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Acta cir. bras ; 33(12): 1103-1109, Dec. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-973490


Abstract Purpose: To evaluate a possible relationship between the size of the spleen and values of circulating blood elements in patients with schistosomatic splenomegaly. Methods: ixty one patients with hepatosplenic schistosomiasis mansoni underwent a clinical exam and peripheral venous blood was collected for a hemogram. The erythrocyte, hemoglobin, hematocrit, leukocyte, and platelet values were determined. All patients underwent abdominal ultrasound to measure the spleen. The hematological test results were compared to the size of the spleen. Results: The size of the spleen varied from 14.0 to 28.4 (19.9 ± 3.7) cm according to the ultrasound image. Thrombocytopenia was observed 58 (95%) patients, leukopenia in 55 (90%) patients, and anemia in 32 (52.4%) patients. Leukopenia was proportional to splenomegaly. Conclusion: Schistosomal splenomegaly leads to leukopenia in direct proportion to the size of the spleen.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Spleen/pathology , Splenomegaly/pathology , Splenomegaly/blood , Schistosomiasis mansoni/pathology , Schistosomiasis mansoni/blood , Organ Size , Reference Values , Spleen/parasitology , Splenomegaly/parasitology , Thrombocytopenia/parasitology , Blood Cell Count , Body Height , Body Weight , Hemoglobins/analysis , Body Mass Index , Leukopenia/parasitology
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(3): 601-606, July-Sept. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951806


Abstract Salmonella Gallinarum is a host-restrict pathogen that causes fowl typhoid, a severe systemic disease that is one of the major concerns to the poultry industry worldwide. When infecting the bird, SG makes use of evasion mechanisms to survive and to replicate within macrophages. In this context, phoPQ genes encode a two-component regulatory system (PhoPQ) that regulates virulence genes responsible for adaptation of Salmonella spp. to antimicrobial factors such as low pH, antimicrobial peptides and deprivation of bivalent cations. The role of the mentioned genes to SG remains to be investigated. In the present study a phoPQ-depleted SG strain (SG ΔphoPQ) was constructed and its virulence assessed in twenty-day-old laying hens susceptible to fowl typhoid. SG ΔphoPQ did cause neither clinical signs nor mortality in birds orally challenged, being non-pathogenic. Furthermore, this strain was not recovered from livers or spleens. On the other hand, chickens challenged subcutaneously with the mutant strain had discreet to moderate pathological changes and also low bacterial counts in liver and spleen tissues. These findings show that SG ΔphoPQ is attenuated to susceptible chickens and suggest that these genes are important during chicken infection by SG.

Animals , Female , Poultry Diseases/microbiology , Salmonella Infections, Animal/microbiology , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Salmonella enterica/metabolism , Salmonella enterica/pathogenicity , Gene Silencing , Poultry Diseases/pathology , Salmonella Infections, Animal/pathology , Spleen/microbiology , Spleen/pathology , Bacterial Proteins/metabolism , Virulence , Chickens , Salmonella enterica/genetics
Rev. chil. cir ; 69(4): 315-319, ago. 2017. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-899608


Introducción: Las lesiones quísticas esplénicas son poco frecuentes; pueden ser clasificadas en primarias y secundarias según la presencia de revestimiento epitelial. Los quistes parasitarios son provocados por especies de Equinococcus y su manejo es específico. Suelen ser lesiones asintomáticas y el tratamiento depende de su tamaño y de la aparición de manifestaciones clínicas. El abordaje quirúrgico tradicional ha sido la esplenectomía, pero con el reconocimiento de las complicaciones inmunológicas, han tenido auge las alternativas que conservan parénquima esplénico. Objetivo: Comunicar la experiencia en el manejo quirúrgico de esta enfermedad en nuestro centro. Resultados: Se presenta la serie de 11 casos de quistes esplénicos no parasitarios que recibieron tratamiento quirúrgico durante los últimos 15 años. La mayoría de las intervenciones fueron laparoscópicas y no se registró morbimortalidad. Discusión: En el tratamiento de los quistes del bazo no parasitarios actualmente se reconoce el valor de preservar parénquima y función esplénica. La esplenectomía, cirugía cuyo estándar actual es mediante laparoscopia, ha sido progresivamente desplazada por alternativas conservadoras. Las opciones terapéuticas dependen del desarrollo de síntomas, del tamaño y de la ubicación de las lesiones. Conclusiones: Los quistes esplénicos son poco frecuentes. Ante la necesidad de tratamiento quirúrgico el abordaje laparoscópico y las cirugías que conservan parénquima esplénico deberían ser de elección.

Introduction: Splenic cysts are rare. They have been classified in primary or secondary lesions based on the presence or absence of an epithelial lining. Parasitic cysts are caused by Echinococcus spp. and have a particular management. Splenic cysts are usually asymptomatic, treatment depends on the development of symptoms and diameter. Traditionally, splenectomy has been the standard surgery, but updated knowledge about the role of the spleen in preventing some infections has led to more conservative options. Objective: To report our experience in surgical management of the disease. Results: Our series includes 11 patients with non-parasitic splenic cysts treated surgically, during the last 15 years. Most were laparoscopic interventions and no morbidity or mortality was registered. Discussion: Surgical treatment for non-parasitic splenic cysts actually favours conservative techniques; salvage of the spleen whenever possible is fully justified based on updated knowledge of the role it plays in promoting protection against infection. Splenectomy, nowadays performed by laparoscopy, has been partially displaced. Treatment options depends on the cyst diameter, development of symptoms and localization. Conclusions: Splenic cysts are unfrequent. If surgical treatment is needed, laparoscopy and interventions conserving splenic parenchyma should be the election.

Humans , Splenectomy/methods , Splenic Diseases/surgery , Laparoscopy , Cysts/surgery , Spleen/pathology , Retrospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Cysts/pathology
Arq. gastroenterol ; 54(3): 222-224, July-Sept. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888205


ABSTRACT BACKGROUND - Variceal bleeding has a high mortality among cirrhotics, and screening with endoscopy is indicated at the diagnosis of cirrhosis. Screening with endoscopy implies discomfort, risks and considerable costs. OBJECTIVE - To evaluate platelet count squared/spleen diameter-aspartate aminotransferase ratio (PS/SA), as a non-invasive predictor of esophageal varices in cirrhotics. METHODS - This cross-sectional study evaluated cirrhotics for PS/SA and presence of esophageal varices. Outpatient records of cirrhotic patients were reviewed for the abovementioned data. Sensitivity, specificity, negative and positive predictive values of PS/SA were calculated. After the univariate analysis, variables with P<0.10 were submitted to a logistic regression. RESULTS - The study included 164 cirrhotics, 59.70% male, with a mean age of 56.7 years. Hepatitis C was the most frequent cause of cirrhosis, being present in 90 patients. Patients were classified as Child-Pugh A in 52.44% and as Child-Pugh B or C in 47.56%. Esophageal varices were present in 72.56% of the patients at endoscopy. PS/SA, with a cutoff of 3x108, had a sensitivity of 95.80% (confidence interval of 95% - 95%CI=0.92-0.99), a specificity of 22.70% (95%CI=0.10-0.35), a positive predictive value of 77.20% (95%CI=0.70-0.84) and a negative predictive value of 66.70% (95%CI=0.42-0.91). In the logistic regression, only platelet count and Child-Pugh score were associated to esophageal varices (P<0.05). CONCLUSION - PS/SA has an excellent sensitivity to predict esophageal varices, allowing almost one fourth of patients without esophageal varices to spare endoscopy. Nevertheless, PS/SA is not independently associated to esophageal varices.

RESUMO CONTEXTO - A hemorragia varicosa tem elevada mortalidade entre cirróticos, e o rastreamento endoscópico de varizes está indicado no momento do diagnóstico da cirrose. O rastreamento endoscópico implica desconforto, riscos e custos consideráveis. OBJETIVO - Avaliar a razão da contagem de plaquetas ao quadrado/diâmetro do baço-aspartato aminotransferase (PQ/BA) como preditor não-invasivo de varizes esofágicas em cirróticos. MÉTODOS - Este estudo transversal avaliou cirróticos quanto ao PQ/BA e à presença de varizes esofágicas. Prontuários ambulatoriais de cirróticos foram revisados quanto a tais dados. Sensibilidade, especificidade e valores preditivos negativo e positivo do PQ/BA foram calculados. Após a análise univariada, variáveis com P<0,10 foram submetidas à regressão logística. RESULTADOS - O estudo incluiu 164 cirróticos, 59,70% masculinos, com média de idade de 56,7 anos. Hepatite C foi a mais frequente causa de cirrose, estando presente em 90 pacientes. Os pacientes foram classificados como Child-Pugh A em 52,44% e em Child-Pugh B ou C em 47,56%. As varizes esofágicas estiveram presentes à endoscopia em 72,56% dos pacientes. PQ/BA, com um ponto de corte de 3x108, teve sensibilidade de 95,80% (intervalo de confiança de 95% - IC95%=0,92-0,99), especificidade de 22,70% (IC95%=0,10-0,35), valor preditivo positivo de 77,20% (IC95%=0,70-0,84) e valor preditivo negativo de 66,70% (IC95%=0,42-0,91). Na regressão logística, apenas a contagem de plaquetas e o escore de Child-Pugh associaram-se às varizes esofágicas (P<0,05). CONCLUSÃO - PQ/BA apresentou excelente sensibilidade para predizer varizes esofágicas, permitido que cerca de um quarto dos pacientes sem varizes esofágicas evitasse a endoscopia. Entretanto, PQ/BA não se associou de maneira independente às varizes esofágicas.

Humans , Male , Female , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , Esophageal and Gastric Varices/diagnosis , Liver Cirrhosis/complications , Organ Size , Platelet Count , Spleen/enzymology , Spleen/pathology , Biomarkers/blood , Esophageal and Gastric Varices/etiology , Esophageal and Gastric Varices/blood , Cross-Sectional Studies , Predictive Value of Tests , ROC Curve , Sensitivity and Specificity , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/blood , Middle Aged
Clin. biomed. res ; 37(2): 143-145, 2017. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-848017


Os cistos esplênicos são raros, podem ser congênitos ou adquiridos e são encontrados, muitas vezes, em exames incidentais. Aparecem como tumorações na topografia do hipocôndrio esquerdo, associados a sintomas obstrutivos e dor abdominal. Os pseudocistos são formados por uma camada de tecido fibroso, sem revestimento epitelial, e têm como fator etiológico mais provável o trauma esplênico prévio. Atualmente, o ultrassom abdominal é o método mais importante para o diagnóstico de cisto esplênico, pois evita a realização de exames mais agressivos. Para o tratamento de cisto esplênico sintomático de grande tamanho, não parasítico, com risco aumentado de ruptura e etiologia desconhecida, a indicação de escolha é a esplenectomia. Este relato objetiva apresentar essa doença incomum, ressaltando seu quadro clínico, métodos diagnósticos e tratamento (AU)

Splenic cysts are rare, can be congenital or acquired, and are most often found in incidental exams. They appear as tumors in the left hypochondrium, in association with obstructive symptoms and abdominal pain. Pseudocysts are formed by fibrous tissue layer, without epithelial coating, and their most probable cause is previous splenic trauma. Nowadays, abdominal ultrasound is the most important method for the diagnosis of splenic cyst, avoiding more aggressive exams. For symptomatic, large, non-parasitic splenic cysts with high risk of rupture and unknown etiology, splenectomy is indicated. This report intends to present this uncommon disease, emphasizing its clinical condition, diagnostic methods, and treatment (AU)

Humans , Male , Adult , Cysts/surgery , Spleen/pathology , Splenic Diseases/surgery , Cysts/diagnostic imaging , Splenectomy , Splenic Diseases/diagnostic imaging
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 68(5): 1195-1200, set.-out. 2016. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-827884


A torção esplênica isolada ou primária é uma enfermidade de ocorrência rara em cães, caracterizada pela torção do pedículo esplênico, sem que haja outra enfermidade concomitante. Os sinais clínicos e os exames laboratoriais são inespecíficos, porém a ultrassonografia, juntamente com o uso de Doppler colorido, tem sido importante para sugerir o diagnóstico, que é confirmado por meio de laparotomia exploratória. Este estudo relata o caso de um cão da raça Bulldog campeiro, cinco anos de idade, muito ativo, que recebia alimentação apenas uma vez ao dia. Este foi atendido no Hospital Veterinário da Universidade Luterana do Brasil (HV-Ulbra), com histórico de prostração, emagrecimento e anorexia intermitente havia 10 dias. Neste caso relatado, o exame ultrassonográfico com Doppler colorido foi imprescindível para o diagnóstico, que pôde ser confirmado posteriormente pela laparotomia exploratória. Na celiotomia, observou-se o baço aumentado e rotacionado, envolto com o omento, e ambos encontravam-se desvitalizados. Por essa razão, foram realizados os procedimentos de esplenectomia total e omentectomia parcial da porção acometida.(AU)

The individual or primary splenic torsion is a rare disease occurrence in dogs characterized by twisting the splenic pedicle, without any other concomitant disease. Clinical signs and laboratory tests are nonspecific, however, ultrasonography, along with the use of color Doppler, has been important to suggest the diagnosis is confirmed through exploratory laparotomy. This study reports the case of a 5-year-old very active male Bulldog Campeiro, who received food once a day, which was attended at the Veterinary Hospital of Universidade Luterana do Brasil (HV ULBRA) with a history of prostration, weight loss and intermittent anorexia during 10 days. Ultrasonography with color Doppler exam was essential for the diagnosis, which could be confirmed later by exploratory laparotomy. In celiotomy it was observed the spleen increased in size and rotated, wrapped with omentum and both were found devitalized. For this reason, the procedures of total splenectomy and partial omentectomy of the affected portion were performed.(AU)

Animals , Dogs , Spleen/diagnostic imaging , Spleen/pathology , Torsion Abnormality/veterinary , Laparoscopy/veterinary , Laparotomy/veterinary
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 111(2): 83-92, Feb. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-772619


Schistosoma mansoni antigens in the early life alter homologous and heterologous immunity during postnatal infections. We evaluate the immunity to parasite antigens and ovalbumin (OA) in adult mice born/suckled by schistosomotic mothers. Newborns were divided into: born (BIM), suckled (SIM) or born/suckled (BSIM) in schistosomotic mothers, and animals from noninfected mothers (control). When adults, the mice were infected and compared the hepatic granuloma size and cellularity. Some animals were OA + adjuvant immunised. We evaluated hypersensitivity reactions (HR), antibodies levels (IgG1/IgG2a) anti-soluble egg antigen and anti-soluble worm antigen preparation, and anti-OA, cytokine production, and CD4+FoxP3+T-cells by splenocytes. Compared to control group, BIM mice showed a greater quantity of granulomas and collagen deposition, whereas SIM and BSIM presented smaller granulomas. BSIM group exhibited the lowest levels of anti-parasite antibodies. For anti-OA immunity, immediate HR was suppressed in all groups, with greater intensity in SIM mice accompanied of the remarkable level of basal CD4+FoxP3+T-cells. BIM and SIM groups produced less interleukin (IL)-4 and interferon (IFN)-g. In BSIM, there was higher production of IL-10 and IFN-g, but lower levels of IL-4 and CD4+FoxP3+T-cells. Thus, pregnancy in schistosomotic mothers intensified hepatic fibrosis, whereas breastfeeding diminished granulomas in descendants. Separately, pregnancy and breastfeeding could suppress heterologous immunity; however, when combined, the responses could be partially restored in infected descendants.

Animals , Female , Male , Mice , Pregnancy , Animals, Suckling/immunology , Antibodies, Helminth/immunology , Granuloma, Foreign-Body/immunology , Immunity, Humoral/physiology , Liver Diseases, Parasitic/immunology , Schistosomiasis mansoni/immunology , Adjuvants, Immunologic , Animals, Newborn , Animals, Suckling/parasitology , /parasitology , Cercaria/immunology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Flow Cytometry , Forkhead Transcription Factors/blood , Granuloma, Foreign-Body/parasitology , Granuloma, Foreign-Body/pathology , Immunity, Heterologous/physiology , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Interferon-gamma/blood , /blood , /blood , Liver Cirrhosis/immunology , Liver Cirrhosis/parasitology , Liver Diseases, Parasitic/pathology , Mothers , Ovalbumin/immunology , Schistosoma mansoni/immunology , Spleen/immunology , Spleen/pathology
J. appl. oral sci ; 23(5): 497-507, Sept.-Oct. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: lil-764156


The value of aesthetic dentistry has precipitated several developments in the investigation of dental materials related to this field. The free marketing of these products is a problem and it is subject to various interpretations regarding its legality. There are several techniques for tooth whitening, the most used one being the external bleaching. It is the later version of such technique that poses the greatest danger of ingesting the product. The present study analysed the systemic effect of these products when they are swallowed.Objective This experimental study aimed to observe the effects of a tooth whitening product, whose active agent is 6% hydrogen peroxide, on the gastric mucosa of healthy and non-tumour gastric pathology animals.Material and Methods Fifty Wistar-Han rats were used and then distributed into 5 groups, one for control and four test groups in which the bleaching product was administered in animals with and without non-tumour gastric pathology (induced by the administration of 1 sample of 50% ethanol and 5% of drinking water during 6 days) at different times of study by gavage. There was a decrease in body weight in animals of groups handled during the study period, which was most pronounced in IV and VA groups. Changes in spleen weight relative to body weight revealed no statistically significant changes. An analysis of the frequency was performed on the results of macroscopic observation of the gastric mucosa.Results The gastric mucosa revealed lesions in all manipulated groups, being more frequent in groups III and IV. It appears that there is a synergism when using hydrogen peroxide and 50% ethanol in the same group.Conclusion Therefore, it seems that there are some signs of toxicity 3 to 4 days after administration of 6% hydrogen peroxide. The prescription of these therapies must be controlled by the clinician and the risks must be minimized.

Animals , Gastric Mucosa/drug effects , Hydrogen Peroxide/toxicity , Tooth Bleaching Agents/toxicity , Tooth Bleaching/adverse effects , Body Weight , Ethanol/toxicity , Gastric Mucosa/pathology , Organ Size , Rats, Wistar , Spleen/drug effects , Spleen/pathology , Time Factors
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo ; 57(5): 421-426, Sept.-Oct. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-766269


SUMMARY The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the protein-calorie malnutrition in BALB/c isogenic mice infected with Lacazia loboi, employing nutritional and histopathological parameters. Four groups were composed: G1: inoculated with restricted diet, G2: not inoculated with restricted diet, G3: inoculated with regular diet, G4: not inoculated with regular diet. Once malnutrition had been imposed, the animals were inoculated intradermally in the footpad and after four months, were sacrificed for the excision of the footpad, liver and spleen. The infection did not exert great influence on the body weight of the mice. The weight of the liver and spleen showed reduction in the undernourished groups when compared to the nourished groups. The macroscopic lesions, viability index and total number of fungi found in the footpads of the infected mice were increased in G3 when compared to G1. Regarding the histopathological analysis of the footpad, a global cellularity increase in the composition of the granuloma was observed in G3 when compared to G1, with large numbers of macrophages and multinucleated giant cells, discrete numbers of lymphocytes were present in G3 and an increase was observed in G1. The results suggest that there is considerable interaction between Jorge Lobo's disease and nutrition.

RESUMO O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar os efeitos da desnutrição protéico-calórica em camundongos isogênicos da linhagem BALB/c inoculados com Lacazia loboi, empregando parâmetros nutricionais e histopatológicos. Foram constituídos quatro grupos: G1- inoculados com restrição dietética; G2- não inoculados com restrição dietética; G3- inoculados sem restrição dietética; G4- não inoculados sem restrição dietética. Após instalada a desnutrição, os animais foram inoculados via intradérmica no coxim plantar e após quatro meses foram sacrificados para remoção do coxim plantar, fígado e baço. A infecção não exerceu grande influência no peso corporal dos camundongos. O peso do fígado e baço apresentou redução nos grupos desnutridos em comparação aos grupos nutridos. A lesão macroscópica, a viabilidade e o número total de fungos dos coxins plantares dos camundongos inoculados revelaram aumento no G3 quando comparado com o G1. Em relação à análise histopatológica dos coxins plantares observou-se aumento da celularidade global na composição do granuloma no G3 em relação ao G1, com grande número de macrófagos e células gigantes multinucleadas, discretos números de linfócitos estavam presentes em G3 e aumentados no G1. Os resultados sugerem que existe grande interação entre nutrição e doença de Jorge Lobo.

Animals , Male , Mice , Lacazia , Lobomycosis/complications , Nutritional Status , Protein-Energy Malnutrition/complications , Disease Models, Animal , Liver/microbiology , Liver/pathology , Lobomycosis/pathology , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Organ Size , Protein-Energy Malnutrition/microbiology , Protein-Energy Malnutrition/pathology , Spleen/microbiology , Spleen/pathology
Acta cir. bras ; 30(7): 461-469, 07/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-754983


PURPOSE: To investigate the vitality of the spleen lower pole after subtotal splenectomy with suture to the stomach and after posterior peritoneal gastro-splenic membrane section, using macro and microscopic evaluations. METHODS: Sixty Wistar rats were used in this study and were randomly distributed in the three groups: Group 1: (n=20), subtotal splenectomy with lower pole preservation, Group 2: (n=20) subtotal splenectomy with lower pole preservation and suture to the stomach, Group 3: subtotal splenectomy with lower pole preservation and posterior peritoneal gastrosplenic ligament section. The animals were sacrificed 45 days after the surgery and the spleen lower poles were removed for macroscopic and microscopic examination. RESULTS: All animals in this series survived. No macroscopic differences were encountered between the groups. Microscopic evaluation observed statistic difference concerning fibrosis between group 1 and 3 (p≤0.05), but the analysis for necrosis and inflammation presented no differences. CONCLUSION: Vitality of the spleen lower pole after subtotal splenectomy is minimally modified when it is fixed to the stomach or when the posterior peritoneal gastrosplenic ligament is resected. .

Animals , Male , Peritoneum/surgery , Spleen/surgery , Splenectomy/methods , Stomach/surgery , Feasibility Studies , Fibrosis/pathology , Necrosis/pathology , Organ Size , Postoperative Period , Peritoneum/pathology , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar , Reproducibility of Results , Spleen/pathology , Treatment Outcome
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2014 Dec; 52(12): 1165-1172
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-153807


Meclizine and caffeine combination is used for the treatment of morning sickness. Both compounds are teratogenic and caffeine is known to possess anti-fertility activity also. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the reproductive toxic effect of meclizine and caffeine combination. Three doses were taken for the study; low dose (LD; meclizine 3.7 mg/kg and caffeine 3 mg/kg) was selected from commercially available formulation, middle dose (MD; meclizine 37 mg/kg and caffeine 30 mg/kg) and high dose (HD; meclizine 370 mg/kg and caffeine 300 mg/kg). The mixture was administered 1-7 days and 8-14 days for fertility and embryotoxic studies respectively. Laparotomy was done on 10th day of gestation period. Number of implants and corpora lutea were counted, pre and post-implantation losses were determined. In embryo toxicity study fetuses were evaluated for external, skeletal and visceral examination. High dose was removed from both fertility and embryotoxicity studies due to its severe toxicity to the dam. Significant anti-fertility activity was observed at middle dose. Embryotoxicity study showed significant reduction in fetal body weight, body length and body mass index, dam body weight gain on gestation day 14. Absolute kidney weight in MD and absolute and relative spleen weight in both LD and MD were significantly reduced. There was no increase in external or internal congenital anomalies at both LD and MD. The, results suggest that prescription of meclizine and caffeine for morning sickness in early pregnancy should be reviewed carefully.

Abnormalities, Drug-Induced/etiology , Administration, Oral , Animals , Body Weight/drug effects , Caffeine/administration & dosage , Caffeine/toxicity , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drug Combinations , Eating/drug effects , Embryonic Development/drug effects , Female , Fertility/drug effects , Fetal Weight/drug effects , Gestational Age , Histamine H1 Antagonists/administration & dosage , Histamine H1 Antagonists/toxicity , Kidney/drug effects , Kidney/pathology , Liver/drug effects , Liver/pathology , Male , Meclizine/drug effects , Meclizine/toxicity , Organ Size/drug effects , Purinergic P1 Receptor Antagonists/administration & dosage , Purinergic P1 Receptor Antagonists/toxicity , Rats, Wistar , Spleen/drug effects , Spleen/pathology , Weight Gain/drug effects
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 34(4): 514-520, oct.-dic. 2014. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-730934


El panorama epidemiológico del dengue ha empeorado durante la última década. Las dificultades para prevenir su transmisión, así como la ausencia de una vacuna o tratamiento específico, lo convierten en un riesgo que desafía las medidas de salud pública y desborda la capacidad de los centros de salud y los sistemas de investigación a muchos niveles. Actualmente, la mayoría de los estudios sobre la patogenia de la infección centran su atención en la respuesta inmunitaria de las células T casi exclusivamente en infecciones secundarias y están dirigidos a identificar los mecanismos implicados en el desarrollo de la permeabilidad vascular y de los eventos hemorrágicos que lo acompañan. En este reporte se describe el caso de una menor de 45 días de edad con signos clínicos de dengue grave, cuyo diagnóstico se confirmó por reacción en cadena de la polimerasa de transcripción inversa en muestras de tejido post mórtem y por herramientas de apoyo diagnóstico de inmunohistoquímica, las cuales detectaron antígenos virales en todos los órganos obtenidos en la necropsia. Este caso subraya la importancia del estudio de las infecciones primarias asociadas a dengue grave, particularmente en niños, en quienes es más probable el desarrollo de la forma grave de la enfermedad sin una infección previa, y, además, pone de relieve la importancia de un diagnóstico que no se limite a las muestras de tejido hepático en el estudio de la patogenia de la infección viral.

The epidemiological situation of dengue has worsened over the last decade. The difficulties in preventing its transmission and the absence of a vaccine or specific treatment have made dengue a serious risk to public health, health centers and research systems at different levels. Currently, most studies on the pathogenesis of dengue infection focus on the T-cell immune response almost exclusively in secondary infections and are aimed at identifying the mechanisms involved in the development of vascular permeability and bleeding events that accompany the infection. This report describes the case of a baby girl less than 45 days of age with clinical signs of severe dengue, whose diagnosis was confirmed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction in post-mortem tissue samples and by the ancillary diagnostic use of immunohistochemistry, which detected viral antigens in all organs obtained at autopsy. This case highlights the importance of studying primary infections associated with severe dengue, particularly in children, who are more likely to develop the severe form of the disease without previous infection, and it further stresses the importance of a diagnosis that should not be based solely on the examination of liver tissue samples when studying the pathogenesis of the viral infection.

Female , Humans , Infant , Antigens, Viral/analysis , Autopsy/methods , Dengue Virus/immunology , Dengue/pathology , Immunoenzyme Techniques , DNA, Viral/analysis , Dengue Virus/genetics , Dengue Virus/isolation & purification , Dengue/diagnosis , Dengue/virology , Heart/virology , Kidney/immunology , Kidney/pathology , Kidney/virology , Liver/immunology , Liver/pathology , Liver/virology , Myocardium/immunology , Myocardium/pathology , Organ Specificity , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Spleen/immunology , Spleen/pathology , Spleen/virology
Braz. dent. j ; 25(6): 565-570, Nov-Dec/2014. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-732255


The passive fit of implant-supported dentures is fundamental to the rehabilitation success due the absence of the periodontal ligament in osseointegrated implants. Many techniques to obtain passive fit have been reported in the literature, some inaccessible for the clinicians and dental laboratories. This case report presents a technique to fabricate fixed complete dentures aiming at obtain passive fit with reduced time and cost, but without demerit for the aesthetics, function and longevity. A 40-year-old woman was referred for treatment presenting some teeth in the maxilla and an edentulous mandible, reporting eating problems related to instability and little retention of the mandibular complete denture. Treatment based on the reverse planning was performed to guide the rehabilitation with a complete mandibular fixed complete denture and maxillary occlusal plane adjustment. The framework of the fixed complete denture was manufactured luting a cast metal bar above the prepared titanium cylinder abutments using resin cement. The aim of this technique was to obtain a fixed complete denture with passive fit presenting positive esthetic and functional outcomes after 2 years of follow-up.

A adaptação passiva de próteses implantossuportadas é fundamental para o sucesso da reabilitação devido à inexistência de ligamento periodontal em implantes osseointegrados. Inúmeras técnicas de confecção da infraestrutura destas próteses tem sido relatadas na literatura, algumas inacessíveis para os clínicos e laboratórios de prótese. Este relato de caso apresenta uma técnica para confecção de próteses totais fixas visando obtenção de adaptação passiva com tempo e custo reduzido, porém sem demérito à estética, função e longevidade. Uma paciente de 40 anos se apresentou para tratamento apresentando alguns dentes na maxila e mandíbula edêntula, relatando dificuldades na mastigação relacionados a instabilidade e falta de retenção da prótese total inferior. Foi realizado um planejamento reverso para orientar a reabilitação com prótese total mandibular fixa e adequação do plano oclusal da maxila. A infraestrutura da prótese total fixa foi confeccionada pela cimentação de uma barra metálica em cilindros de titânio preparados com cimento resinoso. O objetivo desta técnica foi obter uma prótese total fixa com adaptação passiva apresentando resultados positivos em termos de estética e função após 2 anos de acompanhamento.

Animals , Female , Male , Mice , Adenocarcinoma/drug therapy , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Colonic Neoplasms/drug therapy , Floxuridine/therapeutic use , Fluorouracil/therapeutic use , Adenocarcinoma/pathology , Adenocarcinoma/radiotherapy , Bone Marrow/pathology , Combined Modality Therapy , Colonic Neoplasms/pathology , Colonic Neoplasms/radiotherapy , Floxuridine/administration & dosage , Floxuridine/toxicity , Fluorouracil/administration & dosage , Fluorouracil/toxicity , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Inbred DBA , Spleen/pathology , Thymus Gland/pathology , Weight Gain
Braz. j. microbiol ; 45(4): 1521-1525, Oct.-Dec. 2014. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741308


The immune response elicited by the oral inoculation of an intermediate strain of infectious bursal disease virus was studied in chickens. A strong over expression of IL-6, IL-8, IFNα and IFNγ was observed in bursa at 3 days post inoculation together with an increase in splenic NO2 release. An influx of T-lymphocytes was also detected.

Animals , Birnaviridae Infections/veterinary , Chickens , Infectious bursal disease virus/immunology , Poultry Diseases/immunology , Administration, Oral , Birnaviridae Infections/immunology , Bursa of Fabricius/pathology , Cytokines/analysis , Cytokines/genetics , Gene Expression Profiling , Nitric Oxide/analysis , Spleen/pathology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology
Rev. bras. enferm ; 67(5): 744-751, Sep-Oct/2014. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: lil-731214


Este estudo verificou a prevalência e fatores associados ao distress de pacientes oncológicos, na opinião de familiares. Foram entrevistados 140 familiares responsáveis pelo cuidado de pacientes com câncer. O Termômetro de Distress foi adaptado para uso em familiares. Estes consideraram que 72,9% dos pacientes estavam com distress relacionado a preocupações (80,4%), nervosismo (78,4%), tristeza (74,5%), dor (67,6%), fadiga (67,6%) e problemas com alimentação (57,8%). Modelos de regressão logística hierárquica mostraram que, enquanto familiares do sexo masculino (OR=0,025) e idades mais avançadas (OR=0,006 a 0,059) tiveram menor risco de perceber o distress, indivíduos protestantes, comparados a católicos, tiveram chance 12,77 vezes maior de percebê-lo. Quanto aos fatores associados, nervosismo (OR=10,8) contribuiu significativamente mais com a percepção de distress pelos familiares quando comparado a fadiga (OR=3,38) ou ter plano de saúde privado (OR=2,55). Familiares podem ser grandes aliados na avaliação e acompanhamento do distress de pacientes com câncer.

The study aimed to verify the opinion of family members about distress on cancer patients and the factors associated with it. Interviews with 140 family members of cancer patients were conducted. The Distress Thermometer was adapted to be used with family members. Approximately 72.9% of patients were considered in distress, related to concern (80.4%), nervousness (78.4%), sadness (74.5%), pain (67.6%), fatigue (67.6%) and problems with eating (57.8%). The hierarchical logistic regression models showed that while male (OR=0.025) and older ages (OR=0.006 to 0.059) had lower risk of perceiving the distress, individuals Protestants, compared to Catholics, were 12.77 times more likely to perceive it. About the associated factors, nervousness (OR=10.8) contributed significantly more to the perception of distress for family members when compared to fatigue (OR=3.38) or have private health insurance (OR=2.55). Family can be great allies in the evaluation and monitoring of distress in patients with cancer.

Este estudio examinó la prevalencia y los factores asociados con el distress de los pacientes de cáncer, de acuerdo con los familiares. Fueran entrevistados 140 cuidadores familiares de pacientes con cáncer. El Termómetro de Distress fue adaptado para el uso en los familiares. Ellos encontraron que el 72,9% de los pacientes estaban con distress relacionado con preocupaciones (80,4%), nerviosismo (78,4%), tristeza (74,5%), dolor (67,6%), fatiga (67, 6%) y problemas con la alimentación (57,8%). Modelos de regresión logística jerárquica mostraran que, mientras los familiares de sexo masculino (OR=0,025) y de edades más avanzadas (OR=0,006 a 0,059) tuvieron un menor riesgo de percibir el distress, los individuos protestantes, comparados a los católicos, tuvieron oportunidad 12,77 veces mayor para percibirlo. En cuanto a los factores asociados, el nerviosismo (OR=10,8) contribuyó significativamente más a la percepción del distress de los familiares, en comparación con la fatiga (OR=3,38) o tener un seguro de salud privado (OR=2,55). Familiares pueden ser grandes aliados en la evaluación y el seguimiento de sufrimiento en los pacientes con cáncer.

Animals , Male , Female , Rats , Burns/immunology , Burns/pathology , Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacokinetics , Apoptosis , Lipopolysaccharides/blood , Lymph Nodes/immunology , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Lymphocytes/pathology , Rats, Wistar , Spleen/immunology , Spleen/pathology
ABCD arq. bras. cir. dig ; 27(3): 177-181, Jul-Sep/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-720383


BACKGROUND: The calculation of the volume ratio between the hernia sac and the abdominal cavity of incisional hernias is based on tomographic sections as well as the mathematical formula of the volume of the ellipsoid, which allows determining whether this is a giant hernia or there is a "loss of domain". As the images used are not exact geometric figures, the study of the volume of two solid organs of Wistar rats was performed to validate these calculations. AIM: To correlate two methods for determining the volume of the kidney and spleen of rats, comparing a direct method of observation of the volume with the mathematical calculation of this value. METHODS: The volume of left kidney, geometrically more regular, and spleen, with its peculiar shape, of ten animals was established in cubic centimeters after complete immersion in water with the aid of a beaker graduated in millimeters. These values ​​were compared with those obtained by calculating the same volume with a specific mathematical formula: V = 4/3 × π × (r1 x r2 x r3). Data were compared and statistically analyzed by Student's t test. RESULTS: Although the average volume obtained was higher through the direct method (1.13 cm3 for the left kidney and 0.71 cm3 for the spleen) than the values ​​calculated with the mathematical formula (0.81 cm3 and 0.54 cm3), there were no statistically significant differences between the values ​​found for the two organs (p>0.05). CONCLUSION: There was adequate correlation between the direct calculation of the volume of the kidney and spleen with the result of mathematical calculation of these values ​​in the animals' studies. .

RACIONAL: O cálculo da relação de volumes entre o saco herniário e a cavidade abdominal em hérnias incisionais é feito com base em cortes tomográficos e com a fórmula matemática do volume da elipsóide, permitindo determinar se a hérnia é gigante ou se há "perda de domicílio". Como as imagens utilizadas não são figuras geométricas exatas, foi realizado o estudo do volume de dois órgãos sólidos de ratos da linhagem Wistar, para validar estes cálculos. OBJETIVO: Correlacionar dois métodos para determinação do volume do rim e do baço de ratos, comparando um método direto de avaliação do volume com o cálculo matemático deste valor. MÉTODOS: O volume do rim esquerdo, geometricamente mais regular, e do baço, com seu formato peculiar, de dez animais foram estabelecidos em centímetros cúbicos após imersão total em água, com auxílio de proveta graduada em milímetros; estes valores foram comparados com os obtidos através do cálculo do mesmo volume com fórmula matemática específica: V= 4/3 x π x (r1 x r2 x r3). Os dados obtidos foram comparados e submetidos à análise estatística pelo teste t de Student. RESULTADOS: Embora o volume médio obtido tenha sido maior com o método direto, 1,13 cm3 para o rim esquerdo e 0,71 cm3 para o baço, do que os valores calculados com a fórmula matemática, 0,81 cm3 e 0,54 cm3 respectivamente, não houve significância estatística entre as diferenças dos valores encontrados para os dois órgãos (p>0,05). CONCLUSÃO: Houve correlação adequada entre o cálculo direto do volume do rim e do baço com o resultado do cálculo matemático destes valores nos animais estudados. .

Animals , Rats , Abdominal Cavity , Hernia, Ventral/pathology , Kidney/pathology , Spleen/pathology , Mathematical Concepts , Organ Size , Rats, Wistar
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 47(5): 376-383, 02/05/2014. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-709439


The intestinal lymph pathway plays an important role in the pathogenesis of organ injury following superior mesenteric artery occlusion (SMAO) shock. We hypothesized that mesenteric lymph reperfusion (MLR) is a major cause of spleen injury after SMAO shock. To test this hypothesis, SMAO shock was induced in Wistar rats by clamping the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) for 1 h, followed by reperfusion for 2 h. Similarly, MLR was performed by clamping the mesenteric lymph duct (MLD) for 1 h, followed by reperfusion for 2 h. In the MLR+SMAO group rats, both the SMA and MLD were clamped and then released for reperfusion for 2 h. SMAO shock alone elicited: 1) splenic structure injury, 2) increased levels of malondialdehyde, nitric oxide (NO), intercellular adhesion molecule-1, endotoxin, lipopolysaccharide receptor (CD14), lipopolysaccharide-binding protein, and tumor necrosis factor-α, 3) enhanced activities of NO synthase and myeloperoxidase, and 4) decreased activities of superoxide dismutase and ATPase. MLR following SMAO shock further aggravated these deleterious effects. We conclude that MLR exacerbates spleen injury caused by SMAO shock, which itself is associated with oxidative stress, excessive release of NO, recruitment of polymorphonuclear neutrophils, endotoxin translocation, and enhanced inflammatory responses.

Animals , Male , Lymph/metabolism , Mesenteric Vascular Occlusion/complications , Reperfusion Injury/etiology , Reperfusion/adverse effects , Spleen/injuries , Acute-Phase Proteins/analysis , Adenosine Triphosphatases/analysis , /analysis , Carrier Proteins/analysis , Endotoxins/analysis , Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1/analysis , Intestines/blood supply , Mesenteric Artery, Superior , Malondialdehyde/analysis , Membrane Glycoproteins/analysis , Nitric Oxide Synthase/analysis , Nitric Oxide/analysis , Peroxidase/analysis , Rats, Wistar , Spleen/pathology , Superoxide Dismutase/analysis , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/analysis
Arq. gastroenterol ; 51(1): 34-38, Jan-Mar/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-706994


Context Studies have described the correlation between platelet count and the stages of fibrosis in chronic viral hepatitis, but few publications have studied this correlation in Schistosomiasis mansoni. Objectives Therefore, this study aimed to correlate platelet count with both the periportal fibrosis pattern and spleen diameter evaluated by ultrasound exam in patients with Schistosomiasis mansoni. Methods Patients with Schistosomiasis mansoni were evaluated by abdominal ultrasound by a single examiner for the determination of periportal fibrosis pattern (Niamey classification) and spleen diameter. Platelet counts were performed in an automated cell counter. Results One hundred eighty-seven patients with Schistosomiasis mansoni (mean age: 50.2 years) were included in the study, 114 of whom (61%) were women. Based on the Niamey classification, the ultrasound analysis revealed that 37, 64, 64 and 22 patients exhibited patterns C, D, E and F, respectively. In these four groups, the mean number of platelets was 264, 196, 127 and 103 x 109/L and mean spleen diameter was 9.2, 11.9, 14.9 and 16.2 centimeters, respectively. A reduction in platelet count was significantly associated with both the progression of the periportal fibrosis and the increase in spleen size. Conclusions Platelet count in patients with Schistosomiasis mansoni was inversely correlated with the severity of periportal fibrosis and spleen diameter. .

Contexto Estudos vem descrevendo correlação entre o número de plaquetas e o grau de fibrose hepática na hepatite viral crônica, mas poucas publicações estudaram esta correlação em pacientes com Esquistossomose mansoni. Objetivos Correlacionar a contagem de plaquetas com o padrão de fibrose periportal e com o diâmetro do baço, avaliados pela ultrassonografia em pacientes com Esquistossomose mansoni. Métodos Os pacientes com Esquistossomose mansoni foram avaliados pela ultrassonografia abdominal, por um único examinador, para determinação do padrão de fibrose periportal (classificação de Niamey) e do diâmetro do baço. A contagem de plaquetas foi realizada em contador automatizado. Resultados Cento e oitenta e sete pacientes com Esquistossomose mansoni com média de idade de 50,2 anos foram incluídos no estudo, 114 (61%) dos quais eram mulheres. De acordo com a classificação de Niamey, a ultrassonografia revelou que 37, 64, 64 e 22 pacientes exibiam padrões C, D, E e F, respectivamente. Nestes quatro grupos, o número médio de plaquetas foi 264, 196, 127 e 103 x 109/L, respectivamente, e o diâmetro médio do baço foi 9,2, 11,9, 14,9 e 16,2 centímetros, respectivamente. Observou-se, portanto, redução significativa na contagem de plaquetas associada à progressão da fibrose periportal e ao aumento do tamanho do baço. Conclusões Neste estudo verificou-se que a contagem de plaquetas foi inversamente correlacionada com o padrão de fibrose periportal, como também com o diâmetro do baço nos pacientes com Esquistossomose mansoni. .

Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Liver Cirrhosis/blood , Liver Cirrhosis/pathology , Liver Diseases, Parasitic/blood , Liver Diseases, Parasitic/pathology , Schistosomiasis mansoni/blood , Schistosomiasis mansoni/pathology , Spleen/pathology , Biomarkers/blood , Liver Cirrhosis/physiopathology , Liver Cirrhosis , Liver Diseases, Parasitic , Organ Size , Platelet Count , Severity of Illness Index , Schistosomiasis mansoni
Salvador; s.n; 2014. 183 p. ilus, tab.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1000901


A leishmaniose visceral está associada às alterações arquiteturais esplênicas e redistribuição de populações celulares envolvidas na resposta imunológica. Os objetivos desta tese foram estudar a desestruturação da polpa branca do baço na leishmaniose visceral canina e quais as células e citocinas envolvidas nesse processo. Para isso, amostras de baços de cães de uma área endêmica para LV foram agrupadas em três categorias: TIPO1-CONT ou TIPO1-SIA (cães não infectados ou sem infecção ativa e com polpa branca organizada), TIPO1-INF (cães infectados com polpa branca organizada) e TIPO3-INF (cães infectados com polpa branca desorganizada). No capítulo 2 e 3, as secções de baço foram marcadas através de imunoistoquímica com anticorpos anti-CD3 (linfócitos T), anti-CD79-α (linfócitos B), anti-S100 (célula dendrítica folicular), anti-Ki-67...

Visceral leishmaniasis is associated with splenic architectural changes and redistribution of cell populations involved in the immune response. The objectives of this thesis was to study the disruption of the white pulp of the spleen in canine visceral leishmaniasis and which cells and cytokines are involved in this process. For this, samples of spleens of dogs from an endemic area for VL were grouped into three categories: TYPE1-CONT or TYPE1-NIF (non-infected dogs or without active infection with organized white pulp), TYPE1-INF (infected dogs with pulp organized white) and TYPE3-INF (infected animals with disorganized white pulp). In Chapter 2 and 3 the spleens sections were stained by immunohistochemistry with anti-CD3 (T lymphocytes), anti-CD79 (B lymphocytes), anti-S100 (follicular dendritic cells), anti-Ki-67...

Animals , Spleen/parasitology , Spleen/pathology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Leishmania/immunology , Leishmania/parasitology , Polymerase Chain Reaction/ethics , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods
Rev. chil. cir ; 65(2): 162-165, abr. 2013. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-671275


Introduction: The diagnosis of adrenal incidentalomas is common in current clinical practice. Clinical case: We report a 69 years-old female patient with hypertension, who underwent an abdominal CAT Scan, finding a left adrenal mass of 8 cm diameter. Subsequent studies showed elevated urinary metanephrine levels. With the suspicion of a pheochromocytoma, a laparoscopic surgery was performed. The mass resulted to be an aberrant spleen.

Introducción: El diagnóstico de los así llamados "incidentalomas" suprarrenales, cada vez más frecuente en la práctica clínica, plantea un diagnóstico diferencial importante. Caso clínico: Se presenta el caso clínico de una paciente de 69 años, hipertensa, con el hallazgo de una masa suprarrenal izquierda aparentemente funcionante, operada por vía laparoscópica y que resultó ser un bazo aberrante. Se discute el diagnóstico diferencial entre masa suprarrenal y pseudo-tumores adrenales y la embriología y presentación clínica del bazo aberrante.

Humans , Female , Aged , Spleen/abnormalities , Splenic Diseases/surgery , Splenic Diseases/diagnosis , Adrenal Gland Neoplasms/diagnosis , Adrenalectomy , Spleen/pathology , Diagnosis, Differential , Pheochromocytoma/diagnosis , Incidental Findings , Laparoscopy , Adrenal Gland Neoplasms/surgery , Splenectomy