and Hoechst 33258 were carried out to determine the effects of SP on the NCM460 cell injury model. Moreover, hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), western blot, and 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequencing were used to explore the effects and underlying mechanisms of action of SP on UC in C57BL/6 mice. In vitro studies showed that SP alleviated DSS-induced NCM460 cell injury. SP also significantly reduced the excessive generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and prevented mitochondrial membrane potential reduction after DSS challenge. In vivo studies indicated that SP administration could alleviate the severity of DSS-induced colonic mucosal damage compared with the control group. Inhibition of inflammation and oxidative stress was associated with increases in the activity of antioxidant enzymes and the expression of tight junction proteins (TJs) post-SP treatment. SP improved gut microbiota disorder mainly by increasing antioxidant enzyme activity and the expression of TJs in the colon. Our findings demonstrate that the protective effect of SP against UC is based on its inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokine overproduction, inhibition of DSS-induced ROS production, and enhanced expression of antioxidant enzymes and TJs in the colonic mucosal barrier.

Animals , Mice , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Colitis/prevention & control , Colitis, Ulcerative/metabolism , Colon/metabolism , Dextran Sulfate/toxicity , Disease Models, Animal , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Inflammation/metabolism , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Oxidative Stress , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Spirulina
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1408636


Introducción: La Spirulina platensis constituye un sustancial reservorio de nutrientes y de alimentos funcionales con un bajo contenido de calorías. Aunque en la literatura se mencionan varias cualidades benéficas, una de ellas es aumentar la sensación de saciedad, lo que abre la posibilidad de ser empleada en la prevención y tratamiento de la obesidad y de algunas de sus consecuencias. Objetivo: Describir el papel de la Spirulina platensis en el tratamiento de la obesidad y de algunas de sus consecuencias. Métodos: Se realizó una búsqueda de literatura relevante sobre el tema en el primer cuatrimestre de 2020. Se utilizaron como buscadores de información científica: Pubmed, Scielo, Google y Google Académico. La estrategia de búsqueda incluyó los siguientes términos como palabras clave: Espirulina; Spirulina platensis; Obesidad; Exceso de peso. Se evaluaron artículos de revisión, de investigación y páginas Web que, en general, tenían menos de 10 años de publicados, en idioma español, portugués e inglés, y que hicieran referencia específicamente al tema de estudio a través del título. Fueron excluidos los artículos que no cumplieron con estas condiciones. Esto permitió el estudio de 75 referencias bibliográficas, de las cuales 51 se citaron en el presente artículo. Conclusiones: La Spirulina platensis representa una opción como suplemento nutraceútico y funcional, con valor preventivo y coadyuvante en el tratamiento de la obesidad y de algunas de sus consecuencias, al menos a corto plazo(AU)

Introduction: Spirulina platensis is a substantial reservoir of functional foods and nutrients with low calorie content. Although several beneficial qualities are mentioned in the scientific literature, one of them is to increase the feeling of satiety, which opens the possibility of being used for preventing and treating obesity, as well as some of its consequences. Objective: To describe the role of Spirulina platensis for treating obesity and some of its consequences. Methods: A search of relevant literature on the subject was carried out in the first four months of 2020. The following scientific information search engines were used: Pubmed, Scielo, Google and Google Scholar. The search strategy included the following terms as keywords: espirulina [spirulina], Spirulina platensis, obesidad [obesity], exceso de peso [overweight]. Review articles, research articles and Web pages were assessed, which, in general, had been published within less than ten years, in Spanish, Portuguese and English, and which made specific reference to the study topic through their titles. Articles that did not meet these conditions were excluded. This allowed the study of 75 bibliographic references, of which 51 were cited in this article. Conclusions: Spirulina platensis is an option as a nutraceutical and functional supplement, with preventive and coadjutant value for the treatment of obesity and some of its consequences, at least in the short term(AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Overweight/drug therapy , Spirulina/drug effects , Obesity/drug therapy
Rev. cuba. endocrinol ; 32(1): e247, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1289390


Introducción: La Spirulina platensis es una cianobacteria planctónica filamentosa, que contiene un espectro natural de mezclas de pigmentos de caroteno, xantofila y ficocianina, con actividad antioxidante y la posibilidad de inducir un mejor control de la glucemia en las personas con diabetes mellitus. Objetivo: Describir los efectos del uso del producto logrado a partir de la bacteria Spirulina platensis en el paciente con diabetes mellitus. Método: Se utilizaron como buscadores de información científica a PubMed, SciELO, Google y Google Académico. Las palabras claves utilizadas fueron: espirulina, Spirulina platensis, Arthrospira platensis, diabetes mellitus y control metabólico. Se evaluaron artículos de revisión, de investigación y páginas web que, en general, tenían menos de 10 años de publicados en idioma español, portugués e inglés, cuyos títulos estaban relacionados con el tema de estudio. Se obtuvieron 70 referencias bibliográficas, de las cuales 49 se citaron en el presente artículo. Conclusiones: La espirulina tiene varios efectos benéficos que permiten su uso como coadyuvante en la prevención y tratamiento de la diabetes mellitus. Es un nutriente con bondades nutraceúticas y funcionales, con potente actividad antioxidante, que incide en un mejor control glucémico y puede ser útil en el manejo de las posibles complicaciones y comorbilidades que acompañan a la diabetes mellitus. Su uso conlleva la posibilidad de algunas reacciones adversas, sobre todo de tipo digestivas, aunque no son frecuentes si se emplean las dosis recomendadas; en general, es considerada un producto seguro(AU)

Introduction: Spirulina platensis is a plankton filamentous cyanobacteria that has a natural spectrum of carotene, xanthophyll and phycocyanin pigments´mix, with antioxidant activity and the possibility of inducing a better control of glycemia in patients with diabetes mellitus. Objective: Describe the effects of the use in patients with diabetes mellitus of a product made from Spirulina platensis bacteria. Method: There were used as scientific information searchers: PubMed, SciELO, Google and Google Scholar. The keywords used were: Spirulina, Spirulina platensis, Arthrospira platensis, diabetes mellitus and metabolic control. There were assessed review articles, research articles and web pages, that in general had less than 10 years of being published in Spanish, Portuguese or English language, and whose titles were related with the studied topic. 70 bibliographic references were collected, and 49 of them were quoted in this article. Conclusions: Spirulina has different beneficial effects that allow its use as coadjuvant agent in the prevention and treatment of diabetes mellitus. It is a nutrient with functional and nutraceutical mildness, with a powerful antioxidant activity which has incidence in a better glycemic control and can be useful in the management of possible complications and comorbidities that accompany diabetes mellitus. Its use entails the possible adverse reactions, mainly digestive ones; although they are not frequent if the recommended doses are used. In general terms, it is considered a safe product(AU)

Humans , Biological Products/therapeutic use , Dietary Supplements/adverse effects , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Spirulina , Review Literature as Topic , Databases, Bibliographic
Rev. habanera cienc. méd ; 19(6): e2960, oct.-dic. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1149965


Introducción: la espirulina es un alga que se emplea como un suplemento alimenticio de gran importancia, consumido desde la antigüedad, actualmente son conocidas sus propiedades como hepatoprotector, antioxidante, anticancerígeno, entre otros, que brindan una mejor salud y por ende calidad de vida. Actualmente las enfermedades hepáticas y el cáncer tienen prevalencia convirtiéndose en un gran problema sanitario que aqueja a la humanidad. En este sentido el presente trabajo halla su importancia. Objetivo: realizar una revisión sobre la actividad farmacológica de las diferentes especies de espirulina relacionadas con el efecto hepatoprotector, antioxidante y anticancerígeno. Material y Métodos: se implementó una búsqueda exhaustiva en base de datos en línea como Pubmed, Scopus, Medline y Ebsco, se incluyeron solo trabajos originales completos de corte experimental y clínico publicados en el periodo 2000 a 2019. Desarrollo: se encontraron 2064 artículos relacionados de los cuales 58 cumplían los requisitos exigidos en el presente trabajo, fueron trabajados por análisis documental y agrupación en clusters atendiendo a sus propiedades farmacognósicas. Conclusiones: los artículos revisados refieren el gran potencial que tiene la espirulina como agente hepatoprotector, antiinflamatorio, antioxidante, citotóxico, antimutagénico, apoptótico y anticancerígeno soportado en su gran variedad de contenido nutracéutico(AU)

Introduction: Spirulina is an alga used as a food supplement of great importance that has been consumed since ancient times. At present, its hepatoprotective potential, antioxidant activity and anticancer effect among other properties are known. These properties provide better health and thus better quality of life. Currently, liver diseases and cancer have a significant prevalence, becoming a major health problem afflicting humankind. In this regard, the present work is particularly important. Objective: To review the pharmacological activity of different Spirulina species related to the hepatoprotective, antioxidant and anticancer effect. Material and methods: A rigorous search was carried out in online databases such as Pubmed, Scopus, Medline and EBSCO. Only complete original experimental and clinical works published from 2000 to 2019 were included. Development: A total of 2064 related articles were found. Of them, 58 fulfilled the requirements of the present work. Document analysis and cluster grouping were carried out taking into account its pharmacological properties. Conclusions: The reviewed articles provide information about the great potential of Spirulina as a hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, cytotoxic, antimutagenic, apoptotic and anticancer agent supported in its great variety of nutraceutical content(AU)

Humans , Quality of Life , Spirulina , Liver Diseases , Dietary Supplements
Vaccimonitor (La Habana, Print) ; 29(2)mayo.-ago. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1127512


The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of Spirulina platensis (SP) powder supplementation on immune response in SPF chickens. For this purpose, 120 SPF chicks were randomly clustered into six groups consisting of 20 birds each which assigned to five groups vaccinated by commercial inactivated Newcastle disease (ND) vaccine at 21 days of age. The four groups were supplemented with 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 g of SP per kg of ration at 7 day of age and other group as control treatment group. Control unvaccinated group still without any treatment. Individual blood samples were collected weekly from all groups, and NDV-HI antibodies were measured using Hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test. After 28 days post-vaccination, ten birds from all groups were challenged intramuscularly at a dose 0.5 mL/bird containing 106 EID50 of local NDV genotype VII. Challenge virus shedding was detected using real time qrt-PCR of oropharyngeal swabs that were collected from all challenged chicken groups of at 3, 5, 7 and 10 days post challenge. Obtained results showed that vaccinated groups of SPF-chickens either supplied with Spirulina or control treatment group induced positive serological response as NDV-HI antibody were measured in sera of immunized chicks (7.6, 8, 8.3, 8.9 and 7.4 log2, respectively) at 4 weeks post vaccination (WPV). Significant differences were observed at 2 WPV in the vaccinated SPF chickens consumed 1, 1.5 and 2 g of SP/kg of ration, compared to untreated vaccinated group (p<0.05). Immunized SPF chickens supplied with different SP concentration confer satisfactory protection against heterologous challenge virus (90 percent, 100 percent, 100 percent and 100 percent respectively), in contrast to untreated vaccinated chickens. Different percentages of reduction of viral shedding (55 percent, 65 percent, 76 percent and 87 percent) of treated vaccinated chickens with different concentration of SP were detected, despite untreated group were reduced 46 percent from total viral shedding. These findings suggest that dietary Spirulina has immune-stimulatory effects on the immune system of SPF chickens. One gram from SP per kg of ration was minimum recommended concentration that able to exhibit optimum immune response, increase protection against heterologous strains and able to reduce viral shedding(AU)

El objetivo de este estudio fue investigar los efectos de la suplementación con polvo de Spirulina platensis (SP) sobre la respuesta inmune en pollos SPF. Para este propósito se agruparon al azar 120 polluelos SPF en seis grupos de 20 aves cada uno, que se asignaron a cinco grupos vacunados con la vacuna comercial inactivada contra la enfermedad de Newcastle (ND) a los 21 días de edad. Cuatro grupos se suplementaron con 0,5; 1; 1,5 y 2 g de SP por kg de ración a los 7 días de edad, un grupo vacunado sin suplemento y un grupo sin ningún tratamiento. Semanalmente, se recogieron muestras de sangre individuales de todos los grupos y se midieron los anticuerpos hemaglutinantes contra el virus Newcastle (NDV-HI) mediante la prueba de inhibición de la hemaglutinación (HI). 28 días después de la vacunación, fueron retadas diez aves de cada grupo por vía intramuscular a una dosis 106 EID50 del genotipo VII del NDV local en un volumen de 0,5 mL/ave. Se detectó la eliminación del virus mediante qrt-PCR en hisopos orofaríngeos que se recolectaron en todos los grupos a los 3, 5, 7 y 10 días después del reto. Los resultados obtenidos mostraron que los grupos vacunados de pollos y suplementados con Espirulina y el grupo de control vacunado, indujeron una respuesta serológica positiva cuando se determinaron los anticuerpos NDV-HI en los pollitos inmunizados (7,6; 8; 8,3; 8,9 y 7,4 log2 respectivamente) a las 4 semanas después de la vacunación (SPV). Se observaron diferencias significativas a las 2 SPV en los pollos vacunados que consumieron 1, 1,5 y 2 g de SP/kg de ración, en comparación con el grupo vacunado no tratado (p<0,05). Los pollos inmunizados que recibieron diferentes concentraciones de SP mostraron una protección satisfactoria contra el desafío heterólogo viral (90 por ciento, 100 por ciento y 100 por ciento respectivamente), en contraste con los pollos vacunados no tratados. Se observaron diferentes porcentajes de reducción de la diseminación viral (55 por ciento, 76 por ciento y 87 por ciento) entre los pollos vacunados tratados con diferente concentración de SP. En el grupo no tratado se redujo al 46 por ciento. Estos hallazgos sugieren que la Espirulina en la dieta tiene efectos inmunoestimuladores sobre el sistema inmunitario de los pollos. Un gramo de SP por kg de ración fue la concentración mínima recomendada para una respuesta inmune óptima, y de esta forma aumentar la protección contra las cepas heterólogas y disminuir la diseminación viral(AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Newcastle disease virus/pathogenicity , Vaccines, Inactivated , Chickens , Spirulina , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Newcastle Disease/diagnosis , Birds
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 56: e18996, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249164


Paclitaxel spirulina nanoparticles were said to have promising anticancer activity against gastric cancer. Nanoparticles of paclitaxel-spirulina were prepared for treating gastric cancer using precipitation technique. The synergistic anticancer efficiency againstMKN45 cells retains when the paclitaxel and spirulina were encapsulated into nanoparticles. To increase the site specific delivery, intra-tumoral administration was carried in the in vivo evaluation. There was an increase in overall survival in an MKN45-transplanted mice model and notable improvement in anti-tumour efficacy when paclitaxel-spirulina nanoparticles were delivered through intra-tumoral administration. The further investigation of overall anticancer mechanism of these nanoparticles is made as a major part in this research. Hence, the conjecture of this research is that, the paclitaxel-spirulina encapsulated nanoparticles could be an effective chemotherapeutic formulation for gastric cancer.

Stomach Neoplasms/pathology , In Vitro Techniques/instrumentation , Paclitaxel/analogs & derivatives , Spirulina , Nanoparticles/classification , Organization and Administration , Efficiency , Methods
Acta bioquím. clín. latinoam ; 52(2): 241-250, jun. 2018. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-949338


La Spirulina maxima (SP) tiene efectos farmacológicos protectores por su contenido de ficobiliproteínas que están relacionados con su actividad antioxidante. La hidroxiurea (HU) es un fármaco antineoplásico, citotóxico y teratógeno que implica la inducción del estrés oxidativo. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar si la SP y su extracto acuoso de proteína (SPE) protegen contra el efecto citotóxico de HU en cultivos celulares primarios a partir de embriones de ratón de once días. Los efectos de SP, SPE e HU sobre la viabilidad celular se determinaron por el ensayo de fluorescencia de resazurina en cultivos celulares de embriones completos de ratones de once días, de encéfalo y de brotes de extremidades anteriores. Se demostró que ni SP ni su extracto provocaron efectos citotóxicos en ninguna concentración ensayada, por lo que se aumentaba la viabilidad celular. Se encontró que las células expuestas a HU de embriones completos y encéfalo mostraron mayor toxicidad que las células de los miembros anteriores. La SP y el SPE protegieron contra la citotoxicidad de HU de una manera dependiente de la concentración hasta 48 h después de la exposición al fármaco. Este efecto podría ser adecuado para prevenir la muerte celular que deriva en un proceso teratogénico, atribuido a sus propiedades antioxidantes.

Spirulina maxima (SP) has protective pharmacological effects that are related to the antioxidant activity due to its phycobiliprotein content. Hydroxyurea (HU) is an antineoplastic, cytotoxic and teratogenic drug, which involves the induction of oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to determine whether SP and its aqueous protein extract (SPE) protect against the cytotoxic effect of HU in primary cell cultures from mouse embryos. The effects of SP, SPE, and HU on cell viability were determined by resazurin fluorescence assay in whole embryo cell cultures, encephalon, and eleven-day-old forehead bud outbreaks. It was shown that neither SP nor its extract caused cytotoxic effects at any concentration tested, increasing cell viability. It was found that cells exposed to HU of whole embryos and encephalon showed higher toxicity than cells of the previous limbs. SP and SPE protected HU cytotoxicity in a concentration-dependent manner up to 48 hours after exposure to the drug. This effect could be adequate to prevent cell death resulting in a teratogenic process attributed to its antioxidant properties.

Spirulina maxima (SP) tem efeitos farmacológicos protetores devido a seu conteúdo de ficobiliproteínas, que estão relacionadas com sua atividade antioxidante. A hidroxiureia (HU) é uma droga antineoplásica, citotóxica e teratogênica, que envolve a indução do estresse oxidativo. O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar se a SP e seu extrato aquoso de proteína (SPE) protegem contra o efeito citotóxico da HU em culturas celulares primárias a partir de embriões de camundongo de onze dias. Os efeitos de SP, SPE e HU na viabilidade celular foram determinados pelo ensaio de fluorescência de resazurina em culturas celulares de embriões inteiros de camundongos de onze dias, de encéfalo e de surtos de extremidades anteriores. Demonstrou-se que nem a SP nem seu extrato causaram efeitos citotóxicos em qualquer concentração testada, aumentando a viabilidade celular. Verificou-se que as células expostas à HU de embriões completos e encéfalo mostraram maior toxicidade do que as células dos membros anteriores. SP e SPE protegem contra a citotoxicidade de HU de forma dependente da concentração até 48 h após a exposição ao medicamento. Esse efeito poderia ser adequado para prevenir a morte celular, que resulta em um processo teratogênico atribuído a suas propriedades antioxidantes.

Mice , Teratogens , Spirulina , Hydroxyurea , Toxicology , Brain , Oxidative Stress , Embryonic Structures , Phycobiliproteins , Primary Cell Culture , Antioxidants
Journal of the Philippine Medical Association ; : 34-45, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-964408


OBJECTIVE@#To determine the effect of Spirulina among patients with community acquired Pneumonia-C (PCAP-C) based on the resolution of the following symptoms; fever, respiratory rate, chest indrawings, rales, oxygen saturation and compare their length of hospital stay.@*DESIGN@#A randomized-double blind, placebo controlled clinical trial.@*SETTING@#The study was done at a tertiary government hospital@*PATIENTS/PARTICIPANTS@#Children 6 months to 5 years old with PCAP-C were randomized to either treatment group A or B. The two groups received the standard treatment for pneumonia and adjunct treatment of Spirulina for group A and placebo for group B.@*RESULTS@#A total of 14 7 patients participated in the study. Seventy four patients were randomized to group A and 73 patients to group B. Respiratory rate showed greater improvement with Spirulina supplementation starting day 3, 4 and 5. Resolution of chest in-drawing was significant in Spirulina group on day 2 (p- value < 0.05), day 3 (p - value < 0.05) and day 4 (p - value <0.05). There were more patients in Spirulina group with decreased to absent rales on day 2 (p-value 0.02), day 3 (p-value 0.039), day 4 (p-value 0.01) and day 5 (p-value 0.01). Temperature and oxygen saturation on both groups had almost similar trends. The mean hospital stay in Spirulina group (3.09 days) is shorter as compared to the placebo group (p-value 0.02).@*CONCLUSION@#Spirulina supplementation showed positive effects in PCAP-C. Its immunemodulating effect played a positive role in the treatment outcome of pneumonia.

Pneumonia , Spirulina
Chinese Journal of Applied Physiology ; (6): 562-567, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776573


OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the roles of BDNF/TrkB neurotrophic signaling in hippocampal injury for fatigue rats induced by incremental load exercise and the protective effects and mechanism of spirulina supplement.@*METHODS@#Sixty SD rats were randomly divided into normal control group (NC), normal plus spirulina group(NS), exercise model group (EM), exercise plus spirulina group (ES), and positive control group (PC), 12 rats in each group.Group EM, Group ES and Group PC were applied by treadmill running with high-intensity increasing for three weeks, and Group NC had not any intervention measures.Group ES and Group NS were treated with spirulina at a dose of 300 mg/ intragastric administration.Group PC was gavaged at the same volume of ginseng extract of 1.92 g/kg for three weeks.The expressions of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), tyrosine kinase recptor (TrkB), phospho-tyrosine kinase recptor (p-TrkB) were tested by Western blot and immunohistochemical method, and micromorphology changes of hippocampal CA1 were observed by light microscope at the end of the experiment.The general situations of rats such as body weights were recorded during the experiment.@*RESULTS@#Compared with Group NC, Group EM showed significantly decrease in body weight and hippocampal CA1 neurons of the group loosely arrayed and disarrayed and some neurons were shrinked, and even some neurons disappeared.The expressions of BDNF, TrkB and p-TrkB in group EM were increased significantly(<0.01).Compared with Group EM, body weight of Group ES was increased significantly, and the above mentioned injuries of neurons were improved significantly:the number of neurons and nissl bodies were significantly increased and the neurons arrayed regularly and its morphology was more complete.The expressions of BDNF, TrkB and p-TrkB in the group were increased significantly(<0.05 or <0.01).And there was no difference between Group ES and Group PC.@*CONCLUSIONS@#BDNF/TrkB neurotrophic signal pathway could be involved in the repair process of hippocampal nervous damage caused by incremental load exercise for fatigue rats.Spirulina supplement had a protective effect on the damaged nervous through increasing the expressions of BDNF, TrkB and p-TrkB.

Animals , Mice , Rats , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor , Hippocampus , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Receptor, trkB , Spirulina
Braz. j. biol ; 77(2): 332-339, Apr.-June 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888747


Abstract This work aimed to evaluate the thermal and photo stability of the antioxidant potential (AP) of the Spirulina platensis biomass. Thermal stability was established at 25ºC, 40ºC and 50ºC for 60 days, in the dark, protected from light. Photo stability was evaluated using UV (15 W, λ = 265 nm) and fluorescent (20 W, 0.16 A, power factor FP > 0.5, 50/60 Hz, 60 lm/w, 1200 lm) light for 90 days in capsules, glass and Petri dishes, at room temperature. The AP of the biomass in these conditions was determined at intervals (every 7 and 30 days in the studies of thermal and photo stability, respectively) using the induction of the oxidation of a lipid system by heat and aeration. In this lipid system, the biomass submitted to degradation was used as an antioxidant. The kinetics of the reaction was determined by the Arrhenius method. Thermal degradation was found to follow zero order kinetics, whereas photo degradation followed first order kinetics. The AP decreased 50% after 50 days at 25°C. At 40°C and 50°C, the AP decreased more than 50% after 35 and 21 days of exposition, respectively. The decrease of the AP of Spirulina was more sensible to UV and fluorescence light. After 30 days of exposition, the AP decreased more than 50% in all storage conditions tested. The antioxidant potential of Spirulina platensis is easily degraded when the biomass is exposed to heat and light, indicating the need for care to be taken in its storage.

Resumo Este trabalho objetivou avaliar a estabilidade térmica e a foto-estabilidade do potencial antioxidante (PA) da biomassa da Spirulina platensis. A estabilidade térmica foi avaliada a 25ºC, 40ºC e 50ºC por 60 dias. A foto-estabilidade foi avaliada usando luz UV (15 W, λ = 265 nm) e fluorescente (20 W, 0.16 A, fator de potência FP > 0.5, 50/60 Hz, 60 lm/w, 1200 lm) por 90 dias em cápsulas, vidro e placas de Petri. O PA da biomassa nessas condições foi determinado em intervalos de tempo (a cada 7 e 30 dias nos estudos de estabilidade térmica e foto-estabilidade, respectivamente), usando a indução da oxidação de um sistema lipídico por calor e aeração. Neste sistema lipídico, a biomassa submetida à degradação foi usada como antioxidante. A cinética da reação foi determinada pelo método de Arrhenius. A degradação térmica seguiu uma cinética de zero ordem, enquanto que a fotodegradação seguiu uma cinética de primeira ordem. O PA diminuiu 50% depois de 50 dias a 25°C. A 40°C e 50°C, o PA diminuiu mais de 50% depois de 35 e 21 dias de exposição, respectivamente. A diminuição do PA da Spirulina foi mais sensível à luz UV e fluorescente. Depois de 30 dias de exposição, o PA diminuiu mais de 50% em todas as condições de armazenamento testadas. O potencial antioxidante da Spirulina platensis é facilmente diminuído quando a biomassa é exposta ao calor e a luz, indicando a necessidade de cuidados durante seu armazenamento.

Spirulina/chemistry , Hot Temperature , Light , Antioxidants/chemistry , Powders , Biomass , Antioxidants/radiation effects
Nutrition Research and Practice ; : 290-299, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-44074


BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Spirulina is a known a functional food related to lipid profiles, immune functions, and antioxidant capacity. Circulating monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) level is associated with inflammation markers. Single nucleotide polymorphism in the MCP-1 promoter region -2518 have been identified and shown to affect gene transcription. Gene variation may also impact functional food supplementary effects. The current study investigated the interaction of MCP-1 -2518 polymorphism with spirulina supplements on anti-inflammatory capacity in Korean elderly. SUBJECTS/METHODS: After genotyping, healthy elderly subjects (n = 78) were included in a randomized, double blind, and placebo controlled study. Baseline characteristic, body composition, and dietary intake were measured twice (baseline vs. week 16). For 16 weeks, subjects consumed 8 g either spirulina or placebo daily. Plasma MCP-1, interleukin (IL) -2, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, complement (C) 3, immunoglobulin (Ig) G, and Ig A concentrations and lymphocyte proliferation rate (LPR) were analyzed as inflammatory markers. RESULTS: In the placebo group with A/A genotype, MCP-1 level was significantly increased, but the spirulina group with A/A genotype was unchanged. IL-2 was significantly increased only in subjects with spirulina supplementation. TNF-α was significantly reduced in subjects with the G carrier. C3 was significantly increased in the placebo group, particularly when A/A increased more than G, but not when spirulina was ingested. LPR was significantly different only in subjects with A/A genotype; there was a significant increase in phytohemagglutinin and lipopolysaccharide induced LPR in the spirulina group. CONCLUSION: In healthy Korean elderly, spirulina supplementation may influence different inflammatory markers by the MCP-1 genotype. These results may be useful for customized dietary guidelines to improve immune function in Koreans.

Aged , Humans , Body Composition , Chemokine CCL2 , Complement System Proteins , Functional Food , Genotype , Immune System , Immunoglobulins , Inflammation , Interleukin-2 , Interleukin-6 , Interleukins , Lymphocytes , Monocytes , Nutrition Policy , Plasma , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Promoter Regions, Genetic , Spirulina , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
Braz. j. microbiol ; 47(2): 298-304, Apr.-June 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-780847


Abstract Algae can tolerate a broad range of growing conditions but extreme conditions may lead to the generation of highly dangerous reactive oxygen species (ROS), which may cause the deterioration of cell metabolism and damage cellular components. The antioxidants produced by algae alleviate the harmful effects of ROS. While the enhancement of antioxidant production in blue green algae under stress has been reported, the antioxidant response to changes in pH levels requires further investigation. This study presents the effect of pH changes on the antioxidant activity and productivity of the blue green alga Spirulina (Arthrospira) platensis. The algal dry weight (DW) was greatly enhanced at pH 9.0. The highest content of chlorophyll a and carotenoids (10.6 and 2.4 mg/g DW, respectively) was recorded at pH 8.5. The highest phenolic content (12.1 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g DW) was recorded at pH 9.5. The maximum production of total phycobiliprotein (159 mg/g DW) was obtained at pH 9.0. The antioxidant activities of radical scavenging activity, reducing power and chelating activity were highest at pH 9.0 with an increase of 567, 250 and 206% compared to the positive control, respectively. Variation in the activity of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) was also reported. While the high alkaline pH may favor the overproduction of antioxidants, normal cell metabolism and membrane function is unaffected, as shown by growth and chlorophyll content, which suggests that these conditions are suitable for further studies on the harvest of antioxidants from S. platensis.

Spirulina/metabolism , Antioxidants/metabolism , Oxidation-Reduction , Phenols/metabolism , Phenols/chemistry , Chlorophyll/metabolism , Spirulina/growth & development , Spirulina/chemistry , Phycobiliproteins/metabolism , Phycobiliproteins/chemistry , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Antioxidants/chemistry
Nutrition Research and Practice ; : 418-423, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-179317


BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Spirulina, a blue-green alga, is widely produced and commercialized as a dietary supplement with bio- and immune-modulatory functions. We have previously shown that spirulina had favorable effects on lipid profiles, immune functions, and antioxidant capacity in healthy Korean elderly. Despite favorable effect of spirulina supplementation, some sub-populations have shown a poor response to supplementation. Obesity is a factor related to poor-response. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the immuno-modulation, antioxidant capacity, and lipid-lowering effect of spirulina in obese and non-obese Korean elderly. SUBJECTS/METHODS: The subjects were 78 elderly aged 60-87 years. In a randomized double blind, placebo-controlled study, subjects were fed either placebo or spirulina daily, at 8 g for 12 weeks. Subjects were divided into the non-obese group and the obese group based on body mass index (BMI) criteria for Asians suggested by the International Obesity Task Force: BMI < 25 kg/m² (non-obese) and BMI ≥ 25 kg/m² (obese). RESULTS: In the non-obese group, spirulina supplementation showed a significant lowering effect on plasma concentration of total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol, a significant increase in interleukin (IL)-2 concentration (P < 0.01) and a significant increment (P < 0.05) in IL-2/IL-6 ratio, and a significant increase in total antioxidant status level and a significant decrease in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances level. However, these effects were not observed in the obese group. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrated that blood lipid lowering and immune and antioxidant improving response for spirulina supplement was affected by obesity in Korean elderly.

Aged , Humans , Advisory Committees , Antioxidants , Asian People , Body Mass Index , Cholesterol , Dietary Supplements , Dyslipidemias , Interleukins , Obesity , Plasma , Spirulina , Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances
Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine ; (6): 388-395, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-651481


The effects of C-phycocyanin (C-pc), a phycobiliprotein, on the expression of pro-fibrotic mediators in hyper-tropic scarring such as connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) and α-smooth muscle actins (α-SMA) were investigated in relation to trans-differentiation of fibroblast to myo-fibroblast, an icon of scar formation. C-pc was isolated from Spirulina Platensis extract using sonication method and C-pc concentration was determined by Bennet and Bogorad equation. α-SMA and CTGF levels in wounded primary human dermal fibroblasts were determined by western blot analysis and immuno-fluorescence confocal microscope was employed. Fibroblast contractility was examined by three-dimensional collagen lattice contraction assay. There was an elevation of α-SMA (121%) and CTGF (143%) levels in wound cells as compared with non-wound cells. The does-response profiles of down regulation demonstrated that the maximum inhibitions of α-SMA by 63% (p<0.05) and CTGF by 50% (p<0.1) were achieved by C-pc (6 nM) treated cells. In confocal assay, non-wound fibroblasts exhibited basal level of α-SMA staining, while wounded cells without C-pc treatment showed strong up-regulation of α-SMA by 147% (p<0.05). C-pc (6 nM) inhibited α-SMA expression by 70% (p<0.05) and reduced collagen contraction by 29% (p<0.05). C-pc seemed to lessen the over expression of CTGF, α-SMA, subsequently alleviating the fibrotic contracture. This study suggests the potential application of C-pc to regulation of the expression of pro-fibrotic mediators in scarring process and its potential usage as an efficient means for anti-fibrosis therapy.

Humans , Actins , Blotting, Western , Cicatrix , Collagen , Connective Tissue Growth Factor , Connective Tissue , Contracture , Down-Regulation , Fibroblasts , Methods , Myofibroblasts , Phycocyanin , Sonication , Spirulina , Up-Regulation , Wound Healing , Wounds and Injuries
Braz. j. microbiol ; 46(4): 991-1000, Oct.-Dec. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-769671


Fewer studies have assessed the outdoor cultivation of Spirulina maxima compared with S. platensis, although the protein content of S. maxima is higher than S. platensis. Spirulina growth medium requires an increased amount of NaHCO3, Na2CO3, and NaNO3, which increases the production cost. Therefore, the current study used a low-cost but high-efficiency biomass production medium (Medium M-19) after testing 33 different media. The medium depth of 25 cm (group A) was sub-divided into A1 (50% cover with a black curtain (PolyMax, 12 oz ultra-blackout), A2 (25% cover), and A3 (no cover). Similarly the medium depths of 30 and 35 cm were categorized as groups B (B1, B2, and B3) and C (C1, C2, and C3), respectively, and the effects of depth and surface light availability on growth and biomass production were assessed. The highest biomass production was 2.05 g L-1 in group A2, which was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than that in all other groups and sub-groups. Spirulina maxima died in B1 and C1 on the fifth day of culture. The biochemical composition of the biomass obtained from A2 cultures, including protein, carbohydrate, lipid, moisture, and ash, was 56.59%, 14.42%, 0.94%, 5.03%, and 23.02%, respectively. Therefore, S. maxima could be grown outdoors with the highest efficiency in urea-enriched medium at a 25-cm medium depth with 25% surface cover or uncovered.

Biomass/analysis , Biomass/chemistry , Biomass/growth & development , Biomass/instrumentation , Biomass/metabolism , Biomass/methods , Culture Media/analysis , Culture Media/chemistry , Culture Media/growth & development , Culture Media/instrumentation , Culture Media/metabolism , Culture Media/methods , Culture Techniques/analysis , Culture Techniques/chemistry , Culture Techniques/growth & development , Culture Techniques/instrumentation , Culture Techniques/metabolism , Culture Techniques/methods , Spirulina/analysis , Spirulina/chemistry , Spirulina/growth & development , Spirulina/instrumentation , Spirulina/metabolism , Spirulina/methods , Urea/analysis , Urea/chemistry , Urea/growth & development , Urea/instrumentation , Urea/metabolism , Urea/methods
Braz. j. microbiol ; 45(3): 933-936, July-Sept. 2014. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-727023


This paper presents a method to estimate the biomass of Spirulina cultivated on solid medium with sugarcane bagasse as a support, in view of the difficulty in determining biomass concentrations in bioprocesses, particularly those conducted in semi-solid or solid media. The genus Spirulina of the family Oscillatoriaceae comprises the group of multicellular filamentous cyanobacteria (blue-green microalgae). Spirulina is used as fish feed in aquaculture, as a food supplement, a source of vitamins, pigments, antioxidants and fatty acids. Therefore, its growth parameters are extremely important in studies of the development and optimization of bioprocesses. For studies of biomass growth, Spirulina platensis was cultured on solid medium using sugarcane bagasse as a support. The biomass thus produced was estimated by determining the protein content of the material grown during the process, based on the ratio of dry weight to protein content obtained in the surface growth experiments. The protein content of the biomass grown in Erlenmeyer flasks on surface medium was examined daily to check the influence of culture time on the protein content of the biomass. The biomass showed an average protein content of 42.2%. This methodology enabled the concentration of biomass adhering to the sugarcane bagasse to be estimated from the indirect measurement of the protein content associated with cell growth.

Biomass , Bacterial Proteins/analysis , Culture Media/chemistry , Microbiological Techniques/methods , Spirulina/chemistry , Spirulina/growth & development , Cellulose , Saccharum
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; ago. 2014. 143 p. tab, graf, ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-836816


Arthrosphira (Spirulina) platensis apresenta substâncias de interesse nas indústrias alimentícia, farmacêutica e cosmética. A produção industrial envolve uma quantidade muito grande de água e sua viabilidade deve contemplar o reuso do meio, visando uma diminuição de custos com nutrientes, bem como da poluição ambiental, tornando-se assim um processo sustentável. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo principal a avaliação do reaproveitamento do meio no cultivo de A. platensis usando tratamentos físico-químicos de floculação e adsorção. Para tanto, tal cianobactéria foi cultivada em fotobiorreator (FBR) tubular em processos de batelada alimentada e contínuo em intensidade luminosa de 120 µmol fótons m-2 s-1, sob controle de pH. Foram desenvolvidas técnicas de tratamento de meio de cultivo proveniente de processo descontínuo alimentado de A. platensis para a remoção de matéria orgânica (MO) e pigmentos (60 - 96 %), permitindo assim seu reuso em novos cultivos. A. platensis foi cultivada nos meios tratados utilizando frascos Erlenmeyer, com avaliação de parâmetros como concentração celular máxima (Xm), conteúdo de clorofila-a (Chl) e conteúdo de proteína na biomassa seca (PTN). No processo simultâneo de floculação e adsorção com carvão ativado em pó (CAP), foram testados dois agentes floculantes, cloreto férrico (F) e sulfato férrico (S) bem como diferentes tempos de contato. No processo simultâneo de floculação com F e adsorção com CAP, as condições ótimas foram: CAP = 24,4 mg L-1 e F = 20,3 mg L-1durante 30,4 min de tempo de contato; com obtenção de: Xm = 4893 ± 33 mg L-1, Chl = 24,3 ± 0,1 mg g-1, PTN = 36,1 ± 0,6 %. As condições ótimas de tratamento simultâneo de floculação com S e adsorção com CAP foram: CAP = 40,0 mg L-1 e S = 32,8 mg L-1 durante 36,1 min de tempo de contato, com obtenção de: Xm = 4863 ± 64 mg L-1, Chl = 24,5 ± 0,6 mg g-1, PTN = 60,1 ± 0,6 %. No processo sequencial de floculação com F seguido de adsorção com carvão ativado granulado (CAG), as condições ótimas foram atingidas com: CAG = 108,4 g e F = 10,0 mg L-1 durante 30,8 min de tempo de residência; obtendo-se: Xm = 3140 ± 77 mg L-1, Chl = 35,4 ± 0,2 mg g-1, PTN = 44,9 ± 0,0 %. Adicionalmente, os meios tratados nessas condições ótimas de cada tratamento, também foram testados em FBR tubulares, atingindo valores de Xm, Chl e PTN maiores do que os obtidos com meio padrão. Além disso, o processo simultâneo de cultivo celular em FBR tubulares e adsorção contínua do meio de cultivo exaurido em coluna de CAG removeu 51 - 79 % de MO e pigmentos. Foi demonstrado que uma proporção de 75 % de meio tratado no meio de alimentação não produz diminuição significativa de produtividade celular (PX) e os resultados foram: concentração celular em estado estacionário (Xs) de 1568 ± 15 mg L-1, PX = 941 mg L-1 d-1, PTN = 42,0 ± 0,6 %, com diminuição de 65 % no custo de meio de cultivo. Por fim, conclui-se que é viável a utilização de processos físico-químicos no tratamento de meio a ser reaproveitado no cultivo de A. platensis, inclusive em FBR tubulares, com apreciável incremento de clorofila-a e proteínas na biomassa obtida em meio tratado

Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis have compounds of interest in the food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Industrial production involves high volumes of water and its viability should contemplate medium reuse, aiming to reduce not only nutrient costs, but also environmental pollution, thus becoming a sustainable process. This work had as main objective the evaluation of A. platensis culture medium reuse through the physicochemical treatments flocculation and adsorption. Thus, this cyanobacterium was cultivated in tubular photobioreactor (PBR) by fed-batch and continuous processes at light intensity 120 µmol photons m-2 s-1 under pH control. Treatment techniques were developed for culture medium from fed-batch process to properly removal of organic matter (OM) and pigments (60 - 96 %), thus allowing its reuse in new cultures. A. platensis was cultivated in treated medium using Erlenmeyer flasks, with the evaluation of parameters such as maximum cell concentration (Xm), chlorophyll content (Chl) and protein content in dry biomass (PTN). For simultaneous flocculation and adsorption with powdered activated carbon (PAC), two flocculants were used: ferric chloride (F) and ferric sulfate (S), as well as different contact times. In the simultaneous process of F flocculation and PAC adsorption, optimum conditions were: PAC = 24.4 mg L-1 and F = 20.3 mg L-1 for 30.4 min contact time; results were: Xm = 4893 ± 33 mg L-1, Chl = 24.3 ± 0.1 mg g-1, PTN = 36.1 ± 0.6 %. Optimal conditions in the simultaneous process of S flocculation and PAC adsorption were: PAC = 40.0 mg L-1 and S = 32.8 mg L-1 for 36.1 min contact time; results were: Xm = 4863 ± 64 mg L-1, Chl = 24.5 ± 0.6 mg g-1, PTN = 60.1 ± 0.6 %. In the sequential process of F flocculation followed by adsorption with granular activated carbon (GAC), optimal conditions were reached at GAC = 108.4 g and F = 10.0 mg L-1 for 30.8 min of residence time, at which Xm = 3140 ± 77 mg L-1, Chl = 35.4 ± 0.2 mg g-1 and PTNPTN = 44.9 ± 0.0 % were obtained. Moreover, medium treated at each optimal condition were also tested in tubular PBRs, reaching values of Xm, Chl and PTN higher than those obtained with standard medium. Furthermore, the simultaneous process of cell cultivation in tubular PBR and continuous adsorption of spent cultivation medium through GAC column removed 51 - 79 % of OM and pigments. It was showed that 75 % of treated medium in the feed medium does not cause significant decrease in cell productivity (PX) and results were: steady-state cell concentration (Xs) = 1568 ± 15 mg L-1, PX = 941 mg L-1 d-1, PTN = 42.0 ± 0.6 %, with 65 % reduction in medium price. At last, it can be inferred that the use of physicochemical processes in medium treatment is feasible for reuse in A. platensis cultivation, including that in tubular PBR, leading to considerable increase in chlorophyll and protein contents of the biomass obtained with treated medium

Biomass , Culture Media/analysis , Spirulina/growth & development , Flocculation , Adsorption , Bioreactors , Microbiology