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1.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(6): 1727-1733, dic. 2023. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1528782

ABSTRACT

El bazo es el órgano linfático intraperitoneal más grande del organismo, presentando dos funciones principales: defensiva, mediante respuesta inmunitaria y filtración sanguínea. El objetivo de la presente revisión, fue obtener información actualizada sobre la anatomía del bazo de la rata albina (Rattus norvegicus albinus) y comparativa con la anatomía del bazo humano, perro, gato y cerdo, al representar las principales especies de importancia en la medicina, medicina veterinaria y en las ciencias biomédicas. Se realizó una búsqueda de material bibliográfico actualizado en diferentes sitios web científicos. Es así como, se revisaron 71 fuentes bibliográficas, en su gran mayoría artículos científicos (31), libros de anatomía humana y veterinaria (17), artículos especializados (17) y tesis (6). En general existe consenso, sobre la descripción anatómica del bazo, el cual se sitúa en la región hipocondriaca izquierda del abdomen, entre el fondo del estómago y el diafragma, irrigado por la arteria y vena esplénica. Se evidenció que existen similitudes en aspectos macroscópicos, al comparar el bazo de la rata blanca, con el bazo de otras especies (funcionalidad, peso relativo, ubicación topográfica). En aspectos microscópicos, el bazo en humanos y otros mamíferos se compone de estroma, además de parénquima, constituido a su vez por pulpa blanca y roja. En particular, existen diferencias entre el bazo de rata, humano, gato, perro y cerdo, en formas, tamaños y aspectos microscópicos, relacionados con la microcirculación e inmunidad. Mientras que existen semejanzas en procesos patológicos y respuestas a tratamientos farmacológicos y clínicos. Por lo anteriormente expuesto, se concluye que la rata albina constituye un buen modelo biológico, específicamente en aspectos anatómicos microscópicos del bazo de tipo inmunológico. Mientras que el bazo de cerdo es mejor comparativamente, en estudios anatómicos macroscópicos de tipo quirúrgicos, resultando ambos extrapolables, especialmente a la medicina humana.


SUMMARY: The spleen is the largest intraperitoneal lymphatic organ of the body, presenting two main functions: defensive, through immune response and blood filtration. The objective of the present review was to obtain updated information on the anatomy of the spleen of the albino rat (Rattus norvegicus albinus) and to compare it with the anatomy of the human, dog, cat and pig spleen, representing the main species of importance in medicine, veterinary medicine and biomedical sciences. A search for updated bibliographic material was carried out in different scientific websites. Thus, 71 bibliographic sources were reviewed, mostly scientific articles (31), human and veterinary anatomy books (17), specialized articles (17) and theses (6). In general, there is consensus on the anatomical description of the spleen, which is located in the left hypochondriac region of the abdomen between the fundus of the stomach and the diaphragm, irrigated by the splenic artery and vein. It was evidenced that there are similarities in macroscopic aspects when comparing the spleen of the white rat with the spleen of other species (functionality, relative weight, topographic location). In microscopic aspects, the spleen in humans and other mammals is composed of stroma, in addition to parenchyma, constituted in turn by white and red pulp. In particular, there are differences between rat, human, cat, dog and pig spleens in shapes, sizes and microscopic aspects related to microcirculation and immunity. While there are similarities in pathological processes and responses to pharmacological and clinical treatments. For the above mentioned, it is concluded that the albino rat constitutes a good biological model, specifically in microscopic anatomical aspects of the spleen of immunological type. While the pig spleen is comparatively better in macroscopic anatomical studies of surgical type, both are extrapolable especially to human medicine.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Rats , Spleen/anatomy & histology , Anatomy, Comparative , Immune System/anatomy & histology , Anatomy, Veterinary
3.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(4): 1152-1157, ago. 2023.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1514346

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: To investigate changes of MMP-9 in the rat spleen and hypoxia-induced microvascular basement membrane under high altitude hypoxia. Thirty male specific pathogen-free Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into control and hypoxia groups, with 15 rats in each group. The rats in the control group were placed in Dingxi City, Gansu Province (2080 m above sea level) for 30 days. Rats in the hypoxia group were raised in a hypoxic environment in Maduo County, Qinghai Province (4300 m above sea level), for 30 days to establish a hypoxic rat model. Routine blood tests, MMP-9 mRNA, MMP-9 protein, and the spleen microvascular basement membrane were detected. (1) Compared with the control group, the red blood cell count, hemoglobin, and hematocrit levels of the rats in the hypoxia group were all increased; thus, a hypoxia model was successfully established. (2) Compared with the control group, the expression of MMP-9 mRNA and protein was significantly higher in the spleen of rats in the hypoxic group, and the difference was statistically significant (P <0.05). (3) Compared with the control group, the blood vessel basement membrane in the spleen of the hypoxia group was degraded. Under natural low air pressure and high altitude conditions, the expression of MMP-9 in rat spleen tissue increases and participates in the degradation of the microvascular basement membrane.


El objetivo de este trabajo fue investigar los cambios de la MMP-9 en el bazo de la rata y la membrana basal microvascular inducida bajo hipoxia a gran altura. Treinta ratas macho Sprague Dawley, libres de patógenos específicos, se dividieron aleatoriamente en dos grupos de 15 ratas cada uno, un grupo control y un grupo hipoxia. Durante 30 días las ratas del grupo control estuvieron en la ciudad de Dingxi, provincia de Gansu (2080 m sobre el nivel del mar). Las ratas del grupo de hipoxia se criaron en un entorno hipóxico en el condado de Maduo, provincia de Qinghai (4300 m sobre el nivel del mar), durante 30 días para establecer un modelo de rata hipóxica. Se realizaron análisis de sangre de rutina, ARNm de MMP-9, proteína MMP-9 y de la membrana basal microvascular del bazo. En comparación con el grupo control, el recuento de glóbulos rojos, la hemoglobina y los niveles de hematocrito de las ratas del grupo de hipoxia aumentaron; por lo tanto, se estableció con éxito un modelo de hipoxia. En comparación con el grupo control, la expresión de ARNm y proteína de MMP-9 fue significativamente mayor en el bazo de las ratas del grupo hipóxico, siendo la diferencia estadísticamente significativa (P <0,05). En comparación con el grupo control, la membrana basal de los vasos sanguíneos estaba degradada en el bazo del grupo hipoxia. En condiciones naturales de baja presión atmosférica y gran altitud, la expresión de MMP-9 en el tejido del bazo de la rata aumenta y participa en la degradación de la membrana basal microvascular.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Spleen/pathology , Basement Membrane/pathology , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 , Altitude Sickness , Blotting, Western , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Disease Models, Animal
4.
Medicina (Ribeirao Preto, Online) ; 56(1)abr. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1442400

ABSTRACT

Baço ­ acessório localizado dentro do parênquima pancreático ­ é uma anomalia congênita do tecido esplênico, com características morfológicas e histológicas semelhantes ao baço normal apresentado, geralmente, na cauda do pâncreas. O baço acessório intrapancreático (BAI) trata-se, sobretudo, de uma lesão benigna, usualmente assintomática e encontrada incidentalmente em estudos de imagem, mas que suscitam frequentemente uma preocupação de malignidade e podem ser radiologicamente indistinguíveis de tumores neuroendócrinos, tumores pancreáticos e adenocarcinomas. O presente estudo visa, portanto, relatar um caso de baço acessório intrapancreático através da tomografia computadorizada (TC) e ressonância magnética (RM), além de correlacionar os achados radiográficos do relato de caso com outros métodos radiológicos encontrados na revisão de literatura. As informações contidas foram obtidas por meio de revisão do prontuário, entrevista com o paciente, registro fotográfico dos métodos diagnósticos em geral e dados laboratoriais, aos quais o paciente foi submetido. Nesse contexto, o relato de caso é de um homem com história prévia de carcinoma de células renais que, após realização de nefrectomia total à esquerda e de linfonodos retroperitoneais, constatou no seguimento de seus exames de controle pós-operatório uma imagem nodular na cauda pancreática sugestiva de metástase, mas que, através do estudo tomográfico e de RM, foi possível realizar o correto diagnóstico, tratando-se apenas de uma afecção benigna assintomática e de intervenção conservadora descrita como BAI (AU).


The spleen, an accessory organ located within the pancreatic parenchyma, is a congenital anomaly of the splenic tissue with morphological and histological characteristics resembling a normal spleen, usually in the tail of the pancreas. The intra-pancreatic accessory spleen (IPAS) is mainly a benign lesion, being usually asymptomatic and found on imaging studies on an incidental basis, but which often raises concern about malignancy and may be radiographically indistinguishable from neuroendocrine tumors, pancreatic tumors, and adenocarcinomas. Therefore, the present study aims to report a case of IPAS using computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, in addition to correlating the radiographic findings of the case report with other radiological methods in the literature review. Information was obtained by reviewing medical records, conducting interviews with the patient, and using diagnostic photographs and laboratory data. In this context, the case report is of a male patient with previous history of renal cell carcinoma who had undergone total left nephrectomy and resection of retroperitoneal lymph nodes. Post-operative followed-up exams showed a nodular image in the pancreatic tail suggestive of metastasis, but whose correct diagnosis was possible by CT and MR studies as only an asymptomatic benign affection was shown, meaning that only a conservative intervention was necessary (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Pancreas/pathology , Spleen/pathology
5.
Rev. cuba. pediatr ; 952023. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1515291

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El síndrome de torsión se incluye dentro de los síndromes que causan abdomen agudo quirúrgico. Como causa poco frecuente de este síndrome se encuentra la torsión esplénica en bazos que tienen anomalía en su fijación. Objetivo: Informar sobre la evolución de una paciente tratada por torsión de un bazo errante. Presentación del caso: Paciente de ocho años de edad, femenina, de color no blanco de la piel, con antecedentes de dolor abdominal crónico recurrente, que acudió al Servicio de Urgencias del Hospital Pediátrico de Cienfuegos Paquito González Cueto con dolor abdominal agudo, intermitente, de 48 horas de evolución, vómitos, abdomen doloroso a la palpación profunda en cuadrante superior izquierdo y masa palpable en flanco lateral del mismo lado de tres cm. Se sospechó una torsión esplénica. Se realizó, como complementario diagnóstico ultrasonido abdominal Doppler y tomografía contrastada de abdomen. Se hizo laparotomía y se encontró bazo torcido, con cambios de coloración por la isquemia, que recuperó su color normal después de la destorsión. Se fijó el órgano a la pared abdominal. La evolución posquirúrgica resultó satisfactoria. Conclusiones: La torsión esplénica, aunque infrecuente, debe sospecharse en pacientes con dolor intermitente y masa palpable, principalmente en flanco lateral izquierdo. La tomografía contrastada resulta el examen diagnóstico de elección y se requiere de un diagnóstico temprano para poder conservar el bazo, órgano muy importante para una mejor función inmunológica en los niños(AU)


Introduction: Torsion syndrome is included among the syndromes causing acute surgical abdomen. A rare cause of this syndrome is splenic torsion in spleens with abnormal fixation. Objective: To report on the evolution of a patient treated for torsion of an errant spleen. Case presentation: Eight-year-old female patient, non-white skin color, with a history of recurrent chronic abdominal pain, who attended the Emergency Department of the Paquito González Cueto Pediatric Hospital of Cienfuegos with intermittent acute abdominal pain of 48 hours of evolution, vomiting, painful abdomen on deep palpation in the left upper quadrant and palpable mass in the lateral flank of the same side measuring three centimeters. Splenic torsion was suspected. Doppler abdominal ultrasound and contrasted tomography of the abdomen were performed as a complementary diagnosis. Laparotomy was performed and the spleen was found to be twisted, with changes in color due to ischemia, which recovered its normal color after detorsion. The organ was fixed to the abdominal wall. The postoperative evolution was satisfactory. Conclusions: Splenic torsion, although rare, should be suspected in patients with intermittent pain and palpable mass, mainly in the left lateral flank. Contrast tomography is the diagnostic test of choice and early diagnosis is required to preserve the spleen, a very important organ for better immune function in children(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child , Spleen/surgery , Cefazolin/therapeutic use , Wandering Spleen/diagnosis
6.
São Paulo; s.n; 2023. 69 p. ilus, tab.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, Inca | ID: biblio-1434417

ABSTRACT

INTRODUÇÃO: Em menos de duas décadas, a imunoterapia consolidou-se como um dos pilares do tratamento do câncer. Apesar da sua potencial elevada eficácia e resposta duradoura, a proporção de pacientes que apresentam resposta objetiva é relativamente baixa e existem poucos biomarcadores para selecionar os pacientes com maior potencial de resposta. OBJETIVO: Nossa hipótese era de que era possível avaliar globalmente o sistema imune do paciente através da mensuração por imagem do timo e do baço e usar essas métricas como fator prognóstico e preditivo de resposta a bloqueadores de checkpoint. RESULTADOS: Os principais resultados foram: 1) As medidas tímicas não se correlacionam com a sobrevida em pacientes tratados com imunoterapia; 2) Há aumento do volume esplênico após o uso de imunoterapia na maior parte dos pacientes, mas o grau de aumento não se correlaciona com resposta à terapia; 3) Maior volume esplênico está associado a pior sobrevida livre de progressão em pacientes com melanoma tratados com imunoterapia, mas essa correlação não pôde ser replicada em outros tipos tumorais. CONCLUSÃO: a espessura tímica não se correlaciona com desfechos clínicos em pacientes oncológicos tratados com imunoterapia. Menor volume esplênico antes de iniciar imunoterapia está relacionada a melhor prognóstico em pacientes com melanoma, mas não em outros tipos tumorais.


INTRODUCTION: In less than two decades, immunotherapy has established itself as one of the pillars of cancer treatment. Despite its potentially high efficacy and long-lasting response, the proportion of patients who have an objective response is relatively low and there are few biomarkers to select patients with the greatest response potential. OBJECTIVE: Our hypothesis was that it was possible to assess the patient's immune system globally by measuring the thymus and spleen by imaging and using these metrics as a prognostic and predictive factor of response to immune checkpoint inhibitors. RESULTS: The main results were: 1) Thymic measurements do not correlate with survival in patients treated with immunotherapy; 2) There is an increase in splenic volume after the use of immunotherapy in most patients, but the degree of increase does not correlate with response to therapy; 3) Greater splenic volume is associated with worse progression free survival in patients with melanoma treated with immunotherapy, but this correlation could not be replicated in other tumor types. CONCLUSION: thymic thickness does not correlate with clinical outcomes in cancer patients treated with immunotherapy. Smaller splenic volume before starting immunotherapy is associated with better prognosis in patients with melanoma, but not other tumor types


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Splenomegaly , Diagnostic Imaging , Immunotherapy , Spleen , Thymus Gland , Biomarkers , Immune System , Neoplasms/therapy
7.
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 1029-1034, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-987018

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To evaluate the clinical efficacy and adverse reactions of peginterferon-α2b for treatment of chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN).@*METHODS@#We retrospectively analyzed the data of 107 patients with MPN, including 95 with essential thrombocythemia (ET) and 12 with polycythemia vera (PV), who all received peginterferon-α2b treatment for at least 12 months. The clnical and follow-up data of the patients were analyzed to evaluate the efficacy and adverse reactions of the treatment.@*RESULTS@#After receiving peginterferon- α2b treatment, both ET and PV patients achieved high hematological remission rates, and the total remission rates did not differ significantly between the two groups (86% vs 78%, P>0.05). In the overall patients, the spleen index decreased by 13.5% (95%CI: 8.5%-18.5%) after the treatment. The patients with hematological remission showed a significantly greater reduction of the total symptom score than those without hematological remission (P < 0.01). The median percentage of JAK2V617F allele load of PV patients decreased from 67.23% (49.6%-84.86%) at baseline to 19.7% (0.57%-74.6%) after the treatment, and that of JAK2V617F-positive ET patients decreased from 48.97% (0.45%-74.24%) at baseline to 22.1% (0.33%-65.42%) after the treatment. Mild adverse reactions (grade 1-2) were observed in both ET and PV groups without significant differences between them. The overall incidence of thrombotic events during the treatment was 2.8% in these patients, and no serious adverse reactions were observed.@*CONCLUSION@#For patients with chronic myelodysplasia, peginterferon-α2b treatment can achieve a high peripheral blood cell remission rate and maintain a long-term stable state with good effect in relieving symptoms such as splenomegaly. Peginterferon- α2b treatment caused only mild adverse reactions, which can be tolerated by most of the patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Retrospective Studies , Neoplasms , Alleles , Plastic Surgery Procedures , Spleen
8.
Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery ; (12): 132-137, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971242

ABSTRACT

Hilar splenic lymph node metastasis is one of the risk factors for poor prognosis in patients with proximal gastric cancer. Laparoscopic spleen-preserving splenic hilar lymph node dissection (LSPSHLD) can effectively improve the survival benefits of patients at high risk of splenic hilar lymph node metastasis. However, LSPSHLD is still a challenging surgical difficulty in radical resection of proximal gastric cancer. Moreover, improper operation can easily lead to splenic vascular injury, spleen injury and pancreatic injury and other related complications, due to the deep anatomical location of the splenic hilar region and the intricate blood vessels.Therefore, in the prevention and treatment of LSPSHLD-related complications, we should first focus on prevention, clarify the indication of surgery, and select the benefit group of LSPSHLD individually, so as to avoid the risk caused by over-dissection. Meanwhile, during the perioperative period of LSPSHLD, it is necessary to improve the cognition of related risk factors, conduct standardized and accurate operations in good surgical field exposure and correct anatomical level to avoid surrounding tissues and organs injury, and master the surgical skills and effective measures to deal with related complications, so as to improve the surgical safety of LSPSHLD.


Subject(s)
Humans , Spleen/surgery , Lymphatic Metastasis/pathology , Stomach Neoplasms/pathology , Gastrectomy/adverse effects , Lymph Node Excision/adverse effects , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Laparoscopy/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies
9.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 958-965, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970567

ABSTRACT

This study was aimed at identifying the bioactive components of the crude and stir-baked hawthorn for invigorating spleen and promoting digestion, respectively, to clarify the processing mechanism of hawthorn by applying the partial least squares(PLS) algorithm to build the spectrum-effect relationship model. Firstly, different polar fractions of crude and stir-baked hawthorn aqueous extracts and combinations of different fractions were prepared, respectively. Then, the contents of 24 chemical components were determined by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The effects of different polar fractions of crude hawthorn and stir-baked hawthorn aqueous extracts and combinations of different fractions were evaluated by measuring the gastric emptying rate and small intestinal propulsion rate. Finally, the PLS algorithm was used to establish the spectrum-effect relationship model. The results showed that there were significant differences in the contents of 24 chemical components for different polar fractions of crude and stir-baked hawthorn aqueous extracts and combinations of different fractions, and the gastric emptying rate and small intestinal propulsion rate of model rats were improved by administration of different polar fractions of crude and stir-baked hawthorn aqueous extracts and combinations of different fractions. The bioactive components of crude hawthorn identified by PLS models were vitexin-4″-O-glucoside, vitexin-2″-O-rhamnoside, neochlorogenic acid, rutin, gallic acid, vanillic acid, citric acid, malic acid, quinic acid and fumaric acid, while neochlorogenic acid, cryptochlorogenic acid, rutin, gallic acid, vanillic acid, citric acid, quinic acid and fumaric acid were the bioactive components of stir-baked hawthorn. This study provided data support and scientific basis for identifying the bioactive components of crude and stir-baked hawthorn, and clarifying the processing mechanism of hawthorn.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Spleen , Crataegus , Quinic Acid , Least-Squares Analysis , Vanillic Acid , Algorithms , Digestion
10.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 231-247, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970371

ABSTRACT

This study aims to investigate the effect of anti-PD-1 antibody expressed in mouse mammary gland on the surface antigen protein of spleen T cells, cytokine expression, spleen CD4+ T cell proliferation and proliferation related pathways of transgenic mice at the cellular level. Transgenic mice expressing anti-human PD-1 antibody at 8 weeks of age without pregnancy and 18 weeks of age with lactation were divided into two groups, with transgenic negative mice in each group as the control. Spleen lymphocytes were extracted and the changes of spleen lymphocytes were detected. Compared with transgenic negative mice, the proportion of effector T cells of spleen T cells in the immune system of transgenic mice with anti-PD-1 antibody expressed in breast increased, the proportion of Treg cells decreased, and the IFN-γ, IL-17 and IL-2 expressed in CD4+ T cells increased in varying degrees. Moreover, IL-4, IL-10 and TGF-β in CD4+ T cells did not change, nor did some cell surface protein molecules related to T cell stimulate. There was no significant difference in T cell proliferation between transgenic positive and transgenic negative mice. In transgenic positive mice, the expression of phosphorylated proteins in PI3K/Akt/mTOR and RAS/MEK/ERK pathways were partially up-regulated, but the whole pathway was not completely up-regulated. Therefore, it is feasible to use transgenic mice as host to express monoclonal antibodies related to immune system such as anti-PD-1 antibody.


Subject(s)
Mice , Animals , Female , Mice, Transgenic , Spleen/metabolism , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , Cytokines/metabolism
11.
Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion ; (12): 209-212, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969973

ABSTRACT

The treatment ideas with acupuncture for knee osteoarthritis (KOA) are explored on the base of Dongyuan needling technology. Regarding the rules of acupoint selection, Zusanli (ST 36) is predominant, the back-shu points are used for the disorders related to the invasion of exogenous factors, and the front-mu points are for the cases caused by internal injury. Besides, the xing-spring points and shu-stream points are preferred. In treatment of KOA, besides the local points, the front-mu points, i.e. Zhongwan (CV 12), Tianshu (ST 25) and Guanyuan (CV 4), are selected specially to tonifying the spleen and stomach. The earth points and acupoints on the earth meridians (i.e. Yinlingquan [SP 9], Xuehai [SP 10], Liangqiu [ST 34], Dubi [ST 35], Zusanli [ST 36] and Yanglingquan [GB 34]) are optional to coordinate yin and yang, essence and qi , and regulate the qi movement of spleen and stomach. The shu-stream points of liver, spleen and kidney meridians (Taichong [LR 3], Taibai [SP 3] and Taixi [KI 3]) are chosen to promote meridian circulation and regulate zangfu functions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Osteoarthritis, Knee , Acupuncture Therapy , Meridians , Acupuncture Points , Spleen
12.
Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion ; (12): 40-44, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969945

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To observe the therapeutic effect of governor vessel moxibustion combined with wenyang yiqi qiwei decoction on erectile dysfunction (ED) with spleen-kidney deficiency and to explore the possible mechanism.@*METHODS@#A total of 130 ED patients with spleen-kidney deficiency were randomized into an observation group (65 cases, 2 cases dropped off) and a control group (65 cases, 3 cases dropped off). The control group was given wenyang yiqi qiwei decoction orally, one dose daily. On the basis of the treatment in the control group, governor vessel moxibustion was applied from Dazhui (GV 14) to Yaoshu (GV 2) in the observation group, 110 min a time, once a day. The treatment of 4 weeks was required in both groups. Before and after treatment, 5-question international index of erectile function (IIEF-5) score, erection quality scale (EQS) score, erectile hardness assessment (EHS) score, TCM syndrome score, serum testosterone (T) level and vascular endothelial function indexes (prostaglandin I2 [PGI2], endothelin-1 [ET-1] and nitric oxide [NO] levels) were observed respectively, and the clinical efficacy was evaluated in both groups.@*RESULTS@#After treatment, the scores of IIEF-5, EQS, EHS and serum levels of T, PGI2, NO were increased compared before treatment (P<0.01), the TCM syndrome scores and serum ET-1 levels were decreased compared before treatment (P<0.01) in the two groups; the scores of IIEF-5, EQS, EHS and serum levels of T, PGI2, NO in the observation group were higher than those in the control group (P<0.01, P<0.05), the TCM syndrome score and serum ET-1 level were lower than those in the control group (P<0.01, P<0.05). The total effective rate was 88.9% (56/63) in the observation group, which was superior to 74.2% (46/62) in the control group (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Governor vessel moxibustion combined with wenyang yiqi qiwei decoction can improve the erectile function and increase the erection hardness and quality in ED patients with spleen-kidney deficiency, its mechanism may relate to improving serum T level and vascular endothelial function.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Administration, Oral , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Erectile Dysfunction/therapy , Kidney/pathology , Kidney Diseases/complications , Moxibustion , Spleen/pathology , Splenic Diseases/complications , Testosterone/blood , Combined Modality Therapy
13.
Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B ; (12): 650-662, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982405

ABSTRACT

The syndrome of dampness stagnancy due to spleen deficiency (DSSD) is relatively common globally. Although the pathogenesis of DSSD remains unclear, evidence has suggested that the gut microbiota might play a significant role. Radix Astragali, used as both medicine and food, exerts the effects of tonifying spleen and qi. Astragalus polysaccharide (APS) comprises a macromolecule substance extracted from the dried root of Radix Astragali, which has many pharmacological functions. However, whether APS mitigates the immune disorders underlying the DSSD syndrome via regulating gut microbiota and the relevant mechanism remains unknown. Here, we used DSSD rats induced by high-fat and low-protein (HFLP) diet plus exhaustive swimming, and found that APS of moderate molecular weight increased the body weight gain and immune organ indexes, decreased the levels of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, and endotoxin, and suppressed the Toll-like receptor 4/nuclear factor-‍κB (TLR4/NF-‍κB) pathway. Moreover, a total of 27 critical genera were significantly enriched according to the linear discriminant analysis effect size (LEfSe). APS increased the diversity of the gut microbiota and changed its composition, such as reducing the relative abundance of Pseudoflavonifractor and Paraprevotella, and increasing that of Parasutterella, Parabacteroides, Clostridium XIVb, Oscillibacter, Butyricicoccus, and Dorea. APS also elevated the contents of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). Furthermore, the correlation analysis indicated that 12 critical bacteria were related to the body weight gain and immune organ indexes. In general, our study demonstrated that APS ameliorated the immune disorders in DSSD rats via modulating their gut microbiota, especially for some bacteria involving immune and inflammatory response and SCFA production, as well as the TLR4/NF-κB pathway. This study provides an insight into the function of APS as a unique potential prebiotic through exerting systemic activities in treating DSSD.


Subject(s)
Rats , Animals , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Spleen , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Toll-Like Receptor 4 , Polysaccharides/pharmacology , Astragalus Plant/metabolism , Immune System Diseases/drug therapy , Body Weight
14.
Chinese journal of integrative medicine ; (12): 299-307, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982286

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To evaluate the efficacy and safety of Jianpi Jieyu Decoction (JJD) for treating patients with mild-to-moderate depression of Xin (Heart)-Pi (Spleen) deficiency (XPD) syndrome.@*METHODS@#In this multi-center, randomized, controlled study, 140 patients with mild-to-moderate depression of XPD syndrome were included from Xiyuan Hospital of China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences and Botou Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine from December 2017 to December 2019. They were randomly divided into JJD group and paroxetine group by using a random number table, with 70 cases in each group. The patients in the JJD group were given JJD one dose per day (twice daily at morning and evening, 100 mL each time), and the patients in the paroxetine group were given paroxetine (10 mg/d in week 1; 20 mg/d in weeks 2-6), both orally administration for a total of 6 weeks. The primary outcome was the change of 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD-17) score at week 6 from baseline. The secondary outcomes included the Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAMA) score, Traditional Chinese Medicine Symptom Scale (TCMSS), and Clinlcal Global Impression (CGI) scores at the 2nd, 4th, and 6th weekends of treatment, HAMD-17 response (defined as a reduction in score of >50%) and HAMD-17 remission (defined as a score of ⩽7) at the end of the 6th week of treatment. Adverse events (AEs) were also recorded.@*RESULTS@#From baseline to week 6, the HAMD-17 scores decreased 10.2 ± 4.0 and 9.1 ± 4.9 points in the JJD and paroxetine groups, respectively (P=0.689). The HAMD-17 response occurred in 60% of patients in the JJD group and in 50% of those in the paroxetine group (P=0.292); HAMD-17 remission occurred in 45.7% and 30% of patients, respectively (P=0.128). The differences of CGI scores at the 6th week were not statistically significant (P>0.05). There were significant differences in HAMD-17 scores between the two groups at 2nd and 4th week (P=0.001 and P=0.014). The HAMA scores declined 8.1 ± 3.0 and 6.9 ± 4.3 points from baseline to week 6 in the JJD and paroxetine groups, respectively (P=0.905 between groups). At 4th week of treatment, there was a significant difference in HAMA between the two groups (P=0.037). TCMSS decreased 11.4 ± 5.1, and 10.1 ± 6.8 points in the JJD and paroxetine groups, respectively (P=0.080 between groups). At the 6th week, the incidence of AEs in the JJD group was significantly lower than that in the paroxetine group (7.14% vs. 22.86%, P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Compared with paroxetine, JJD was associated with a significantly lower incidence of AEs in patients with mild-to-moderate depression of XPD syndrome, with no difference in efficacy at 6 weeks. (Trial registration No. ChiCTR2000040922).


Subject(s)
Humans , Paroxetine/adverse effects , Spleen , Anxiety , Syndrome , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Treatment Outcome , Double-Blind Method
15.
Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B ; (12): 185-190, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971479

ABSTRACT

Sepsis is a complex syndrome caused by multiple pathogens and involves multiple organ failure, particularly spleen dysfunction. In 2017, the worldwide incidence was 48.9 million sepsis cases and 11 million sepsis-related deaths were reported (Rudd et al., 2020). Inflammation, oxidative stress, and apoptosis are the most common pathologies seen in sepsis. Liensinine (LIE) is a bisbenzylisoquinoline-type alkaloid extracted from the seed embryo of Nelumbo nucifera. Lotus seed hearts have high content of LIE which mainly has antihypertensive and antiarrhythmic pharmacological effects. It can exert anti-carcinogenic activity by regulating cell, inflammation, and apoptosis signaling pathways (Manogaran et al., 2019). However, its protective effect from sepsis-induced spleen damage is unknown. In this research, we established a mouse sepsis model induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and investigated the protective effects of LIE on sepsis spleen injury in terms of inflammatory response, oxidative stress, and apoptosis.


Subject(s)
Mice , Animals , Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacology , Spleen , Inflammation , Apoptosis , Sepsis , Oxidative Stress
16.
Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion ; (12): 617-621, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-980769

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To compare the clinical efficacy between herbal-moxa plaster and moxa-box moxibustion for diarrhea type irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D) of spleen and kidney yang deficiency.@*METHODS@#Eighty patients with IBS-D of spleen and kidney yang deficiency were randomly divided into a herbal-moxa plaster group and a moxa-box moxibustion group, 40 cases in each group. The patients in the two groups were treated with conventional acupuncture at Baihui (GV 20), Yintang (GV 24+), Zhongwan (CV 12) and bilateral Tianshu (ST 25), Yinlingquan (SP 9), and Taixi (KI 3), etc. In addition, the patients in the herbal-moxa plaster group were treated with herbal-moxa plaster (Wenyang Fuzheng ointment, composed of prepared monkshood, prepared evodia rutaecarpa, dried ginger, cinnamon, etc.) at Shenque (CV 8), Guanyuan (CV 4), Zhongwan (CV 12) and bilateral Tianshu (ST 25), Shenshu (BL 23) and Shangjuxu (ST 37); the patients in the moxa-box moxibustion group were treated with moxa-box moxibustion at the same acupoints as the herbal-moxa plaster group. The acupuncture-moxibustion treatment was provided once every other day for 4 weeks (14 treatments). Before and after treatment, the scores of clinical symptom of TCM, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) symptom severity scale (IBS-SSS) and IBS quality of life scale (IBS-QOL) were compared between the two groups, and the clinical efficacy was evaluated.@*RESULTS@#Compared with those before treatment, each item scores and total scores of clinical symptom of TCM, and IBS-SSS scores in the two groups were reduced after treatment (P<0.05). The abdominal bloating score, stool frequency score and total score of clinical symptom of TCM as well as IBS-SSS score in the herbal-moxa plaster group were lower than those in the moxa-box moxibustion group (P<0.05). Compared with those before treatment, the IBS-QOL scores in the two groups were increased after treatment (P<0.05), and the IBS-QOL score in the herbal-moxa plaster group was higher than that in the moxa-box moxibustion group (P<0.05). The total effective rate was 92.5% (37/40) in the herbal-moxa plaster group, which was higher than 85.0% (34/40) in the moxa-box moxibustion group (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#On the basis of conventional acupuncture treatment, herbal-moxa plaster could effectively improve the clinical symptoms and quality of life in IBS-D patients of spleen and kidney yang deficiency, and its efficacy is superior to that of moxa-box moxibustion.


Subject(s)
Humans , Spleen , Irritable Bowel Syndrome/drug therapy , Quality of Life , Yang Deficiency/drug therapy , Kidney , Diarrhea
17.
Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion ; (12): 509-516, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-980753

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To observe the effect of acupuncture combined with infantile tuina on intestinal flora and its efficacy in children with tic disorders (TD), and to explore its mechanism.@*METHODS@#A total of 15 children with TD were recruited as an observation group and 10 healthy children as a healthy control group. Regulating spleen and stomach acupuncture combined with infantile tuina were received in the observation group. First, acupuncture was applied to Zhongwan (CV 12), Tianshu (ST 25), Guanyuan (CV 4), Hegu (LI 4), Zusanli (ST 36), etc., and then abdominal massage and other tuina techniques were applied, once a day, 6 times a week, 2 weeks as a course of treatment, a total of 2 courses of treatment were required. No intervention was given in the healthy control group. In the observation group, Yale global tic severity scale (YGTSS) score and TCM syndrome score were compared before treatment and after 1 and 2 courses of treatment. 16S rRNA sequencing technology was used to detect the intestinal flora in the healthy control group and before and after treatment in the observation group.@*RESULTS@#After 1 and 2 courses of treatment, the scores of YGTSS and TCM syndrome in the observation group were lower than those before treatment (P<0.01, P<0.05). Compared with the healthy control group, the number of operational taxonomic units (OTU) and indexes of Chao1, Sobs, Ace and Shannon were decreased in the observation group before treatment (P<0.05, P<0.01). Compared with before treatment, the number of OTU and indexes of Chao1, Sobs, Ace and Shannon were increased in the observation group after treatment (P<0.01, P<0.05). Compared with the healthy control group, the relative abundance of Firmicutes in the observation group before treatment was decreased (P<0.001), while the relative abundance of Bacteroidetes, Bacteroides and Erysipelatoclostridium was increased (P<0.001, P<0.05). Compared with before treatment, the relative abundance of Bacteroidetes in the observation group was decreased (P<0.001) after treatment, while the relative abundance of Actinobacteria, Bifidobacterium and Atopobium was increased (P<0.05, P<0.01).@*CONCLUSION@#Acupuncture combined with infantile tuina based on the principle of regulating spleen and stomach could effectively improve TD symptoms in children, which may be related to regulating the diversity of intestinal flora, increasing beneficial bacteria, maintaining intestinal microecological balance, and playing a role in improving neurological disorders.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S , Acupuncture Therapy , Spleen , Tic Disorders
18.
Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines (English Ed.) ; (6): 83-98, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971672

ABSTRACT

Poria is an important medicine for inducing diuresis to drain dampness from the middle energizer. However, the specific effective components and the potential mechanism of Poria remain largely unknown. To identify the effective components and the mechanism of Poria water extract (PWE) to treat dampness stagnancy due to spleen deficiency syndrome (DSSD), a rat model of DSSD was established through weight-loaded forced swimming, intragastric ice-water stimulation, humid living environment, and alternate-day fasting for 21 days. After 14 days of treatment with PWE, the results indicated that PWE increased fecal moisture percentage, urine output, D-xylose level and weight; amylase, albumin, and total protein levels; and the swimming time of rats with DSSD to different extents. Eleven highly related components were screened out using the spectrum-effect relationship and LC-MS. Mechanistic studies revealed that PWE significantly increased the expression of serum motilin (MTL), gastrin (GAS), ADCY5/6, p-PKAα/β/γ cat, and phosphorylated cAMP-response element binding protein in the stomach, and AQP3 expression in the colon. Moreover, it decreased the levels of serum ADH, the expression of AQP3 and AQP4 in the stomach, AQP1 and AQP3 in the duodenum, and AQP4 in the colon. PWE induced diuresis to drain dampness in rats with DSSD. Eleven main effective components were identified in PWE. They exerted therapeutic effect by regulating the AC-cAMP-AQP signaling pathway in the stomach, MTL and GAS levels in the serum, AQP1 and AQP3 expression in the duodenum, and AQP3 and AQP4 expression in the colon.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Poria , Spleen , Albumins , Chromatography, Liquid , Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein
19.
Biol. Res ; 56: 15-15, 2023. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1429915

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Splenectomy may lead to severe postoperative complications, including sepsis and cancers. A possible solution to this problem is heterotopic autotransplantation of the spleen. Splenic autografts rapidly restore the regular splenic microanatomy in model animals. However, the functional competence of such regenerated autografts in terms of lympho- and hematopoietic capacity remains uncertain. Therefore, this study aimed to monitor the dynamics of B and T lymphocyte populations, the monocyte-macrophage system, and megakaryocytopoiesis in murine splenic autografts. METHODS: The model of subcutaneous splenic engraftment was implemented in C57Bl male mice. Cell sources of functional recovery were studied using heterotopic transplantations from B10-GFP donors to C57Bl recipients. The cellular composition dynamics were studied by immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry. Expression of regulatory genes at mRNA and protein levels was assessed by real-time PCR and Western blot, respectively. RESULTS: Characteristic splenic architecture is restored within 30 days post-transplantation, consistent with other studies. The monocyte-macrophage system, megakaryocytes, and B lymphocytes show the highest rates, whereas the functional recovery of T cells takes longer. Cross-strain splenic engraftments using B10-GFP donors indicate the recipient-derived cell sources of the recovery. Transplantations of scaffolds populated with splenic stromal cells or without them afforded no restoration of the characteristic splenic architecture. CONCLUSIONS: Allogeneic subcutaneous transplantation of splenic fragments in a mouse model leads to their structural recovery within 30 days, with full reconstitution of the monocyte-macrophage, megakaryocyte and B lymphocyte populations. The circulating hematopoietic cells provide the likely source for the cell composition recovery.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Spleen/physiology , Spleen/transplantation , Splenectomy , Transplantation, Autologous , T-Lymphocytes , Disease Models, Animal
20.
Medwave ; 22(2): e005919, mar.2022. ilus
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1366389

ABSTRACT

La transformación nodular angiomatoide esclerosante es una patología vascular benigna del bazo, desarrollada a partir de la pulpa roja, de etiología desconocida. Se postula que puede estar relacionada con la enfermedad por inmunoglobulina 4 y la infección por el virus de Epstein-Barr. La mayoría de los casos son asintomáticos, constituyendo hallazgos incidentales en estudios por imágenes. Presentamos el caso de un paciente masculino de 41 años con antecedentes de tiroidectomía por carcinoma papilar que consulta por fiebre. Recibió tratamiento sintomático y se realizó tomografía computarizada de abdomen por síntomas abdominales inespecíficos. La tomografía evidenció una imagen de aspecto sólido, con tenue realce periférico con el contraste que mide 62 por 52 por 51 milímetros en el polo inferior del bazo. Se realizó esplenectomía que midió 14 por 11 por 4 centímetros y pesó 284 gramos. Se identificó una formación nodular sólida, bien delimitada, con área central de aspecto fibroso, con tractos blanquecinos que delimitan áreas violáceas. La microscopía presentó nódulos coalescentes redondeados de aspecto angiomatoide, con proliferación vascular revestida por células endoteliales sin atipia, entremezclados con células ahusadas, infiltrado de linfocitos y macrófagos. El estroma entre los nódulos mostró proliferación miofibroblástica con linfocitos, plasmocitos y siderófagos. Inmunohistoquímica tuvo marcación positiva en los vasos para CD34 y CD31, sectores positivos para CD8 y negativos para CD34. Una célula positiva para inmunoglobulina 4 (IgG4) por campo de gran aumento. El estudio para Epstein-Barr por reacción en cadena de la polimerasa fue negativo. Para el diagnóstico los estudios de imagen son inespecíficos, por lo que la confirmación diagnóstica la da el estudio histopatológico. La esplenectomía es curativa sin casos reportados hasta la actualidad de transformación maligna o recidiva. No se conocen factores de riesgo y no se han comprobado factores desencadenantes, excepto la asociación de casos con IgG4 y virus de Ebstein-Barr. Por ser una entidad patológica recientemente descrita es necesario recopilar series grandes y revisar nuestros archivos, reevaluando algunos de sus diagnósticos diferenciales para lograr una mejor comprensión de la misma.


Sclerosing angiomatoid nodular transformation is a benign vascular pathology of the spleen, developed from the red pulp, of unknown etiology; it is postulated that it may be related to IgG4 disease and Epstein-Barr virus infection. Most cases are asymptomatic, constituting incidental findings in imaging studies. We present a 41-year-old male patient with a history of thyroidectomy for papillary carcinoma who consulted for fever, received symptomatic treatment and performed a computed tomography of the abdomen for nonspecific abdominal symptoms, the same evidence in the lower pole of the spleen a solid-looking image with faint Peripheral enhancement with contrast, measures 62x 52x51 mm. A splenectomy measuring 14x 11x4 cm and weighing 284 grams was performed, identifying a solid, well-defined nodular formation, with a central fibrous-looking area, with whitish tracts that delimited purplish areas. Microscopy: rounded angiomatoid-like coalescing nodules, with vascular proliferation lined by endothelial cells without atypia, interspersed with spindle cells, infiltrated by lymphocytes and macrophages. The stroma between the nodules shows myofibroblastic proliferation with lymphocytes, plasma cells, and siderophages. Immunohistochemistry: positive labeling in vessels for CD34 and CD31, positive sectors for CD8 and negative for CD34. One IgG4 positive cell per high power field. The study for Epstein-Barr by Polymesara Chain Reaction was negative. For the diagnosis, the imaging studies are nonspecific, so the diagnostic confirmation is given by the histopathological study. Splenectomy is curative with no reported cases of malignant transformation or recurrence to date. There are no known risk factors and no triggering factors have been proven, except the association of cases with IgG4 and Ebstein-Barr virus. As it is a recently described pathological entity, it is necessary to collect large series and review our files, reevaluating some of its differential diagnoses to achieve a better understanding of it


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous/diagnosis , Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous/pathology , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections/pathology , Spleen/pathology , Herpesvirus 4, Human , Endothelial Cells/pathology , Abdomen/pathology
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