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1.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 113(3): 185-196, Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-894908

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Sporotrichosis is caused by species of the genus Sporothrix. From 1998 to 2015, 4,703 cats were diagnosed at the Fundação Oswaldo Cruz (Fiocruz), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Even after the description of the Sporothrix species, the characterisation of feline isolates is not performed routinely. OBJECTIVES To characterise the clinical isolates from cats at the species level and correlate them with the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of the cats. METHODS Forty seven Sporothrix spp. isolates from cats assisted at Fiocruz from 2010 to 2011 were included. Medical records were consulted to obtain the clinical and epidemiological data. The isolates were identified through their morphological and physiological characteristics. T3B polymerase chain reaction (PCR) fingerprinting was used for molecular identification of the species. FINDINGS In phenotypic tests, 34 isolates were characterised as S. brasiliensis, one as S. schenckii and 12 as Sporothrix spp. PCR identified all isolates as S. brasiliensis. MAIN CONCLUSIONS S. brasiliensis is the only etiological agent of feline sporotrichosis in Rio de Janeiro to date. None association was found between the isolates and the clinical and epidemiological data. In addition, we strongly recommend the use of molecular techniques for the identification of isolates of Sporothrix spp.


Subject(s)
Sporothrix/classification , Cat Diseases/microbiology , Cat Diseases/epidemiology , Sporothrix/genetics , Brazil/epidemiology , DNA Fingerprinting
2.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 54(4): e17858, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001585

ABSTRACT

From drug repurposing studies, this work aimed to evaluate the activity of different pyrazinoic acid (POA) derivatives against Sporothrix brasiliensis. The POA esters were prepared and characterized as previously reported by classical esterification reactions, with good to excellent yields. Sporothrix brasiliensis isolates from cats (n=6) and standard strains of S. brasiliensis and S. schenckii were used to assess the antifungal activity of the POA derivatives through broth microdilution assay (CLSI M38-A2). Among the tested compounds, molecules 3 and 4 showed fungistatic and fungicidal activities against all Sporothrix spp. strains, and the obtained MIC and MFC values ranged from 2.12 to 4.24 mg/mL and from 1.29 to 5.15 mg/mL, respectively. Compound 2 and 5 were active as in vitro inhibitors of fungal growth, but showed weak fungicidal activity, while molecules 1 and POA itself were inactive. The results suggest the activity of POA derivatives against Sporothrix spp. may be dependent on the lipophilicity. In addition, the antifungal susceptibility of the isolates to itraconazole was performed, showing that two Sporothrix isolates from cats were itraconazole-resistant. Compounds 3 and 4 were also active against these itraconazole-resistant isolates, indicating a possible alternative route to the standard mode of action of itraconazole.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Cats , Sporotrichosis/drug therapy , Sporothrix/classification , Prodrugs , Itraconazole/analysis , Antifungal Agents
3.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2018. 93 p. tab, graf, ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-881085

ABSTRACT

A esporotricose é uma doença crônica que envolve o tecido subcutâneo afetando seres humanos e animais, causada pelo fungo termodimórfico Sporothrix spp.. A esporotricose é endêmica na América latina, principalmente no Brasil que teve o maior surto zoonótico já registrado, ocorrendo na cidade do Rio de Janeiro. A espécie Sporothrix brasiliensis é a mais diagnosticada no surto e a mais virulenta entre as especies de Sporothrix spp., causando formas mais graves da doença. A esporotricose em gatos é endêmica, fatal e um dos principais fatores pelo alto número de casos no Rio de Janeiro. O tratamento é longo e não vem sendo o suficiente para conter o número de casos da doença. Uma vacina contra a esporotricose poderia mudar esse paradigma no Brasil. O presente trabalho obteve o proteoma da cepa S. brasiliensis 5110 por meio de uma eletroforese 2D, e caracterizou e identificou as possíveis proteínas imunogênicas do fungo por espectrometria de massa. Por meio de programas de predição, foi avaliado e sintetizado 7 sequências de aminoácidos,das proteínas identificadas com maiores chances de se acoplar a molécula MHC de classe II. Apenas 3 foram capazes de induzir proliferação in vitro, os peptídeos ZR3, ZR4 e ZR8, que foram utilizados como vacina na esporotricose subcutânea e avaliados sua eficácia por meio da carga fúngica, diâmetro das lesões, perfil celular e níveis de citocinas. Neste trabalho concluímos que o peptídeo ZR8 foi o melhor candidato à vacina na esporotricose, pois foi capaz de diminuir o diâmetro das lesões, aumentar os níveis de citocinas protetoras (IFN-γ, IL-17A e IL-1ß) e aumentar o número de células TCD4+ e CD3-/CD19+, sendo assim induzindo uma resposta imunológica protetora na esporotricose subcutânea


Sporotrichosis is a chronic disease, which involves the subcutaneous tissue affecting humans and animals caused by the thermodymorphic fungus Sporothrix spp. Sporotrichosis is endemic in Latin America, mainly in Brazil that had the largest zoonotic outbreak ever recorded, occurring in the city of Rio de Janeiro. The Sporothrix brasiliensis is the species more diagnosed in the outbreak and most virulent, causing severe forms of the disease. Sporotrichosis in cats is endemic, fatal and the main factors due to the high number of cases of the disease in Rio de Janeiro. The treatment is long, and has not been enough to contain the number of cases of sporotrichosis. A vaccine against sporotrichosis could change this paradigm in Brazil. The present work obtained the proteome of S. brasiliensis 5110 strain by 2D electrophoresis, and characterized and identified possible immunogenic proteins by mass spectrometry. By prediction programs were evaluated and synthesized 7 peptide sequence from antigenic proteins that have the highest chances of coupling to the MHC class II molecule. From these 7 peptides only 3 were able to induce proliferation in vitro, called ZR3, ZR4 and ZR8 peptides, that were used as a vaccine in subcutaneous sporotrichosis and evaluated their efficacy through fungal load, lesion diameter, cell profile and cytokine levels. We conclude that ZR8 peptide was the best candidate for sporotrichosis vaccine, since it was able to decrease the lesion diameter, increase the levels of protective cytokines (IFN-γ, IL-17A and IL-1ß) and increase the number of CD4+ T cells and CD3-/CD19+ inducing a protective immune response in subcutaneous sporotrichosis


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Mice , Sporothrix/classification , Blotting, Western/methods , Forecasting/methods , Mass Spectrometry/methods , Proteome/pharmacology , Sporotrichosis/complications , Statistical Analysis , Vaccines/analysis
4.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 33(5): 563-564, oct. 2016. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042627
5.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 111(8): 523-527, Aug. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-788997

ABSTRACT

Sporotrichosis is the most frequent subcutaneous mycosis in the world and its increasing incidence has led to the search for new therapeutic options for its treatment. In this study, we demonstrated that three structural analogues of miltefosine (TCAN26, TC19, and TC70) showed inhibitory activity against Sporothrix schenckii sensu stricto and that TCAN26 was more active in vitro than miltefosine against several isolates. Scanning electron microscopy showed that S. schenckii exposure to TCAN26 resulted in cells that were slightly more elongated than untreated cells. Transmission electron microscopy showed that TCAN26 treatment induced loss of the regular cytoplasmic electron-density and altered the cell envelope (disruption of the cell membrane and cell wall, and increased cell wall thickness). Additionally, TCAN26 concentrations required to kill S. schenckii cells were lower than concentrations that were cytotoxic in mammalian cells, and TCAN26 was more selective than miltefosine. Thus, the adamantylidene-substituted alkylphosphocholine TCAN26 is a promising molecule for the development of novel antifungal compounds, although further investigations are required to elucidate the mode of action of TCAN26 in S. schenckii cells.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adamantane/pharmacokinetics , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Phosphorylcholine/analogs & derivatives , Sporothrix/drug effects , Adamantane/chemistry , Antifungal Agents/chemistry , Cell Membrane/drug effects , Drug Substitution , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Phosphorylcholine/chemistry , Phosphorylcholine/pharmacology , Sporothrix/classification , Sporothrix/ultrastructure
6.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 36(4): 303-311, tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-787566

ABSTRACT

Esporotricose é uma infecção fúngica causada por espécies do complexo Sporothrix, vista com maior frequência em gatos, equinos e cães. Os principais objetivos deste estudo retrospectivo foram caracterizar os aspectos histomorfológicos e histoquímicos da esporotricose em 10 gatos, além de avaliar os aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos e os achados macroscópicos desses 10 casos, obtidos dos protocolos de biópsias e necropsias dos arquivos do Laboratório de Patologia Veterinária da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria. A doença acometeu predominantemente gatos machos, sem raça definida e apresentou-se principalmente na forma cutânea disseminada...


Sporotrichosis is a mycotic infection caused by the Sporothrix complex species, affecting mostly cats, horses, and dogs. The main objectives of this retrospective study were to characterize the histomorphological and histochemical aspects of sporotrichosis in 10 cats, and also to evaluate epidemiological and clinical aspects, and gross findings obtained from the biopsy and necropsy protocols of these ten cases, obtained from the archives of the Laboratório de Patologia Veterinária of the Universidade Federal de Santa Maria. The disease affected mostly male mongrel cats, and was mostly observed in the cutaneous disseminated form...


Subject(s)
Animals , Cats , Sporotrichosis/diagnosis , Sporotrichosis/veterinary , Sporothrix/classification , Mycoses , Skin Diseases , Histological Techniques/veterinary
8.
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 46(4): 311-314, dic. 2014.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1008484

ABSTRACT

Se informa para Chile el aislamiento de S. pallida complex desde muestras médicas y del suelo del hogar de una paciente. Los hongos del complejo Sporothrix schenckii pueden causar distintas infecciones. En Chile, los aislamientos médicos y ambientales de este complejo son poco frecuentes. El objetivo de este trabajo fue identificar un agente atípico en un caso de onicomicosis y detectar su presencia en el suelo del jardín del hogar de la paciente. Para esto, las muestras clínicas se obtuvieron por raspado subungueal del primer dedo del pie derecho, y las muestras de suelo, de diferentes sectores del jardín. La identificación de las especies se realizó por morfofisiología y para la confirmación molecular se envió una de las cepas aisladas de la uña de la paciente al CBS (14.062). Se identificó S. pallida complex tanto de las muestras de uña como de aquellas provenientes del suelo del jardín


The isolation of S. pallida complex from medical samples and home garden soil of a patient in Chile is here in reported. Fungi of the Sporothrix schenckii complex can cause various infections. In Chile, the medical and environmental isolates of these this complex are rare. The aim of this study was to identify an unusual agent in a case of onychomycosis and to detect its presence in the patient's home garden. For this purpose, clinical samples were obtained by scraping the patient's subungueal first right toe nail as well as by taking soil samples from different areas of her home garden. Species identification was performed by morphophysiology and one of the strains isolated from the patient's toe nail was sent to CBS for molecular confirmation (14.062). S. pallida complex was identified both from the patient's toe nail and samples taken from her home garden


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Sporothrix/isolation & purification , Onychomycosis/diagnosis , Soil Microbiology , Sporothrix/classification , Soil Analysis , Chile , Onychomycosis/etiology
9.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 29(4): 401-405, ago. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-649827

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Sporothrix schenckii complex comprises a group of environmental dimorphic fungi that cause sporotrichosis. In Chile, isolated cases have been reported in humans, though no environmental isolates have been described. Objective: To achieve isolation of Sporothrix complex from the soil where a 75 year old patient with lymphocutaneous sporotrichosis performs horticulture work. Materials and Methods: In March and July 2011 soil and plant debris from five sectors where the patient does his work in horticulture was extracted. The soil samples were diluted and inoculated in Sabouraud agar with cycloheximide and chloramphenicol at 26 °C. The plant debris was directly inoculated in the same medium. Colonies suggestive of Sporothrix complex were reseeded in PDA agar at 26 ° C and identified as recommended by Marimon et al. Results: Of the 10 plates from the first sampling, one colony was identified as Sporothrix globosa. In the second sampling, Sporothrix globosa grew in two plates seeded with soil, with a total of 6 colonies. There was no growth of Sporothrix complex in plant debris. The isolate from the patient was also identified as Sporothrix globosa. Conclusion: For the first time in Chile a species of Sporothrix complex was isolated from the environment. Sporothrix globosa was the species identified both in the ground and from the patient with sporotrichosis.


Introducción: Sporothrix schenckii complex comprende un grupo de hongos dimórficos ambientales que provocan esporotricosis. En Chile se han comunicado casos aislados en humanos; sin embargo, no se han descrito aislamientos de este hongo desde el ambiente. Objetivos: Orientados por un caso de esporotricosis linfo-cutánea en una paciente de 75 años, se realizó un estudio ambiental para lograr el aislamiento de S. complex desde el suelo donde la paciente realizaba labores de horticultura. Materiales y Métodos: Se extrajo tierra y restos vegetales de cinco sectores donde la paciente efectuaba sus labores de horticultura. Se realizaron diluciones de tierras y siembra en agar Sabouraud con cicloheximida y cloranfenicol a 26°C. Los restos vegetales fueron sembrados directamente en el mismo medio. Las colonias sugerentes de S. complex se resembraron en agar PDA a 26°C y se identificaron según recomendación de Marimon y cols. Resultados: De las diez placas del primer muestreo, una colonia de la siembra de tierra se identificó como Sporothrix globosa. En el segundo muestreo hubo desarrollo de S. globosa en dos placas sembradas con tierra, con un total de seis colonias. No hubo desarrollo de S. complex en los restos vegetales. La cepa aislada desde la paciente también fue identificada como S. globosa. Conclusión: Por primera vez en Chile se logra el aislamiento del ambiente de una especie de S. complex. Sporothrix globosa fue la especie identificada tanto del suelo como desde la paciente con esporotricosis.


Subject(s)
Aged , Female , Humans , Soil Microbiology , Sporothrix/isolation & purification , Sporotrichosis/microbiology , Arm , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Chile , Colony Count, Microbial , Hand , Itraconazole/therapeutic use , Sporothrix/classification , Sporotrichosis/diagnosis , Treatment Outcome
10.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 83(4): 1359-1362, Dec. 2011.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-607431

ABSTRACT

This study describes the isolation of S. schenckii in hospital and home environments in Brazil. Samples were collected from surfaces of a veterinary service place and at home. S. schenckii was detected in 1.5 percent of the samples from the hospital environment. However, this fungus was isolated from all sampled areas in home environments. The isolation of S. schenckii deonstrates that these surfaces could act as infection sources to anials and huans. Therefore, employees and pet owners could be exposed to this agent, and the contamination, through surfaces, could occur through the traumatic inoculation of the fungus or by direct contact with pre-existing lesions.


Esse estudo descreve o isolamento de S. schenckii em ambiente hospitalar e domiciliar, no Brasil. Foram colhidas amostras de superfície de local de atendimento veterinário e ambiente domiciliar. S. schenckii foi isolado em 1,5 por cento das amostras do ambiente hospitalar. Entretanto, esse fungo foi isolado em todas as amostras do ambiente domiciliar. O isolamento do S. schenckii demonstra a importância dessas superfícies atuarem como fontes de infecção para animais e humanos. Portanto, funcionários e proprietários de animais de estimação estariam expostos a esse agente e a contaminação, através das superfícies, poderia ocorrer pela inoculação traumática do fungo ou pelo contato direto com lesões pré-existentes.


Subject(s)
Hospitals , Housing , Sporothrix/isolation & purification , Environmental Microbiology , Sporothrix/classification
11.
Rio de Janeiro; s.n; 2011. 122 p. ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-619455

ABSTRACT

A esporotricose é uma doença micótica, infecciosa e crônica, que envolve o tecido cutâneo e subcutâneo, e que pode afetar seres humanos e animais. Esta micose sempre foi atribuída a um único patógeno, o Sporothrix schenckii, um fundo termodimórfico, que cresce como levedura a 37 oC e como micélio à temperatura ambiente. No entanto, nos últimos anos, foi demonstrado que isolados identificados como S. schenckii apresentavam grande variabilidade genética, sugerindo que esta táxon consiste em um complexo de espécies. Esta doença é causada pela implantação traumática do patógeno fúngico, porém os mecanismos de invasão e disseminação deste microorganismo, bem como as moléculas envolvidas nestes processos, ainda são pouco conhecidos. Com base nessas informações, este trabalho visa identificar moléculas de superfície deste patógeno envolvidas na interação deste fungo com proteínas matriciais, bem como analisar diferenças fenotípicas entre espécies do denominado complexo Sporothrix. Foram utilizados, neste estudo, cinco isolados de Sporothrix spp., sendo três isolados clínicos, um isolado ambiental e um isolado de gato. A virulência de cada isolado foi comparada à capacidade adesiva à proteína matricial fibronectina. Foi observado que os isolados com amior capacidade infectiva eram os que apresentavam maior capacidade adesiva à fibronectina. Verificamos então a expressão de adesinas para fibronectina na superfície de cada isolado, por Western blot, e observamos que os isolados mais virulentos e com maior capacidade adesiva expressavam mais adesinas para fibronectina. Bandas reativas com o anticorpo monoclonal contra adesina gp70 (mAb P6E7) foram reveladas nos extratos de parede celular dos isolados estudados. Análises por microscopia confocal revelaram a colocalização da gp70 com a adesina para fibronectina na superfície dos isolados. Análises filogenéticas demonstraram que os isolados estudados possuíam diferenças genotípicas capazes de agrupá-los em duas espécies...


Sporotrichosis is a chronic and infectious diseases that involves the cutaneous and subcutaneous tissue, which can affect humans and animals. This mycosis has always been attributed to a single pathogen, the Sporothrix schenckii, a dimorphic fungus, that grows as yeast at 37 oC and as mycelia at room temperature. However, in recent years, some isolates identifies as S. schenckii showed considerable genetic variability, sugesting that this taxon consists of a complex of species. This disease is caused by the traumatic inoculation of the fungal pathogen, however, the molecules involved in the invasion and dissemination of this microorganism are still poorly understood. The aim of this study is to identify surface molecules involved in the interaction of this fungus with extracellular matrix proteins and to examine phenotypic differences between species in the Sporothrix complex. Five isolates were used throughout this study, three clinical isolates, an environmental and one cat isolate. The virulence of each isolate was compared to the adhesive capacity to fibronectin. We observed that the most virulent isolates exhibited the higher capacity to interact with fibronectin. The expression of adhesins for fibronectin on the surface of each isolate was verified by Western blot. This analysis showed that the most virulent isolates expressed more fibronectin adhesins than the avirulent ones. Positive bands for the monoclonal antibody raised against gp70 adhesin (mAb P6E7) were revealed in cell wall extracts of the isolates studied. Confocal microscopy confirmed the colocalization of fibronectin and mAb P6E7 on the yeast cell surface. Molecular analysis showed genotypic differences between isolates used in this study, that can cluster than them into two species, S. schenckii and S. brasiliensis. This phylogenetic analysis revealed that the avirulent isolate was S. brasiliensis and not S. schenckii as previously thought. This new data led us o determine whether...


Subject(s)
Animals , Cell Adhesion Molecules , Sporotrichosis/microbiology , Sporotrichosis/virology , Fibronectins/analysis , Fibronectins/metabolism , Molecular Epidemiology , Sporothrix/classification , Sporothrix/genetics , Sporothrix/isolation & purification , Sporothrix/pathogenicity , Genotype , Mycological Typing Techniques , Phenotype , Species Specificity
12.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 105(1): 79-85, Feb. 2010. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-539299

ABSTRACT

Alpha 1,2-mannosidases from glycosyl hydrolase family 47 participate in N-glycan biosynthesis. In filamentous fungi and mammalian cells, á1,2-mannosidases are present in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi complex and are required to generate complex N-glycans. However, lower eukaryotes such Saccharomyces cerevisiae contain only one á1,2-mannosidase in the lumen of the ER and synthesise high-mannose N-glycans. Little is known about the N-glycan structure and the enzyme machinery involved in the synthesis of these oligosaccharides in the dimorphic fungus Sporothrix schenckii. Here, a membrane-bound á-mannosidase from S. schenckii was solubilised using a high-temperature procedure and purified by conventional methods of protein isolation. Analytical zymograms revealed a polypeptide of 75 kDa to be responsible for enzyme activity and this purified protein was recognised by anti-á1,2-mannosidase antibodies. The enzyme hydrolysed Man9GlcNAc2 into Man8GlcNAc2 isomer B and was inhibited preferentially by 1-deoxymannojirimycin. This á1,2-mannosidase was localised in the ER, with the catalytic domain within the lumen of this compartment. These properties are consistent with an ER-localised á1,2-mannosidase of glycosyl hydrolase family 47. Our results also suggested that in contrast to other filamentous fungi, S. schenckii lacks Golgi á1,2-mannosidases and therefore, the processing of N-glycans by á1,2-mannosidases is similar to that present in lower eukaryotes.


Subject(s)
Endoplasmic Reticulum/enzymology , Mannosidases/isolation & purification , Sporothrix/enzymology , Mannosidases/chemistry , Sporothrix/classification , Sporothrix/cytology
13.
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo ; 41(1): 59-62, Jan.-Feb. 1999. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-236724

ABSTRACT

E relatado caso de esporotricose em mulher apresentando 63 lesoes cutaneas distribuidas pelo tegumento. A paciente tinha imunidade humoral (Imunoglobulinas) e celular (Subpopulacoes linfocitarias) dentro dos limites da normalidade, mas estava sob corticoterapia de longa duracao (Prednisona 10mg/dia por 2 anos), para ciatica. Em acrescimo uma revisao da literatura brasileira, deste tipo de lesoes, e feita e comentada


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged , Prednisone/therapeutic use , Skin Diseases/etiology , Sporotrichosis/therapy , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Sciatica/etiology , Sporothrix/classification , Sporothrix/isolation & purification , Time Factors
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