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2.
Rev. inf. cient ; 98(6): 776-784, 2019. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1049295

ABSTRACT

Se presentó un paciente masculino, de 7 años de edad, antecedente de contacto con un gato doméstico, procedente del municipio Gaspar, estado Santa Catarina en Brasil. La madre refirió la presencia de lesiones rojizas y purulentas en la piel del pecho y brazos, que no mejoraron con el tratamiento que se le aplicó. El cultivo micológico de las lesiones demostró la presencia del hongo Sporothrixschenckii, por lo que se hizo el diagnóstico definitivo de esporotricosis. Se trató con itraconazol y evolucionó favorablemente(AU)


A male patient, 7 years old, presented a history of contact with a domestic cat, from the Gaspar municipality, Santa Catarina state in Brazil. The mother reported the presence of reddish and purulent lesions on the skin of the chest and arms, which did not improve with the treatment that was applied. The mycological culture of the lesions demonstrated the presence of the fungus Sporothrixschenckii, so the definitive diagnosis of sporotrichosis was made. It was treated with itraconazole and evolved favorably(AU)


Um paciente do sexo masculino, 7 anos, apresentava histórico de contato com um gato doméstico, do município de Gaspar, estado de Santa Catarina no Brasil. A mãe relatou a presença de lesões avermelhadas e purulentas na pele do tórax e braços, que não melhoraram com o tratamento aplicado. A cultura micológica das lesões demonstrou a presença do fungo Sporothrixschenckii, pelo que foi feito o diagnóstico definitivo de esporotricose. Foi tratado com itraconazol e evoluiu favoravelmente(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Sporotrichosis/diagnosis , Sporotrichosis/drug therapy
3.
An. bras. dermatol ; 93(6): 907-909, Nov.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038282

ABSTRACT

Abstract: We report 73 cases of cutaneous sporotrichosis from the Community Dermatology program, at the central and mountain areas of the state of Guerrero, Mexico. A similar number of cases was found between children and adults, mostly peasants and school-age children with rural occupations. Upper limbs were the mostly affected and the predominant clinical form was lymphocutaneous (56.16%). All cultures corresponded to Sporothrix schenckii (sl). Treatment was done with potassium iodide in 54 patients, achieving clinical and mycological cure in all cases.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Sporotrichosis/epidemiology , Potassium Iodide/therapeutic use , Socioeconomic Factors , Sporotrichosis/diagnosis , Sporotrichosis/drug therapy , Mexico/epidemiology
4.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 54(4): e17858, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001585

ABSTRACT

From drug repurposing studies, this work aimed to evaluate the activity of different pyrazinoic acid (POA) derivatives against Sporothrix brasiliensis. The POA esters were prepared and characterized as previously reported by classical esterification reactions, with good to excellent yields. Sporothrix brasiliensis isolates from cats (n=6) and standard strains of S. brasiliensis and S. schenckii were used to assess the antifungal activity of the POA derivatives through broth microdilution assay (CLSI M38-A2). Among the tested compounds, molecules 3 and 4 showed fungistatic and fungicidal activities against all Sporothrix spp. strains, and the obtained MIC and MFC values ranged from 2.12 to 4.24 mg/mL and from 1.29 to 5.15 mg/mL, respectively. Compound 2 and 5 were active as in vitro inhibitors of fungal growth, but showed weak fungicidal activity, while molecules 1 and POA itself were inactive. The results suggest the activity of POA derivatives against Sporothrix spp. may be dependent on the lipophilicity. In addition, the antifungal susceptibility of the isolates to itraconazole was performed, showing that two Sporothrix isolates from cats were itraconazole-resistant. Compounds 3 and 4 were also active against these itraconazole-resistant isolates, indicating a possible alternative route to the standard mode of action of itraconazole.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Cats , Sporotrichosis/drug therapy , Sporothrix/classification , Prodrugs , Itraconazole/analysis , Antifungal Agents
5.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 35(1): 83-87, 2018. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-899780

ABSTRACT

Resumen La esporotricosis es la micosis subcutánea o por implantación más frecuente en México. Se comunica el caso de una esporotricosis cutánea-fija preauricular que simuló una celulitis bacteriana atípica, en una paciente anciana sin antecedente de traumatismo. La biopsia mostró un granuloma supurativo con presencia de levaduras escasas. En el cultivo se identificó Sporothrix schenckii que se confirmó por biología molecular. Se trató con itraconazol obteniéndose una curación clínica y micológica. Se presenta el caso de presentación atípica, proveniente de una zona semidesértica con clima extremo.


Sporotrichosis is the most common subcutaneous or implantation mycosis in Mexico. The case of a preauricular cutaneous-fixed sporotrichosis simulating atypical bacterial cellulitis is reported in an elderly patient with no history of trauma. The biopsy showed a suppurative granuloma with scarce yeast. Sporothrix schenckii was identified in the culture and confirmed by molecular biology. She was treated with itraconazole and a clinical and mycological cure was obtained. The case of atypical presentation is presented, coming from a semi-arid zone with extreme weather.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged, 80 and over , Sporotrichosis/pathology , Cellulitis/microbiology , Cellulitis/pathology , Ear Diseases/microbiology , Ear Diseases/pathology , Sporotrichosis/drug therapy , Sporothrix/isolation & purification , Biopsy , Treatment Outcome , Itraconazole/therapeutic use , Diagnosis, Differential , Ear Diseases/drug therapy , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use
6.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 50(6): 871-873, Nov.-Dec. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-897024

ABSTRACT

Abstract Sporotrichosis is the most prevalent subcutaneous mycosis and is characterized by a subacute or chronic development of a cutaneous or subcutaneous nodular lesion. It is caused by the dimorphic fungus Sporothrix spp, which may manifest in different clinical forms. The disseminated cutaneous form is uncommon and is more likely to occur in immunocompromised patients. We report a 47-year-old male patient with multiple cutaneous and subcutaneous nodules. The patient was diagnosed with disseminated cutaneous sporotrichosis based on the isolation and identification of Sporothrix spp. The patient was treated with potassium iodide, which resulted in clinical improvement of the lesions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Sporotrichosis/diagnosis , Alcoholism/complications , Potassium Iodide/therapeutic use , Sporotrichosis/complications , Sporotrichosis/drug therapy , Middle Aged
7.
Braz. j. biol ; 77(4): 848-855, Nov. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888827

ABSTRACT

Abstract Garlic (Allium sativum L.) is grown all over the world as seasoning and medicinal vegetable since 3,000 BC. Allicin is the main component of garlic, being attributed to it the most of its biological activities, such as bactericidal, antifungal and antiviral actions. However, other compounds of garlic present antioxidant, hypocholesterolemic, vasodilator activities, protective action against different types of cancer, and immunomodulatory. Fungal infections are important causes of morbidity and mortality in people mainly in immunosuppressed ones. Sporothrix schenckii, the causing agent of Sporotrichosis (most common subcutaneous mycosis in Latin America), is dimorphic fungus, of saprophytic life in soil or plants, infecting people and animals mainly through skin injuries and bruises. The main of this work was to evaluate the influence of garlic consuming on immune modulation of healthy and infected Swiss mice in induced way by S. schenckii, since these animals functioning of peritoneal macrophages as well as the nitric oxide and cytokines' production (IL-1β, IL-10 and IL-12) and to evaluate the antifungal potential of garlic with S. schenckii through minimum inhibitory concentration test and colony-forming units. The results showed that garlic offers antifungal potential with S. schenckii. The oral taking of garlic extracts influences the releasing of cytokines by macrophages, regular consuming shows anti-inflammatory effect, and its acute use may take to an inflammatory response. Mice that consumed garlic responded more effectively to fight against the infection.


Resumo O alho (Allium sativum L.) é cultivado em todo o mundo como hortaliça condimentar e medicinal desde 3.000 a. C. A alicina é o principal componente do alho, sendo atribuída a ela a maior parte das suas atividades biológicas, dentre elas as ações bactericida, antifúngica e antiviral. Porém, outros compostos do alho apresentam atividade antioxidante, hipocolesterolemiante, vasodilatadora, ação protetora contra diversos tipos de câncer e imunomoduladora. As infecções por fungos são causas importantes de morbidade e mortalidade no homem principalmente em indivíduos imunossuprimidos. O Sporothrix schenckii, agente causal da esporotricose (micose subcutânea mais comum na América Latina), é fungo dimórfico, de vida saprofítica no solo ou em vegetais, infectando homens e os animais principalmente através de lesões e arranhões na pele. O objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar a influência do consumo de alho na imunomodulação de camundongos Swiss saudáveis e infectados de forma induzida por S. schenckii, a partir do estado funcional dos macrófagos peritoneais desses animais quanto à produção de óxido nítrico e das citocinas (IL-1β, IL-10 e IL-12) e avaliar o potencial antifúngico do alho frente ao S. schenckii por meio de teste de concentração inibitória mínima e unidades formadoras de colônia. Os resultados demonstraram que o alho apresenta potencial antifúngico frente S. schenckii. A administração oral de extratos de alho influencia a liberação de citocinas por macrófagos, o consumo regular apresenta efeito anti-inflamatório, e seu uso agudo pode gerar uma resposta inflamatória. Camundongos que consumiram alho responderam de forma mais efetiva no combate da infecção.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Sporotrichosis/drug therapy , Sporothrix/drug effects , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Macrophages, Peritoneal/immunology , Garlic/chemistry , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Cytokines/metabolism , Macrophages, Peritoneal/drug effects , Immunomodulation
8.
An. bras. dermatol ; 92(5): 606-620, Sept.-Oct. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-887037

ABSTRACT

Abstract: In the late 90's there was a change in both the route of transmission and the people at risk for sporotrichosis. This zoonotic cat-man alternative transmission route elicited changes in strategies to control the epidemic. There was a progressive increase in the number of cases involving especially children and the elderly. In addition to becoming hyperendemic, uncommon clinical pictures like immunoreactive clinical presentations or severe systemic cases have emerged. New species were identified and classified through molecular tools using more virulent clinical isolates, like S. brasiliensis, compared to the environmental isolates. Likewise, different species of Sporothrix have been associated with different geographic regions. The serological and molecular techniques are used as an auxiliary tool for the diagnosis and/or for species identification, although the isolation and the identification of Sporothrix spp. in clinical specimen is still the gold standard. Currently sporotrichosis epidemics requires the knowledge of the epidemiological-molecular profile to control the disease and the specific treatment. Itraconazole, potassium iodide, terfinafine, and amphotericin B are the available drugs in Brazil to treat sporotrichosis. The drug of choice, its posology, and treatment duration vary according to the clinical presentation, the Sporothrix species, and host immune status. New treatment choices, including a vaccine, are being developed; nevertheless, more clinical trials are required to confirm its efficacy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Sporotrichosis/diagnosis , Sporotrichosis/etiology , Sporotrichosis/drug therapy , Sporotrichosis/epidemiology , Prognosis , Diagnosis, Differential
9.
Rev. cuba. med. trop ; 68(2): 171-178, may.-ago. 2016. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-844983

ABSTRACT

La esporotricosis es la micosis subcutánea más frecuente en todo el mundo; se considera una enfermedad ocupacional; las principales fuentes de infección son la materia vegetal y la madera; puede afectar a todos los grupos etarios, pero predomina en la población adulta. El objetivo es diagnosticar y reportar un caso de esporotricosis cutáneo-linfática. Se describe el caso utilizando el método clínico-epidemiológico y el diagnóstico micológico. Se diagnostica una esporotricosis cutáneo-linfática, lo cual corrobora que el cultivo micológico es el estándar de oro en el diagnóstico de esta micosis. En conclusión, la descripción de este caso, constituye una alerta en el diagnóstico de esta entidad poco frecuente en Cuba(AU)


Sporotrichosis is the most common subcutaneous mycosis worldwide. It is considered an occupational disease whose main sources of infection are vegetal material and wood; it may affect all the age groups but predominant in the adult population. The objective is to diagnose on and report a case of cutaneous-lymphatic sporotrichosis. The case is described on the basis of the clinical and epidemiological method and the mycological diagnosis. Cutaneous-lymphatic sporotrichosis was diagnosed, which confirms that the mycological culture is the golden rule in the diagnosis of this mycosis. In conclusions, the description of this case is an alert to the diagnosis of this rare disease in Cuba(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Sporotrichosis/diagnosis , Sporotrichosis/drug therapy
10.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 33(3): 315-321, jun. 2016. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-791026

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La esporotricosis es una afección endémica en numerosos países latinoamericanos y en el resto del mundo. En Perú se concentra en regiones con clima cálido y húmedo, siendo poco conocida en el resto del país. Objetivo: Describir las características epidemiológicas, clínicas y de laboratorio de esporotricosis en pacientes de un hospital de tercer nivel en Lima-Perú, entre los años 1991 y 2014.Método: Estudio descriptivo, retrospectivo, tipo serie de casos. Resultados: Se incluyeron 94 pacientes, la mayoría de los cuales fueron adultos del sexo masculino. Los lugares de adquisición más frecuentes fueron Cajamarca, Apurímac, y Amazonas. Las formas linfo-cutánea y cutánea fija fueron observadas con mayor frecuencia en adultos y, en especial de localización en los miembros superiores. Las localizaciones en la cabeza y el cuello fueron más frecuentes en niños. Co-morbilidades estuvieron presentes en 15% de pacientes, en particular en aquellos con la forma cutánea diseminada. El 78% de los cultivos procedentes de lesiones cutáneas fueron positivos dentro de siete días, y el tiempo de positividad fue mayor en cultivos de biopsia que en las muestras por raspado-aspirado. Conclusiones: Esporotricosis fue adquirida mayoritariamente en zonas del Perú con pobreza extrema. Las características clínicas, epidemiológicas y de laboratorio no difieren de las reportadas en otros estudios. El tiempo de positividad de los cultivos varía según tipo de muestra, lo que deberá ser mejor evaluado en estudios futuros.


Background: Sporothricosis is endemic in numerous Latin American countries and the rest of the world. In Peru is concentrated in regions with warm and humid climate being little known in the rest of the country. Aim: To describe the epidemiological, clinical and laboratory characteristics of patients diagnosed of sporotrichosis in a tertiary-care level hospital in Lima, Peru from 1991 to 2014. Methods: This was a retrospective, case series. Results: Ninety four patients were involved; most of them were male adults. This condition was acquired more frequently in Cajamarca, Apurímac, and Amazonas. Fixed and lymphocutaneous form were the most frequent forms of presentation in adults and were mostly distributed in upper limbs. Lesions located in head and neck were most frequent in children. Comorbidities were present in 15% of patients and were more frequent in those who presented disseminated cutaneous form. Seventy eight percent of cultures from skin lesions were positive within 7 days. The time to positivity of cultures was longer if the sample came from skin biopsies than skin scraping or skin aspiration. Conclusions: Most cases of sporotrichosis were acquired in areas of extreme poverty in Peru. The clinical, epidemiological and laboratory findings were similar to those reported elsewhere. The time to positivity of cultures varies based on the type of skin sample. This finding needs to be further evaluated in studies with an increased number of cases.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Sporotrichosis/pathology , Sporotrichosis/epidemiology , Peru/epidemiology , Socioeconomic Factors , Sporotrichosis/drug therapy , Sporothrix/isolation & purification , Time Factors , Biopsy , Poverty Areas , Retrospective Studies , Tertiary Care Centers/statistics & numerical data , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use
11.
Rio de Janeiro; s.n; 2014. 73 p. ilus, tab.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-762498

ABSTRACT

A esporotricose é uma micose causada por espécies do complexo Sporothrix. Apesar do itraconazol ser o fármaco de escolha devido a sua efetividade e segurança, casos de falência terapêutica em gatos com esta micose têm sido descritos. O iodeto de potássio em cápsulas é uma opção terapêutica nos casos felinos. Adicionalmente, este fármaco é uma alternativa em pacientes humanos não responsivos ao itraconazol. A associação do iodeto de potássio e agentes antifúngicos pode apresentar melhores resultados quando comparada à monoterapia com estes fármacos. Foi realizado um estudo de coorte, o qual teve como objetivo descrever a resposta terapêutica ao iodeto de potássio em cápsulas via oral (5 mg/kg a cada 24 horas) associado ao itraconazol via oral (100 mg/gato a cada 24 horas) em gatos com esporotricose refratária ao itraconazol, assistidos no Laboratório de Pesquisa Clínica em Dermatozoonoses em Animais Domésticos do Instituto de Pesquisa Clínica Evandro Chagas/Fiocruz no período de 2012 a 2013. Foram incluídos no estudo 38 gatos, dos quais foi observado cura clínica em 24, falência terapêutica em cinco e óbito em três gatosEm seis casos houve abandono do tratamento. O tempo mediano de tratamento até a cura clínica foi 20 semanas. Vinte e nove animais apresentaram efeitos adversos clínicos, sendo 26 classificados como grau leve. Emagrecimento, hiporexia e vômitos foram os efeitos adversos clínicos mais observados. Quatro animais apresentaram efeitos adversos laboratoriais, representado pelo aumento dos valores das enzimas hepáticas. A utilização de iodeto de potássio em cápsulas associado ao itraconazol se mostrou um esquema terapêutico efetivo e seguro, sendo uma opção na esporotricose felina refratária ao itraconazol.


Sporotrichosis is a fungal infection caused by Sporothrix species complex.Itraconazol is the drug of choice for the treatment of the disease due to itseffectiveness and safety. However, cases of treatment failure in cats have beenreported. Potassium iodide capsules are an option for the feline cases.Additionally, the drug is an alternative to human patients unresponsive toitraconazole. The association of potassium iodide and antifungal agents mayprovide better results when compared to the mono therapy with these drugs. A cohort study was conducted, which aimed to describe the therapeutic response oforal potassium iodide (5 mg/kg every 24 hours) associated with oral itraconazole(100 mg/cat every 24 hours) in cats with sporotrichosis refractory to itraconazole,followed up at the Laboratório de Pesquisa Clínica em Dermatozoonoses emAnimais Domésticos do Instituto de Pesquisa Clínica Evandro Chagas/Fiocruz between 2012 and 2013. Of the 38 cats included in the study, 24 were cured,treatment failure ocurred in five and death in three cats. In six cases there wasnon-compliance with treatment. The median time from treatment until clinical curewith the combination was 20 weeks. Twenty-nine animals presented clinical adverse effects, which were classified as mild in 26 animals. Weight loss,hiporexia and vomiting were the most frequently observed. Four animals showed laboratory adverse effects represented by an increase in liver enzymes. The useof potassium iodide associated with itraconazole has proved to be an effective andsafe therapeutic regimen and, therefore, represents an option in the treatment offeline sporotrichosis refractory to itraconazol.


Subject(s)
Cats , Sporotrichosis/diagnosis , Sporotrichosis/epidemiology , Sporotrichosis/drug therapy , Itraconazole/adverse effects , Potassium Iodide
12.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 30(5): 548-553, oct. 2013. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-691162

ABSTRACT

Sporotrichosis is a subcutaneous mycosis caused by Sporothrix complex, endemic in Abancay, Peru. Is acquired by traumatic inoculation with plant material. Common clinical presentations are lymphatic cutaneous and fixed cutaneous disease. We report 2 cases of fixed cutaneous sporotrichosis with granulomatous appearance. The first case was a patient of 65 years old with no risk factors and the second case was a 67 year old diabetic patient. Subjects underwent mycological culture with Sabouraud agar, with isolation of Sporothrix schenckii and clinical dignosis of fixed cutaneous sporotrichosis with granulomatous appearance. One patient received oral treatment with saturated solution of potassium iodide (SSKI) with a initial dose of 3 drops tid up to a maximum dose of 40 drops tid. Mycological and clinical cure was achieved after 2 months of treatment. We should consider the unusual clinical presentations of fixed cutaneous sporotrichosis with granulomatous appearance that present morphological and clinical features in diabetic and nondiabetic patients older than 60 years from endemic areas and communicate adequate response to treatment with SSKI in one case.


La esporotricosis es una micosis subcutánea ocasionada por el complejo Sporothrix, endémica en Abancay, Perú. Se adquiere por inoculación traumática con material vegetal. Las formas clínicas comúnmente descritas son la cutánea linfática y cutánea fija. Presentamos dos casos de pacientes adultos con una esporotricosis cutánea fija granulomatosa. El primer caso era una paciente de 65 años de edad, sin antecedentes de riesgo y el segundo era una paciente de 67 años, diabética. El diagnóstico se realizó por cultivo micológico aislándose Sporothrix schenckii. Un caso se trató con solución saturada de yoduro de potasio (SSKI), vía oral, alcanzando la cura micológica y clínica tras dos meses de tratamiento. La otra paciente no acudió a tratamiento. Se revisan las presentaciones clínicas inusuales de la esporotricosis cutánea fija y la forma granulomatosa que presenta características morfológicas y clínicas poco habituales en pacientes diabéticos y no diabéticos mayores de 60 años provenientes de zonas endémicas.


Subject(s)
Aged , Female , Humans , Granuloma/diagnosis , Sporotrichosis/diagnosis , Granuloma/drug therapy , Granuloma/microbiology , Potassium Iodide/administration & dosage , Sporotrichosis/drug therapy , Treatment Outcome
13.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 46(1): 116-118, Jan.-Feb. 2013. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-666809

ABSTRACT

Sporotrichosis occurs after fungal implantation of Sporothrix spp. in the skin, and is the main subcutaneous mycosis in Latin America. Here we describe three atypical cases of the disease. The first case report an extra-cutaneous occurrence of the disease with joint infection; the second one describes a patient with bilateral lymphocutaneous form of sporotrichosis; and the third shows a zoonotic cutaneous case with the development of an erythema nodosum as a hypersensitivity reaction. These cases show the disease importance on the region and the necessity of fungal culture to the diagnosis confirmation.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Sporotrichosis/diagnosis , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Itraconazole/therapeutic use , Sporotrichosis/drug therapy
14.
Cad. saúde pública ; 28(10): 1867-1880, out. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-653886

ABSTRACT

Na literatura científica, a esporotricose esteve associada por anos a profissionais que lidam com a terra, local onde o fungo causador habita. Recentemente, numa área urbana tem sido registrada a ocorrência relacionada à transmissão zoonótica. Este trabalho objetivou contribuir para o conhecimento sobre a esporotricose em área urbana, por intermédio da analise exploratória de sua distribuição socioespacial no Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, entre 1997 e 2007, identificando os espaços de transmissão mais intensos. Utilizando-se base de dados do Serviço de Vigilância em Saúde, Instituto de Pesquisa Clínica Evandro Chagas, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, foram realizadas análises de frequência da doença e sua distribuição espacial. No período estudado, foram registrados 1.848 casos de esporotricose, com predomínio em mulheres adultas fora do mercado de trabalho. A fonte de contaminação predominante foi ferimento causado pelo gato doméstico, o que contribuiu para a disseminação da esporotricose em área urbana. O georreferenciamento de 1.681 casos evidenciou um cinturão de transmissão ao longo da divisa entre a capital e os municípios da região metropolitana.


In the scientific literature, sporotrichosis has traditionally been associated with agricultural work, since the causative agent is found naturally in the soil. However, cases have been reported recently in an urban area, related to zoonotic transmission. The current study aimed to contribute to knowledge on sporotrichosis in an urban area through an exploratory analysis of its socio-spatial distribution in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from 1997 to 2007, identifying the areas with the heaviest transmission. The database from the Health Surveillance Service at the Evandro Chagas Institute for Clinical Research, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, was used to estimate incidence rates and spatial distribution. During the study period, 1,848 cases of sporotrichosis were reported, predominantly in adult women not currently in the labor market. The leading source of infection was wounds caused by domestic cats, which contributed to the spread of sporotrichosis in this urban area. Georeferencing of 1,681 cases showed a transmission belt along the border between the city of Rio de Janeiro and the adjacent municipalities in the Greater Metropolitan Area.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Animals , Cats , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Young Adult , Sporotrichosis/epidemiology , Zoonoses/epidemiology , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Brazil/epidemiology , Cities/epidemiology , Itraconazole/therapeutic use , Sex Factors , Sporothrix , Sporotrichosis/drug therapy , Sporotrichosis/etiology , Zoonoses/transmission
15.
An. bras. dermatol ; 86(4,supl.1): 182-185, jul,-ago. 2011. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-604154

ABSTRACT

A esporotricose é uma infecção subaguda ou crônica, causada por fungos pertencentes ao Complexo Sporothrix. Relato do caso: esporotricose de localização nasal foi tratada com iodeto de potássio e como não se obteve sucesso, reiniciou-se o tratamento com associação de iodeto de potássio e itraconazol. Porém, ocorreu nova recidiva. As culturas dos exames micológicos foram submetidas a ensaios de atividade antifúngica in vitro para auxiliar no tratamento. A terbinafina foi o antifúngico que apresentou melhores resultados, por isso, o tratamento foi reiniciado com este antifúngico e, após dois anos do término do mesmo, não recidivou. Adicionalmente, ambas as culturas foram comparadas por RAPD, obtendo padrões de fragmentos distintos, indicando que os isolados são diferentes ou demonstrando um processo microevolutivo do microrganismo.


Sporotrichosis is a chronic subacute infection caused by fungi belonging to the Sporothrix Complex. In the present clinical case, nasal sporotrichosis was treated with potassium iodide. This was unsuccessful, and the treatment was restarted with a combination of potassium iodide and itraconazole. This however resulted in a further recurrence of the infection. The mycological cultures were tested in vitro for antifungal activity to assist in treatment. Terbinafine, an antifungal drug, produced the best results and was therefore used for the rest of the treatment course, with no recurrence after two years of its completion. In addition, both cultures were compared using RAPD and different fragment patterns were observed. This indicated that the isolates were either different or indicated a microevolutionary process of this microorganism.


Subject(s)
Aged , Female , Humans , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Naphthalenes/therapeutic use , Nose Diseases/drug therapy , Sporotrichosis/drug therapy , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Nose Diseases/microbiology , Sporothrix/isolation & purification , Sporotrichosis/microbiology
16.
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo ; 53(2): 89-93, Mar.-Apr. 2011. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-584139

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Sporotrichosis is a subacute or chronic disease caused by a dimorphic fungus, Sporothrix schenckii. The first and most traditional treatment is potassium iodide in satured solution (SSKI) used by DE BEURMANN in 1907. For its effectiveness, it is still used for cutaneous sporotrichosis. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the treatment of cutaneous sporotrichosis with SSKI in relation to clinical cure, side effects, length of treatment and reactivation. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of medical records over a 24-year period (1981-2005). Patients of all ages who were treated in the hospital´s division of dermatology were included in the study providing that they had a positive culture of S. schenckii. Satured solution of potassium iodide (3 to 6g per day) was the treatment prescribed. For children, half of the dose was prescribed. RESULTS: The lymphocutaneous disease was prevalent, the cure rate was 94.7 percent, side effects were described in 5.5 percent of the cases, mean length of treatment was 3.5 months and possible reactivation was observed in 11.1 percent. CONCLUSION: SSKI is an effective drug, with many side effects, but with low frequency. Resolution was for maximum six months of treatment. SSKI has been found to be a very effective drug in this retrospective study of culture-proven cases of cutaneous and lymphocutaneous sporotrichosis. It should be used as first drug of choice especially in resource-limited settings.


FUNDAMENTOS: Esporotricose é doença subaguda ou crônica causada pelo fungo dimórfico Sporothrix schenckii. O primeiro e mais tradicional tratamento é o iodeto de potássio em solução saturada (SSKI) usado por De Beurmann em 1907. Por ser eficaz,ainda é muito utilizada no nosso meio para o tratamento da esporotricose cutânea. OBJETIVOS: Avaliar o tratamento da esporotricose cutânea com SSKI em relação à cura clínica, efeitos colaterais, tempo de tratamento e recidiva. MÉTODOS: A partir da revisão dos resultados de exames do laboratório de Micologia da Clínica de Dermatologia da Santa Casa de SP, durante 1981 a 2005, foram incluídos pacientes de qualquer idade com lesão cutânea sugestiva de esporotricose e cultura positiva para S. schenckii. Em todos pacientes o tratamento prescrito foi SSKI na dose de 3 a 6g/dia para adultos, por um período de até duas semanas após cura clínica. Em crianças foi utilizada a metade da dose. RESULTADOS: Houve predomínio da forma cutânea localizada, taxa de cura de 94,7 por cento, efeitos colaterais em 5,5 por cento, média de tempo de tratamento de 3,5 meses e 11,1 por cento de provável recidiva. CONCLUSÃO: A SSKI é eficaz, com diversos efeitos colaterais, porém de baixa frequência, permanecendo indicada para as formas cutâneas da esporotricose.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Potassium Iodide/therapeutic use , Sporotrichosis/drug therapy , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
18.
Rev. patol. trop ; 40(1): 73-84, jan.-mar. 2011. ilus, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-592381

ABSTRACT

Se presenta un caso de esporotricosis cutánea diseminada, con compromiso visceral, en un hombre de 38 años, sin antecedentes de alteraciones previas de la inmunidad. Las lesiones cutáneas fueron nódulos y gomas que evolucionaron a úlceras y se acompañaron de adelgazamiento, fiebre, anemia, edemas, hepatosplenomegalia, adenomegalias múltiples, infiltrados pulmonares excavados, hipoalbuminemia, hematuria y albuminuria. El diagnóstico fue confirmado por el aislamiento deSporothrix schenckii de la secreción de los gomas y la detección de anticuerpos específicos en las pruebas de inmunodifusión en el gel de agar y contrainmunoelectroforesis con inmunodifusión secundaria en agarosa frente a una esporotriquina metabólica. La cepa aislada fue identificada comoSporothrix schenckii sensu stricto. Fue tratado con anfotericina B desoxicolato, anfotericina B en dispersión coloidal e itraconazol por vía oral con buena respuesta clínica.


A case of cutaneous disseminated sporotrichosis with visceral involvement is presented. The patient was a 38 year old man, without previous immunologicalalterations. He presented several skin nodules and gummata which evolved to skin ulcers. He also exhibited fever, weight loss, anemia, edema, hepatosplenomegaly, and multiple adenomegalies, excavated infiltrates in the right lung, hypoalbuminemia,albuminuria and hematuria. Sporothrix schenckii was isolated from gummatasecretion of several skin lesions and specific antibodies were detected byimmunodiffusion in agar gel and counterimmunoelectrophoresis with secondary immunodiffusion in agarose, using a S. schenckii metabolic antigen. The isolate was identified as Sporothrix schenckii sensu stricto, which is the most frequently isolated in Argentina. The patient was treated with amphotericin B-deoxycholate and amphotericin B colloidal dispersion intravenously, later he received itraconazole by oral route with good clinical response.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Sporotrichosis/diagnosis , Sporotrichosis/drug therapy , Mycoses , Sporothrix
19.
Rio de Janeiro; s.n; 2011. viii,40 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-762499

ABSTRACT

A esporotricose é uma micose subaguda ou crônica ca usada pelo fungo dimórfico Sporothrix schenckii que infecta o ser humano e uma variedade de animais . O felino doméstico é o animal mais susceptível à doença e desempenha um papel importante na transmissão zoonótica, especialmente no Rio de Janeiro, onde ocorre uma epidemia envolvendo os seres humanos, cães e gatos desde 1998. A efetividade do iodeto de potássio foi avaliada em uma coorte longitudinal constituída por gatos com esporotricose confirmada pelo isolamento de S. schenckii em cultura. Os gatos foram acompanhados no Laboratório de Pesquisa Clínica em Dermatozoonoses em Animais Domésticos, Instituto de Pesquisa Clínica Evandro Chagas, Fiocruz, entre abril de 2010 e julho de 2011 e fora m submetidos à terapia com iodeto de potássio (KI) em cápsulas na dose entre 2,5 mg/kg e 20 mg/kg, a cada 24 horas. A cura clínica foi obtida em 47,9 por cento dos gatos, em 37,5 por cento ocorreu falência terapêutica, 10,4 por cento abandonaram o tratamento e 4,2 por cento foram a óbito. Efeitos adversos clínicos foram observados em 52,1 por cento dos casos. Treze gatos apresentaram leve aumento nos níveis das transaminases hepáticas durante o tratamento, dos quais, seis apresentavam sinais clínicos sugestivos de hepatotoxicidade. Em comparação com estudos prévios realizados com itraconazol e solução saturada de iodeto de potássio, o tratamento com KI em cápsulas é uma alternativa promissora no tratamento da esporotricose felina.


Sporotrichosis is a subacute or chronic mycosis caused by the dimorphic fungus Sporothrixschenckii, which infects man as well as other mammals. The domestic cat is the animal most affected by this mycosis and plays an important role in the zoonotic transmission of this disease especially in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, with a large number of cases involving man, dogs and cats since 1998. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of potassium iodide treatment, an observational cohort was conducted in 48 cats with sporotrichosis confirmed by isolation of S.schenckii in culture at Instituto de Pesquisa Clínica Evandro Chagas, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz between April 2010 and July 2011. All cats received potassium iodide capsules,2.5mg/kg to 20mg/kg, once a day. The cure rate was 47.9 percent, treatment failure 37.5 percent,treatment abandonment 10.4 percent and death 4.2 percent. Clinical adverse effects were observed in52.1 percent of the cases. Thirteen cats had a mild increase in hepatic transaminase levels during the treatment, six of them presented clinical signs suggestive of hepatotoxicity. Compared to previous studies with itraconazole and iodide (SSKI), potassium iodide capsules are analternative for feline sporotrichosis treatment.


Subject(s)
Cats , Amphotericin B , Sporotrichosis/diagnosis , Sporotrichosis/epidemiology , Sporotrichosis/drug therapy , Potassium Iodide
20.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 43(5): 523-525, set.-out. 2010.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-564287

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Sporotrichosis is the most common subcutaneous mycosis observed in Brazil and it is generally consequent to a little trauma caused by vegetal particles or spines which inoculate the fungi in the subcutaneous area. Although sporotrichosis had been frequently mentioned with armadillo hunting this form has not been widely reported in Brazil until now. In this study we report ten cases of sporotrichosis evolving the armadillo's hunting diagnosed in some towns located in the central and west regions of Rio Grande do Sul State. METHODS: The cases were established based on clinical and classic mycological laboratorial techniques. The susceptibility tests were conducted by microdilution technique according to M38-A2 CLSI documents. RESULTS: Ten cases of sporotrichosis associated with armadillo hunting detected in the State of Rio Grande do Sul were diagnosed by mycological methods. The susceptibility tests of Sporothrix schenckii isolates to antifungal agents itraconazole, ketoconazole and terbinafine showed that all the isolates were susceptible. CONCLUSIONS: The paper discusses some cultural aspects related to hunting of this wild animal as well as possible causes of this unexpected occurrence in southern Brazil.


INTRODUÇÃO: A esporotricose constitui-se na micose subcutânea mais frequentemente observada e, na maioria dos casos, a infecção é decorrente de pequenos traumas envolvendo fragmentos vegetais ou espinhos que inoculam o fungo no tecido subcutâneo. Embora frequentemente relacionada a caça a tatus, esta ocorrência tem sido raramente relatada no Brasil. Neste estudo relatamos dez casos envolvendo esta prática, observados em várias cidades das regiões centro e oeste do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. MÉTODOS: o diagnóstico clínico foi confirmado pelos métodos clássicos de cultura em ágar Mycobiotic, identificação micromorfológica seguida de reversão a fase leveduriforme em ágar BHI. Os testes de suscetibilidade foram realizados pela técnica de microdiluição em caldo, de acordo com as normas estabelecidas pelo documento CLSI M38-A2 (2008). RESULTADOS: A esporotricose, decorrente de lesões causadas pela caça ao tatu foi confirmada pelo métodos microbiológicos. Os testes de suscetibilidade indicaram que todos os isolados eram sensíveis ao itraconazol, cetoconazol e terbinafina. CONCLUSÕES: O artigo discute aspectos ambientais e culturais relacionados a caça a este animal silvestre bem como àqueles relacionados a esta inesperada ocorrência.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Animals , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Armadillos , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Sporothrix/drug effects , Sporotrichosis/epidemiology , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Brazil/epidemiology , Itraconazole/pharmacology , Itraconazole/therapeutic use , Ketoconazole/pharmacology , Ketoconazole/therapeutic use , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Naphthalenes/pharmacology , Naphthalenes/therapeutic use , Rural Population , Sporotrichosis/diagnosis , Sporotrichosis/drug therapy , Young Adult
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