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Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928911


Stainless steel has been widely used in non-active surgical implantable medical device of cardiovascular, orthopedics, dental and ophthalmology. In this paper, we mainly focused on development of stainless steel, as well as the material-related standard evolution. We further summarized the recent advancement of stainless steel use in surgical implantable medical device. Insight and regulatory perspective has been further demonstrated.

Prostheses and Implants , Stainless Steel
Dent. press endod ; 11(3): 52-57, Sept-Dec.2021. Tab, Ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1379356


Objetivo: O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a influência do pré-alargamento coronário na resistência à fadiga cíclica de dois instrumentos reciprocantes tratados termicamente. Métodos: 20 instrumentos Reciproc Blue (R25 Blue) e 20 instrumentos X1 Blue (X1) foram utilizados para instrumentar blocos de resina simulando um molar superior com três canais radiculares. Os dentes foram divididos em quatro grupos (n=10), de acordo com o instrumento e com a técnica de instrumentação utilizada: grupos R25 e X1 - instrumentação com R25 Blue (25/0.08) ou X1 Blue (25/0.06), respectivamente, sem alargamento prévio; e grupos R25 ou X1 + pré-alargamento cervical - pré-alargamento com os instrumentos ProTaper Universal SX e S1 antes da instrumentação com R25 Blue ou X1. Os instrumentos foram testados com relação à fadiga cíclica utilizando-se um canal simulado de aço inoxidável com ângulo de curvatura de 86 graus e raio de curvatura de 6 mm. Os instrumentos foram acionados utilizando-se o movimento "RECIPROC ALL" do motor endodôntico (VDW) e o tempo de instrumentação até a fratura do instrumento foi contabilizado. Os resultados foram analisados pelo teste t de Student (p<0,05). Resultados: Os instrumentos X1 apresentaram maior resistência à fadiga cíclica do que R25 Blue em ambas as condições testadas (p<0,05). Não houve diferença entre os grupos com e sem pré-alargamento coronário para os instrumentos R25 Blue e X1 (p>0,05). Conclusão: O instrumento X1 Blue apresentou maior resistência à fadiga cíclica do que o Reciproc Blue. O pré-alargamento coronário não foi capaz de aumentar a resistência à fratura por fadiga cíclica dos instrumentos testados (AU).

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of cervical pre-flaring on the cyclic fatigue resistance of two heat-treated reciprocating instruments. Methods: 20 Reciproc Blue (R25 Blue) instruments e 20 X1 Blue File (X1) were used to instrument resin blocks simulating an upper molar with 3 root canals. The specimens were divided into four groups (n=10) according the instrument and type of instrumentation used: R25 and X1 groups: root canal preparation with R25 Blue (25/0.08) ou X1 Blue (25/0.06), without cervical pre-flaring; R25 or X1 + cervical pre-flaring- pre-flaring with ProTaper Universal SX e S1 before instrumentation with R25 Blue or X1 blue. After instrumentation the instruments were tested for cyclic fatigue using a simulated stainless steel root canal with 86 degree bending angle and 6 mm bending radius. The instruments were triggered using the "RECIPROC ALL" motion of a reciprocating endodontic motor (VDW) and the instrumentation time until instrument fracture was accounted. Results were analyzed by Students t-test (p<0.05). Results: Statistical analysis showed that the X1 Blue showed higher resistance to cyclic fatigue than the R25 Blue under both conditions tested (p<0.05). There were no differences between the groups with and without coronary pre-flaring for the R25 Blue and X1 Blue (p<0.05). Conclusion: X1 Blue showed higher resistance to cyclic fatigue than the R25 Blue. The cervical pre-flaring did not increased the resistance to cyclic fatigue fracture of the tested instruments (AU)

Stainless Steel , Root Canal Preparation/instrumentation , Flexural Strength , Hot Temperature , Simulation Exercise , Fatigue
Dental press j. orthod. (Impr.) ; 26(2): e2119378, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1249704


ABSTRACT Objective: To determine whether separating the alignment and leveling phases can reduce proclination of the mandibular incisors. Methods: Eligibility criteria included Class I subjects with an irregularity index of 3-5 mm, 3-4 mm curve-of-Spee (COS), and non-extraction treatment. Thirty adults were randomly allocated into two groups: (1) Control group was leveled and aligned simultaneously with flat archwires progressively to 0.016x0.022-in stainless-steel; (2) Experimental group was aligned first with 0.014-in-superelastic NiTi with mild accentuated COS, then leveled using 0.016x0.022-in beta-titanium accentuated COS archwires and gradually reduced the curve until flat. Mandibular incisor position and inclination were evaluated by cephalometric analysis. COS and irregularity index were evaluated in study models. Assessment was conducted twice after 0.016-in NiTi and after 0.016x0.022-in stainless-steel archwire placements. Dental changes from cephalograms and models were compared within group using paired t-test and between groups using independent t-test. Results: Control group: Round-wire-phase, mandibular incisors tipped labially (4.38° and 1 mm) with intrusion (-1.13 mm); Rectangular-wire-phase, mandibular incisors further intruded and proclined (-0.63 mm and 1.38°). Experimental group: During aligning with round accentuated COS archwires, mandibular incisors tipped very slightly labially (0.75° and 0.50 mm) with no significant intrusion; during leveling with rectangular archwires, incisors majorly intruded (1.75 mm) with slight proclination (1.81°). The experimental group had significant less incisor proclination (control: 5.76°, experimental: 2.56°) with more incisor intrusion (control: -1.75 mm, experimental: -2.13 mm). The COS in experimental group showed significant greater reduction (-2.88 mm) than that of the control group (-1.69 mm). Conclusion: In control group, mandibular incisor proclination was markedly observed in round archwires, with further proclination caused by rectangular archwires. In experimental group, minimal proclination was exhibited when accentuated COS round archwires were used for aligning. Leveling with rectangular archwires caused less proclination with more COS reduction.

RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar se separar os estágios de alinhamento e nivelamento reduz a projeção dos incisivos inferiores. Métodos: Os critérios de inclusão foram indivíduos Classe I com índice de irregularidade de 3-5mm, Curva de Spee (CS) de 3-4mm e tratamento sem extrações. Trinta adultos foram alocados aleatoriamente em dois grupos: o Grupo Controle (1) foi simultaneamente alinhado e nivelado com arcos planos progressivamente até atingir o 0,016" x 0,022" de aço inoxidável; o Grupo Experimental (2) foi inicialmente alinhado com arcos superelásticos NiTi 0,014" com CS levemente aumentada, em seguida nivelado com arcos de beta-titânio 0,016" x 0,022" com CS acentuada, que foi gradualmente reduzida até ficar plana. A posição e inclinação dos incisivos inferiores foram avaliadas por meio de análise cefalométrica. A CS e o índice de irregularidade foram avaliados por meio de modelos de estudo. A avaliação foi realizada duas vezes, sendo após a inserção dos arcos NiTi 0,016" e dos arcos 0,016" x 0,022" de aço. As mudanças dentárias visualizadas nos cefalogramas e nos modelos foram comparadas dentro dos grupos utilizando teste t pareado e entre os grupos utilizando o teste t independente. Resultados: Grupo Controle: estágio de arco redondo: os incisivos inferiores se inclinaram vestibularmente (4.38° e 1 mm) e intruíram (-1,13mm); estágio de arco retangular: os incisivos inferiores intruíram e se projetaram adicionalmente (-0.63mm e 1,38°). Grupo Experimental: Durante o alinhamento com arcos redondos e CS acentuada, os incisivos inferiores se inclinaram levemente para vestibular (0,75° e 0,50mm), sem intrusão significativa; durante o nivelamento com arcos retangulares, os incisivos, em sua maioria, intruíram (1,75mm), com uma leve projeção (1,81°). O grupo experimental apresentou projeção dos incisivos significativamente menor (controle: 5,76°; experimental: 2,56°), com maior intrusão dos incisivos (controle: -1,75mm; experimental: -2,13mm). A CS no Grupo Experimental apresentou redução significativamente maior (-2,88 mm) do que no grupo controle (-1,69 mm). Conclusão: No Grupo Controle, foi observada de forma notória a projeção dos incisivos inferiores nos arcos redondos, com projeção adicional causada pelos arcos retangulares. No Grupo Experimental, foi observada uma projeção mínima quando foram utilizados arcos redondos com CS acentuada para alinhamento. O nivelamento com arcos retangulares causou menos projeção com maior redução da CS.

Orthodontic Wires , Stainless Steel , Tooth Movement Techniques , Cephalometry , Incisor , Mandible
Rev. latinoam. enferm. (Online) ; 29: e3475, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1341518


Objective: to compare the efficacy of 80% (w/v) alcohol, rubbed for 30 and 60 seconds, in the manual processing of stainless-steel wash bowls, after cleaning with running water and neutral detergent. Method: experimental study conducted in a hospital in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, on 50 bowls randomly divided into two groups of 25 bowls each for interventions of 30 and 60 seconds of rubbing with 80% (w/v) alcohol. Results: based on the microbiological analyses collected, before and after the interventions for both groups, partial efficacy of the disinfectant was observed even when extending rubbing time. In both groups, there was a higher prevalence of survival of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, with 14 strains that were resistant to carbapenems, being, specifically, 11 to imipenem and three to meropenem. Conclusion: stainless-steel bed wash bowls decontaminated for reuse by 80% (w/v) alcohol, after cleaning with running water and neutral detergent, showed to be reservoirs of hospital pathogens. The use of bed wash bowls for patients with intact skin would not have worrying consequences, but considering those with non-intact skin and the contamination of professionals' hands, the results in this study justify the search for other decontamination methods or the adoption of disposable bed baths.

Objetivo: comparar a eficácia do álcool 80% (p/v), friccionado por 30 e 60 segundos, no processamento manual de bacias de banho em aço inoxidável, após limpeza com água corrente e detergente neutro. Método: estudo experimental realizado em hospital do estado de São Paulo, Brasil, com 50 bacias randomicamente distribuídas em dois grupos de 25, para as intervenções de 30 e 60 segundos de fricção com álcool 80% (p/v). Resultados: das análises microbiológicas coletadas, antes e após as intervenções para os dois grupos, verificou-se eficácia parcial do desinfetante, mesmo ampliando o tempo de fricção. Em ambos os grupos, observou-se maior prevalência de sobrevida de Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 14 cepas resistentes a carbapenens, especificamente, 11 ao imipenen e três ao meropenen. Conclusão: bacias de banho no leito em aço inoxidável, descontaminadas para reuso com álcool 80% (p/v), após limpeza com água corrente e detergente neutro, apresentam-se como reservatórios de patógenos hospitalares. O uso das bacias de banho no leito para pacientes com pele íntegra não teria consequências preocupantes, mas para aqueles com pele não íntegra e pensando na contaminação das mãos dos profissionais, os resultados dessa pesquisa justificam a busca de outros métodos de descontaminação ou a adoção de banho de leito descartável.

Objetivo: comparar la eficacia del alcohol al 80% (p/v), frotado durante 30 y 60 segundos, en el proceso de descontaminación manual de palanganas de baño de acero inoxidable, después de lavarlas con agua corriente y detergente neutro. Método: estudio experimental realizado en un hospital del estado de São Paulo, Brasil, con 50 palanganas divididas aleatoriamente en dos grupos de 25, para intervenciones de 30 y 60 segundos de frotamiento con alcohol al 80% (p/v). Resultados: los análisis microbiológicos recolectados, antes y después de las intervenciones para ambos grupos, demostraron efectividad parcial del desinfectante, incluso cuando se extendió el tiempo de fricción. En ambos grupos, se observó una mayor prevalencia de supervivencia de Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 14 cepas resistentes a carbapenemas, específicamente 11 a imipenem y tres a meropenem. Conclusión: las palanganas de baño de cama de acero inoxidable, descontaminadas para su reutilización con alcohol al 80% (p/v), después del lavado con agua corriente y detergente neutro, actúan como reservorios de patógenos hospitalarios. El uso de las palanganas de baño de cama no tendría consecuencias preocupantes para pacientes con la piel íntegra, pero para aquellos cuya piel no conserva su integridad y pensando en la contaminación de las manos de los profesionales, los resultados de esta investigación justifican la búsqueda de otros métodos de descontaminación o la adopción del baño de cama desechable.

Humans , Stainless Steel , Brazil , Decontamination , Equipment Contamination/prevention & control , Ethanol
Int. j. odontostomatol. (Print) ; 14(4): 658-663, dic. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134554


ABSTRACT: Orthodontic accessories bonding in tooth enamel has been a critical step since the introduction of direct bonding techniques due to the importance of bracket stability. The aim of this study was to evaluate adhesion strength of different adhesive systems used for bracket bonding on dental surface. The present in vitro study was made from the analysis of shear strength of steel and ceramic brackets bonding with six different types of orthodontic adhesives. The brackets were bonded to 120 human extracted first premolar teeth with Orthocem®, Orthocem® + Ambar Universal® primer, Orthobond Plus®, Biofix®, Transbond XT®, Ortholink VLC®. Shear strength tests were performed on a universal testing machine EZ-Test-Shimadzu® and the data were analyzed using ANOVA test with Post-Hoc Bonferroni and 95 % statistical significance (p <0.05). Transbond XT® and Ortholink VLC® resin values showed greater shear resistance for steel brackets bonding and Transbond XT® and Orthobond Plus® adhesives showed better adhesion results for ceramic brackets bonding.

RESUMEN: La unión de accesorios de ortodoncia en el esmalte dental ha sido un paso crítico desde la introducción de las técnicas de unión directa debido a la importancia de la estabilidad del soporte. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la fuerza de adhesión de diferentes sistemas adhesivos utilizados para la unión de brackets en la superficie dental. El presente estudio in vitro se realizó a partir del análisis de la resistencia al corte de brackets de acero y de cerámica unidos con seis tipos diferentes de adhesivos de ortodoncia. Los brackets se unieron a 120 primeros premolares extraídos con los adhesivos Orthocem®, Orthocem® + Ambar Universal® primer, Orthobond Plus®, Biofix®, Transbond XT®, Ortholink VLC®. Las pruebas de resistencia al corte se realizaron en una máquina de prueba universal EZ-Test-Shimadzu® y los datos se analizaron usando la prueba ANOVA con Bonferroni Post-Hoc y 95 % de significación estadística (p <0,05). Los valores de resina Transbond XT® y Ortholink VLC® mostraron una mayor resistencia al corte para la unión de brackets de acero y los adhesivos Transbond XT® y Orthobond Plus® mostraron mejores resultados de adhesión para la unión de brackets cerámicos.

Humans , Dental Bonding/methods , Orthodontic Brackets , Dental Cements , Orthodontics , Stainless Steel , Materials Testing , Ceramics , Resin Cements , Shear Strength
Dental press j. orthod. (Impr.) ; 25(6): 27-32, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1154055


ABSTRACT Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the attractiveness of different types of esthetic orthodontic wires by laypeople and dentists. Methods: Five different types of orthodontic wires were evaluated: three esthetic wires (Teflon-coated, epoxy resin-coated and rhodium-coated wires), and two metallic wires (stainless steel and NiTi), as control. Monocrystalline ceramic brackets were installed in the maxillary arch of a patient presenting good dental alignment. The five evaluated wires were attached to the orthodontic appliance with an esthetic silicone elastic and photographed. The photographs were evaluated by 163 individuals, 110 dentists and 53 laypeople. The data were statistically evaluated by two-way ANOVA and one-way ANOVA, followed by Tukey tests. Results: There was a statistically significant difference in the attractiveness among the wires evaluated; the most esthetic was the rhodium-coated wire, followed by the epoxy resin-coated wire and, finally, the Teflon-coated wire, with no significant difference from the stainless steel and NiTi control archwires. There was no significant difference between the groups of evaluators. Conclusion: The most attractive was the rhodium-coated wire, followed by the epoxy resin-coated wire and, finally, the least attractive wire was the Teflon-coated wire, without statistically significant difference to the stainless steel and NiTi wires, used as control.

RESUMO Objetivo: O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a atratividade de diferentes tipos de fios ortodônticos estéticos, na opinião de leigos e dentistas. Métodos: Foram avaliados cinco tipos diferentes de fios ortodônticos: três fios estéticos (revestidos com teflon, revestidos com resina epóxi e revestidos com ródio) e dois fios metálicos (aço inoxidável e NiTi), como grupo controle. Braquetes de cerâmica monocristalina foram instalados na arcada superior de uma paciente com bom alinhamento dentário, e os cinco fios avaliados foram fixados ao aparelho ortodôntico com ligadura elástica estética de silicone e fotografados. As fotografias foram avaliadas por 163 indivíduos, sendo 110 dentistas e 53 leigos. Os dados foram avaliados estatisticamente pelos testes ANOVA a um e a dois critérios, seguidos pelo teste de Tukey. Resultados: Houve diferença estatisticamente significativa na atratividade entre os fios avaliados. O mais estético foi o fio revestido de ródio, seguido pelo fio revestido de resina epóxica e, finalmente, o fio revestido de teflon, sem diferença significativa entre os fios de aço inoxidável e os de NiTi. Não houve diferença significativa entre os grupos de avaliadores. Conclusão: O mais atraente foi o fio revestido de ródio, seguido pelo fio revestido de resina epóxica e, finalmente, o fio menos atraente foi o fio revestido de teflon, sem diferença estatisticamente significativa para os fios de aço inoxidável e os de NiTi, utilizados como controle.

Humans , Orthodontic Wires , Orthodontic Brackets , Dental Alloys , Esthetics, Dental , Stainless Steel , Surface Properties , Titanium , Materials Testing , Orthodontic Appliance Design
Ortodoncia ; 84(167): 26-34, jun. 2020. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1147572


Los alambres en ortodoncia son elementos activos que tienen la capacidad de almacenar energía y liberar fuerzas. Los brackets permiten la unión directa y selectiva entre el arco de alambre y las piezas dentarias, lo que optimiza el efecto de presiones específicas de forma precisa y controlada, transmitiendo el movimiento en los tres sentidos del espacio. Durante el tratamiento de ortodoncia, estos elementos podrían sufrir alteraciones estructurales impidiendo el movimiento dental óptimo. En el presente trabajo de investigación, se analizó la respuesta que tienen el arco de acero inoxidable 0.019" × 0.025" y el slot de brackets de zafiro, en el sector anterior del maxilar superior, cuando ejercen fricción entre sí, antes y después de ser utilizados clínicamente en un tratamiento de ortodoncia. Para esto, las muestras fueron lavadas con alcohol absoluto al 96 % y secadas para ser observadas en el microscopio electrónico de barrido ambiental (MEB) (ESEM - environmental scanning electron microscope), modelo FEI ESEM QuantaTM 200. Los arcos rectangulares fueron analizados por sus cuatro caras y cuatro aristas (superior, inferior, interna y externa; respectivamente) y los slots de brackets de zafiro fueron observados en un corte sagital y dividido en forma lineal en tres mediciones (interna, media y externa). Los datos obtenidos fueron volcados en una planilla de tabulación de datos para su análisis estadístico, mediante el test de normalidad de Shapiro-Wilk para medidas no paramétricas y el test de Fisher. En conclusión, las zonas más afectadas por el desgaste fueron las caras y aristas internas del arco de acero de 0.019" × 0.025", y la medición interna del slot de brackets de zafiro. Ambas presentaban una pérdida de la solución de continuidad en su estructura, evidenciando un área de mayor fricción(AU)

Orthodontic wires are active elements that have the ability to store energy and release forces. The brackets allow the direct and selective bonding between the wire arch and teeth, optimizing the effect of specific pressures in a precise and controlled way, transmitting movement in the three directions of space. During orthodontic treatment, these elements could undergo structural changes preventing optimal dental movement. In the current research work, the response that the 0.019" × 0.025" stainless steel archwire and the sapphire bracket slot have in the anterior sector of the upper jaw when they exert friction on each other, before and after being clinically used in an orthodontic treatment was analyzed. For this purpose, the samples were washed in 96% absolute alcohol and dried to be observed under the environmental scanning electron microscope ESEM (MEB - microscopio electrónico de barrido ambiental), model FEI ESEM QuantaTM 200. The rectangular archwires were analyzed on their 4 faces and 4 edges (upper, lower, internal and external) and the sapphire brackets slots were observed in a sagittal section and linearly divided into three measurements (internal, medium and external). The data obtained were put in a data tabulation spreadsheet for its statistical analysis by using the Shapiro-Wilk normality test for nonparametric measures, and the Fisher test. In conclusion, the areas most affected by wear were the internal face and edges of the 0.019" × 0.025" steel arch and the internal measurement of the sapphire brackets slot. They both presented loss of continuity in their structure, providing evidence of an area of greater friction(AU)

Orthodontic Wires , Stainless Steel , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Orthodontic Brackets , Friction
Chinese Journal of Stomatology ; (12): 551-554, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827011


Deciduous caries and abnormal tooth development are common children's oral diseases which seriously harm the health of deciduous dentition, hinder the absorption of nutrients and affect the general growth and development. Caries of deciduous teeth progresses rapidly and can develop into rampant caries and other hard tissue diseases in a short time. The metal prefabricated crown is a stainless steel restoration for the treatment and repair of severe dental tissue damage in children. Its repair technique has certain operating procedures, requires specific equipments and materials, needs qualified dental clinicians to complete. The Society of Pediatric Dentistry, Chinese Stomatological Association organized experts to formulate the guideline of the clinical operation stainless steel crown restoration, so as to standardize the application of stainless steel crowns in the molar repair treatment of deciduous teeth such as caries in children and to further promote the application of the technique.

Child , Crowns , Dental Caries , Therapeutics , Dental Restoration, Permanent , Humans , Stainless Steel , Tooth, Deciduous
Odontol. vital ; (31): 31-36, jul.-dic. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1091425


Resumen Introducción: Estudio experimental donde se procuró comparar el efecto del sistema manual y del rotatorio sobre la conformación de conductos curvos. Metodología: Una muestra de 40 raíces mesiales de primeras molares inferiores fue aleatorizada en dos grupos iguales: grupos sistema manual de limas K y sistema rotatorio FGK Race®. Se comparó el radio de la curvatura final vs. el inicial mediante el programa Autocat 2015. Se empleó la prueba t con significancia de 0,05. Resultados: El radio de la curvatura varió de manera significativa, tanto para sistema manual como para el rotatorio FGK Race® (p=0,0001 y p=0,0013, respectivamente). Además, el sistema manual produjo mayor variación en el radio de la curvatura al compararlo con el sistema rotatorio 2,23 mm vs. 1,27 mm respectivamente; p=0,13. Conclusiones: Ambos sistemas produjeron modificación en la conformación de los conductos mesiales; sin embargo, en la comparación entre ambos dichas diferencias no fueron significativas.

Abstract Introduction: An experimental study was carried out to compare the effect of the manual system and the rotary system on the conformation of curved conduits. Methodology: A sample of 40 mesial roots of lower first molars was randomized into two equal groups: group manual system of K-files and group rotary system FGK Race®. The radius of the final curvature vs. the initial curvature was compared using the Autocat 2015 program. The t-test with a significance of 0.05 was used. Results: The curvature radius varied significantly for both the manual system and the rotary FGK Race® (p = 0.0001 and p = 0.0013, respectively). In addition, the manual system produced greater variation in the radius of the curvature when compared to the rotary system 2.23mm vs. 1.27mm respectively; p = 0.13. Conclusion: Both systems produced modification on the conformation of the conduits of the mesial roots; however, in the comparison between both systems said differences were not significant.

Stainless Steel/analysis , Titanium/therapeutic use , Dental Instruments , Dental Pulp Cavity , Molar , Nickel/therapeutic use , Dental Alloys/analysis
Dental press j. orthod. (Impr.) ; 24(2): 66-72, Mar.-Apr. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001855


Abstract Objective: This study investigated the effect of the condition of lubrication on the friction between brackets and NiTi archwires of different rounded cross-sections. Methods: Brackets (Roth, GAC) were affixed to a device connected to a universal testing machine into which segments of archwire were placed (NiTi, Nitinol, GAC) with cross-sections of 0.012-in, 0.016-in and 0.020-in. Once the wire was in the bracket slot, the following lubricants were applied: human saliva (HS: positive control), distilled water (DI), mucin-based (MUC) or carboxymethylcellulose-based (CMC) artificial saliva. In the negative control group, no lubricant was used. The combination between the wire cross-sections and the lubrication condition generated 15 groups with 15 samples each. Data were submitted to two-way analysis of variance and Tukey's test. Results: There was no significant interaction between the wire cross-section and the condition of lubrication (p= 0.901). Irrespective of whether lubricants were used or not, there was a significant increase in friction with an increase in the cross-section of the wire (p< 0.001). For any wire, the group tested in the presence of MUC was not different from that in which HS was applied. On the other hand, when the application of lubricants was suppressed, significantly higher friction values were observed. The CMC group and the DI group demonstrated intermediate behavior. Conclusions: Friction increased with the increase of the cross-section of the NiTi archwire, but regardless of the archwire, friction with MUC artificial saliva was similar to that of HS and lower than in dry conditions.

Resumo Objetivo: este estudo investigou o efeito das condições de lubrificação no atrito entre braquetes e fios de NiTi de diferentes secções transversais. Métodos: os braquetes (Roth, GAC) foram fixados a um dispositivo conectado a uma máquina de ensaio universal, que recebeu segmentos de fio de NiTi (Nitinol, GAC) com secções de 0,012"; 0,016" ou 0,020". Após o fio ter sido instalado no slot do braquete, aplicou-se um dos seguintes lubrificantes: saliva humana (SH: controle positivo), água destilada (AD) ou saliva artificial à base de mucina (MUC) ou de carboximetilcelulose (CMC). No grupo controle negativo, nenhum lubrificante foi utilizado. As combinações entre as secções dos fios e as condições de lubrificação geraram 15 grupos, com 15 amostras cada. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância a dois critérios e ao teste de Tukey. Resultados: não houve interação significativa entre a secção do fio e a condição de lubrificação (p = 0,901). Independentemente de ter sido utilizado ou não lubrificante, observou-se elevação significativa do atrito com o aumento da secção transversal do fio (p < 0,001). Para qualquer um dos fios, o grupo testado na presença de MUC não diferiu daquele em que se aplicou SH. Por outro lado, quando suprimiu-se os lubrificantes, constatou-se atrito significativamente mais elevado. Os grupos CMC e AD demonstraram comportamento intermediário. Conclusões: o atrito se elevou com o aumento da secção transversal dos fios de NiTi, mas a despeito do fio, o atrito com a saliva à base de MUC foi similar àquele com a SH e menor do que sob condição a seco.

Humans , Orthodontic Brackets , Orthodontic Wires , Stainless Steel , Surface Properties , Titanium , Materials Testing , Orthodontic Appliance Design , Friction , Dental Alloys
Dental press j. orthod. (Impr.) ; 24(1): 62-67, Jan.-Feb. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-989683


ABSTRACT Introduction: Aesthetic brackets are routinely combined with metallic wires in fixed orthodontic therapy, mainly due to the disadvantages of the clinical use of aesthetic archwires. The current situation needs to be explored in the literature by considering laypersons' perceptions. Objective: The objective of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate laypersons' aesthetic perceptions of metal archwires with and without aesthetic coating. Three age ranges and both sexes were evaluated. Methods: A volunteer using fixed aesthetic orthodontic appliance was photographed wearing the following archwires: stainless steel, nickel-titanium (NiTi), NiTi coated with epoxy resin and NiTi coated with rhodium. Using a 100-mm visual analog scale, 90 laypersons evaluated the photographs. Sex and age ranges (18-30, 31-45, over 46 years of age) were evaluated. The comparisons between the archwires and between age ranges were made using ANOVA and Tukey's test. Genders were compared using Mann-Whitney test. Results: The results showed that the evaluators considered the archwire coated with epoxy resin to be the most aesthetic (60.64 ± 13.04) and the NiTi wire to be the least aesthetic (30.82 ± 7.79) (p< 0.05). Only the range of 31-45 years of age considered the NiTi archwires less aesthetic, when compared with the other age groups. For the other archwires, no statistically significant difference were found between the age groups. No differences between the sexes were detected. Conclusions: The results indicated that the aesthetic coated archwires represent an improvement in the visual aspect of ceramic brackets. The epoxy-coated metal wire was considered the most aesthetic option.

RESUMO Introdução: rotineiramente na terapia ortodôntica fixa, utilizam-se braquetes estéticos combinados com fios metálicos, principalmente devido a algumas desvantagens no uso clínico dos fios estéticos. A percepção estética dos leigos nessa situação precisa ser explorada na literatura. Objetivo: o objetivo deste estudo transversal foi avaliar a percepção estética dos leigos em relação aos fios ortodônticos metálicos recobertos ou não por materiais estéticos. Três faixas etárias, dos dois sexos, foram avaliadas. Métodos: uma paciente usando aparelho ortodôntico fixo estético foi fotografada com os seguintes fios ortodônticos: aço inoxidável, níquel-titânio (NiTi), NiTi recoberto por resina epóxica e NiTi recoberto por ródio. As fotografias foram avaliadas por 90 leigos, utilizando-se uma escala visual analógica de 100-mm. Ambos os sexos e diferentes faixas etárias (18-30, 31-45 e acima de 46 anos) foram avaliados. As comparações entre os fios e entre as faixas etárias foram realizadas aplicando-se os testes ANOVA e Tukey. Os sexos foram comparados utilizando-se o teste de Mann-Whitney. Resultados: os resultados demonstraram que os avaliadores consideraram o fio recoberto por resina epóxica como o mais estético (60,64 ± 13,04) e o fio de NiTi foi classificado como o menos estético (30,82 ± 7,79) (p< 0,05). Apenas a faixa etária de 31-45 anos considerou o fio de NiTi menos estético, quando comparada às outras faixas etárias; para os outros fios, não foi observada diferença estatisticamente significativa entre as faixas etárias. Não foi detectada diferença entre os sexos. Conclusões: os resultados indicaram que os fios estéticos recobertos melhoraram o aspecto visual dos braquetes cerâmicos. O fio metálico recoberto por resina epóxica foi considerado a opção mais estética.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Orthodontic Appliances , Orthodontic Wires , Perception , Esthetics, Dental , Stainless Steel , Titanium , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dental Alloys , Nickel
Dental press j. orthod. (Impr.) ; 24(1): 68-73, Jan.-Feb. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-989682


ABSTRACT Introduction: The heat treatment of stainless steel wires is a routine clinical procedure adopted by many dentists in order to relieve the stress caused after performing bends in the archwire. Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the influence of heat treatment of stainless steel archwires with a rectangular section of 0.016 x 0.022'-in. Methods: For analysis of the dimensional stability, the anterior and posterior dimensions of forty 0.016 x 0.022-in stainless steel orthodontic archwires without heat treatment and 30 days after heat treatment were evaluated. For analysis of the mechanical properties, 12 stainless steel wire segments with the same rectangular section without heat treatment and 30 days after heat treatment were tested through tensile strength and strain tests. To evaluate if there were differences between the anterior and posterior dimensions, the results were analyzed by the Student's t-test. To compare the tensile strength and strain between the groups, the ANOVA test was used. The level of significance adopted was 95% (p< 0.05). Results: The heat treatment did not stop the expansion of archwires 30 days after their preparation, and there was no statistical difference in the tensile strength and strain tests with and without heat treatment. Conclusion: From the findings of this study, it can be conclude that the mechanical behavior of heat-treated stainless steel archwires is similar to that of archwires not subjected to heat treatment.

RESUMO Introdução: o tratamento térmico de fios de aço inoxidável é um procedimento clínico rotineiro adotado por muitos cirurgiões-dentistas para aliviar o estresse causado após a confecção de dobras no fio. O presente estudo avaliou a influência do tratamento térmico em fios de aço inoxidável com secção retangular de 0,016'' x 0,022''. Métodos: para análise da estabilidade dimensional, foram avaliadas as dimensões anteriores e posteriores de 40 arcos ortodônticos de aço inoxidável de 0,016'' x 0,022'' sem tratamento térmico e 30 dias após o tratamento térmico. Para análise das propriedades mecânicas, 12 segmentos de fio de aço inoxidável com a mesma secção retangular sem tratamento térmico e 30 dias após o tratamento térmico foram analisadas por testes de resistência à tração e tensão. Para verificar se houve diferenças entre as dimensões anteriores e posteriores, os resultados foram analisados pelo teste t de Student. Para comparar a resistência à tração e tensão entre os grupos, foi utilizado o teste ANOVA. O nível de significância adotado foi 95% (p< 0,05). Resultados: o tratamento térmico não interrompeu a expansão dos fios 30 dias após seu preparo, e não houve diferença estatística nos testes de resistência à tração e tensão com e sem o tratamento térmico. Conclusão: pelos achados desse estudo, conclui-se que o comportamento mecânico de fios submetidos a tratamento térmico é semelhante ao de fios de aço não submetidos ao tratamento térmico.

Orthodontic Wires , Orthodontic Brackets , Stainless Steel , Surface Properties , Tensile Strength , Materials Testing , Dental Alloys , Hot Temperature
Pesqui. bras. odontopediatria clín. integr ; 19(1): 4990, 01 Fevereiro 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-998269


Objective: To determine and compare the corrosion resistance (based on the release of nickel and chromium in artificial saliva) of various brands of stainless steel brackets after thermal recycling by direct flaming. Material and Methods: This research study employed 40 stainlesssteel maxillary premolar brackets from different brands (Ormco, GAC, Versadent, S-Ortho, and Protect), which were divided into 5 groups consisting of 8 brackets. The nickel and chromium content of the metal brackets were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), conducted before immersion. For the first treatment, each group was immersed in artificial saliva without direct flaming (recycling); for the second treatment, each group was immersed in artificial saliva with direct flaming (recycling) for 30 days in a pH-neutral (pH=7) solution. ICP-MS was employed to analyze the nickel and chromium released in saliva. The mean differences were measured with Wilcoxon, Kruskal Wallis test, and Post-Hoc Mann Whitney test. Differences were considered statistically significant when p-value<0.05. Results: The mean corrosion resistance based on the nickel content released by the new brackets was 99.95%, 99.87%, 87.09%, 90.58%, and 90.26% for groups A, B, C, D, and E, respectively. The mean corrosion resistance based on the nickel content released by the recycled brackets was 99.90%, 99.80%, 98.19%, 89.76%, and 72.82%, respectively. There was a significant difference in corrosion resistance among the 5 groups after recycling by direct flaming and between new and recycled brackets in each group. Conclusion: The corrosion resistance of the brackets in groups A (Ormco), B (GAC), D (S-Ortho), and E (Protect) decreased after thermal recycling by direct flaming. The Ormco brackets had the highest corrosion resistance after thermal recycling by direct faming.

Stainless Steel , Chromium , Orthodontic Brackets , Dental Etching , Nickel , Spectrum Analysis/methods , Indonesia
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787373


The aim of this study was to evaluate the compomer cement and resin cement as an orthodontic band cement on zirconia crown.A total of 30 specimens were prepared. Preformed stainless steel crowns and zirconia crowns of upper right second primary molar were used. Orthodontic bands were cemented on stainless steel crowns (Group I, n = 10) and zirconia crowns (Group II, n = 10) with compomer cement. The other bands were cemented on zirconia crowns with resin cement (Group III, n = 10). The tensile loads were applied to band to measure the bond strength.The mean of bond strengths of group I, II and III were 0.79 MPa, 1.09 MPa and 1.56 MPa respectively. Bond strength of group II is significantly higher than group I. There was no significant difference between group II and III.Compomer cement and resin cement containing functional monomers showed favorable bond strength of orthodontic bands.

Crowns , Molar , Resin Cements , Stainless Steel
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787353


The purpose of this study was to obtain instructions for size selection of prefabricated crown and tooth reduction by 3-dimensional analysis of the size and shape of the maxillary primary central and lateral incisors and prefabricated crowns (celluloid strip, resin veneered stainless steel, and zirconia crowns).The maxillary primary central and lateral incisors of 300 Korean children was scanned with three types of prefabricated crown to create standard three-dimensional tooth models and prefabricated crowns. The shapes of the prefabricated crowns and natural teeth were compared according to four parameters (mesio-distal width, height, labio-palatal width, and labial surface curvature coefficient) and calculated the amount of tooth reduction required for each prefabricated crown.The size 2 resin veneered stainless steel crown, size 1 zirconia crown, and size 2 celluloid strip crown were most similar in shape to the primary central incisor. The size 3 rein veneered stainless steel crown, size 2 zirconia crown, and size 3 celluloid strip crown were most similar to the primary lateral incisor.The amount of tooth reduction was similar in both maxillary primary central and lateral incisors. The incisal reduction was greatest for the zirconia crown. At the proximal surface, the zirconia and celluloid strip crowns required a similar amount of tooth reduction, but more than the resin veneered stainless steel crown. The labial surface reduction was greatest for the zirconia crown. The degree of lingual surface reduction was not significant among the three prefabricated crowns.Among the assessment parameters, mesio-distal crown width was the most important for choosing a prefabricated crown closest to the actual size of the natural crown.

Child , Crowns , Humans , Incisor , Stainless Steel , Tooth
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-770047


PURPOSE: To compare the results of two different instruments made of stainless steel and titanium alloy for correction of single thoracic adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) using pedicle screw instrumentation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 141 patients with single thoracic AIS treated with pedicle screw instrumentation and selective thoracic fusion were retrospectively reviewed after a follow-up of 2 years. The patients had a main thoracic curve of 40° to 75° and were divided into two groups based on instrument materials; S group (stainless steel, n=90) and T group (titanium alloy, n=51). The diameter of the stainless steel rod used was 7.0 mm while that of the titanium alloy rod was 6.35 mm or 6.0 mm. Standing long-cassette radiographic measurements including various coronal and sagittal parameters for the preoperative, early postoperative and 2-year postoperative follow-up were analyzed. There were no significant differences in the preoperative curve characteristics between the two groups. RESULTS: In the S group, the preoperative main thoracic curve of 51.3°±8.4° was improved to 19.0°±7.6° (63.1% correction) and the lumbar curve of 32.3°±8.4° spontaneously decreased to 12.7°±8.2° (62.9% correction) at 2 years postoperatively. In the T group, the preoperative main thoracic curve of 49.5°±8.4° and the lumbar curve of 30.3°±8.9° was improved to 18.8°±7.4° (62.2% correction) and 11.3°±5.4° (63.3% correction), respectively. The corrections of coronal curves were not statistically different between the two groups (p>0.05). The thoracic kyphosis was changed from 16.8°±8.5° to 24.3°±6.1° in the S group and from 19.6°±11.2° to 26.6°±8.5° in the T group. There were no significant differences in the changes of sagittal curves, coronal and sagittal balances at the 2-year follow-up and the number of fused segments and used screws between the two groups (p>0.05). CONCLUSION: When conducting surgery for single thoracic AIS using pedicles screw instrumentation, two different instruments made of stainless steel and titanium alloy showed similar corrections for coronal and sagittal curves.

Adolescent , Alloys , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Kyphosis , Pedicle Screws , Retrospective Studies , Scoliosis , Stainless Steel , Steel , Titanium
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763585


BACKGROUND: To compare the stability of fixed- versus variable-angle locking constructs for the comminuted distal humerus fracture (AO/OTA 13-A3). METHODS: Eight pairs of complete humeri harvested from eight fresh frozen cadavers were used for the study. We fixed the intact humeri using 2.7-mm/3.5-mm locking VA-LCP stainless steel distal humerus posterolateral (nine-hole) and medial (seven-hole) plates. An oscillating saw was used to cut a 1-cm gap above the olecranon fossa. The specimens were loaded in axial mode with the rate of 1 mm per 10 seconds to failure, and stress-strain curves were compared in each pair. The mode of failure was recorded as well as the load needed for 2- and 4-mm displacement at the lateral end of the gap. RESULTS: The stiffness of the constructs, based on the slope of the stress-strain curve, did not show any difference between the fixed- versus variable-angle constructs. Likewise, there was no difference between the force needed for 2- or 4-mm displacement at the lateral gap between the fixed- and variable-angle constructs. The mode of failure was bending of both plates in all specimens and screw pull-out in four specimen pairs in addition to the plate bending. CONCLUSIONS: Our results did not show any difference in the biomechanical stability of the fixed- versus variable-angle constructs. There was not any screw breakage or failure of the plate-screw interface.

Bone Screws , Cadaver , Fracture Fixation , Fractures, Comminuted , Humerus , Olecranon Process , Stainless Steel
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719315


OBJECTIVE: This study was performed to explore the effect of different bracket, archwire, and ligature combinations on resistance to sliding (RS) and rotational control in first-order angulation. METHODS: Three types of brackets (multi-level low friction [MLF], self-ligating, and conventional brackets) coupled with four nickel-titanium archwires (0.012, 0.014, 0.016, and 0.018-inch diameter) and two stainless steel ligatures (0.20 and 0.25 mm) were tested in different first-order angulations (0°, 2°, 4°, 6°, 8°, 10°, 15°, 20°) by using an Instron universal mechanical machine in the dry state at room temperature. RS value was evaluated and compared by one-way ANOVA. RESULTS: Under the same angulation, the RS values showed the following order: conventional brackets > MLF brackets > self-ligating brackets. The RS was the highest for conventional brackets and showed a tendency to increase. The RS for MLF brackets coupled with thinner archwires and ligatures showed a similar tendency as the RS for the self-ligating bracket. In contrast, the RS for MLF brackets coupled with thicker archwires and ligatures increased like that for conventional brackets. MLF brackets showed the greatest range of critical contact angles in first-order angulation. CONCLUSIONS: The RS in first-order angulation is influenced by bracket design, archwire, and ligature dimension. In comparison with self-ligating and conventional brackets, MLF brackets could express low friction and rotational control with their greater range of critical contact angles.

Friction , Ligation , Stainless Steel , Tooth Movement Techniques
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 429-439, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742563


PURPOSE: To explore the effects of biodegradable magnesium alloy stents (BMAS) on remodeling of vein graft (VG) anastomotic restenosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To establish a VG restenosis model, seventy two New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into three groups according to whether a stent was implanted in the graft vein or not. BMASs and 316L stainless steel stents were implanted in BMAS and 316L groups, respectively, while no stent was implanted in the no-treatment control group (NC group). Loss of lumen diameter in the graft vein was measured in all three groups. Upon harvesting VG segments to evaluate intimal proliferation and re-endothelization, the degradation and biological safety of the stents were observed to explore the effects of BMAS on VG remodeling. RESULTS: Model establishment and stent implantation were successful. The BMAS reduced lumen loss, compared with the control group (0.05±0.34 mm vs. 0.90±0.39 mm, p=0.001), in the early stage. The neointimal area was smaller in the BMAS group than the 316L group after 4 months (4.96±0.66 mm2 vs. 6.80±0.69 mm2, p=0.017). Re-endothelialization in the BMAS group was better than that in the 316L group (p=0.001). Within 4 months, the BMAS had degraded, and the magnesium was converted to phosphorus and calcium. The support force of the BMAS began to reduce at 2–3 months after implantation, without significant toxic effects. CONCLUSION: BMAS promotes positive remodeling of VG anastomosis and has advantages over the conventional 316L stents in the treatment of venous diseases.

Alloys , Calcium , Magnesium , Phosphorus , Rabbits , Stainless Steel , Stents , Transplants , Veins
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-758950


Ten cats were treated for distal femoral Salter-Harris fractures types I and II using a stainless steel wire in a figure-of-eight configuration. Healing was uneventful in 8 of the cats. Early fixation failure occurred in one cat, which required revisional surgery. In one cat, lameness recurred after fracture healing, which was related to breakage of the wire. The lameness was resolved after removing the wire. At the long-term follow-up, 1 out of 6 cats was lame. This report indicates that the figure-of-eight stainless steel wire technique is an alternative method for the repair of distal femoral Salter-Harris fractures types I and II in cats.

Animals , Bone Wires , Cats , Femur , Follow-Up Studies , Fracture Healing , Methods , Stainless Steel