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1.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 148(2): 151-159, feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1115771

ABSTRACT

Background: Contact investigation is cardinal in the control of tuberculosis (TB) since it helps to stop its transmission. In Chile, the National TB Program strategy does not include latent TB infection testing, regular chemoprophylaxis or follow-up in adults. Active TB was found in only 1.2% of contacts at country-level during 2018. Aim: To evaluate the performance of a systematic screening of adult household contacts with targeted chemoprophylaxis and prolonged active follow-up. Material and Methods: Prospective cohort of household contacts in Santiago. Two face-to-face visits (at 0 and 12 weeks) that included QuantiFERON TB-Gold plus tests (QFT), chest radiography (CXR) at 0 and 24 weeks and, periodic text messaging or phone call follow-up for up to 48 weeks were implemented. Contacts with positive QFT were referred for TB chemoprophylaxis. Results: A total of 200 contacts were enrolled, 69% were migrants. At baseline evaluation, 45% had a positive QFT result and 1.6% had co-prevalent active TB. At follow-up, 13% contacts further converted to QFT (+), and 5.1% more were diagnosed with active TB (mean follow-up time 32 weeks). Of these 10 further active TB cases, 6 (60%) had a negative QFT and all (100%) had normal CXR at baseline; while three cases occurred in QFT converters. Conclusions: In this cohort of household contacts, 6.7 % were diagnosed with active TB (more than 2/3 at follow-up) and 13% had a late QFT (+) conversion. Active and prolonged contacts' follow-up are essential to detect new infections and tackle the TB epidemic in Chile.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Sputum/microbiology , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/diagnosis , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/epidemiology , Mass Screening/methods , Contact Tracing , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/microbiology , Tuberculin Test , Family Characteristics , Family Health , Prevalence , Follow-Up Studies
2.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20200205, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136899

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: The diagnostic accuracy of Xpert MTB/RIF (Xpert) in pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in children is lower than in adults. In Brazil, the diagnosis of PTB is based on a diagnostic score system (DSS). This study aims to study the role of Xpert in children and adolescents with PTB symptoms. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 3 referral centers to TB. Children and adolescents (0-19 years old) whose respiratory samples were submitted to Xpert were included. Statistical analysis (bivariate and logistic regression) to assess the simultaneous influence of TB-related variables on the occurrence of Xpert detectable in TB cases was done. To evaluate the agreement or disagreement between Xpert results with acid-fast bacillus (AFB) and cultures, κ method was used (significancy level of 5%). RESULTS: Eighty-eight patients were included in the study and PTB occurred in 43 patients (49%) and Xpert was detectable in 21 patients (24%). Adolescents and positive culture results were independent predictive variables of Xpert positivity. DSS sensitivity compared with the final diagnosis of TB was 100% (95% CI, 88.1-100%), specificity was 97.2% (95% CI, 85.5-99.9%). The accuracy of the method was 98.5% (95% CI, 91.7-99.9%). CONCLUSIONS: Xpert contributed to diagnosis in 9% of patients with AFB and in culture negative cases. DSS indicated relevance for this diagnostic approach of intrathoracic TB (ITB) in reference centers for presenting data both with high sensitivity and specificity.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Sputum/microbiology , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/diagnosis , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolation & purification , Referral and Consultation , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genetics
3.
J. bras. pneumol ; 46(2): e20180419, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1090796

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the radiological presentation of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis diagnosed in the emergency department and to investigate its association with the time to diagnosis. Methods: This was a prospective observational study involving patients diagnosed with pulmonary tuberculosis in the emergency department of a tertiary university hospital in southern Brazil. Chest X-rays taken on admission were evaluated by a radiologist. The various patterns of radiological findings and locations of the lesions were described. The main study outcome was the total time elapsed between the initial radiological examination and the diagnosis of tuberculosis. Results: A total of 78 patients were included in the study. The median time from chest X-ray to diagnosis was 2 days, early and delayed diagnosis being defined as a time to diagnosis < 2 days and ≥ 2 days, respectively. Sputum smear positivity was associated with early diagnosis (p = 0.005), and positive culture was associated with delayed diagnosis (p = 0.005). Early diagnosis was associated with the presence of sputum (p = 0.03), weight loss (p = 0.047), cavitation (p = 0.001), and consolidation (p = 0.003). Pulmonary cavitation was found to be an independent predictor of early diagnosis (OR = 3.50; p = 0.028). Conclusions: There is a need for tuberculosis-specific protocols in emergency departments, not only to avoid delays in diagnosis and treatment but also to modify the transmission dynamics of the disease.


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar a apresentação radiológica de pacientes com tuberculose pulmonar diagnosticada no serviço de emergência e investigar sua associação com o tempo para o diagnóstico. Métodos: Estudo observacional prospectivo envolvendo pacientes diagnosticados com tuberculose pulmonar no serviço de emergência de um hospital universitário terciário no sul do Brasil. As radiografias de tórax realizadas na admissão foram avaliadas por um radiologista. Foram descritos os diferentes padrões de achados radiológicos e as localizações das lesões. O desfecho principal do estudo foi o tempo total decorrido entre o exame radiológico inicial e o diagnóstico de tuberculose. Resultados: Um total de 78 pacientes foi incluído no estudo. A mediana de tempo entre a radiografia de tórax e o diagnóstico foi de 2 dias, sendo os diagnósticos precoce e tardio definidos como tempo para o diagnóstico < 2 dias e ≥ 2 dias, respectivamente. A positividade da baciloscopia de escarro associou-se ao diagnóstico precoce (p = 0,005), e a cultura positiva associou-se ao diagnóstico tardio (p = 0,005). O diagnóstico precoce associou-se à presença de escarro (p = 0,03), perda de peso (p = 0,047), cavitação (p = 0,001) e consolidação (p = 0,003). A cavitação pulmonar foi um preditor independente de diagnóstico precoce (OR = 3,50; p = 0,028). Conclusões: Há necessidade de protocolos específicos para tuberculose nos serviços de emergência, não apenas para evitar atrasos no diagnóstico e no tratamento, mas também para modificar a dinâmica de transmissão da doença.


Subject(s)
Humans , Sputum/microbiology , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/diagnosis , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Time Factors , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/diagnostic imaging , X-Rays , Brazil , Prospective Studies , Delayed Diagnosis
4.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 23(2): 130-133, Mar.-Apr. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039224

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Rifampicin is used in both phases of treatment for tuberculosis. In chronic use, the short half-life and the self-induction of metabolism can decrease the levels of the drug below the minimal inhibitory concentration. The aim of the study was to investigate whether plasma concentrations of rifampicin are sustained above 0.5 µg/mL in patients with tuberculosis using 600 mg/day. Rifampicin was measured in plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography and a sputum smear microscopy was performed in all days of the study. A total of 44 male patients completed the study. On days 31, 61 and 91, the mean plasma concentrations of rifampicin were 0.6 (0.5) µg/mL, 0.55 (0.5) µg/mL and 0.46 (0.4) µg/mL. There was a high variation of rifampicin levels leading to a high percentage of samples with concentrations below 0.5 µg/mL. There was no significant association between the frequency of samples with drug levels below 0.5 µg/mL with the conversion of the sputum microscopy. These data suggest that pre-doses samples offer limited information on the exposure of M. tuberculosis to rifampicin.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Rifampin/administration & dosage , Rifampin/blood , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/drug therapy , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/blood , Antibiotics, Antitubercular/administration & dosage , Antibiotics, Antitubercular/blood , Reference Values , Sputum/drug effects , Sputum/microbiology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Prospective Studies , Reproducibility of Results , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Treatment Outcome , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/drug effects
5.
J. health med. sci. (Print) ; 5(1): 29-33, Ene-Mar. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1151837

ABSTRACT

El género Mycobacterium se encuentra asociado a una cantidad importante de patologías, donde la tuberculosis destaca dentro de los principales problemas de salud pública a nivel mundial y nacional. Esta se agudiza con el incremento en la resistencia antimicrobiana y, por ello, la pesquisa de micobacterias contempla un pilar fundamental en el diagnóstico de patologías infecciosas de importancia clínica. Por lo tanto, el objetivo fue describir las principales especies de micobacterias aisladas y su patrón de susceptibilidad a partir de muestras clínicas procesadas en el Hospital Dr. Hernán Henríquez Aravena durante el año 2012. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo retrospectivo, en donde se utilizaron los resultados de 7023 baciloscopías procesadas en el Laboratorio Clínico del Hospital Dr. Hernán Henríquez Aravena de Temuco el año 2012. Todas las baciloscopías fueron analizadas y solicitadas según criterios establecidos por el Instituto de Salud Pública de Chile, comprendiendo muestras de expectoración y no expectoración. De las 7023 baciloscopías realizadas, 100 resultaron ser positivas para Mycobacterium. De 21 cepas enviadas al Instituto de Salud Pública de Chile para identificación, 19 cepas corresponden al complejo Mycobacterium tuberculosis y dos a Mycobacterium avium intracelular. En el estudio de sensibilidad, se encontró resistencia a estreptomicina e isoniazida en 13,3 % de las expectoraciones. De acuerdo a lo establecido por la literatura, más del 90 % pertenecen a Mycobacterium tuberculosis, mientras que, de las micobacterias no tuberculosas sólo se aislaron Mycobacterium avium intracelular. Los antimicrobianos con mayores niveles de resistencia son estreptomicina e isoniazida.


The genus Mycobacterium is associated with a significant number of pathologies, where tuberculosis stands out among the main public health problems worldwide and nationally. This is exacerbated by the increase in antimicrobial resistance and, therefore, the research of mycobacteria contemplates a fundamental pillar in the diagnosis of infectious pathologies of clinical importance. Therefore, the aim was to describe the main species of isolated mycobacteria and their susceptibility pattern from clinical samples processed at the Dr. Hernán Henríquez Aravena Hospital during 2012. A retrospective descriptive study was carried out, where the results of 7023 sputum microscopy processed in the Clinical Laboratory of the Dr. Hernán Henríquez Aravena Hospital in Temuco in 2012. All sputum microscopy was analyzed and requested according to criteria established by the Instituto de Salud Pública of Chile, including expectoration and non-sputum samples. Of the 7023-sputum microscopy performed, 100 were positive for Mycobacterium. Of 21 strains sent to the Instituto de Salud Pública of Chile for identification, 19 strains correspond to the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and two to intracellular Mycobacterium avium. In the sensitivity study, resistance to streptomycin and isoniazid was found in 13.3 % of the expectorations. According to what is established by the literature, more than 90 % belong to Mycobacterium tuberculosis, while only intracellular Mycobacterium avium was isolated from non-tuberculous mycobacteria. Antimicrobials with higher levels of resistance are streptomycin and isoniazid.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Mycobacterium avium , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/pathogenicity , Sputum/microbiology , Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Health Centers , Chile/epidemiology , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Clinical Laboratory Services , Microscopy/methods , Mycobacterium/classification
6.
Esc. Anna Nery Rev. Enferm ; 23(3): e20190034, 2019.
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1019849

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To describe the therapeutic itinerary of people with tuberculosis in face of their health needs. Method: Descriptive, qualitative study. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with ten patients. Hermeneutic-dialectic method of analysis and concept of therapeutic itinerary as driver of the analysis. Results: Most had classic symptoms at the beginning, however there was a case with coughing for more than one year. Entrance door, access to diagnosis and treatment were predominant in Primary Care, through smear microscopy and X-ray; patients had to pay for exams. Decentralization of treatment for other services when necessary or by link with the professional. The patient followed the decisions of the professionals and the support of relatives; prejudice regarding the disease was noted. Conclusions and implications for practice: Fragility in disease management, importance of bonding and family. It should be considered the impact of the disease and the need to support patients to ensure continuity of care.


Resumen Objetivo: Describir el itinerario terapéutico de personas con tuberculosis ante sus necesidades de salud. Método: Estudio descriptivo, cualitativo. Se realizaron entrevistas semiestructuradas con diez pacientes. Método de análisis hermenéutico-dialéctico y concepto de itinerario terapéutico como conductor del análisis. Resultados: La mayoría presentó síntomas clásicos al inicio, pero hubo un caso con tos durante más de un año. Puerta de entrada, acceso al diagnóstico y tratamiento fueron predominantes en la Atención Primaria, a través de baciloscopía y radiografía; se realizó un seguimiento de los exámenes por los pacientes. Descentralización del tratamiento para otros servicios cuando necesario o por vínculo con el profesional. Paciente siguió las decisiones de los profesionales y del apoyo de familiares; prejuicio con la enfermedad. Conclusiones e implicaciones para la práctica: Fragilidad en el manejo de la enfermedad, importancia del vínculo y de la familia. Se debe considerar el impacto de la enfermedad y la necesidad de apoyo a los pacientes para garantizar la continuidad de la atención.


Resumo Objetivo: Descrever o itinerário terapêutico de pessoas com tuberculose diante de suas necessidades de saúde. Método: Estudo descritivo, qualitativo. Realizadas entrevistas semiestruturadas com dez pacientes. Método de análise hermenêutica-dialética e conceito de itinerário terapêutico como condutor da análise. Resultados: A maioria apresentou sintomas clássicos no início da doença, mas houve caso com tosse por mais de um ano. Porta de entrada, acesso ao diagnóstico e tratamento foram predominantes na Atenção Primária, através de baciloscopia e raio-X; houve custeio de exames pelos pacientes. Descentralização do tratamento para outros serviços quando necessário ou por vínculo com o profissional. O paciente seguiu as decisões dos profissionais e do apoio de familiares; constatou-se preconceito relativo à doença. Conclusões e implicações para a prática: Fragilidade no manejo da doença, importância do vínculo e da família. Deve-se considerar o impacto da doença e a necessidade de apoio aos pacientes para garantir a continuidade da atenção.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Primary Health Care , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/therapy , Health Services Accessibility , Sputum/microbiology , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/diagnosis , Radiography , Cough/etiology , Family Health Strategy , Qualitative Research , Delayed Diagnosis
7.
J. bras. pneumol ; 45(2): e20180185, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002431

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the accuracy of rapid molecular testing as a diagnostic tool and estimate the incidence of smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis among the indigenous population. Methods: This is an epidemiological study based on secondary data. We calculated the incidence of smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis between January 1st, 2011 and December 31, 2016, and the performance of bacilloscopy and rapid molecular testing in diagnosing pulmonary tuberculosis compared to sputum culture (standard test). Results: We included 4,048 cases of indigenous people with respiratory symptoms who provided sputum samples for analysis. Among them, 3.7%, 6.7%, and 3.7% had positive results for bacilloscopy, sputum culture, and rapid molecular testing, respectively. The mean incidence of pulmonary tuberculosis was 269.3/100 thousand inhabitants. Rapid molecular testing had 93.1% sensitivity and 98.2% specificity, compared to sputum culture. Bacilloscopy showed 55.1% sensitivity and 99.6% specificity. Conclusions: Rapid molecular testing can be useful in remote areas with limited resources and a high incidence of tuberculosis, such as indigenous villages in rural regions of Brazil. In addition, the main advantages of rapid molecular testing are its easy handling, fast results, and the possibility of detecting rifampicin resistance. Together, these attributes enable the early start of treatment, contributing to reduce the transmission in communities recognized as vulnerable to infection and disease.


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar a acurácia do teste rápido molecular como ferramenta diagnóstica e estimar a incidência de casos pulmonares positivos entre a população indígena. Métodos: Estudo epidemiológico baseado em dados secundários. Foi calculada a incidência de casos de tuberculose pulmonar positiva entre 1° de janeiro de 2011 e 31 de dezembro de 2016, e o desempenho da baciloscopia e do teste rápido molecular no diagnóstico de tuberculose pulmonar, em comparação à cultura de escarro (teste padrão). Resultados: Foram incluídos 4.048 casos de indígenas considerados sintomáticos respiratórios, que forneceram amostras de escarro para análise. Destes, 3,7%, 6,7% e 3,7% apresentaram resultados positivos para baciloscopia, cultura e teste rápido molecular, respectivamente. A incidência média de tuberculose pulmonar foi de 269,3/100 mil habitantes. A sensibilidade do teste rápido molecular, em relação à cultura, foi 93,1% e a especificidade foi 98,2%. A baciloscopia apresentou sensibilidade 55,1% e especificidade 99,6%. Conclusões: O teste rápido molecular pode ser útil em áreas remotas, com recursos limitados e incidência de tuberculose elevada, como as aldeias indígenas nas áreas rurais do país. Ademais, o teste rápido molecular apresenta como principais vantagens o fácil manuseio, os resultados rápidos e a possibilidade de identificar a resistência à rifampicina. Em conjunto, esses atributos facilitam o início do tratamento precoce, contribuindo para reduzir a transmissão em comunidades reconhecidamente vulneráveis à infecção e à doença.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/diagnosis , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/ethnology , Indians, South American/statistics & numerical data , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/methods , Mycobacterium leprae/isolation & purification , Reference Values , Sputum/microbiology , Time Factors , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/microbiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Incidence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Reproducibility of Results , Sensitivity and Specificity , Sex Distribution , Age Distribution
8.
J. bras. pneumol ; 45(2): e20170451, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040271

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Tuberculosis continues to be a major public health problem worldwide. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the accuracy of the Xpert MTB/RIF rapid molecular test for tuberculosis, using pulmonary samples obtained from patients treated at the Júlia Kubitschek Hospital, which is operated by the Hospital Foundation of the State of Minas Gerais, in the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. This was a retrospective study comparing the Xpert MTB/RIF test results with those of standard culture for Mycobacterium tuberculosis and phenotypic susceptibility tests. Although the Xpert MTB/RIF test showed high accuracy for the detection of M. tuberculosis and its resistance to rifampin, attention must be given to the clinical status of the patient, in relation to the test results, as well as to the limitations of molecular tests.


RESUMO A tuberculose permanece como um grave problema de saúde pública. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a acurácia do teste rápido molecular Xpert MTB/RIF em amostras pulmonares no Hospital Júlia Kubitschek, Fundação Hospitalar do Estado de Minas Gerais, localizado em Belo Horizonte (MG). Trata-se de um estudo descritivo retrospectivo, considerando-se como método padrão a cultura para o bacilo da tuberculose e o teste de sensibilidade fenotípico. O teste Xpert MTB/RIF apresentou ótima acurácia para a detecção da tuberculose e resistência à rifampicina, mas é necessária a atenção a dados clínicos do paciente em relação ao resultado do exame e às limitações dos testes moleculares.


Subject(s)
Humans , Sputum/microbiology , Trachea/microbiology , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/diagnosis , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/microbiology , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/microbiology , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , Rifampin/pharmacology , DNA, Bacterial , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/methods , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/drug effects , Tertiary Care Centers , Antibiotics, Antitubercular/pharmacology , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolation & purification , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/drug effects
9.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 51(5): 631-637, Sept.-Oct. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-957471

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: The molecular test Xpert MTB/RIF (Xpert) has been recommended for use in the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB); however, data on the cost of incorporating it under routine conditions in high-burden countries are scarce. The clinical impact and costs incurred in adopting the Xpert test in routine PTB diagnosis was evaluated in a prospective study conducted from November 2012 to November of 2013, in the City of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. METHODS: The diagnostic and therapeutic cascade for TB treatment was evaluated using Xpert in the first stage (S1), and sputum smear microscopy (SSM) in the second stage (S2). The mean costs associated with each diagnostic test were calculated including equipment, human resources, supplies, and infrastructure. RESULTS: We included 232 subjects with probable TB (S1 = 87; S2 = 145). The sensitivities of Xpert and SSM were 91.7% (22/24) and 79.1% (34/43), respectively. The median time between triage and TB treatment initiation in S1 (n = 24) was 14.5 days (IQR 8-28.0) and in S2 (n = 43) it was 8 days [interquartile range (IQR) 6-12.0]. The estimated mean costs per examination in S1 and S2 were US$24.61 and US$6.98, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with SSM, Xpert test showed a greater sensitivity, but it also had a time delay with respect to treatment initiation and a higher mean cost per examination.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Sputum/microbiology , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/diagnosis , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolation & purification , Predictive Value of Tests , Sensitivity and Specificity , Costs and Cost Analysis , Diagnostic Tests, Routine/economics
10.
J. bras. pneumol ; 44(2): 99-105, Mar.-Apr. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-893899

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the impact of smoking on pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) treatment outcomes and the two-month conversion rates for Mycobacterium tuberculosis sputum cultures among patients with culture-confirmed PTB in an area with a moderate incidence of tuberculosis in Brazil. Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study of PTB patients diagnosed and treated at the Thoracic Diseases Institute of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro between 2004 and 2012. Results: Of the 298 patients diagnosed with PTB during the study period, 174 were included in the outcome analysis: 97 (55.7%) were never-smokers, 31 (17.8%) were former smokers, and 46 (26.5%) were current smokers. Smoking was associated with a delay in sputum culture conversion at the end of the second month of TB treatment (relative risk = 3.58 &091;95% CI: 1.3-9.86&093;; p = 0.01), as well as with poor treatment outcomes (relative risk = 6.29 &091;95% CI: 1.57-25.21&093;; p = 0.009). The association between smoking and a positive culture in the second month of treatment was statistically significant among the current smokers (p = 0.027). Conclusions: In our sample, the probability of a delay in sputum culture conversion was higher in current smokers than in never-smokers, as was the probability of a poor treatment outcome.


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar o impacto do tabagismo no desfecho do tratamento da tuberculose pulmonar (TBP) e na taxa de conversão da cultura de Mycobacterium tuberculosis no escarro ao final do segundo mês de tratamento em pacientes com TBP confirmada por cultura em um local com incidência de tuberculose moderada no Brasil. Métodos: Estudo de coorte retrospectivo envolvendo pacientes com TBP diagnosticados e tratados no Instituto de Doenças do Tórax da Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro entre 2004 e 2012. Resultados: De 298 pacientes com diagnóstico confirmado de TBP no período do estudo, 174 foram incluídos na análise dos desfechos: 97 nunca fumaram (55,7%), 31 eram ex-tabagistas (17,8%), e 46 eram tabagistas atuais (26,5%). O tabagismo foi associado ao atraso na conversão da cultura do final do segundo mês do tratamento (risco relativo = 3,58 &091;IC95%: 1,30-9,86&093;; p = 0,01), assim como ao desfecho de tratamento não favorável (risco relativo = 6,29 &091;IC95%: 1,57-25,21&093;; p = 0,009). A associação entre tabagismo e cultura positiva ao final do segundo mês de tratamento foi estatisticamente significante entre os tabagistas atuais (p = 0.027). Conclusões: Nesta amostra, os pacientes tabagistas atuais apresentaram uma maior probabilidade de atraso na conversão da cultura após dois meses de tratamento e de desfecho de tratamento não favorável do que aqueles que nunca fumaram.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Sputum/microbiology , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/drug therapy , Smoking/adverse effects , Time Factors , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/microbiology , Brazil , Multivariate Analysis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome , Risk Assessment , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolation & purification , Antitubercular Agents/therapeutic use
11.
J. bras. pneumol ; 44(2): 112-117, Mar.-Apr. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-893903

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the impact of the use of the molecular test for Mycobacterium tuberculosis and its resistance to rifampin (Xpert MTB/RIF), under routine conditions, at a referral hospital in the Brazilian state of Bahia. Methods: This was a descriptive study using the database of the Mycobacteriology Laboratory of the Octávio Mangabeira Specialized Hospital, in the city of Salvador, and georeferencing software. We evaluated 3,877 sputum samples collected from symptomatic respiratory patients, under routine conditions, between June of 2014 and March of 2015. All of the samples were submitted to sputum smear microscopy and the Xpert MTB/RIF test. Patients were stratified by gender, age, and geolocation. Results: Among the 3,877 sputum samples evaluated, the Xpert MTB/RIF test detected M. tuberculosis in 678 (17.5%), of which 60 (8.8%) showed resistance to rifampin. The Xpert MTB/RIF test detected M. tuberculosis in 254 patients who tested negative for sputum smear microscopy, thus increasing the diagnostic power by 59.9%. Conclusions: The use of the Xpert MTB/RIF test, under routine conditions, significantly increased the detection of cases of tuberculosis among sputum smear-negative patients.


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar o impacto do teste rápido molecular automatizado Xpert MTB/RIF, utilizado para a detecção de Mycobacterium tuberculosis e sua resistência à rifampicina, em condições de rotina, em um hospital de referência no estado da Bahia. Métodos: Estudo descritivo retrospectivo utilizando o banco de dados do Laboratório de Micobacteriologia do Hospital Especializado Octávio Mangabeira, localizado na cidade de Salvador, e um programa de georreferenciamento. Entre junho de 2014 e março de 2015, foram incluídas no estudo 3.877 amostras de escarro coletadas de pacientes sintomáticos respiratórios em condições de rotina. Todas as amostras coletadas foram submetidas tanto à baciloscopia quanto a Xpert MTB/RIF. Os pacientes foram estratificados por sexo, idade e georreferenciamento. Resultados: Das 3.877 amostras de escarro analisadas, Xpert MTB/RIF detectou a presença de M. tuberculosis em 678 pacientes (17,5%). Desses, 60 (8,8%) apresentaram resistência à rifampicina. O Xpert MTB/RIF detectou 254 pacientes com baciloscopia negativa, representando um acréscimo diagnóstico de 59,9%. Conclusões: A implantação do Xpert MTB/RIF, sob condições de rotina, teve um impacto significativo no aumento da detecção de casos de tuberculose em pacientes com baciloscopia negativa.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Sputum/microbiology , Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/methods , Diagnostic Tests, Routine/methods , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolation & purification , Reference Values , Rifampin/therapeutic use , Tuberculosis/microbiology , Tuberculosis/drug therapy , Brazil , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Treatment Outcome , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/drug effects , Tertiary Care Centers , Microscopy/methods , Antibiotics, Antitubercular/therapeutic use , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/drug effects
12.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 51(2): 237-239, Mar.-Apr. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041455

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Microscopic identification of active pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) from direct smears of sputum (DS) is widely used for detection, but has limited sensitivity. Here, we assessed the yield of acid-fast bacilli (AFB) detection in processed sputum smears (PSS). METHODS: Sputum samples were simultaneously analyzed by direct sputum smearing and after chemical treatment and spontaneous sedimentation. RESULTS: Of the 1,719 samples analyzed, 16.4% were positive for AFB in conventional DS and 21.4% in PSS, corresponding to a 30% increase in detection. CONCLUSIONS: Increased sensitivity from analyzing PSS and better safety protocols will contribute to improved detection and control of the disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Specimen Handling/methods , Sputum/microbiology , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/diagnosis , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolation & purification , Sensitivity and Specificity
13.
Rev. inf. cient ; 97(4): i: 788-f: 797, 2018. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1005590

ABSTRACT

Introducción: la neumonía adquirida en la comunidad (NAC) es una de las infecciones más frecuentes en el ámbito mundial, su incidencia es variable y está relacionada con la edad, presencia de enfermedades concomitantes y algunos factores de riesgo específicos como tabaquismo y abuso de alcohol. Objetivo: identificar los microorganismos causantes de neumonía adquirida en la comunidad a partir de la muestra de esputo expectorado. Método: se realizó un estudio descriptivo y trasversal de enero a junio de 2016. El universo de estudio estuvo formado por 88 pacientes, lo que también constituyó la muestra, con diagnóstico clínico y radiológico de neumonía adquirida en la comunidad realizado por el médico de familia. Se aplican procedimientos de laboratorio descritos en literatura de reconocido prestigio internacional. Resultados: se identifican 72 (81,8 por ciento) muestras de esputo productivo, de las cuales son positivas al cultivo bacteriológico 56 (77,7 por ciento) muestras. Predominaron las´Pseudomonasa eruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus y Streptococcus pneumoniae. Moraxella catarrhalis, Haemophilus influenzae, Achromobacter y Aspergillus spp. se encontraron en menor medida. Conclusiones: se identifican Klebsiellap neumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Moraxella catarrhalis, Haemophilus influezae y Achromobacter sp. como microorganismos productores de neumonía en la comunidad, mostrando marcada resistencia a diversos antimicrobianos(AU)


Introduction: community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is one of the most frequent infections in the world; its incidence is variable and is related to age, presence of concomitant diseases and some specific risk factors such as: smoking and alcohol abuse. Objective: to identify the microorganisms that cause pneumonia acquired in the community from the expectorated sputum sample. Method: a descriptive and cross-sectional study was carried out from January to June 2016. The studied universe was compound by 88 patients, who also constituted the sample, with clinical and radiological diagnosis of pneumonia acquired in the community by the family doctor. Laboratory procedures were applied described in literature and were recognized internationally. Results: 72 (81.8 percent) sputum samples were identified, of which 56 (77.7 percent) samples are positive for bacterial culture. Pseudomonas eruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumonia were more found than Moraxella catarrhalis, Haemophilus influenzae, Achromobacter and Aspergillus spp. Conclusions: Klebsiellap pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Moraxella catarrhalis, Haemophilus influezae and Achromobactersp are identified as microorganisms that produce pneumonia in the community, showing marked resistance to various antimicrobials(AU)


Introdução: a pneumonia adquirida na comunidade (PAC) é uma das infecções mais comuns em todo o mundo, a sua incidência é variável e está relacionada com a idade, presença de doenças concomitantes e alguns fatores de risco específicos, tais como tabagismo e etilismo. Objetivo: identificar organismos causadores de pneumonia adquirida na comunidade a partir de amostra de expectoração. Método: um estudo descritivo transversal de janeiro foi realizada de junho de 2016. O grupo de estudo consistiu de 88 pacientes, que também constituíram a amostra com diagnóstico clínico e radiológico de pneumonia adquirida na comunidade pelo médico de família. Procedimentos laboratoriais descritos em literatura de reconhecido prestígio internacional são aplicados. Resultados: foram identificadas 72 (81,8 por cento) amostras de escarro, das quais 56 (77,7 por cento) amostras são positivas para cultura bacteriana. Pseudomonasa eruginosa predominante, Staphylococcus aureus e Streptococcus pneumoniae. Moraxella catarrhalis, Haemophilus influenzae, Achromobacter e Aspergillus spp. eles foram encontrados em menor grau. Conclusões: Klebsiellap pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Moraxella catarrhalis, Haemophilus influenzae e Achromobactersp foram identificado. como microrganismos que produzem pneumonia na comunidade, mostrando uma resistência acentuada a vários antimicrobianos(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia/etiology , Pneumonia/microbiology , Sputum/microbiology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies
14.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 16(2): eAO4214, 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-953150

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To compare the performance of the Ogawa-Kudoh method with the modified Petroff technique in diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis. Methods A total of 205 sputum samples from 166 patients with clinical suspicion or under pulmonary tuberculosis follow-up, seen at a public tertiary care hospital, from July 2014 to July 2016 were used. All samples were simultaneously processed using the Ogawa-Kudoh and modified Petroff decontamination methods, according to the recommendations of the Ministry of Health. In the statistical analysis, the McNemar test and the Kappa index were used, respectively, to compare proportions and verify agreement between data. Results The Ogawa-Kudoh and modified Petroff methods were efficient in mycobacteria detection, with no significant differences in results (p=0.549) and contamination rate of the cultures (p=0.065). The agreement between techniques was considered excellent (Kappa index of 0.877) and Ogawa-Kudoh, as compared to the modified Petroff technique, showed sensitivity of 90.4%, specificity of 96.6%, positive predictive value of 94.3% and negative predictive value of 94.2%. Conclusion The Ogawa-Kudoh technique proved to be sufficiently sensitive and specific for diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis, and, therefore, suitable for routine laboratory application. Since it is simple, low-cost and has less technical requirements for biosafety and professional training, Ogawa-Kudoh is an alternative for managers and healthcare professionals to promote the expansion of bacteriological diagnostic coverage of pulmonary tuberculosis.


RESUMO Objetivo Comparar o desempenho do método de Ogawa-Kudoh ao de Petroff modificado no diagnóstico da tuberculose pulmonar. Métodos Utilizaram-se 205 amostras de escarro de 166 pacientes com suspeita clínica ou controle de tuberculose pulmonar atendidos em um hospital público terciário, entre os meses de julho de 2014 a julho de 2016. Todas as amostras foram processadas simultaneamente pelos métodos de descontaminação Ogawa-Kudoh e Petroff modificado, seguindo as recomendações do Ministério da Saúde. Na análise estatística, foi empregado o teste de McNemar, para comparação de proporções, e o índice Kappa, para verificar o grau de concordância entre os dados. Resultados Os métodos Ogawa-Kudoh e Petroff modificado mostraram-se eficientes na detecção de micobactérias, não sendo verificadas discordâncias significativas tanto nas comparações de pares de resultados (p=0,549), como na taxa de contaminação das culturas (p=0,065). O grau de concordância das técnicas foi considerado excelente (índice Kappa de 0,877), e o Ogawa-Kudoh, em relação ao Petroff modificado, apresentou 90,4% de sensibilidade, 96,6% de especificidade, 94,3% de valor preditivo positivo e 94,2% de valor preditivo negativo. Conclusão O método de Ogawa-Kudoh revelou-se suficientemente sensível e específico para o diagnóstico da tuberculose pulmonar e, portanto, adequado para a aplicação na rotina laboratorial. Por ser mais simples, de baixo custo e com menores exigências técnicas de biossegurança e capacitação profissional, o Ogawa-Kudoh apresenta-se como alternativa para gestores e profissionais da área promoverem a ampliação da cobertura diagnóstica bacteriológica da tuberculose pulmonar.


Subject(s)
Humans , Sputum/microbiology , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/diagnosis , Bacteriological Techniques/methods , Mycobacterium/isolation & purification , Brazil , Culture Media , Mycobacterium/growth & development
15.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 16(2): eAO4150, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-953151

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate the incidence of variant hemoglobins in different health regions. Methods A descriptive, observational, and cross-sectional study with a quantitative approach based on secondary data in the internal records of the neonatal screening service - Laboratório Central de Saúde Pública do Estado do Piauí (PI, Brazil). The variables related to sex, ethnicity and positive diagnosis for variant hemoglobins were analyzed, with further population distribution of hemoglobinopathies among the macroregions of the state. Results A total of 69,180 samples of newborns were analyzed, and 3,747 were diagnosed as hemoglobinopathies, from February 1st, 2014 and December 31st, 2015. Sickle cell trait was the most frequent (4.1%), followed by hemoglobinopathy C in 0.9%; homozygous hemoglobin S cases 0.1% stood out and there were no cases of hemoglobinopathy D in the state. It is also worth noting that the highest frequencies of hemoglobin alterations in Piauí were in males (49.8%) and of parda skin color (38.5%). The region of Piauí presenting the highest incidence of heteroygous variant hemoglobins was Tabuleiros do Alto Parnaíba and Vale do Sambito, due to importance of the region's population Entre Rios. Conclusion Neonatal screening programs are important for screening, orientations regarding health actions and monitoring of families with hemoglobinopathies, in order to reduce morbidity and mortality rates.


RESUMO Objetivo Avaliar a incidência de hemoglobinas variantes em diferentes regiões de saúde. Métodos Estudo descritivo, observacional e transversal com abordagem quantitativa baseada em dados secundários presentes nos registros internos do serviço de triagem neonatal do Laboratório Central de Saúde Pública do Estado do Piauí (PI, Brasil). Foram analisadas as variáveis referentes a sexo, etnia e diagnóstico positivo para hemoglobinas variantes, com posterior distribuição populacional das hemoglobinopatias entre as macrorregiões do Estado. Resultados Foram analisadas 69.180 amostras de recém-nascidos, e 3.747 diagnosticados com hemoglobinopatias, entre 1° de fevereiro de 2014 e 31 de dezembro de 2015. Constatou-se maior ocorrência do traço falciforme em 4,1% da amostra e da hemoglobinopatia C em 0,9%, com destaque para os casos de hemoglobina S em homozigose (0,1%) e ausência de hemoglobinopatia D no Estado. Destacou-se, ainda, o fato de as maiores frequências de alteração hemoglobínica do Piauí estarem presentes em recém-nascidos do sexo masculino (49,8%) e de etnia parda (38,5%). As regiões do Piauí que apresentaram as maiores incidências de hemoglobinas variantes em heterozigose foram Tabuleiros do Alto Parnaíba e Vale do Sambito, devendo-se ressaltar a relevância populacional da região Entre Rios. Conclusão Os programas de triagem neonatal são importantes para rastreamento, orientação de ações de saúde e acompanhamento de famílias acometidas com hemoglobinopatias, a fim de diminuir a morbimortalidade provocada por estas patologias.


Subject(s)
Humans , Sputum/microbiology , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/diagnosis , Bacteriological Techniques/methods , Mycobacterium/isolation & purification , Brazil , Culture Media , Mycobacterium/growth & development
16.
Rev. gaúch. enferm ; 39: e20180157, 2018. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-978500

ABSTRACT

Resumo OBJETIVO Analisar a estrutura da atenção primária à saúde para a detecção de casos de tuberculose em dois municípios do Rio Grande do Sul. MÉTODO Descritivo, avaliativo utilizando métodos mistos, com observação da estrutura física em 69 unidades de atenção primária à saúde; e entrevistas semi-estruturadas com 10 indivíduos. Realizado entre os anos de 2014 e 2016. Utilizou-se análise estatística descritiva e análise de conteúdo. RESULTADOS Nas 50 unidades de Pelotas observou-se ausência de: potes (24%); formulários (53,1%), livro de registro (48%) e transporte do material até o laboratório (86%). Nas 19 unidades de Sapucaia do Sul havia disponibilidade destes insumos. A ausência de profissionais, a rotatividade dos recursos humanos e a deficiência de capacitações foram as principais deficiências estruturais. CONCLUSÃO Conclui-se que há diferenças estruturais entre os municípios, e sugere-se à adoção da coordenação da atenção à tuberculose em Pelotas.


Resumen OBJETIVO Analizar la estructura de la atención primaria de salud para detección de casos de tuberculosis en dos municipios del Rio Grande do Sul. MÉTODO Descriptivo, evaluativo con uso métodos mixtos, aplicando la observación acerca de la estructura física de 69 unidades de atención primaria de salud; y entrevistas semiestructuradas con 10 individuos. Realizado entre 2014 y 2016. Análisis estadístico descriptivo y análisis de contenido. RESULTADOS En las 50 unidades de Pelotas no había: pote de esputo (24%); formularios de solicitud (53,1%); libro de registro (48%) y transporte de esputo al laboratorio (86%). En Sapucaia do Sul las 19 unidades tenían disponibilidad de estos materiales. La falta de profesionales, el cambio de los profesionales y la deficiencia de formación continua fueron las principales deficiencias estructurales. CONCLUSIÓN Existen diferencias estructurales entre los municipios, y se sugiere la adopción de la coordinación de la atención para la tuberculosis en Pelotas.


Abstract OBJECTIVE To analyze the structure of primary health care for the detection of tuberculosis cases in two municipalities of Rio Grande do Sul. METHOD Descriptive, evaluative mixed methods research, with direct observation of the physical structure of 69 primary health care units; and semi-structured interviews with 10 subjects. Conducted between 2014 and 2016. Using descriptive statistics and content analysis for data analysis. RESULTS In the 50 units in Pelotas there was an absence of: pots (24%); forms (53.1%), register books (48%) and of transportation of material to the laboratory (86%). In the 19 units of Sapucaia do Sul, these inputs were available. The absence of professionals, the turnover of human resources and the lack of training, emerged as the main structural deficiencies. CONCLUSION There are structural differences between municipalities. The study suggests that Pelotas should adopt tuberculosis care coordination.


Subject(s)
Humans , Primary Health Care/organization & administration , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/diagnosis , Health Services Research/organization & administration , Sputum/microbiology , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/prevention & control , Brazil , Qualitative Research
17.
Clinics ; 73: e410, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974919

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Tuberculosis is one of the most prevalent infections in humans. Although culture is the reference for diagnosis, its sensitivity is compromised, especially in paucibacillary samples. Because polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplifies mycobacterial DNA, it is more sensitive than culture for the diagnosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). However, its performance can be affected by intrinsic sample inhibitors and by the extraction/detection techniques used. METHODS: We evaluated the influence of preanalytical conditions on Mtb detection in samples of sputum (SPU), bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), and pleural fluid (PF) using combinations of extraction/detection methods. Respiratory samples were prepared to contain different concentrations of red blood cells and nucleated cells to which increasing amounts of Mtb colonies were inoculated and submitted to PCR. RESULTS: Up to 102 CFU/ml of Mtb were detected in the SPU in all methods, except for the Roche extraction/detection method, regardless of the preanalytical sample condition. In BAL samples, medium and high concentrations of cells and high concentrations of red blood cells contributed to a lower Mtb detection, regardless of the extraction method used. In PF, red blood cells were the variable that most interfered with Mtb detection, with better recovery (102 CFU/ml) observed with the Qiagen/Nanogen combination. CONCLUSION: The choice of Mtb extraction and detection method is of fundamental importance for PCR analytical sensitivity, especially when paucibacillary samples and/or samples containing potential PCR inhibitors are analyzed.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pleural Effusion/microbiology , Sputum/microbiology , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/microbiology , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolation & purification , Tuberculosis, Pleural/microbiology , DNA, Bacterial/isolation & purification , Colony Count, Microbial , Sensitivity and Specificity , Erythrocytes/microbiology
18.
Rev. Asoc. Méd. Argent ; 130(4): 4-10, dic. 2017. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-973085

ABSTRACT

El método gold standar para el diagnóstico de la tuberculosis (TB) es el cultivo en medio sólido de Lowenstein-Jensen. Dado el alto costo y los requerimientos de infraestructura y personal entrenado que exige este método, tanto el programa nacional, como las recomendaciones de la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS), establecen que una baciloscopía positiva (BAAR +) confirma el diagnóstico de TB. Si bien el cultivo amplía la sensibilidad diagnóstica, tipifica los bacilos, y permite realizar pruebas de sensibilidad, no es un requisito operativo para la definición de confirmación bacteriológica de TB. En Argentina, el 1% de las BAAR (+) corresponden a otras etiologías3. Presentamos un caso comprendido en ese 1%, en el cual mostramos los problemas a los que se enfrenta un paciente (fundamentalmente demora diagnóstica y exposición innecesaria a drogas potencialmente tóxicas) cuando tiene un diagnóstico de TB de acuerdo con los stándares nacionales e internacionales y sin embargo no es TB.


The method gold standard for the diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) is the culture in Lowenstein-Jensen’s solid way. In view of the high cost and the requirements of infrastructure and trained personnel that demands this method, both the national program, and the recommendations of the World Health Organization (WHO), they establish that a smear-positive confirms TB’s diagnosis. In addition, the culture increases the diagnostic sensitivity, typifies the bacillus and allows the sensitivity tests to be performed, but it is not an operative requirement for the definition of TB’s bacteriological confirmation. In Argentina, 1% of the BAAR (+) are due to other etiologies3. We present a case included in that 1%, in which we show the problems that a patient faces (basically diagnostic delay and unnecessary exposure to potentially toxic drugs) when it has TB’s diagnosis of agreement to the national and international standards and nevertheless it is not TB.


Subject(s)
Male , Humans , Middle Aged , Nontuberculous Mycobacteria/isolation & purification , Bacteriological Techniques , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/microbiology , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/diagnosis , Mycobacterium Infections, Nontuberculous/microbiology , Mycobacterium Infections, Nontuberculous/diagnosis , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/diagnostic imaging , Radiography, Thoracic , False Positive Reactions , Mycobacterium Infections, Nontuberculous/drug therapy , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Sputum/microbiology
19.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 112(2): 94-99, Feb. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-841768

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND In high tuberculosis (TB) burden countries, there are few data on the performance of new molecular commercialised assays developed locally. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the performance of a new molecular commercialised assay for TB diagnosis (Detect-TB) in three laboratories. METHODS A total of 302 sputum samples from an equal number of patients with presumptive diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) were submitted for routine smear microscopy, culture, and Detect-TB assay at three different sites in Brazil (the cities of Caxias do Sul, São Paulo and Canoas). FINDINGS Seventy four (24.7%) TB cases were diagnosed (65 bacteriologically confirmed). When compared to smear microscopy/culture results, the overall sensitivity and specificity of Detect-TB assay was 84.6% (CI 95%; 73.7-91.6) and 93.1% (CI 95%; 89.1-95.8), respectively. When compared to bacteriological and clinical diagnostic criteria, the sensitivity and specificity of Detect-TB assay was 74.3% (CI 95%; 63.3-82.9) and 92.9% (CI 95%; 88.7-95.6), respectively. Among the three sites - Caxias do Sul, São Paulo and Canoas - the sensitivity and specificity were respectively 94.7% and 97.8%; 71.4% and 93.9%, 82.1% and 88.9%. MAIN CONCLUSIONS These findings suggest that the Detect-TB assay could be applied routinely in reference laboratories across different regions in Brazil.


Subject(s)
Humans , Sputum/microbiology , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/diagnosis , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolation & purification , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genetics , Brazil , DNA, Bacterial , False Negative Reactions
20.
Rev. costarric. salud pública ; 25(2): 36-43, jul.-dic. 2016. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-844770

ABSTRACT

ResumenJustificación:Estudiar los esputos de los pacientes que cumplen con la definición de sintomáticos respiratorios haciéndoles un cultivo por piógenos en COOPESIBA - Barva; de Mayo a Agosto del Año 2012.Métodos:Se cultivaron por bacterias piógenas todos los esputos que llegaron al Laboratorio Clínico Coopesiba Barva R.L. desde el 5 de mayo al 3 de agosto del año 2012.Resultados:Se cultivó por bacterias piógenas un total de 28 esputos de los cuales 11 (39%) resultaron positivos por bacterias piógenas. La mayoría de los casos tienen resistencia a antibióticos de uso común en el primer nivel de atención.Conclusión:Es de suma importancia en los pacientes clasificados como sintomáticos respiratorios en el estudio de una posible tuberculosis, también se les solicite estudio por piógenos en estos esputos, pues si la persona ya tiene más de 10 días con sintomatología respiratoria se debe descartar otras causas bacterianas. La mayoría de antibióticos de uso común en el primer nivel de atención no van a resolver los cuadros de infecciones de vías respiratorias inferiores cuando el paciente cumple la definición de sintomático respiratorio.


AbstractBackground:To study the sputum of patients who meet the definition of respiratory symptoms by making a pyogenic cultivation COOPESIBA - Barva, from May until August of the year 2012.Methods:Pyogenic bacteria cultivation sputum all who came to the Clinical Laboratory Barva Coopesiba RL from May 5 to August 3 of 2012.Results:Pyogenic bacteria was grown by a total of 28 sputum of which 11 (39%) were positive by pyogenic bacteria. Most cases are resistant to commonly used antibiotics in primary care.Conclusion:It is important that all patients who have respiratory symptoms and are suspect of Tuberculosis to have sputum by piogens studies too, because if the person already has more than 10 days with respiratory symptoms should rule out other causes bacterial. The most commonly used antibiotics in primary care will not fix the cases of lower respiratory tract infections when the patient meets the definition of symptomatic patient.


Subject(s)
Humans , Respiratory Tract Infections/diagnosis , Sputum/microbiology , Bacterial Infections/complications , Costa Rica
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