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2.
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 19(2): e200152, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1279491

ABSTRACT

A new species of Characidium is described from the tributaries of the rio Tocantinzinho, rio Tocantins basin, located in the southern portion of the Chapada dos Veadeiros, at about 1,200 meters of elevation, Goiás, Brazil. The new species can be diagnosed by an unusual combination of two apomorphic features present in distinct clades of Characidium, the presence of a scaleless isthmus in allied to with a single row of dentary teeth. Additionally, the new species has a unique color pattern of inconspicuous vertical bars disconnected from the dorsal midline, forming seven to nine square blotches along body sides, and the presence of a dark saddle-shaped mark at the dorsal-fin base. Osteologically, it can be diagnosed by having the first and second anal-fin proximal radials fused and contacting the third hemal spine, which is branched. The new species also has a peculiar, unusual variation of fin-ray counts among its congeners.(AU)


Uma nova espécie de Characidium é descrita dos riachos tributários do rio Tocantins, bacia do rio Tocantins, localizados na vertente sul da Chapada dos Veadeiros, a aproximadamente 1.200 metros de altitude, Goiás, Brasil. A nova espécie pode ser diagnosticada pela combinação não usual de dois caracteres apomórficos presentes em clados distintos de Characidium, a presença do istmo sem escama em conjunto com uma única série de dentes no dentário. Adicionalmente, a nova espécie tem um padrão de coloração único de barras verticais desconectadas na região dorsal, formando sete a nove manchas quadradas ao longo do lado do corpo, e pela presença de uma mancha em forma de sela na base da nadadeira dorsal. Osteologicamente, ela pode ser diagnosticada por possuir o primeiro e segundo radiais da nadadeira anal fusionados e em contato com o terceiro espinho hemal, que é ramificado. A espécie nova também possui uma variação peculiar e pouco usual no número de raios das nadadeiras entre os congêneres.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Endemic Diseases/veterinary , Characiformes/anatomy & histology , Staining and Labeling , Altitude
3.
Autops. Case Rep ; 11: e2021247, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153188

ABSTRACT

Actinic prurigo (AP) is a type of photodermatosis that primarily affects the Latin American mestizo population. Histologically, AP cheilitis exhibits acanthosis with spongiosis and vacuolation of the basal cell layer overlying a dense lymphocytic inflammatory infiltrate that forms well-defined lymphoid follicles. Toluidine blue is a thiazide, acidophilic, and metachromatic dye used in vivo to selectively stain the acidic components of tissues such as sulfates, carboxylates, and phosphate radicals that are incorporated into DNA and RNA. It is necessary to develop a method that allows detecting, on clinical grounds the area of the lesion in which it is more feasible to find such structures. Thus to increase the sensitivity of the biopsy, in AP cheilitis to accurately identify where the lymphoid follicles reside, based on the higher concentration of DNA in such structures and thus confirm the diagnosis. In this study, staining was positive in 85% of patients with AP cheilitis, in 14 of whom 82% lymphoid follicles were observed by histopathology. One of the pathologist's problems in establishing the diagnosis of AP is that the main histopathological characteristics are not always identified in the submitted samples because it is not easy to clinically identify the most representative site of the lesion selected for performing a biopsy. Based on our results, we propose using toluidine blue as an auxiliary method to choose a tissue sample to facilitate the diagnosis and allow clinicians to make clinical correlations between the histopathological and therapeutic findings.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Prurigo/diagnosis , Tolonium Chloride , Cheilitis/diagnosis , Staining and Labeling/methods , Biopsy
4.
Rev. colomb. reumatol ; 27(supl.2): 15-21, oct.-dic. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1341335

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: El síndrome de Sjögren es una enfermedad autoinmune asociada a múltiples factores, tanto genéticos como ambientales, que afecta principalmente a las glándulas salivales y lagrimales con infiltración celular de estas, lo cual causa síntomas secos. Con frecuencia se describe la queratoconjuntivitis sicca y sus complicaciones. Sus criterios clasificatorios han cambiado a lo largo de los años por la diversidad de los órganos implicados y los espectros clínicos de la enfermedad. Hoy se cuenta con parámetros clínicos y paraclínicos para su identificación; uno de estos, el puntaje de tinción ocular ocular staining score (OSS, por sus siglas en inglés), estandarizado a partir de la cohorte SICCA. Objetivo: Describir los hallazgos en la evaluación ocular, el resultado de las pruebas que hacen parte del OSS y las características clínicas de los criterios clasificatorios en pacientes con síndrome de Sjögren en el servicio de consulta externa de reumatología de un hospital universitario en el noroccidente colombiano. Método: Se condujo un estudio observacional, descriptivo y de corte transversal. Se describieron las características de los criterios clasificatorios del síndrome de Sjögren, incluyendo el puntaje de tinción ocular durante un año. Se realizaron las pruebas clínicas y tinciones oculares estandarizadas, evaluando características de la superficie ocular, producción lagrimal y tinciones con verde lisamina y fluoresceína sobre la conjuntiva y la córnea. Según los hallazgos se asignó una puntuación a cada parámetro para evaluar positividad, de acuerdo con el estándar clasificatorio. Las variables cualitativas se expresaron por medio de frecuencias absolutas y relativas y las cuantitativas como mediana y rango intercuartílico (P25-P75), según la distribución de los datos. Se empleó el paquete estadístico Epidat, versión 4.2. Resultados: Se incluyeron 28 pacientes. Los síntomas de ojo seco estuvieron presentes en el 89,2% de ellos; un 96,4% tuvo hallazgos positivos en el examen ocular y el 78,5% alcanzó un puntaje a favor de los criterios clasificatorios en la evaluación del OSS. La mediana del OSS fue 6,14; los anticuerpos anti-Ro fueron positivos en un 57,1%. Conclusión: La evaluación ocular por medio de pruebas objetivas es un método sencillo y reproducible en los pacientes con síndrome de Sjögren. Los índices más afectados fueron aquellos de disminución en la producción lagrimal. Las tinciones oculares no tuvieron una relación directa con la positivad de anticuerpos ni del factor reumatoide.


ABSTRACT Introduction: Sjögren's syndrome is an autoimmune disease associated with multiple genetic and environmental factors. It mainly affects the salivary and lacrimal glands with cellular infiltration leading to dry eye symptoms, with keratoconjunctivitis sicca and its complications often being described. Its classification criteria have changed over the years, due to the diversity in the organs involved and clinical spectrum of the disease. Today, there are clinical and para-clinical parameters for its identification. One of these is the ocular staining score (OSS), standardised from the SICCA cohort. Objective: To describe the findings in the ocular evaluation, the results of the tests of the OSS, and the clinical characteristics of the classification criteria in patients with Sjögren syndrome in the outpatient service of Rheumatology Outpatient Department a university hospital in north-western Colombia. Methods: An observational, descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted. The characteristics of the Sjögren syndrome classification criteria were described, including the OSS score for one year. Clinical tests and standardised ocular stains were performed, evaluating characteristics of the ocular surface, tearproduction, and lissamine green and fluorescein stains on the conjunctiva and cornea, assigning, according to the findings, a score to each parameter in order to assess positivity according to the classification standard. The qualitative variables were expressed by means of absolute and relative frequencies, and the quantitative ones as the median and interquartile range (P25-P75), according to the distribution of the data. Epidat statistical package, version 4.2, was used. Results: A total of 28 patients were included. Dry eye symptoms were present in 89.2%, 96.4% had positive findings in the eye examination, and 78.5% had a score on the OSS according to the classification criteria. The median OSS was 6.14, and anti-Ro antibodies were positive in 57.1%. Conclusion: Eye evaluation by objective tests is a simple and reproducible method in patients with Sjögren's syndrome. The most affected indices were those of a decrease in tearproduction. The ocular stains did not have a direct relationship with the positivity of antibodies, nor rheumatoid factor.


Subject(s)
Humans , Sjogren's Syndrome , Staining and Labeling , Keratoconjunctivitis Sicca , Diagnosis , Eye
5.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(6): 1535-1538, Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134473

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Human skin melanin was stained using the Fontana's silver nitrate method and Schmorl method. The results showed that, in the Fontana's silver nitrate method, melanin and silver-bound cells were black and other tissues were red. When stained using the Schmorl method, effects on melanin differed based on whether the nuclei were stained. When the nucleus was stained, melanin appeared blue-black or blue-green, and other tissue structures were purple. When the nucleus was not stained, melanin was orange and other structures were pink. Comparing the two staining methods, we concluded that Fontana's silver nitrate method takes a long time; in contrast, the Schmorl method showed two different types of results depending on whether the nucleus was stained, and it takes less time than Fontana staining, so we here consider the Schmorl method more suitable for special staining of melanin than Fontana's silver nitrate method.


RESUMEN: La melanina de la piel humana se tiñó utilizando el método del nitrato de plata de Fontana y el método Schmorl. Los resultados mostraron que, en el método del nitrato de plata de Fontana, la melanina y las células unidas a plata eran negras y otros tejidos eran rojos. Cuando se tiñó con el método de Schmorl, los efectos sobre la melanina difirieron en función de si se tiñeron los núcleos. Cuando se tiñó el núcleo, la melanina apareció de color azul-negro o azul-verde, y otras estructuras de tejido fueron de color púrpura. Cuando el núcleo no estaba teñido, la melanina era naranja y otras estructuras eran rosadas. Al comparar los dos métodos de tinción, llegamos a la conclusión de que el método del nitrato de plata de Fontana lleva mucho tiempo; por el contrario, el método Schmorl mostró dos tipos diferentes de resultados dependiendo de si el núcleo estaba teñido, y lleva menos tiempo que la tinción de Fontana, por lo que aquí consideramos que el método Schmorl es más adecuado para la tinción especial de melanina que el método del nitrato de plata de Fontana.


Subject(s)
Humans , Silver Nitrate , Skin/drug effects , Staining and Labeling/methods , Melanins
6.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(6): 1668-1675, Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134496

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: The Mettl3/Mettl14 methyltransferase complex installs the most ubiquitous internal mRNA modification- N6-methyladenosine (m6A). The vertebrate retina development is a multi-step process that requires fine-tuning of multiple cellular events, but very little is known about the potential function of Mettl3 and Mettl14 in this process. In this study, we demonstrated the spatio-temporal expression of Mettl3 and Mettl14 during retina development in mouse by quantitative PCR and immunofluorescence staining. We found that these two components of methyltransferase complex could be detected from the beginning of retina development; and the expression of Mettl3 and Mettl14 were gradually restricted to inner nuclear layer (INL) and ganglion cell layer (GCL); Double labeling showed that Mettl3 and Mettl14 had similar expression patterns in mature retinal INL and GCL. Overall, our spatio-temporal expression data provided the foundation for future research on the function of m6A modification in the retina development.


RESUMEN: El complejo Mettl3 / Mettl14 metiltransferasa establece la modificación interna más significativa de ARNm: N6- metiladenosina (m6A). El desarrollo de la retina de los vertebrados es un proceso de varios pasos que requiere múltiples eventos celulares; existe muy poca información sobre la función potencial de Mettl3 y Mettl14 en este proceso. En este estudio, demostramos la expresión espacio-temporal de Mettl3 y Mettl14 durante el desarrollo de la retina en ratón mediante PCR cuantitativa y tinción de inmunofluorescencia. Descubrimos que estos dos componentes del complejo de metiltransferasa podían ser detectados desde el comienzo del desarrollo de la retina; la expresión de Mettl3 y Mettl14 se restringió gradualmente a la capa nuclear interna (INL) y la capa de células ganglionares (GCL); se observó que Mettl3 y Mettl14 tenían patrones de expresión similares en INL y GCL retinianos maduros. En general, nuestros datos de expresión espacio-temporal proporcionan información para futuras investigaciones sobre la función de la modificación de m6A en el desarrollo de la retina.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Retina/embryology , Retina/enzymology , Methyltransferases/metabolism , Staining and Labeling , Immunohistochemistry , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Methyltransferases/genetics , Mice, Inbred C57BL
7.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(5): 1197-1200, oct. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134424

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Histological techniques are the study of animal and human tissues through staining and examining them under a microscope. To demonstrate the axonal degeneration and demyelination in histological studies, the Luxol Fast Blue staining is gold standard techniques. In this study, a new histochemical method based on modified Luxol Fast Blue for the staining of the myelin sheath in sciatic nerve tissues described. The sciatic nerves of rats were removed and then the sciatic nerve was immersed in 10 % formaldehyde for one week and embedded in paraffin block. Next, thin sections (5 µm) were cut, using a microtome and stained with conventional and modified Luxol Fast Blue. Our results showed that a new method of modified Luxol Fast Blue staining can accurately identify the myelin in the sciatic nerve fibers. The current study showed that the Luxol Fast Blue combination with Light Green has a good effect on myelin coloration, and the results of this study are comparable to LFB combination with Sirius red.


RESUMEN: Las técnicas histológicas son el estudio de tejidos animales y humanos mediante tinción y examen bajo un microscopio. Para demostrar la degeneración axonal y la desmielinización en estudios histológicos, la tinción Luxol Fast Blue es una técnica estándar de oro. En este estudio, se describe un nuevo método histoquímico basado en Luxol Fast Blue modificado para la tinción de mielina en los tejidos del nervio ciático. Se seccionaron los nervios ciáticos de ratas y luego el nervio ciático se sumergió en formaldehído al 10 % durante una semana y se fijó en bloque de parafina. Posteriormente, se cortaron secciones delgadas (5 µm) usando un microtomo y se tiñeron con Luxol Fast Blue convencional y modificado. Nuestros resultados mostraron que un nuevo método de tinción Luxol Fast Blue modificado puede identificar con precisión la mielina en las fibras del nervio ciático. El estudio actual mostró que la combinación Luxol Fast Blue con Light Green es un buen efecto sobre la coloración de mielina, y los resultados de este estudio son comparables a la combinación LFB con Sirius red.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Sciatic Nerve/anatomy & histology , Staining and Labeling/methods , Myelin Sheath , Paraffin , Histological Techniques , Formaldehyde , Microscopy/methods
8.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(4): 975-982, Aug. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1124885

ABSTRACT

To reveal the extra- and intramuscular nerve distribution patterns of the gluteus maximus, medius, and minimus, and to provide guidance for gluteal muscle injection in order to avoid nerve injury. Ten adult and 10 child cadavers were used. The superior and inferior gluteal nerves innervating the gluteus maximus, medius, and minimus were dissected, exposed, and sutured in-situ on the muscle. The three gluteal muscles were removed, and the distribution patterns of the intramuscular nerves were revealed by modified Sihler's nerve staining. The nerve distribution pattern was returned to the corresponding position in the body, and the patterns in the four quadrants of the buttock were analyzed. There were 3-12 extramuscular nerve branches of the gluteus maximus, medius, and minimus. After entering the muscle, these nerve branches arborized and anastomosed to form an arc-shaped, nerve-dense zone. The nerve distribution was most dense in the inferomedial region of the superolateral quadrant and the inferolateral region of the superomedial quadrant of the buttocks. The nerve distribution was relatively dense in the inferolateral region of the superolateral quadrant, and the medial region of the inferomedial quadrant. An arc-shaped, nerve-sparse zone in the superolateral and superomedial quadrants near the lower iliac crest accounted for about two-fifths of the two quadrants' limits. The arc-shaped, nerve-sparse zone in the superolateral quadrant is the preferred injection site, and the superomedial quadrant near the lower iliac crest is also recommended as a gluteal intramuscular injection region, free from nerve injury.


El objetivo de este trabajo fue revelar los patrones de distribución nerviosa extramusculat e intramuscular de los músculos glúteo máximo, medio y mínimo y proporcionar orientación para la inyección en la región glútea con el propósito de evitar lesiones nerviosas. Se utilizaron diez cadáveres adultos y diez niños. Los nervios glúteos superior e inferior que inervan a los músculos glúteo máximo, medio y mínimo fueron disecados, expuestos y suturados in situ en el músculo. Se extirparon los tres músculos glúteos y se revelaron los patrones de distribución de los nervios intramusculares mediante la tinción nerviosa de Sihler modificada. El patrón de distribución nerviosa se devolvió a la posición correspondiente en el cuerpo y se analizaron los patrones en los cuatro cuadrantes de la región glútea. Se encontraron 3 a 12 ramos nerviosos extramusculares de los músculos glúteo máximo, medio y mínimo. Después de ingresar al músculo, estas ramas nerviosas se arborizaron y anastomizaron para formar una zona densamente nerviosa en forma de arco. La distribución nerviosa fue de mayor densidad en la región inferomedial del cuadrante superolateral y en la región inferolateral del cuadrante superomedial de la región glútea. La distribución nerviosa era relativamente densa en la región inferolateral del cuadrante superolateral y en la región medial del cuadrante inferomedial. Una zona en forma de arco en los cuadrantes superolateral y superomedial y con escasa inervación, cerca de la cresta ilíaca representaba una parte de los límites de los dos cuadrantes. La zona de poca inervación en forma de arco en el cuadrante superolateral es el sitio de inyección preferido, y el cuadrante superomedial próximo a la cresta ilíaca también se recomienda como una región de inyección intramuscular glútea, libre de lesión nerviosa.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Buttocks/innervation , Injections, Intramuscular , Staining and Labeling , Buttocks/anatomy & histology , Cadaver
9.
An. bras. dermatol ; 95(3): 307-313, May-June 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1130882

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Clinical and histological features may overlap between lichen planopilaris-associated and discoid lupus erythematosus-associated scarring alopecia. Objectives: The aim of this study was to demonstrate the cutaneous infiltration of plasmacytoid dendritic cells and to compare their distribution pattern in discoid lupus erythematosus and lichen planopilaris. Methods: Twenty-four cases of discoid lupus erythematosus and 30 cases of lichen planopilaris were examined for immunostaining of the CD123 marker. The percentage and distribution pattern of plasmacytoid dendritic cells and the presence of the plasmacytoid dendritic cells clusters were evaluted in the samples. Results: The number of plasmacytoid dendritic cells was higher in the discoid lupus erythematosus specimens. Aggregations of 10 cells or more (large cluster) were observed in half of the discoid lupus erythematosus specimens and only 2 lichen planopilaris, with 50% sensitivity and 93% specificity for differentiating discoid lupus erythematosus from lichen planopilaris. Study limitations: Incidence and prevalence of discoid lupus erythematosus-associated scarring alopecia in the scalp are low, so the samples size of our study was small. Conclusions: We suggest that a plasmacytoid dendritic cells cluster of 10 cells or more is highly specific for distinguishing discoid lupus erythematosus from lichen planopilaris. It also appears that CD123 immunolabeling is valuable in both active and late stages of the disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Dendritic Cells/pathology , Lupus Erythematosus, Discoid/pathology , Interleukin-3 Receptor alpha Subunit/immunology , Lichen Planus/pathology , Reference Values , Staining and Labeling , Immunohistochemistry , Biomarkers , Retrospective Studies , Alopecia/pathology , Middle Aged
10.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(3): 853-861, May-June, 2020. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1129489

ABSTRACT

The present study tested a comet assay that was modified for compatibility with Giemsa staining to assess the drug genotoxicity in the peripheral blood of rats. We analysed the peripheral blood of 16 female Wistar rats (N=8 rats/group) from a control group and from a group that was treated with an intraperitoneal injection of 50mg cyclophosphamide/kg. The comet assay was carried out with modifications of the blood volume and immersion time in the lysing solution and different combinations of electrophoresis conditions (running time, voltage and current), to Giemsa staining. The lysing time and electrophoresis conditions allowed for the expression of all classes of DNA damage during the electrophoresis run, and the comets were efficiently stained with Giemsa. The technique showed high reproducibility for the DNA classes. The results demonstrate that the modified comet assay with Giemsa staining can be standardized for routine laboratory procedures using a 20µL blood sample, 3h and 30min immersions in the lysing solution and electrophoresis runs with 23 to 25 V and 310 and 360mA of electrical current. The modified comet assay with Giemsa staining that was described in the present study was standardized to be applied in the laboratory routine.(AU)


O presente estudo testou um ensaio cometa modificado para a coloração de Giemsa para avaliar a genotoxicidade de fármacos no sangue periférico de ratos. Analisou-se o sangue periférico de 16 ratas Wistar (n=8 ratas/grupo) de um grupo controle e de um grupo que foi tratado com uma injeção intraperitoneal de 50mg/kg pv. de ciclofosfamida. O ensaio cometa foi realizado com modificações do volume sanguíneo e do tempo de imersão na solução de lise, bem como com diferentes combinações de condições de eletroforese (tempo de corrida, tensão e corrente), para coloração de Giemsa. O tempo de lise e as condições de eletroforese permitiram a expressão de todas as classes de danos no DNA durante a corrida de eletroforese, e os cometas foram eficientemente corados com Giemsa. A técnica mostrou alta reprodutibilidade para as classes de DNA. Os resultados demonstram que o ensaio cometa modificado com coloração de Giemsa foi padronizado para procedimentos laboratoriais de rotina usando-se uma amostra de sangue de 20µL, 3h30min de imersão na solução de lise e eletroforese com 23 a 25 V e 310 e 360mA. O ensaio cometa modificado com coloração de Giemsa descrito foi padronizado para ser aplicado na rotina laboratorial.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Staining and Labeling/veterinary , Azure Stains/toxicity , Comet Assay/veterinary , Genotoxicity/analysis , Electrophoresis/veterinary , Mutagenicity Tests/veterinary
11.
Braz. J. Vet. Res. Anim. Sci. (Online) ; 57(1): e161653, 2020. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1122163

ABSTRACT

A pregnant heifer with an advanced clinical stage of paratuberculosis was reported in a herd in Argentina. Thus, the animal was euthanized and samples of organs of the cow and its fetus was taken and cultured for bacteriology in specific medium. Tissues were analyzed by histopathology (hematoxylin-eosin and Ziehl-Neelsen staining). Histopathological analysis of the cow's samples revealed the presence of lesions consistent with paratuberculosis, and Ziehl-Neelsen staining revealed the presence of acid-fast bacilli, whereas the fetal tissues showed absence of lesions but the presence of acid-fast bacilli by Ziehl-Neelsen staining. After growing in specific medium, colonies in tissues from both cow and fetus were positive for IS900-PCR, confirming the presence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). Finally, the isolates were typed by Multiple-Locus Variable-number tandem-repeat Analysis (MLVA), which confirmed the epidemiological link between them. This study is the first in Argentina to report the detection of MAP that shares an identical MLVA type in a pregnant cow and its fetus. The results of this study are consistent with previous reports and highlight the intra-uterine transmission of MAP as an important source of infection within herds.(AU)


Uma novilha prenha em estado clínico avançado de paratuberculose foi observada em um rebanho bovino na Argentina. O animal foi eutanasiado e foram colhidas amostras dos seus órgãos e dos órgãos feto as quais foram cultivadas para bacteriologia em meio específico. Os tecidos foram examinados por histopatologia (coloração de hematoxilina-eosina e Ziehl-Neelsen). Na histopatologia das amostras colhidas da novilha foram observadas lesões compatíveis com paratuberculose e a coloração de Ziehl-Neelsen revelou a presença de bacilos álcool-ácido resistentes, nos tecidos fetais não foram observadas lesões, porém a coloração de Ziehl-Neelsen revelou a presença de bacilos álcool-ácido resistentes. Após o crescimento em meio específico, as colônias foram positivas para o teste IS900-PCR nos tecidos de ambos, vaca e feto, confirmando a presença de Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Por fim, os isolados foram tipados por Multiple-Locus Variable-number tandem-repeat Analysis, confirmando a relação epidemiológica entre eles. Este estudo relata a primeira detecção de Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis na Argentina em que houve o compartilhamento de um tipo idêntico de MLVA em uma vaca prenhe e no seu feto. Os resultados deste estudo são consistentes com relatos anteriores e destacam a transmissão intra-uterina de Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis como importante fonte de infecção nos rebanhos de bovinos.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Cattle , Paratuberculosis/diagnosis , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis , Fetus/pathology , Argentina , Staining and Labeling , Minisatellite Repeats
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827542

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the treatment conditions of acid decalcified specimens and improve the poor quality of sections and unclear structure of hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining caused by the change in pH in tooth and hard tissue after acid decalcification.@*METHODS@#A total of 20 cases of oral pathological specimens that contain hard tissues were decalcified and treated with routine treatment, concentrated ammonia water immersion treatment, and saturated lithium carbonate solution immersion treatment. The quality and HE staining effects of hard tissue sections treated with different methods were compared.@*RESULTS@#Compared with routine treatment, lithium carbonate saturated solution treatment showed complete sections. Hematoxylin is strongly stained, the nucleus is clear, and the cytoplasm is bright.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Soaking acid decalcified specimens in lithium carbonate saturated solution before embedding in dehydration can neutralize the acidic environment of the tissue. The quality of sections and HE staining effect are improved and are suitable for the pretreatment of acid decalcified tissue samples of oral pathology.


Subject(s)
Eosine Yellowish-(YS) , Hematoxylin , Staining and Labeling , Tooth
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-826323

ABSTRACT

The ganglioneuroma is a benign tumor originating from sympathetic ganglion cells.It often locates in the posterior mediastinum,retroperitoneum,and adrenal medulla.The intraspinal ganglioneuromas is relatively rare in clinical practice,which mainly locates in the cervical and thoracolumbar segments.A patient with main symptom of cough was examined by magnetic resonance imaging before operation in our center.Intraspinal ganglioneuromas was confirmed in the left intervertebral cavity area.Total resection of the tumor via the posterior median approach was performed.HE staining showed the mature ganglion cells were scattered.The patient was followed up for three months and no tumor recurrence occured.


Subject(s)
Cough , Ganglioneuroma , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Neurons , Staining and Labeling
14.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 19: e208518, jan.-dez. 2020. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1177190

ABSTRACT

The pigmentation of the resin cement at the tooth/ceramic interface compromises the esthetic and longevity of ultra-thin ceramic veneers. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate marginal staining of ultra-thin ceramic veneers cemented to intact enamel (non-prepared) and prepared enamel. Methods:Thirty-two (32) permanent central incisors were selected and randomly divided into two groups: intact enamel (IE) and prepared enamel (PE). The ceramic veneers of PE group were bonded to the prepared enamel and the ceramic veneers of IE group were cemented directly onto the intact enamel, with no preparation. Both preparation and cementation were standardized and performed by a single operator. Each group was subdivided into two subgroups (n = 8) with different immersion media - coffee and water. After an immersion period of 10 days, stereomicroscope images were made at 20X magnification of the mesial, distal, cervical and incisal surface of each specimen. Three blinded, trained and calibrated examiners evaluated the images of the resin cement interface of each surface. The data were subjected to KruskalWallis and MannWhitney statistical analysis. Immersion media and enamel preparation influenced the marginal staining of the tooth/ceramic interface. Results: When immersed in coffee, prepared interfaces presented greater marginal staining than unprepared interfaces. When immersed in water, there was no statistically significant difference between the groups. Conclusion: The cementation of ultra-thin ceramic veneers onto intact enamel is associated with less marginal staining and, consequently, improved esthetics


Subject(s)
Staining and Labeling , Coffee , Dental Enamel , Dental Veneers , Esthetics, Dental
15.
Int. j. morphol ; 37(4): 1437-1443, Dec. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040150

ABSTRACT

While various neurodegenerative diseases affect cortical mass differently, finding an optimal and accurate method for measuring the thickness and surface area of cerebral cortex remains a challenging problem due to highly convoluted surface of the cortex. We therefore investigated cortical thickness in a sample of cadaveric specimens at the Discipline of Clinical Anatomy, Nelson R Mandela School of Medicine, University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa to provide some clue as to possible variations in the parameters. Following ethical approval, 60 brain samples were uniformly sectioned (5 mm thickness) and eight slices taken from each brain across regions of interest (ROI) prepared and stained by Mulligan's technique. Thickness was measured at selected angles (0º, 45º, 90º, 135º and 180º) for both right and left cerebral hemispheres. Mulligan's stain produced good cortical differentiation and clear images that enabled manual delineation of structures. Cortical thickness ranged from 3 to 5 millimeters across the ROI. Interestingly, there was rightward hemispheric asymmetry of cortical thickness of selective slices at suggested angles which is related to structurally and functionally important brain regions. Moreover, there was no significant correlation between the surface area of superficial cortex and the deep nuclei at the same level. The superficial cortex and deep nuclei are manifested independently in normal aging, neuropsychiatric or developmental disorders. Providing accurate morphometric evaluation of cortical thickness and area based on gross staining of the brain slices could provide qualitative data that may support the study of human cerebral cortex even in disease conditions.


Si bien varias enfermedades neurodegenerativas afectan a la masa cortical de manera diferente, encontrar un método óptimo y preciso para medir el grosor y el área de la superficie de la corteza cerebral sigue siendo un problema difícil debido a la superficie altamente enrevesada de la corteza. Por lo tanto, investigamos el grosor cortical en una muestra de cadáveres del Departamento de Anatomía Clínica de la Facultad de Medicina Nelson R. Mandela de la Universidad de KwaZulu-Natal, Sudáfrica, para proporcionar alguna pista sobre posibles variaciones en dichos parámetros. Después de la aprobación ética, 60 muestras de cerebro se seccionaron uniformemente (5 mm de grosor) y se tomaron ocho cortes de cada cerebro en regiones de interés (ROI) preparadas y teñidas con la técnica de Mulligan. El espesor se midió en los ángulos seleccionados (0º, 45º, 90º, 135º y 180º) para los hemisferios cerebrales derecho e izquierdo. La tinción de Mulligan produjo una buena diferenciación cortical e imágenes claras que permitieron la delineación manual de las estructuras. El grosor cortical osciló entre 3 y 5 milímetros a través del ROI. Curiosamente, hubo una asimetría hemisférica hacia la derecha del grosor cortical de los cortes en ángulos sugeridos que se relacionan con regiones cerebrales estructural y funcionalmente importantes. Además, no hubo una correlación significativa entre el área de la superficial de la corteza superficial y los núcleos profundos en el mismo nivel. La corteza superficial y los núcleos profundos se manifiestan de manera independiente en el envejecimiento normal, en los trastornos neuropsiquiátricos o del desarrollo. Realizar una evaluación morfométrica precisa del grosorcortical y el área basada en la tinción macroscópica de los cortes del cerebro, podría proporcionar datos cualitativos que puedan respaldar el estudio de la corteza cerebral humana incluso en condiciones de enfermedad.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Staining and Labeling/methods , Brain/anatomy & histology , Cadaver , Cerebral Cortex/anatomy & histology , Gray Matter/anatomy & histology
16.
Int. j. morphol ; 37(3): 877-884, Sept. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012369

ABSTRACT

The toxic effects of different doses of diclofenac sodium (DS) on the kidney on the postnatal period (0-7 days) by morphometrical and immunohistochemical methods were investigated. For this purpose, 15 female adult wistar albino rats were used and divided into 5 main groups. Group Ia served as normal control, physiologic group Ib received normal saline, group II received low dose (3.9 mg/kg), group III received medium dose (9 mg/kg) and group IV received high dose (18 mg/kg). Male offspring's from 0-7 days after birth were used in this study. On the 8th day of postnatal life, all animals were anesthetized. Then, the kidney samples were analyzed. Haematoxylin and eosin staining showed degeneration and necrosis, apparent atrophy of the glomeruli, mononuclear cell infiltration, congested vessels, increased fibrous tissue and distortion of the proximal convoluted tubules with interruption of the brush margin of the DS treated group. Increased level of Caspase-3 and upregulation of TNF-α with different doses of DS. In light of our findings, DS may lead to adverse effects that are dose-dependent in the prenatal subjected kidney to this drug.


Se investigaron los efectos tóxicos de diferentes dosis de diclofenaco sódico (DS) en el riñón de ratas, durante su período postnatal (0-7 días), por métodos morfométricos e inmunohistoquímicos. Para este propósito, se utilizaron 20 crías macho, de ratas Wistar albinas, y se dividieron en 5 grupos principales. El grupo Ia sirvió como control normal, el grupo fisiológico Ib recibió solución salina normal, el grupo II recibió una dosis baja de DS (3,9 mg/kg), el grupo III recibió una dosis media de DS (9 mg/kg) y el grupo IV recibió una dosis alta de DS (18 mg/kg). Se administraron los medicamentos de 0 a 7 días después del nacimiento de las ratas. En el octavo día de vida postnatal, todos los animales fueron sacrificados. Luego, se analizaron las muestras de riñón. Mediante hematoxilina-eosina se evidenció degeneración y necrosis, aparente atrofia de los glomérulos, infiltración de células mononucleares, vasos congestionados, aumento del tejido fibroso y distorsión de los túbulos contorneados proximales, con interrupción del margen en cepillo del grupo tratado con DS. Se detectó un aumento del nivel de caspasa-3 y regulación al alza de TNF-α con diferentes dosis de DS. A la luz de nuestros hallazgos, la DS puede provocar efectos adversos en el riñón, que dependen de la dosis de este medicamento administrada en el período posnatal.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Rats , Diclofenac/toxicity , Kidney/drug effects , Staining and Labeling , Immunohistochemistry , Diclofenac/administration & dosage , Rats, Wistar , Apoptosis/drug effects , Kidney/growth & development , Kidney Tubules, Proximal/drug effects , Animals, Newborn
17.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 23(2): 97-105, maio-ago. 2019.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-996705

ABSTRACT

Os mastócitos são células distribuídas pela maior parte do corpo e são reguladores importantes da resposta inflamatória. Nesse estudo o objetivo foi quantificar os mastócitos presentes em fígado humano normal, com esteatose e com cirrose. Foram utilizadas peças de fígado humano do Laboratório de Patologia Geral da Universidade Federal do Triângulo Mineiro, onde selecionaram 16 peças anatômicas, dividindo-se em três grupos: fígado normal (controle), com esteatose e com cirrose. Realizou-se a confecção de 32 lâminas, as quais foram submetidas à duas colorações, sendo HE para análise histopatológica, e Azul de Toluidina para quantificação de mastócitos. Realizou-se análise estatística e a confecção de gráfico, composto pelo número de mastócitos por campo em cada grupo. Observou-se que o aumento da quantidade de mastócitos presentes é diretamente proporcional ao agravo da doença, sendo que a maior população foi encontrada no processo crônico de cirrose hepática. Portanto, subentende-se que exista uma relação intrínseca entre a presença dos mastócitos e, consequente, agravo do processo fibrótico em humanos, de tal modo que uma célula influencie no funcionamento da outra. Torna-se necessário a realização de mais estudos para esclarecerem de forma detalhada tal interação.


Mast cells are distributed in most tissues of the human body and are key regulators of the inflammatory response. The aim of the study was to quantify the presence of mast cells in healthy human livers and diseased human livers presenting steatosis and cirrhosis. Human liver samples were obtained from the General Pathology Laboratory at the Federal University of Triângulo Mineiro. Sixteen samples were divided into three groups: normal liver (control), steatosis, and cirrhosis. A total of 32 slides were prepared, which were submitted to two stainings, the hematoxylin and eosin (HE) for histopathological analysis, and Toluidine Blue (TB) for mast cell quantification. Statistical analysis and a graph composition were performed, presenting the number of mast cells per field in each group. It was observed that the increase of mast cells is directly proportional to the disease burden, and the greatest increase was found in the population with chronic liver cirrhosis. Therefore, it is understood that there is an intrinsic relationship between the presence of mast cells and the consequent aggravation of the fibrotic process in humans, in such way that one cell influences the functioning of the other. Further studies area necessary in order to clarify such interaction.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Wounds and Injuries , Liver , Liver Cirrhosis , Mast Cells , Staining and Labeling , Capillaries , Cytokines , Hepatocytes
18.
An. bras. dermatol ; 94(1): 52-55, Jan.-Feb. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-983741

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Background: Pityriasis rosea is a common papulosquamous disorder. However, its etiology and pathogenesis remain unclear. Objective: We investigate the types of inflammatory cells infiltrating the lesional skin of pityriasis rosea and demonstrate whether T-cell-mediated immunity is involved in the pathogenesis of this condition or not. Methods: The biopsies were taken from the lesional skin of 35 cases of patients diagnosed with pityriasis rosea. The specimens were prepared in paraffin sections, then submitted to routine immunohistochemistry procedures using monoclonal antibodies directed against CD3, CD4, CD8, CD20 and CD45RO and horseradish peroxidase-labeled goat anti-human antibodies. The positive sections were determined by the ratio and staining intensity of positive inflammatory cells. Results: The mean score of positive CD3, CD4, CD8, and CD45RO staining was respectively 3.74±3.88, 5.67±4.40, 2.94±3.42 and 7.68±4.33 in these pityriasis rosea patients (P<0.001). The percentage of positive staining was 54.29% (19/35), 69.7% (23/33), 40% (14/35) and 79.41% (27/34) (P<0.05). However, the staining of CD20 was negative in all samples. The mean score of CD3 staining in patients with time for remission ≤60 days (4.90±4.21) was higher than that in patients with time for remission >60 days (2.00±2.5) (P<0.05), whereas no statistical difference in the mean score of CD4, CD8 and CD45RO staining was observed. study liMitations: The sample size and the selected monoclonal antibody are limited, so the results reflect only part of the cellular immunity in the pathogenesis of pityriasis rosea. Conclusion: Our findings support a predominantly T-cell mediated immunity in the development of pityriasis rosea.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , T-Lymphocyte Subsets/pathology , Pityriasis Rosea/pathology , Reference Values , Staining and Labeling , Time Factors , Biopsy , Immunohistochemistry , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/pathology , T-Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology , Pityriasis Rosea/immunology , Leukocyte Common Antigens/analysis , CD3 Complex/analysis , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/pathology , Immunity, Cellular
19.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 82(1): 45-50, Jan.-Feb. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-973877

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: The aim of the present study was to compare the severity of ocular and systemic findings among patients with primary Sjögren syndrome. Methods: The study followed a prospective controlled design and comprised two groups; the test group included 58 eyes of 58 patients newly diagnosed with primary Sjögren syndrome with poor dry eye test findings and the control group included 45 right eyes of 45 healthy age- and sex-matched individuals. The ocular surface disease index score, tear osmolarity, Schirmer I test without anesthesia, fluorescein tear breakup time, and cornea-conjunctiva staining with lissamine green (van Bijsterveld scoring) were used to examine tear function in the patients via a complete ophthalmological examination. The results were graded and classified on the basis of a Dry Eye WorkShop report and results of the corneal and conjunctival staining test, Schirmer's test, and fluorescein tear breakup time test. Discomfort, severity and frequency of symptoms, visual symptoms, conjunctival injection, eyelid-meibomian gland findings, and corneal-tear signs were interpreted. Disease activity was scored per the EULAR Sjögren's syndrome disease activity index (ESSDAI) via systemic examination and laboratory evaluations, and the EULAR Sjögren's syndrome patient-reported index (ESSPRI) assessed via a survey of patient responses. Results: Mean patient age was 48.15 ± 16.34 years in the primary Sjögren syndrome group and 44.06 ± 9.15 years in the control group. Mean fluorescein tear breakup time was 4.51 ± 2.89s in the primary Sjögren syndrome group and 10.20 ± 2.39 s in the control group. Mean Schirmer I test result was 3.51 ± 3.18 mm/5 min in the primary Sjögren syndrome group and 9.77±2.30 mm/5 min in the control group. Mean ocular surface disease index score was 18.56 ± 16.09 in the primary Sjögren syndrome group, and 19.92 ± 7.16 in the control group. Mean osmolarity was 306.48 ± 19.35 in the primary Sjögren syndrome group, and 292.54 ± 10.67 in the control group. Mean lissamine green staining score was 2.17 ± 2.76 in the primary Sjögren syndrome group, and 0.00 in the control group. Statistically significant differences were found berween the primary Sjögren syndrome group and control group in terms of fluorescein tear breakup time, Schirmer's test, lissamine green staining, and osmolarity tests (p=0.036, p=0.041, p=0.001, and p=0.001 respectively). The Dry Eye WorkShop score was 2.15 ± 0.98, the EULAR Sjögren's syndrome disease activity index score was 11.18 ± 4.05, and the EULAR Sjögren's syndrome patient-reported index score was 5.20±2.63. When potential associations of the Dry Eye Workshop Study scores and osmolarity scores with the Eular Sjögren's syndrome disease activity index scores were evaluated, the results were found to be statistically significant (p=0.001, p=0.001 respectively). Conclusion: The results showed an association between dry eye severity and systemic activity index in primary Sjögren syndrome patients.


RESUMO Objetivo: O objetivo do presente estudo foi comparar a gravidade dos achados oculares e sistêmicos entre pacientes com síndrome de Sjögren primária. Métodos: O estudo seguiu um delineamento prospectivo controlado e compreendeu dois grupos; o grupo de teste incluiu 58 olhos de 58 pacientes recém-diagnosticados com síndrome de Sjögren primária com resultados deficientes no teste de olho seco e o grupo controle incluiu 45 olhos direitos de 45 indivíduos saudáveis pareados idade e sexo. A contagem do índice de doença da superfície ocular, osmolaridade lacrimal, teste de Schirmer I sem anestesia, tempo de ruptura da fluoresceína e coloração córnea-conjuntiva com verde de lissamina (índice de van Bijsterveld) foram utilizados para examinar a função lacrimal dos pacientes através de exame oftalmológico completo. Os resultados foram classificados com base em um relatório da "Dry Eye Workshop" e resultados do teste de coloração da córnea e conjuntiva, teste de Schirmer e teste do tempo de ruptura da fluoresceína. Desconforto, gravidade e frequência dos sintomas, sintomas visuais, injeção conjuntival, achados das glândulas palpebrais e sinais da córnea foram interpretados. A atividade da doença foi avaliada pelo índice de atividade da doença da síndrome de Sjögren EULAR por meio de exame sistêmico e avaliações laboratoriais, e o índice relatado pelo paciente da síndrome de Sjörgen EULAR avaliado através de uma pesquisa das respostas dos pacientes. Resultados: A média de idade dos pacientes foi de 48,15 ± 16,34 anos no grupo da Síndrome de Sjörgen primária e 44,06 ± 9,15 anos no grupo controle. O tempo médio de ruptura da fluoresceína foi de 4,51 ± 2,89 s no grupo síndrome de Sjögren primária e 10,20 ± 2,39 s no grupo controle. O resultado do teste de Schirmer I médio foi de 3,51 ± 3,18 mm/5 min no grupo síndrome de Sjögren primária e de 9,77 ± 2,30 mm/5 min no grupo controle. O índice médio de doença da superfície ocular foi de 18,56 ± 16,09 no grupo síndrome de Sjögren primária e 19,92 ± 7,16 no grupo controle. A osmolaridade média foi 306,48 ± 19,35 no grupo síndrome de Sjögren primária e 292,54 ± 10,67 no grupo controle. O resultado médio de coloração com lissamina verde foi de 2,17 ± 2,76 no grupo síndrome de Sjögren primária e 0,00 no grupo controle. Diferenças es­tatisticamente significativas foram encontradas entre o com sín­­drome de Sjögren primária e o grupo controle em termos de tempo de ruptura da fluoresceína lacrimal, teste de Schirmer I, coloração com lissamina verde e osmolaridade (p=0,036, p=0,041, p=0,001, p=0,001 respectivamente). O índice Estudo do Olho Seco foi de 2,15 ± 0,98, o índice de atividade da doença da síndrome de Sjögren EULAR foi de 11,18 ± 4,05 e a pontuação do índice relatado pelo paciente EULAR Sjögren foi de 5,20 ± 2,63. Quando associações potenciais do Estudo do Olho Seco e o índice da osmolaridade foram comparados a pontuação de índice de atividade da doença da síndrome de Sjögren EULAR, os resultados foram estatisticamente significantes (p=0,001, p=0,001 respectivamente). Conclusão: Os resultados mostraram uma associação entre a gravidade do olho seco e o índice de atividade sistêmica em pacientes com síndrome de Sjögren primária.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Dry Eye Syndromes/physiopathology , Sjogren's Syndrome/physiopathology , Osmolar Concentration , Reference Values , Staining and Labeling , Tears/physiology , Severity of Illness Index , Dry Eye Syndromes/pathology , Sjogren's Syndrome/pathology , Case-Control Studies , Prospective Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Conjunctiva/physiopathology , Conjunctiva/pathology , Cornea/physiopathology , Cornea/pathology
20.
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 17(4): e190064, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1056802

ABSTRACT

Predation avoidance is a primary factor influencing survival. Therefore, any trait that affects the risk of predation, such as camouflage, is expected to be under selection pressure. Background matching (homochromy) limits habitat use, especially if the habitat is heterogeneous. Another camouflage mechanism is disruptive coloration, which reduces the probability of detection by masking the prey's body contours. Here we evaluated if disruptive coloration in the longsnout seahorse, Hippocampus reidi, allows habitat use diversification. We analyzed 82 photographs of animals, comparing animal and background color, and registering anchorage substrate (holdfast). We tested whether the presence (disruptive coloration) or absence of bands (plain coloration) predicted occupation of backgrounds of different colors. We also calculated the connectance between seahorse morph and background color or holdfast, as well as whether color morph differed in their preferences for holdfast. Animals with disruptive coloration were more likely to be found in environments with colors different from their own. Furthermore, animals with disruptive coloration occupied more diversified habitats, but as many holdfasts as plain colored animals. Therefore, animals with disruptive coloration were less selective in habitat use than those lacking disruptive color patterns, which agrees with the disruptive coloration hypothesis.(AU)


Evitar a predação é um dos principais fatores que influenciam a sobrevivência. Portanto, qualquer traço que afete o risco de predação, como a camuflagem, deverá estar sob forte pressão de seleção. Confundir-se com a cor do fundo (homocromia) limita o uso do habitat, especialmente se ele é heterogêneo. Outro mecanismo de camuflagem é a coloração disruptiva, que reduz a probabilidade de detecção mascarando o contorno do corpo da presa. Aqui nós avaliamos se a coloração disruptiva no cavalo-marinho de focinho comprido, Hippocampus reidi, permite diversificar o uso do habitat. Analisamos 82 fotografias de animais, comparando a cor do animal à do fundo, e registrando o substrato de apoio (holdfast). Nós testamos se a presença (coloração disruptiva) ou ausência de bandas (coloração lisa) predizia a ocupação de substratos de cores diferentes. Nós também calculamos a conectância entre o morfo do cavalo-marinho e a cor do fundo ou o substrato de apoio, bem como se o morfo diferiu em suas preferências por substratos de apoio. Animais com coloração disruptiva eram mais encontrados em ambientes com cores diferentes de sua própria cor. Além disso, os animais com coloração disruptiva ocupavam habitats mais diversificados, mas tantos substratos de apoio quanto animais lisos. Portanto, animais com cores disruptivas eram menos seletivos do que animais lisos quanto ao habitat que utilizavam, o que concorda com a hipótese da coloração disruptiva.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Ecosystem , Smegmamorpha/classification , Disruptive Technology/classification , Staining and Labeling/veterinary
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