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1.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 21: e226337, jan.-dez. 2022. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1392920

ABSTRACT

Aim: Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma (HNSCC) is a global health problem whose incidence varies by geographic region and race according to risk factors. Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is a significant risk factor for HNSCC. HPV-16 and HPV-18 are two forms of HPV that are carcinogenic. HNSCCs that are HPV positive have a better prognosis rather than HPV negative. The purpose of this research was to characterize HPV-16, -18 variations in the saliva of HNSCC patients by examining the genetic diversity of HPV-16, -18 utilizing the full E6, E7, and L1 genes. Methods:The case-control research included 15 patients with HNSCC and 15 healthy volunteers. Unstimulated entire saliva samples were obtained from the case and control groups by spitting method. Genomic DNA was isolated from all saliva samples. A PCR reaction was used to determine the presence of HPV in saliva. HPV-positive samples were genotyped and data were analyzed. We conducted a variant study on the HPV-16, -18 E6, and E7 genes. Results: Three patients with HNSCC were HPV-positive for two HPV genotypes out of 30 people diagnosed with HPV-DNA. HPV-16 and -18 were the most common genotypes. The HPV-16, -18 E6, and E7 genes were sequenced and compared to the HPV-16, -18 (E6, E7) prototype sequence. In all, HPV-16 lineages A1 and HPV-18 lineages A3 were discovered. Conclusion: Regarding the variation of HPV found in Iranian HNSCC patients, the need for further studies in HPV genotyping was seen. Sequencing HPV genes in HNSCC may help answer questions about HPV genotyping in the Iranian population. HPV genotype analysis aids in the development of vaccinations against HNSCC, halting disease progression and preventing HPV-associated HNSCC


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Phylogeny , Saliva , Human papillomavirus 16 , Human papillomavirus 18 , Alphapapillomavirus , Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck
2.
J. oral res. (Impresa) ; 11(4): 1-13, jul. 21, 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1427176

ABSTRACT

Introduction: DMBA is a chemical carcinogen that induces carcinomas within a few weeks of its application. We developed an experimental model of carcinogenesis induced by DMBA dissolved in 0,5% paraffin oil (DMBA-PO), verifying the inhibitory effect of the carcinogenicity of phenyl isothiocyanate (PhITC), phenethyl (PhnITC) and benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC). Material and Methods: For this, 88 hamsters were distributed into three groups: one exposed to DMBA-PO (Group 1, n=12), three subgroups (n=12) exposed to PhITC, PhnITC, BITC and DMBA-PO (Group 2, n=36) and four control subgroups (n=10) that were not exposed to the carcinogen in which PO (paraffin oil) and isothiocyanates were applied (Group 3, n=40). Results: The experiment had a duration of 20 weeks, at the end of which the inhibitory effect was established by comparing the lesions developed in the groups that received isothiocyanates with the group that was only treated with DMBA-PO. The carcinogenic effect of DMBA-PO is 100% (35 carcinomas) and the inhibitory effect was 0, whereas in the presence of isothiocyanates the carcinogenic effect decreases, with an inhibitory effect of 86% for BITC (5 carcinomas) and 74% for PhITC (9 carcinomas). Conclusion: The inhibitory effect for PhnITC is 80% in relation to invasive OSCC (1 carcinoma).


Introducción: El DMBA es un carcinógeno químico que induce carcinomas a las pocas semanas de su aplicación. Desarrollamos un modelo experimental de carcinogénesis inducida por DMBA disuelto en aceite de parafina al 0,5% (DMBA-Ap) comprobando el efecto inhibidor de la carcinogénesis de los isotiocianatos fenil (PhITC), fenetil (PhnITC) y bencil isotiocianato (BITC). Material y Métodos: Para ello, se distribuyeron 88 hámsteres en 3 grupos: uno expuesto al DMBA-Ap (Grupo 1, n=12), tres subgrupos (n=12) expuestos a PhITC, PhnITC, BITC y DMBA-Ap (Grupo 2, n=36) y cuatro subgrupos controles (n=10), no expuestos al carcinógeno en el que se aplicaron Ap e isotiocianatos (Grupo 3, n=40). Resultados:El experimento tuvo una duración de 20 semanas, al final de la cual se establece de forma comparativa el efecto inhibidor comparando las lesiones desarrolladas en los grupos que recibieron isotiocianatos con respecto al grupo tratado sólo con DMBA-Ap. El efecto carcinógeno del DMBA-Ap es del 100% (35 carcinomas) y el efecto inhibidor 0, mientras que en presencia de isotiocianatos el efecto carcinógeno disminuye, con un efecto inhibidor del 86% para BITC (5 carcinomas) y del 74% para el PhITC (9 carcinomas). Conclusión:El efecto inhibidor del PhnITC es del 80% en relación con el COCE invasivo (1 carcinoma).


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Anticarcinogenic Agents/therapeutic use , 9,10-Dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene/toxicity , Carcinogens , Isothiocyanates , Models, Animal , Carcinogenesis , Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck
3.
Rev. Bras. Cancerol. (Online) ; 68(1)jan./fev./mar. 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1369846

ABSTRACT

Introdução: O câncer bucal corresponde a cerca de 30% de todos os tumores de cabeça e pescoço. Aproximadamente 90% dessas neoplasias malignas são carcinomas espinocelulares (CEC) e cerca de 15 mil casos novos são estimados a cada ano no Brasil. Objetivo: Avaliar os aspectos clínico-epidemiológicos de pacientes com CEC oral. Método: Estudo observacional, com delineamento transversal, quantitativo e retrospectivo, a partir da análise de prontuários de pacientes com diagnóstico histopatológico de CEC bucal atendidos em um centro de referência em Oncologia da Região Nordeste do Brasil. Variáveis clínicas e epidemiológicas foram coletadas e analisadas. A análise estatística foi realizada utilizando-se o teste de qui-quadrado (p≤0,05). Resultados: Entre os 298 prontuários avaliados, predominaram pacientes do sexo masculino (75,2%), com idade média de 60,4 anos, tabagistas e etilistas (62,0%). A queixa mais frequente foi a presença de ferida ou lesão na boca (61,1%), e o local mais comum foi a língua (62,1%). As variáveis clínicas revelaram estadiamento clínico avançado (III ou IV) em 76,4% dos pacientes. Entre os pacientes com idade até 50 anos, houve maior concentração de homens (p=0,015) e maior consumo de álcool do que entre os pacientes acima dos 50 anos (p=0,010). As demais variáveis não exibiram diferença estatística significante entre os grupos. Conclusão: As características clínico-epidemiológicas relacionadas ao CEC bucal devem ser consideradas para o planejamento de políticas públicas, a fim de prevenir novos casos e permitir a realização de diagnóstico precoce


Introduction: Oral cancer corresponds to about 30% of all head and neck tumors. Approximately 90% of these malignancies are squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) and about 15 thousand new cases are estimated each year in Brazil. Objective: Evaluate the clinical and epidemiological aspects of patients with oral SCC. Method: Observational cross-sectional, quantitative and retrospective design study, based on the analysis of medical records of patients with histopathological diagnosis of oral SCC treated at a reference center in oncology in Brazil's Northeast. Clinical and epidemiological variables were collected and analyzed. Statistical analysis was performed using the chi-square test (p≤0.05). Results: Among the 298 medical records evaluated, male patients predominated (75.2%), with an average age of 60.4 years, smokers and alcoholics (62.0%). The most reported complaint was the presence of a wound or injury in the mouth (61.1%) and the most common location was the tongue (62.1%). Clinical variables revealed advanced clinical staging (III or IV) in 76.4% of patients. Among patients aged up to 50 years, there was high concentration of men (p=0.015) and greater use of alcohol than among patients over 50 years (p=0.010). The other variables did not show a statistically significant difference between the groups. Conclusion: The clinical and epidemiological characteristics related to oral SCC should be considered when planning public policies, in order to prevent new cases as well as to allow for early diagnosis


Introducción: El cáncer oral corresponde a aproximadamente 30% de todos los tumores de cabeza y cuello. Aproximadamente 90% de estos tumores malignos son carcinomas de células escamosas (CCE) y se estiman alrededor de 15 mil casos nuevos cada año en Brasil. Objetivo: Evaluar los aspectos clínicos y epidemiológicos de los pacientes con CCE oral. Método: Estudio observacional, con diseño transversal, cuantitativo y retrospectivo, basado en el análisis de historias clínicas de pacientes con diagnóstico histopatológico de CCE oral tratados en un centro de referencia en Oncología del Noreste de Brasil. Se recogieron y analizaron variables clínicas y epidemiológicas. El análisis estadístico se realizó mediante la prueba de chi-cuadrado (p≤0,05). Resultados: Entre las 298 historias clínicas evaluadas, predominaron los pacientes del sexo masculino (75,2%), con una edad promedio de 60,4 años, fumadores y alcohólicos (62,0%). La queja más frecuente fue la presencia de herida o lesión en la boca (61,1%) y la ubicación más común fue la lengua (62,1%). Las variables clínicas revelaron estadificación clínica avanzada (III o IV) en 76,4% de los pacientes. Entre los pacientes de hasta 50 años, hubo una mayor concentración de hombres (p=0,015) y un mayor consumo de alcohol que entre los pacientes mayores de 50 años (p=0,010). Las otras variables no mostraron una diferencia estadísticamente significativa entre los grupos. Conclusión: Las características clínicas y epidemiológicas relacionadas con el CCE oral deben considerarse al planificar las políticas públicas, a fin de prevenir nuevos casos y permitir un diagnóstico precoz


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Mouth Neoplasms , Chi-Square Distribution , Medical Records , Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck/diagnosis , Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck/epidemiology
4.
j.tunis.ORL chir. cerv.-fac ; 47: 23-29, 2022. tables, figures
Article in French | AIM | ID: biblio-1433886

ABSTRACT

Etudier les facteurs influençant le pronostic des carcinomes épidermoïdes du larynx. Méthodes: Etude rétrospective analytique menée sur 100 patients présentant un carcinome épidermoïde primitif du larynx, durant une période de 24 ans (1992­2015). Résultats: La survie globale à 1 an, à 3 ans et à 5 ans a été respectivement de 99 %, de 77 % et de 63 %. La survie sans maladie à 1 an, à 3 ans et à 5 ans a été respectivement de 88 %, de 76 % et de 63 %. L'étude univariée de la survie globale et la survie sans maladie a montré un impact péjoratif de l'atteinte ganglionnaire histologique, de l'engainement péri-nerveux et des limites chirurgicales tumorales (facteurs histo-pronostiques). Dans l'étude multivariée, seuls le stade T, le stade N, l'atteinte sous-glottique, l'atteinte du cartilage thyroïde et le délai de la radiothérapie postopératoire ont présenté un impact significatif sur la survie sans maladie. Aucun facteur n'a présenté d'impact significatif sur la survie globale, en analyse multivariée. L'étude statistique de la récidive n'a montré aucun facteur prédictif. Conclusion: Le stade tumoral et les facteurs histo-pronostiques sont les 2 facteurs pronostiques majeurs. Dans la littérature, Les principaux facteurs prédictifs de récidive sont: le stade tumoral, les limites chirurgicales tumorales et l'extension extra-nodale. Dans notre étude, aucun facteur prédictif n'a été trouvé.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck , Prognosis , Carcinoma , Cell Survival
5.
j.tunis.ORL chir. cerv.-fac ; 47(3): 23-28, 2022. tales, figures
Article in French | AIM | ID: biblio-1392584

ABSTRACT

But: Etudier les facteurs influençant le pronostic des carcinomes épidermoïdes du larynx. Méthodes: Etude rétrospective analytique menée sur 100 patients présentant un carcinome épidermoïde primitif du larynx, durant une période de 24 ans (1992­2015). Résultats: La survie globale à 1 an, à 3 ans et à 5 ans a été respectivement de 99 %, de 77 % et de 63 %. La survie sans maladie à 1 an, à 3 ans et à 5 ans a été respectivement de 88 %, de 76 % et de 63 %. L'étude univariée de la survie globale et la survie sans maladie a montré un impact péjoratif de l'atteinte ganglionnaire histologique, de l'engainement péri-nerveux et des limites chirurgicales tumorales (facteurs histo-pronostiques). Dans l'étude multivariée, seuls le stade T, le stade N, l'atteinte sous-glottique, l'atteinte du cartilage thyroïde et le délai de la radiothérapie postopératoire ont présenté un impact significatif sur la survie sans maladie. Aucun facteur n'a présenté d'impact significatif sur la survie globale, en analyse multivariée. L'étude statistique de la récidive n'a montré aucun facteur prédictif. Conclusion: Le stade tumoral et les facteurs histo-pronostiques sont les 2 facteurs pronostiques majeurs. Dans la littérature, Les principaux facteurs prédictifs de récidive sont: le stade tumoral, les limites chirurgicales tumorales et l'extension extra-nodale. Dans notre étude, aucun facteur prédictif n'a été trouvé.


Subject(s)
Humans , Prognosis , Carcinoma , Cell Survival , Epithelial Cells , Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck
6.
Mali Médical ; 28(3): 74-76, 30/09/2022. Figures
Article in French | AIM | ID: biblio-1397780

ABSTRACT

Les tumeurs conjonctivales sont fréquentes dans les zones tropicales,où l'exposition aux rayons ultraviolets est forte et quasi permanente. Les tumeurs malignes sont assez rares et la plus représentée est le carcinome épidermoïde de la conjonctive.Nous rapportons deux cas de carcinome épidermoïde invasif de la conjonctive reçus dans le service d'ophtalmologie de l'hôpital Sominé Dolo de Mopti au Mali. Il s'agissait de deux patientes de 25 et 51 ans, vivant en zone rurale et désertique exposées aux rayons solaires et à la poussière. Elles présentaient une masse développée dans l'aire de la fente palpébrale, envahissant la cornée et empêchant l'occlusion palpébrale. La masse était en relief, multi lobulée, bien circonscrite, de couleur blanc nacré et d'aspect papillomateux avec une dilatation des vaisseaux nourriciers. Une exérèse chirurgicale large à 4 - 5 mm des berges de tissu sain a été réalisée avec examen anatomopathologique de la pièce qui a confirmé un carcinome épidermoïde différencié mature et invasif de la conjonctive. Le bilan d'extension et la sérologie HIV étaient négatifs. L'évolution était favorable à moyen terme sans récidive


Conjunctival tumors are common in tropical areas, where exposure to ultraviolet radiation is high and almost permanent. Malignant tumors are quite rare and the most represented is conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma. We report two cases of invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the conjunctiva received in the ophthalmology department of the Sominé Dolo hospital in Mopti, Mali. The patients were 25 and 51 years old, living in a rural desert area exposed to sunlight and dust. They presented with a mass developed in the area of the palpebral fissure, invading the cornea and preventing palpebral occlusion. The mass was raised, multi-lobulated, well circumscribed, pearly white in color and papillomatous in appearance with dilation of the feeder vessels. A wide surgical excision at 4 - 5 mm from the healthy tissue edges was performed with anatomopathological examination of the specimen, which confirmed a mature and invasive differentiated squamous cell carcinoma of the conjunctiva. The extension workup and HIV serology were negative. The evolution was favorable in the medium term without recurrence


Subject(s)
Carcinoma , Conjunctival Diseases , Environmental Exposure , Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck , DNA Repair , Sun Protection Factor
7.
Rev. Bras. Cancerol. (Online) ; 68(2)Abr.-Jun. 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1378912

ABSTRACT

Introdução: O tratamento de neoplasia maligna pode consistir em ampla excisão cirúrgica. Em alguns casos, em razão do tratamento agressivo na remoção do tumor, há grande comprometimento das estruturas intrabucais. Assim, próteses são utilizadas para a obturação da cavidade maxilar, possibilitando a reconstrução da região afetada, juntamente com a reabilitação oral. Relato do caso: Paciente de 53 anos de idade, sexo feminino, ex-tabagista e ex-etilista, apresentou diagnóstico de carcinoma de células escamosas na região de palato mole, sendo necessária cirurgia de ressecção transoral associada à radioterapia. Após aproximadamente um ano, a paciente retornou com nova lesão em palato, que novamente evidenciou carcinoma de células escamosas, sendo necessária nova cirurgia de ressecção transoral. Após dois anos, a paciente retornou ao Departamento de Odontologia a fim de receber o tratamento reabilitador, pois a prótese parcial removível superior era provisória, não substituía todos os dentes ausentes e não obtinha adaptação adequada à comunicação buconasal. Foi realizado tratamento reabilitador definitivo com prótese parcial removível superior e com prótese total no rebordo residual inferior. Conclusão: A necessidade do acompanhamento odontológico nos casos de ocorrência de carcinoma de células escamosas oral bem como a importância do tratamento reabilitador e suas técnicas contribuem para a autoestima e a qualidade de vida do paciente


Introduction: The treatment of malignant neoplasm may consist in extensive surgical excision. In some cases, due to aggressive treatment in the removal of the tumor, intraoral structures are strongly compromised. Thus, prostheses are used to fill the maxillary cavity, allowing reconstruction of the affected region, together with oral rehabilitation. Case report: A 53-year-old female patient, ex-smoker and ex-alcoholic was diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma in the soft palate region, requiring transoral resection surgery associated with radiotherapy. After approximately one year, the patient returned with a new palatal lesion, also diagnosed as squamous cell carcinoma, requiring further transoral resection surgery. After two years, the patient returned to the Dentistry Department to receive the rehabilitative treatment, as she had only a temporary removable upper partial denture, where all the missing teeth were not replaced and there was poor adaptation to bucconasal communication. A final rehabilitative treatment was performed with upper partial removable denture and total prosthesis in the inferior residual ridge. Conclusion: The need for dental follow-up in cases of oral squamous cell carcinoma as well as the importance of rehabilitation treatment and its techniques contribute for the patient's self-esteem and quality of life


Introducción: El tratamiento de las neoplasias malignas puede consistir en una exéresis quirúrgica extensa. En algunos casos, debido a un tratamiento agresivo para extirpar el tumor, existe un gran compromiso de las estructuras intraorales. Así, las prótesis se utilizan para rellenar la cavidad maxilar, permitiendo la reconstrucción de la región afectada, junto con la rehabilitación oral. Relato del caso: Paciente femenina de 53 años, exfumadora y exalcohólica, que presentó el diagnóstico de carcinoma epidermoide en la región del paladar blando, que requirió cirugía de resección transoral asociada a radioterapia. Después de aproximadamente un año, la paciente regresó con una nueva lesión en el paladar, en la que también se le diagnosticó un carcinoma epidermoide, requiriendo una nueva cirugía de resección transoral. A los dos años, la paciente volvió al Departamento de Odontología para recibir tratamiento rehabilitador, ya que la prótesis parcial superior removible era temporal, no reponía todos los dientes faltantes y no obtenía una adecuada adaptación a la comunicación bucconasal. El tratamiento de rehabilitación definitivo se realizó con una dentadura postiza parcial removible superior y una dentadura total en el reborde residual inferior. Conclusión: La necesidad de seguimiento odontológico en los casos de carcinoma epidermoide oral así como la importancia del tratamiento rehabilitador y sus técnicas contribuyen a la autoestima y calidad de vida del paciente


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Palatal Obturators , Mouth Neoplasms , Denture, Partial, Removable , Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck , Mouth Rehabilitation
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929153

ABSTRACT

Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) still lacks effective targeted treatment. Therefore, exploring novel and robust molecular targets is critical for improving the clinical outcome of HNSCC. Here, we reported that the expression levels of family with sequence similarity 64, member A (FAM64A) were significantly higher in HNSCC tissues and cell lines. In addition, FAM64A overexpression was found to be strongly associated with an unfavorable prognosis of HNSCC. Both in vitro and in vivo evidence showed that FAM64A depletion suppressed the malignant activities of HNSCC cells, and vice versa. Moreover, we found that the FAM64A level was progressively increased from normal to dysplastic to cancerous tissues in a carcinogenic 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide mouse model. Mechanistically, a physical interaction was found between FAM64A and forkhead box protein M1 (FOXM1) in HNSCC cells. FAM64A promoted HNSCC tumorigenesis not only by enhancing the transcriptional activity of FOXM1, but also, more importantly, by modulating FOXM1 expression via the autoregulation loop. Furthermore, a positive correlation between FAM64A and FOXM1 was found in multiple independent cohorts. Taken together, our findings reveal a previously unknown mechanism behind the activation of FOXM1 in HNSCC, and FAM64A might be a promising molecular therapeutic target for treating HNSCC.


Subject(s)
Animals , Carcinogenesis , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation , Cell Transformation, Neoplastic , Head and Neck Neoplasms/genetics , Homeostasis , Mice , Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929138

ABSTRACT

The heterogeneity of exhausted T cells (Tex) is a critical determinant of immune checkpoint blockade therapy efficacy. However, few studies have explored exhausted T cell subpopulations in human cancers. In the present study, we examined samples from two cohorts of 175 patients with head and neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC) by multiplex immunohistochemistry (mIHC) to investigate two subsets of Tex, CD8+PD1+TCF1+ progenitor exhausted T cells (TCF1+Texprog) and CD8+PD1+TCF1- terminally exhausted T cells (TCF1-Texterm). Moreover, fresh tumor samples from 34 patients with HNSCC were examined by flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry to further investigate their properties and cytotoxic capabilities and their correlation with regulatory T cells (Tregs) in the tumor immune microenvironment (TIME). mIHC and flow cytometry analysis showed that TCF1-Texterm represented a greater proportion of CD8+PD1+Tex than TCF1+Texprog in most patients. TCF1+Texprog produced abundant TNFα, while TCF1-Texterm expressed higher levels of CD103, TIM-3, CTLA-4, and TIGIT. TCF1-Texterm exhibited a polyfunctional TNFα+GZMB+IFNγ+ phenotype; and were associated with better overall survival and recurrence-free survival. The results also indicated that larger proportions of TCF1-Texterm were accompanied by an increase in the proportion of Tregs. Therefore, it was concluded that TCF1-Texterm was the major CD8+PD1+Tex subset in the HNSCC TIME and that these cells favor patient survival. A high proportion of TCF1-Texterm was associated with greater Treg abundance.


Subject(s)
CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , Head and Neck Neoplasms/therapy , Humans , Immunotherapy/methods , Prognosis , Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor , Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck/therapy , Tumor Microenvironment , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929136

ABSTRACT

Poly Adenylate Binding Protein Interacting protein 1 (PAIP1) plays a critical role in translation initiation and is associated with the several cancer types. However, its function and clinical significance have not yet been described in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and its associated features like lymph node metastasis (LNM). Here, we used the data available from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO), The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), and Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium (CPTAC) to analyze PAIP1 expression in oral cancer. The publicly available data suggests that PAIP1 mRNA and protein levels were increased in OSCC. The high PAIP1 expression was more evident in samples with advanced stage, LNM, and worse pattern of invasion. Moreover, the in vitro experiments revealed that PAIP1 knockdown attenuated colony forming, the aggressiveness of OSCC cell lines, decreasing MMP9 activity and SRC phosphorylation. Importantly, we found a correlation between PAIP1 and pSRC through the analysis of the IHC scores and CPTAC data in patient samples. Our findings suggest that PAIP1 could be an independent prognostic factor in OSCC with LNM and a suitable therapeutic target to improve OSCC patient outcomes.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/genetics , Head and Neck Neoplasms , Humans , Lymphatic Metastasis , Mouth Neoplasms/pathology , Peptide Initiation Factors/metabolism , Prognosis , Proteomics , RNA-Binding Proteins/metabolism , Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929056

ABSTRACT

Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), as the most common type (>90%) of head and neck cancer, includes various epithelial malignancies that arise in the nasal cavity, oral cavity, pharynx, and larynx. In 2020, approximately 878 ‍ 000 new cases and 444 000 deaths linked to HNSCC occurred worldwide (Sung et al., 2021). Due to the associated frequent recurrence and metastasis, HNSCC patients have poor prognosis with a five-year survival rate of 40%-50% (Jou and Hess, 2017). Therefore, novel prognostic biomarkers need to be developed to identify high-risk HNSCC patients and improve their disease outcomes.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers, Tumor/genetics , Head and Neck Neoplasms/genetics , Humans , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , RNA , Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck , Survival Analysis , Survival Rate
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936254

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate the therapeutic and prognostic outcomes of transoral robotic surgery (TORS) for oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Methods: A retrospective study of 99 OSCC patients treated with TORS in Department of Head and Neck Surgery, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center between April 2017 and May 2021 was conducted. There were 84 males and 15 females, with an age range of 35-85 years. Patients' clinical characteristics, including clinical staging, HPV infection status, perioperative management and postoperative adjuvant treatment, were recorded. The overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were analyzed. The survival outcomes were analyzed with Kaplan-Meier method and Log-rank test. Results: The hospital stay of OSCC patients with TORS was (5.3±2.9) days and the average time of postoperative nasal feeding tube indwelling was (15.2±10.8) days. Among the 99 patients, 21 (21.2%) received tracheotomy and the average time of tracheotomy tube indwelling was (11.9±11.4) days. The two-year OS and PFS in patients with follow-up over two years were 94.0% and 87.7%, respectively and the three-year OS and PFS of patients with follow-up over three years were 94.0% and 78.9%, respectively. The two-year OS and PFS were respectively 97.4% and 88.9%, for patients with stages I-II and 86.8% and 88.9% for patients with stages III-IV. HPV-negative and HPV-positive patients had respectively two-year OS (100.0% vs. 91.5%) and PFS (88.9% vs. 87.2%). There was no significantly statistical difference in survival between patients with and without adjuvant radiotherapy after TORS (82.6% vs. 90.5%, HR=0.52, 95%CI: 0.12-2.23, P=0.400). Conclusions: TORS is more suitable for the treatment of patients with early (Ⅰ-Ⅱ) or HPV-positive oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma, and the recovery after TORS treatment is good.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Head and Neck Neoplasms , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Oropharyngeal Neoplasms/surgery , Papillomavirus Infections/surgery , Retrospective Studies , Robotic Surgical Procedures/methods , Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck/surgery , Treatment Outcome
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936235

ABSTRACT

Objective: To compare the clinical features and prognoses of patients with oropharyngeal or hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) with and without retropharyngeal lymph node metastases. Methods: PubMed, Cochrane, Web of Science, CNKI, VIP and Wanfang databases were searched for published literatures on retropharyngeal lymph node metastasis of oropharyngeal or hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (1900, 2021), and outcome indicators such as survival rate and related clinical features were extracted. The quality evaluation of the included literatures was carried out. RevMan 5.4 and Stata 16.0 software were used for data analysis. Results: A total of 18 literatures were included. Meta analysis showed that 3-year and 5-year survival rates and 5-year disease-specific survival rate of patients with oropharyngeal or hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma with retropharyngeal lymph node metastases were lower than those without metastases, 46.1% vs. 53.0%, 40.8% vs. 62.5% and 35.9% vs. 53.1%, respectively, and the differences were statistically significant (OR values were 0.26, 0.38, 0.38, and 95%CI were 0.10-0.69, 0.28-0.51, 0.23-0.65, respectively, all P values<0.05). There were statistically significant differences in clinical stage (III-IV), T stage (T3+T4), N stage (N2), positive cervical lymph node metastases and number of lymph node metastases (≥3) between the two groups (OR values were 4.28, 2.20, 2.88, 10.83, 6.53, and 95%CI were 1.70-10.74, 1.35-3.58, 1.90-4.34, 3.57-32.95, 1.75-24.38, respectively, all P<0.05). The sensitivity and specificity of preoperative imaging for diagnosing retropharyngeal lymph nodes metastases were respectively 0.72 (95%CI=0.54-0.85) and 0.98 (95%CI=0.74-1.00), and the area under curve (AUC) of summary receiver operating characteristic curve (SROC) was 0.84 (95%CI=0.80-0.87). Conclusions: The survival rate of patients with oropharyngeal or hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma with retropharyngeal lymph node metastasis is significantly reduced, the clinical stage and T stage are late, and the cervical lymph node metastasis rate is high. Retropharyngeal lymph node metastasis is more insidious, the sensitivity of preoperative imaging diagnosis is not high.


Subject(s)
Head and Neck Neoplasms/pathology , Humans , Hypopharyngeal Neoplasms/pathology , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Lymphatic Metastasis/pathology , Neoplasm Staging , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936215

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate ferroptosis in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) and its regulation by M2 macrophage-derived exosomes. Methods: LSCC and adjacent noncancerous tissue samples were collected from 32 patients treated in the Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery of the Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin between September 2018 and April 2021, including 26 males and 6 females, aged 43-79 years. The expressions of ferroptosis marker glutathione peroxidase 4(GPX4) in LSCC and adjacent noncancerous tissues were detected by immunohistochemistry and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR). The correlations between GPX4 expression and clinicopathological factors in LSCC were analyzed. Biological changes of TU212 cells after treated with ferroptosis-induced agent erastin were detected by transmission electron microscope, cell counting kit-8(CCK-8), clone test, reactive oxygen species(ROS), malondialdehyde(MDA), glutathione(GSH), JC-1, RT-PCR and western blot. Exosomes were isolated from the supernatant of M0/M2 macrophages (M0-exos/M2-exos) and co-incubated with erastin-treated TU212 cells to detect the change of ferroptosis in cells of each group. The data were analyzed by SPSS software of version19.0. Results: GPX4 expression in LSCC tissues was significantly higher than that in adjacent noncancerous tissues (2.04±0.65 vs. 0.99±0.09, F=30.36, P<0.001), and was closely related to T stage and clinical stage (Ⅰ-Ⅱvs.Ⅲ-Ⅳ: 1.75±0.39 vs. 2.18±0.71, F=2.25, P<0.05; T1-2 vs. T3-4: 1.71±0.42 vs. 2.20±0.69, F=2.06, P<0.05). In TU212 cells treated with erastin, mitochondrial crest became smaller, membrane density increased, proliferation rate decreased, intracellular ROS level increased, mitochondrial membrane potential depolarized, GSH content decreased, intracellular MDA level increased and expressions of GPX4 mRNA and protein decreased. Change of M0 into M2 macrophages was induced by IL-4 stimulation. When erastin-treated TU212 cells were incubated with M2-exos, cell proliferation was partially restored and GPX4 expression was enhanced, and also with the recoveries of levels of ROS, MDA and GSH (all P<0.05). Conclusions: Ferroptosis is one of the cell death ways of LSCC. M2-exos may inhibit ferroptosis of LSCC cells.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Exosomes , Female , Ferroptosis , Head and Neck Neoplasms , Humans , Macrophages , Male , Middle Aged , Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936191

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate the roles of G Protein-Coupled Receptor 68 (GPR68) and tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) in TPF-(paclitaxel, cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil) induced chemotherapy for middle-advanced hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas. Methods: A total of 31 patients with middle-advanced hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma before TPF-inducted chemotherapy were enrolled from September 2012 to November 2017 in Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University, including 28 males and 3 females, aged 43 to 71 years old. The expression of GPR68 and tumor infiltrating CD4+and CD8+T cells before chemotherapy was detected by immunohistochemical staining, and the relationships between GPR68 expression and clinical features, chemotherapy efficacy and overall survival (OS) were analyzed using t-test. Results: After 3 cycles of chemotherapy, there were 4, 14, 10 and 3 patients respectively with complete response (CR), partial response (PR), stable disease (SD) and progressive disease (PD). The positive rates of GPR68 and CD8 were 25% and 40% respectively in the effective group (CR+PR), while 50% and 15% in the ineffective group (SD+PD), with statistically significant differences between two groups (t=5.17 and 12.86,P<0.001). Linear regression analysis showed that GPR68 was negatively correlated with CD8+T cells (r=-0.64,P<0.001). There was no significant correlation between the CD4 expression and TPF efficacy (P>0.05). The mean OS was 12.5 months in patients with high-expressed GPR68 and 25.0 months in patients with low-expressed GPR68, with a statistically significant difference (P=0.005). And mean OS was 25.0 months in patients with high-expressed CD8 and 14.5 months in low-expressed CD8, with a statistically significant difference (HR=2.58, P=0.019). Cox regression analysis showed that GPR68 and CD8+T cells were significant prognostic factors (OR(95%CI)=3.27(2.46-5.97) and 1.53(0.78-1.82), all P<0.05), while CD4 had no significant effect on prognosis (P>0.05). Conclusion: GPR68 and CD8+T cells are expected to be biomarkers for evaluating the efficacy and prognosis of TPF-induced chemotherapy in patients with middle-advanced hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use , Cisplatin , Female , Fluorouracil , Head and Neck Neoplasms/drug therapy , Humans , Induction Chemotherapy , Lymphocytes, Tumor-Infiltrating , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled , Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936114

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the characteristics of pathogen infection and to establish a prediction model of infections in oral squamous cell carcinoma patients undergoing surgery with free flap reconstruction.@*METHODS@#The retrospective cohort study consisted of 1 596 patients undergoing tumor resection and free flap reconstruction for oral squamous cell carcinoma from January 2018 to December 2020. According to the postoperative infection, the patients were divided into the infected group (n=154) and non-infected group (n=1 442). The characteristics of pathogens were analyzed in the infected patients. The primary outcome variable was postoperative infection, and Logistic regression was used to determine risk factors of the infection. The prediction model was established and the discriminatory accuracy of the model was evaluated using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve.@*RESULTS@#Totally 154 cases were infected in the 1 596 cases undergoing surgery with free flap reconstruction, and the infection rate was 9.65%. The most frequent sites of infection were the surgical wound and respiratory tract. A total of 268 pathogens were isolated and cultured, including 240 strains of Gram-negative bacteria, accounting for 89.55%, mainly Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae; 23 strains of Gram-positive bacteria, accounting for 8.58%, mainly Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus aureus; and 5 strains of fungi, accounting for 1.87%. The isolated Pseudomonas aeruginosa had high resistant rate to imipenem and meropenem, and was sensitive to antibiotics, such as ciprofloxacin. The isolated Staphylococcus aureus had high resistant rate to erythromycin and clindamycin, and was sensitive to vancomycin. According to the multivariate Logistic analysis, four independent variables were significantly associated with an increased risk of postoperative infection (P < 0.05): clinical N category≥1, the American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) grade ≥2, tracheotomy and length of hospital stay >13 d. The prediction model was established based on these factors and the expression of the risk prediction model was as follows: predicted probability value P=1/(1+e-a), a=-0.803+0.674×(clinical N category ≥1)+0.518×(the ASA grade ≥2)+0.918×(tracheotomy)+1.581×(length of hospital stay >13 d), Hosmer-Lemeshow χ2=10.647, P=0.223, the degree of fitting of the model was good. The area under the ROC curve was 0.818 and 95%CI of the model for predicting infection was 0.789-0.846.@*CONCLUSION@#Oral squamous cell carcinoma patients undergoing surgery with free flap reconstruction are prone to have a high incidence of postoperative infection and Gram-negative bacteria are the main pathogens causing an infection. The established prediction model is of good predictive effect. Rational antimicrobial use coupled with awareness of infection control measures is paramount to reduce the incidence of postoperative infection in the oral squamous cell carcinoma patients undergoing surgery with free flap reconstruction.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/surgery , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Free Tissue Flaps , Head and Neck Neoplasms , Humans , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Mouth Neoplasms/surgery , Retrospective Studies , Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck/drug therapy
17.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 450-454, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935236

ABSTRACT

Objective: Local recurrence is the main cause of treatment failure in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). This study was proposed to investigate the feasibility of near infrared fluorescence (NIF) via indocyanine green (ICG) for monitoring surgical marginal in operation for OSCC patients. Methods: In 35 patients with OSCC treated surgically in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Nanjing University School of Medicine, from January 2019 to June 2020, ICG (0.75 mg/kg) was administered intravenously via elbow vein at (12±1) hours before surgery, and NIF was performed intraoperatively on the surgical field and the cut edge of the surgically excised specimen, and fluorescence intensity was measured for OSCC tissue and normal oral mucosa, abnormal fluorescence signals were taken and subjected to rapid cryopathological examination. Correlation between NIF tumor boundary grading and pathological tumor boundary grading was analyzed by Spearman correlation analysis. Results: Clear ICG NIF was obtained for tumor lesions in all 35 patients, with a positive rate of 100%. The fluorescence intensity of OSCC tissue was (412.73±146.56) au, which was higher than that of normal oral mucosa tissue [(279.38±82.56) au, P<0.01]. Abnormal fluorescence signals were detected at the tumor bed and the cut edge of the surgical resection specimen in 4 patients, of which 2 cases were pathologically confirmed as cancer cell residue and 2 cases as inflammatory cell infiltration. The rate of positive detection of cut margins using ICG NIF technique in OSCC was 5.7% (2/35). Twenty of the 35 OSCC patients had grade 1, 11 of grade 2, and 4 of grade 3 tumor borders revealed by NIF of surgical resection specimens, which was positively correlated with pathological tumor border (r=0.809, P<0.001). Conclusions: ICG NIF technique can effectively detect the residual cancer cells at the incision margin, which is of great clinical value in reducing local recurrence of OSCC after surgery due to intraoperative cancer residue.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/surgery , Head and Neck Neoplasms , Humans , Indocyanine Green , Margins of Excision , Mouth Neoplasms/surgery , Neoplasm, Residual , Optical Imaging/methods , Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck/surgery
18.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 570-576, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940924

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the therapeutic effects of transoral robotic surgery (TORS) and traditional surgical modes in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC). Methods: The clinicopathological data of patients with oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma treated at Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center from 2010 to 2018 were retrospectively analyzed. 135 cases were treated with traditional surgery (non-TORS group), while 52 cases were treated with TORS (TORS group). The prognosis of the two groups of patients were analyzed by Kaplan-Meier method and Log rank test, the influencing factors were analyzed by Cox regression model. Results: The 2-year overall survival (OS, 94.2%) and 2-year progression-free survival (PFS, 93.8%) of patients in the TORS group were better than those in the non-TORS group (71.4% and 71.4%, respectively, P<0.05). The 2-year OS (93.3%) and 2-year PFS (92.8%) of TORS group patients in T1-2 stage were better than those of non-TORS group (73.1% and 72.8%, respectively, P<0.05). The 2-year OS (95.8%) and 2-year PFS (95.2%) of patients with stage Ⅰ to Ⅱ in the TORS group were not significantly different from those in the non-TORS group (84.1% and 83.9%, respectively, P>0.05). The 2-year OS (92.9%) and 2-year PFS rate (92.7%) of patients with stage Ⅲ to Ⅳ in the TORS group were better than those in the non-TORS group (64.7% and 63.9%, respectively, P<0.05). The 2-year OS (94.4%) of HPV-positive patients in the TORS group was not significantly different from that in the non-TORS group (83.3%, P=0.222). The 2-year OS of HPV-negative patients in the TORS group (94.1%) was significantly different from that in the non-TORS group (43.7%, P<0.001). HPV status was an independent prognostic factor (P=0.008). Conclusions: TORS has a better prognosis in the treatment of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma compared with the traditional treatment methods. The patients with T1-T2 can achieve better survival benefits after TORS treatment. The HPV-positive OPSCC patients has a better prognosis than that of HPV-negative OPSCC patients, and regardless of HPV status, OPSCC patients in the TORS group could obtain a better survival prognosis.


Subject(s)
Head and Neck Neoplasms , Humans , Oropharyngeal Neoplasms/surgery , Papillomavirus Infections/complications , Retrospective Studies , Robotic Surgical Procedures/methods , Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck/surgery
19.
Rev. Rede cuid. saúde ; 15(2): [28-43], dez. 2021.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1349492

ABSTRACT

Purpose: The aim of the present study was to verify the knowledge of health professionals being educated in the Medical and Dentistry courses about oral cancer, specifically Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC), in view of this being the most prevalent type of cancer of the head and neck. Methods: A questionnaire contained objective questions was applied with the aim of evaluating knowledge about some aspects of OSCC. Students in the clinical cycle of the Course in Medicine and Course in Dentistry participated. Both groups were in the 5th and 8th semesters at the Campuses 1 (C1) and 2 (C2). A total of 454 questionnaires were answered and evaluated, distributed as follows: 301 and 153 from the C1 and C2, respectively. Results: The results show that the students from Medicine of the C1 and C2 were observed to be "Regular" (40.67%) and "Insufficient" (44.58%), respectively. For the course in Dentistry of C1 and C2, the prevalent response was "Good" for courses, 52.67% and 46.38%, respectively. Conclusion: The results revealed an inadequate level of knowledge of OSCC. Despite the knowledge is transmitted, changes are necessary to allow the students more time in clinical practice to reptai knowledge.


Objetivo: O objetivo do presente estudo foi verificar o conhecimento dos profissionais de saúde formados nos cursos de Medicina e Odontologia sobre câncer bucal, especificamente o Carcinoma de Células Escamosas Bucais (CCEB), tendo em vista que este é o tipo de câncer de cabeça e pescoço mais prevalente. Metodologia: Um questionário contendo perguntas objetivas foi aplicado com o objetivo de avaliar o conhecimento sobre alguns aspectos do CCEB. Participaram os alunos do ciclo clínico dos cursos de Medicina e Odontologia. Ambos os grupos estavam no 5º e 8º semestres nos campi 1 (C1) e 2 (C2). Foram respondidos e avaliados 454 questionários, distribuídos da seguinte forma: 301 e 153 do C1 e C2, respectivamente. Resultados: Os resultados mostram que os estudantes de Medicina dos C1 e C2 foram observados como "Regular" (40,67%) e "Insuficiente" (44,58%), respectivamente. Para o curso de Odontologia dos C1 e C2, a resposta predominante foi "boa" para os cursos, 52,67% e 46,38%, respectivamente. Conclusão: Os resultados revelaram um nível inadequado de conhecimento da CCEB. Apesar do conhecimento ser transmitido, são necessárias mudanças para permitir que os alunos tenham mais tempo na prática clínica para reter conhecimento.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Mouth Neoplasms , Dentistry , Workforce , Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck , Medicine
20.
Rev. cuba. med. mil ; 50(3): e1401, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1357303

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El carcinoma epidermoide es la neoplasia maligna más frecuente de la cabeza y el cuello, por lo que un conocimiento adecuado sobre sus factores de riesgo podría disminuir su morbimortalidad. Objetivo: Identificar la asociación causal entre algunos factores de riesgo y la aparición del carcinoma epidermoide de la cavidad bucal. Métodos: Estudio observacional, analítico, de casos y controles en pacientes tratados en el servicio de cirugía maxilofacial del Hospital General Provincial Carlos Manuel de Céspedes entre el 1 de enero de 2018 y el 31 de diciembre de 2020. Para el análisis estadístico de los factores de riesgo se midió la fuerza de la asociación con el odds ratio y sus intervalos de confianza (IC 95 por ciento) y luego se realizó un análisis multivariado. Resultados: Se trabajó con 87 pacientes (29 casos y 58 controles). El 68,96 % (n = 20) de los casos fueron pacientes masculinos y su promedio de edad fue de 63,03 años. Las personas con antecedentes de consumo de alcohol tuvieron un riesgo 16 veces mayor de padecer la enfermedad (OR: 16,03). La higiene bucal deficiente (OR: 5,23; IC 95 por ciento: 1,18-23,29; p = 0,030) y la exposición a irritantes traumáticos (OR: 4,41; IC 95 por ciento: 1,01-19,23; p = 0,048) fueron también factores de riesgo. Conclusión: Existe una fuerte asociación entre la presencia de la enfermedad y el antecedente de consumo de alcohol, la exposición a irritantes traumáticos y la higiene bucal deficiente(AU)


Introduction: Squamous cell carcinoma is the most frequent neoplasm of the head and neck. An adequate knowledge about its risk factors could reduce its morbidity and mortality. Objective: To identify the causal association between some risk factors and the apparition of the oral squamous cell carcinoma. Methods: Observational, analytic and case-control study conducted with patients treated at Carlos Manuel de Céspedes Provincial General Hospital's maxillofacial surgery service between January 1, 2018 and December 31, 2020. For the statistical analysis of the risk factors, the strength of the association with the Odds Ratio and its confidence intervals (95 percent CI) was measured and later a multivariate analysis was performed. Results: The sample was comprised of 87 patients (29 cases and 58 controls). The 68.96 percent of the cases (n=20) were male patients and their average age was 63.03 years. People with history of alcohol consumption showed a 16 times greater risk (OR=16.03). Poor oral hygiene (OR: 5.23; CI 95 percent: 1.18-23.29; p=0.030) and traumatic irritants (OR: 4.41; CI 95 percent: 1.01-19.23; p=0.048) were risk factors too. Conclusion: A strong association between the disease and the antecedent of alcohol consumption, the exposition to traumatic irritating and the poor oral hygiene was identified(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Oral Hygiene , Surgery, Oral , Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck/complications , Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck/prevention & control , Head and Neck Neoplasms/complications , Case-Control Studies , Impacts of Polution on Health/prevention & control
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