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1.
Arch. pediatr. Urug ; 92(2): e306, dic. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY, UY-BNMED | ID: biblio-1278306

ABSTRACT

Los estafilococos coagulasa negativos son microorganismos frecuentemente aislados cuya significancia clínica puede ser difícil de establecer por su carácter de comensales habituales de la piel. En la población neonatal estos patógenos han ido adquiriendo mayor protagonismo debido a la sobrevida de pacientes mas prematuros que en el pasado, así como sus necesidades de tratamiento, que determinan mayores tiempos de estadía hospitalaria. Estos elementos representan factores de riesgo también para el desarrollo de endocarditis en estos pacientes, particularmente debido a la utilización de catéteres intravasculares centrales por tiempo prolongado. En este caso clínico se presenta un paciente pretérmino severo que presentó una endocarditis a estafilococo coagulasa negativo a partir del cual discutiremos las características de las infecciones por estos microorganismos, las características de la endocarditis infecciosa en el recién nacido pretérmino y la utilización de antibióticos en estos pacientes, así como algunos elementos asociados a la vigilancia activa en el uso de antibióticos.


Coagulase negative staphylococcus (CoNS) are commonly isolated microorganisms whose clinical importance may be difficult to establish due to their role as part of our usual skin microbiota. These pathogens have gained relevance in neonatal population due to an improvement in neonatal care that determine longer survival rates and hospitals stays. Neonatal endocarditis is also affected by these microorganisms and particularly by the use of central intra vascular lines for long periods of time. In this clinical case we introduce a severe preterm patient who developed a CoNS endocarditis and discuss the characteristics of CoNS infections and endocarditis in preterm newborns as well as some antibiotic vigilance principles.


Os estafilococos coagulase negativos são microrganismos frequentemente isolados, cujo significado clínico pode ser difícil de estabelecer devido ao seu caráter de comensais cutâneos comuns. Na população neonatal, esses patógenos vêm adquirindo maior destaque devido à sobrevida de pacientes mais prematuros do que no passado, bem como suas necessidades de tratamento, as quais determinam tempos de internação mais longos. Esses elementos também representam fatores de risco para o desenvolvimento de endocardite nesses pacientes, principalmente pelo uso prolongado de cateter intravascular central. Neste caso clínico apresentaremos um paciente pré-termo grave que apresentou endocardite estafilocócica coagulase-negativa a partir do qual discutiremos as características das infecções por esses microrganismos, as características da endocardite infecciosa no recém-nascido pré-termo e o uso de antibióticos nesses pacientes bem como alguns elementos associados à vigilância ativa no uso de antibióticos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Staphylococcal Infections/diagnosis , Staphylococcal Infections/drug therapy , Staphylococcus epidermidis/virology , Vancomycin/therapeutic use , Endocarditis/diagnosis , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Staphylococcal Infections/complications , Coagulase , Infant, Very Low Birth Weight , Endocarditis/etiology , Infant, Extremely Premature
2.
Arch. pediatr. Urug ; 92(2): e212, dic. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY, UY-BNMED | ID: biblio-1339132

ABSTRACT

Introducción: la sepsis tardía por estafilococo coagulasa negativo (SCoN) es una causa común de morbimortalidad en la unidad neonatal. Los SCoN son los microorganismos más frecuentemente involucrados con aproximadamente el 50% de los casos. El objetivo de este estudio es analizar la incidencia y las características de los neonatos portadores de sepsis tardía por SCoN. Materiales y métodos: se realizó un estudio descriptivo, longitudinal, retrospectivo. Se utilizaron las bases de datos del laboratorio de microbiología del hospital y las historias clínicas electrónicas para obtener la información. El período de estudio analizado fueron los años 2018 y 2019 en la unidad de cuidados intensivos e intermedios de recién nacidos del Centro Hospitalario Pereira Rossell. Resultados: obtuvimos una incidencia de 2,5% de los ingresos a cuidados intensivos e intermedios (25 pacientes). La edad gestacional al nacer fue de 28 semanas (25,0-35,0) y la mediana del peso fue de 1.070 g (730,0-2.365,0). La media de edad gestacional posmenstrual al momento del diagnóstico fue de 32,92±7,921 semanas. Por sospecha de sepsis precoz, 17 pacientes habían recibido un curso de antibióticos previo. El signo clínico más frecuentemente observado fue el deterioro del estado general, en 11 pacientes, seguido de distensión abdominal en 6 y fiebre en 5. Dentro de los SCoN, el más frecuentemente aislado fue el Staphylococcus epidermidis (13 pacientes); 22 pacientes recibieron tratamiento, 18 de ellos con vancomicina-meropenem y 4 con monoterapia con vancomicina. Conclusión: estos patógenos representan una causa importante de morbimortalidad en la unidad neonatal, particularmente en pacientes que presentan mayor gravedad y mayor necesidad de soporte vital. Se necesitan pautas claras de interpretación del rol de estos microorganismos y de abordaje de pacientes con riesgo de sepsis tardía, incluyendo el tratamiento antibiótico empírico.


Introduction: Coagulase Negative Staphylococci (CoNS) late onset sepsis is a common cause of morbidity and mortality in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). CoNS are the most frequently isolated microorganisms and total 50% of cases. The objective of this study is to analyze the incidence and characteristics of newborns carriers of late onset CoNS. Materials and methods: we performed a descriptive, retrospective, longitudinal study. Data was obtained from the hospital's microbiology laboratory database and electronic medical records. Patients included were those admitted to NICU during the period between 2018 and 2019. Results: we obtained an incidence of 2.5% of patients admitted to the NICU (25 patients). Median gestational age at birth was 28 weeks 25.0-35.0 and median birth weight was 1.070 g 730.0-2365.0. Mean gestational age at the time of diagnosis was 32.92±7.921 weeks. 17 patients had received an antibiotics course at birth because of early onset sepsis suspicion. The most frequently observed clinical symptom was deterioration of general condition, 11 patients, followed by abdominal distention in 6 and fever in 5. Among CoNS, the most frequently isolated pathogen was Staphylococcus epidermidis (13 patients). 22 patients received treatment, 18 a combination of vancomycin and meropenem and 4 received vancomycin monotherapy. Conclusion: these pathogens are a common cause of morbidity and mortality in the newborn intensive care unit, particularly in patients with more serious conditions and in those who require more advanced life support measures. Clearer interpretation of their role is needed as well as to determine a proper approach to patients at risk of late onset sepsis, including empiric antibiotic treatment.


Sepse tardia para Staphylococcus coagulase negativa (SCoN) é uma causa comum de morbidade e mortalidade na unidade neonatal. SCoNs são os microrganismos mais frequentemente envolvidos e representam aproximadamente 50% dos casos. O objetivo deste estudo é analisar a incidência e as características de neonatos com sepse tardia por SCoN. Materiais e métodos: foi realizado um estudo descritivo, longitudinal e retrospectivo. Usamos os bancos de dados do laboratório de microbiologia e prontuários médicos eletrônicos de nosso hospital para obter as informações. O período de estudo analisado foi de 2018 e 2019 na unidade de terapia intensiva e intermediária para recém-nascidos do Centro Hospitalar Pereira Rossell. Resultados: obtivemos uma incidência de 2,5% de internações em Terapia Intensiva e Intermediária (25 pacientes). A idade gestacional ao nascer foi de 28 semanas 25,0-35,0 e o peso médio foi de 1070g 730,0-2365,0. A média da idade gestacional pós-menstrual no momento do diagnóstico foi de 32,92 ± 7,921 semanas. 17 pacientes haviam recebido um curso anterior de antibióticos por suspeita de sepse precoce. O sinal clínico mais frequentemente observado foi deterioração do estado geral em 11 pacientes, seguido por distensão abdominal em 6 e febre em 5. Dentre os SCoN, o mais isolado foi o Staphylococcus Epidermidis (13 pacientes). 22 pacientes receberam tratamento, 18 deles com Vancomicina-Meropenem e 4 com Vancomicina em monoterapia. Conclusão: esses patógenos representam uma importante causa de morbimortalidade na unidade neonatal, principalmente em pacientes com maior gravidade e maior necessidade de suporte de vida. Orientações claras são necessárias para interpretar o papel desses microrganismos e para abordar pacientes com risco de sepse tardia, incluindo tratamento com antibióticos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Infant, Newborn , Staphylococcal Infections/epidemiology , Neonatal Sepsis/epidemiology , Staphylococcal Infections/diagnosis , Staphylococcal Infections/drug therapy , Staphylococcus epidermidis/virology , Uruguay/epidemiology , Vancomycin/therapeutic use , Cross Infection , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Incidence , Retrospective Studies , Longitudinal Studies , Coagulase , Staphylococcus haemolyticus/virology , Staphylococcus hominis/virology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
3.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(1): 11-17, feb. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1147054

ABSTRACT

Introducción. Las infecciones por Staphylococcus aureus resistente a meticilina adquirido de la comunidad (SARM-AC) se han incrementado en los últimos años. Neumonías necrotizantes y empiemas por SARM-AC son cada vez más frecuentes en niños.Objetivos. Determinar la prevalencia de neumonías por SARM-AC y sus características clínico-epidemiológicas, en comparación con las neumonías por Streptococcus pneumoniae (SP) en la misma población.Material y métodos. Estudio descriptivo, observacional, transversal, de pacientes internados con neumonía por SARM-AC en el Hospital de Niños Víctor J. Vilela (período: 1/2008-12/2017).Resultados. De 54 neumonías por Staphylococcus aureus, 46 (el 85 %) fueron SARM-AC. El índice de neumonías por SARM-AC varió de 4,9/10 000 (2008) a 10/10 000 egresos (2017). Presentaron sepsis/shock séptico el 41 %; empiema, el 96 %; neumotórax, el 35 %; requirieron drenaje pleural el 90 % y toilette quirúrgica el 55 %. Ingresaron a Terapia Intensiva el 65 %; la mitad necesitó asistencia respiratoria mecánica. Hubo dos muertes. Resistencia de las cepas: el 17 % a gentamicina, el 13 % a eritromicina, el 11 % a clindamicina. En las neumonías por SARM-AC vs. las neumonías por SP, se observó mayor riesgo de sepsis (IC 95 %; RR 7,38; 3,32-16,38) e ingreso a Terapia Intensiva (RR 4,29; 2,70-6,83). No hubo muertes por SP.Conclusiones. La prevalencia de neumonías por SARM-AC se duplicó durante la última década. Comparadas con las neumonías por SP, las neumonías por SARM-AC se acompañaron, más frecuentemente, de cuadros de sepsis y shockséptico, ingreso a Terapia Intensiva y asistencia respiratoria.


Introduction. Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) infections have increased in recent years. CA-MRSA necrotizing pneumonia and empyema are now more common in children.Objectives. To determine the prevalence of CA-MRSA pneumonia and its clinical and epidemiological characteristics compared to Streptococcus pneumoniae (SP) pneumonia in the same population.Material and methods. Descriptive, observational, cross-sectional study of patients hospitalized due to CA-MRSA pneumonia at Hospital de Niños Víctor J. Vilela (period: January 2008-December 2017).Results. Out of 54 Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia cases, 46 (85 %) corresponded to CA-MRSA. The rate of CA-MRSA pneumonia ranged from 4.9/10 000 (2008) to 10/10 000 hospital discharges (2017). Sepsis/septic shock was observed in 41 %; empyema, in 96 %; pneumothorax, in 35 %; 90 % of cases required pleural drainage and 55 %, surgical debridement. Also, 65 % of patients were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU); half of them required assisted mechanical ventilation. Two patients died. Strain resistance: 17 %, gentamicin; 13 %, erythromycin; and 11 %, clindamycin. Compared to SP pneumonia, CA-MRSA pneumonia showed a higher risk for sepsis (95 % confidence interval; relative risk: 7.38; 3.32-16.38) and admission to the ICU (RR: 4.29; 2.70-6.83). No patient died due to SP pneumonia.Conclusions. The prevalence of CA-MRSA pneumonia doubled in the past decade. Compared to SP pneumonia, CA-MRSA pneumonia was more commonly accompanied by sepsis and septic shock, admission to the ICU, and ventilatory support requirement


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Staphylococcal Infections/epidemiology , Community-Acquired Infections/epidemiology , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Argentina/epidemiology , Staphylococcal Infections/diagnosis , Staphylococcal Infections/microbiology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Incidence , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Community-Acquired Infections/diagnosis , Community-Acquired Infections/microbiology , Hospitals, Pediatric
4.
Rev. medica electron ; 42(3): 1948-1959, mayo.-jun. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1127055

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN El absceso cerebral es un proceso infeccioso focal del parénquima cerebral. Se inicia con un área localizada de cerebritis y progresa a una colección de pus rodeada por una cápsula bien vascularizada. La mortalidad oscila entre 5 a 15 % de los casos, excepto en la ruptura intraventricular del absceso cerebral, situación en que la mortalidad oscila entre 38 a 84 %, con tasas altas de discapacidad en los sobrevivientes. Se presentó un caso de 47 años, con sintomatología neurológica infecciosa, además de signos neurológicos que demuestran el trastorno funcional del lóbulo temporal no dominante. Se realizaron varios exámenes complementarios y se diagnosticó dos abscesos cerebrales temporales derechos. Fue intervenido neuroquirúrgicamente, su evolución fue satisfactoria con regresión de casi la totalidad de los síntomas prequirúrgicos presentados (AU).


ABSTRACT Brain abscess is a focal infectious process of the brain parenchyma. It begins with a located area of cerebritis and progresses to a pus collection surrounded by a well-vasculirized capsule. Mortality oscillates from 5 % to 15% of the cases, except in the intraventricular rupture of the brain abscess, situation in which mortality oscillates from 38 % to 84 %, with high rates of disability in survivors. The case presented is the case of a patient aged 47 years, with infectious neurologic symptoms besides neurologic signs showing the functional disorder of the non-dominant temporal lobe. Several complementary tests were carried out and two right temporal brain abscesses were diagnosed. The patient underwent a neurosurgery; his evolution was satisfactory with the almost total regression of the symptoms before surgery (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Staphylococcal Infections/diagnosis , Trephining , Brain Abscess/etiology , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Meningoencephalitis/diagnosis , Staphylococcal Infections/drug therapy , Brain Abscess/surgery , Brain Abscess/diagnosis , Brain Abscess/drug therapy , Brain Abscess/epidemiology , Intensive Care Units , Meningoencephalitis/drug therapy
5.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20200050, 2020.
Article in English | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136912

ABSTRACT

Abstract In the present study, we report the incidence of septic shock syndrome associated with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a child who initially presented influenza-like illness and developed septic shock shortly after 48 h of hospitalization, and eventually died within a few hours of the onset of sepsis. S. aureus isolated from the blood culture was characterized as the community-associated strain carrying the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) type IV element. Therefore, it is important to better understand the community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) infections and their potential association with influenza for early diagnosis and successful treatment of this fatal disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Shock, Septic/microbiology , Staphylococcal Infections/microbiology , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Shock, Septic/complications , Staphylococcal Infections/complications , Staphylococcal Infections/diagnosis , Fatal Outcome , Influenza, Human/complications
6.
Acta bioquím. clín. latinoam ; 53(3): 331-336, set. 2019. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038103

ABSTRACT

En infecciones crónicas y recurrentes por Staphylococcus aureus se han descripto subpoblaciones de colonias pequeñas (VCPSa). El objetivo de este trabajo fue reconocer las características fenotípicas de VCPSa para optimizar su detección y caracterización a partir de materiales clínicos provenientes de infecciones crónicas. Se analizaron n=3 VCPSa de pacientes adultos con infecciones crónicas de tejidos blandos. Las muestras se inocularon en agar nutritivo, agar sangre, agar chocolate y agar Schaedler suplementado. Se realizaron tinción de Gram, catalasa, coagulasa libre, pruebas de dependencia para hemina, menadiona y timidina y, desarrollo/ataque del manitol en agar manitol salado. La sensibilidad antibiótica se efectuó en agar Mueller Hinton suplementado, según las pruebas de dependencia. Se investigó la presencia de proteína ligadora de penicilina anómala (PBP2´) por aglutinación con látex. Las VCPSa se detectaron en los medios de cultivo enriquecidos. Estas bacterias dieron positivas las pruebas de catalasa y coagulasa, y eran dependientes de menadiona y hemina. En los tres aislamientos se observó resistencia a cefoxitina y se detectó la PBP2´.


In chronic and recurrent infections, small colonies of Staphylococcus aureus subpopulations (SCVSa) have been observed. The objective of the present study was to recognize the phenotypic characteristics of SCVSa isolated from patients with chronic infections to optimize their detection. SCVSa of adult patients n=3 with chronic soft tissue infections were analyzed. Samples were inoculated on nutritive agar, blood-agar, chocolate agar and supplemented Schaedler agar. Subsequently, Gram stain, catalase, free coagulase, dependence tests for hemin, menadione and thymidine, and growth/fermentation of mannitol on salt mannitol agar were performed. Antibiotic susceptibility tests were performed by the agar diffusion method on supplemented Mueller Hinton agar, according to dependence assays results. Anomalous penicillin binding protein (PBP2') was investigated by latex agglutination. SCVSa were detected in all enriched culture media. They showed catalase and coagulase activities, and menadione and hemin dependence. By the agar diffusion test, cefoxitin resistance was found in all isolates; PBP2' was detected as well.


Nas infecções crônicas e recorrentes por Staphylococcus aureus, subpopulações de pequenas colônias (VCPSa) foram descritas. O objetivo desse trabalho foi reconhecer as características fenotípicas de VCPSa para otimizar sua detecção e caracterização a partir de materiais clínicos provenientes de infecções crônicas. Foram analisados n=3 VCPSa de pacientes adultos com infecções crônicas de tecidos moles. As amostras foram inoculadas em agar nutritivo, agar sangue; agar chocolate e agar Schaedler enriquecido. Foram realizados testes de coloração de Gram, catalase, coagulase livre, testes de dependência para hemina, menadiona e timidina, e desenvolvimento/fermentação do manitol em agar manitol salgado. A sensibilidade antibiótica foi realizada em agar Mueller Hinton suplementado, de acordo com os testes de dependência. Foi investigada a presença de proteína ligante de penicilina anômala (PBP2´) por aglutinação com látex. Os VCPSa foram detectados em meios de cultura enriquecidos. Estas bactérias deram positivas nos testes de catalase e coagulase positivos e eram dependentes de menadiona e hemina. A resistência à cefoxitina foi detectada nos três isolados e detectou-se a PBP2'.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Staphylococcal Infections/microbiology , Staphylococcus aureus , Soft Tissue Infections/diagnosis , Staphylococcal Infections/diagnosis , Biological Variation, Population
7.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 36(3): 371-375, jun. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013795

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: La piomiositis es la infección del músculo esquelético, entidad poco frecuente en pediatría. Objetivo: Describir las características de 21 niños con piomiositis. Métodos: Estudio prospectivo-analítico de niños ingresados con diagnóstico de piomiositis entre mayo de 2016 y abril de 2017 en el Hospital de Niños Ricardo Gutiérrez, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Resultados: Tasa de hospitalización de 21,5/10.000 admisiones (IC 95% 4,65- 71,43). La mediana de edad fue de 5,4 años (rango 1,25-11,6). El 90,4% presentaba algún factor predisponente. La localización más frecuente fue en miembros inferiores. La proteína C reactiva (PCR) estuvo elevada en todos los pacientes, con una media de 124 mg/L (DS 96), siendo significativamente más elevada en los pacientes que tuvieron hemocultivos positivos 206 (DS 101) vs 98 (DS 81), (p = 0,02). Se obtuvo rescate microbiológico en 17 pacientes (80,9%): Staphylococcus aureus resistente a meticilina (SARM) (n: 15) y Streptococcus pyogenes (n: 2). Se presentó con bacteriemia 23,8% de los pacientes. El 81% requirió drenaje quirúrgico. Conclusión: Staphylococcus aureus RM adquirido en la comunidad (SARMAC) es el patógeno predominante. En la selección del tratamiento empírico adecuado debería tenerse en cuenta: el patrón de resistencia local y el valor de PCR.


Background: Pyomyositis is the infection of skeletal muscle, a rare pathology in children. Aim To describe the characteristics of pyomyositis in pediatric patients. Methods: Prospective analytical study of hospitalized children diagnosed with pyomyositis from May 2016 to April 2017 at the Ricardo Gutiérrez Children's Hospital, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Results: Twenty-one patients with pyomyositis were identified. Annual rate: 21.5/10,000 admissions (95% CI 4.65-71.43). The median age was 5.4 years (range 1.25-11.6). The lower limbs were the most affected site. C-reactive protein (CRP) was elevated in all patients, with a mean of 124 mg/L (SD 96), being significantly higher in patients with bacteremia: 206 (DS 101) vs 98 (DS 81), p = 0.02. Bacterial cultures were positive in 17/21 (80.9%): 15 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), and 2 Streptococcus pyogenes. Blood cultures were positive in 5 (23.8%). Conclusion: MRSA-community acquired is the predominant pathogen in our setting. In the selection of the appropriate empirical treatment, the local resistance pattern and the CRP value should be taken into account.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Staphylococcal Infections/diagnosis , Bacteremia/diagnosis , Pyomyositis/diagnosis , Argentina , Staphylococcal Infections/microbiology , Staphylococcal Infections/drug therapy , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Clindamycin/therapeutic use , Vancomycin/therapeutic use , Drainage , Prospective Studies , Ultrasonography , Bacteremia/microbiology , Bacteremia/drug therapy , Lower Extremity , Pyomyositis/microbiology , Pyomyositis/drug therapy , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Hospitals, Pediatric , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
8.
Actual. SIDA. infectol ; 27(101): 82-88, 20191200. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1353815

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La colonización por Staphylococcus aureus meticilino resistente adquirido en la comunidad (SAMR-AC) ha ido en aumento desde su aparición. El objetivo de este trabajo fue conocer la prevalencia de colonización por SAMR-AC en soldados, determinar los factores predisponentes y conocer la dinámica de colonización a los seis meses de convivencia. Materiales y métodos: Estudio descriptivo, de corte transversal. Se incluyó una muestra de los soldados ingresantes a un establecimiento militar. Se tomó una muestra de hisopado nasal y, en caso de aislamiento de Staphylococcus aureus, se determinó la frecuencia de la cepa meticilino resistente de la comunidad. Se realizó una encuesta sobre los posibles factores predisponentes para la colonización. Luego de seis meses de convivencia se efectuó un nuevo hisopado y se analizó el cambio en la prevalencia y la dinámica de colonización. Resultados: Se incluyeron 346 soldados provenientes de diferentes provincias de Argentina. La prevalencia inicial de colonización por Staphylococcus aureus meticilino resistente de la comunidad fue 7,8% y, luego de seis meses, 9,5% (aumento del 21,8%). Los factores que mostraron asociación con la colonización por SAMR-AC fueron los antecedentes de un conviviente con forunculosis (p=0,02), forunculosis previa (p=0,04) y forunculosis en familiar de primer grado no conviviente (p=0.03). Se constató persistencia de colonización en el 79% del grupo inicial. Conclusiones: Se observó una prevalencia de colonización por Staphylococcus aureus meticilino resistente de la comunidad del 7,8%, superior a la encontrada en la mayoría de los estudios publicados


Introduction: Colonization by community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus has been on the rise since its appearance. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of colonization by community-acquired methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus in soldiers, determine the predisposing factors and know the dynamics of colonization during coexistence. Materials and methods: descriptive, cross-sectional study. A sample of the incoming soldiers in a military establishment was included. A nasal swab was taken and, in case of isolation of Staphylococcus aureus, the frequency of the resistant meticillin strain in the community was determined. A survey was made on possible predisposing factors for colonization by this germ. After 6 months of cohabitation, a new swab was performed and the change in prevalence and colonization dynamics was analyzed. Results: 346 soldiers from different provinces of the country were included. The initial prevalence of soldiers colonized by community-acquired methicillin-resistant was 7.8%, and after 6 months, 9.5% (21.8% increase). The factors associated with SAMR-AC colonization were the antecedent of a household members with forunculosis (p=0.02), history of forunculosis (p=0.04) and the antecedent of forunculosis in a non-cohabiting first-degree relative (p=0.03). Persistence of colonization was found in 79% of the initial group.Conclusion: a prevalence of 7.8% community methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonization was observed, superior to that found in the majority of published studies.


Subject(s)
Male , Adult , Staphylococcal Infections/diagnosis , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies/statistics & numerical data , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Asymptomatic Infections , Observational Study , Military Personnel
9.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 51(6): 761-767, Nov.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-977107

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) are a frequent cause of bacteremia, especially in neonates. The major virulence determinant in CoNS is the ability to produce biofilms, which is conferred by the icaADBC genes. This study aimed to assess different methods for the detection of biofilm formation in 176 CoNS isolates from blood cultures of newborns. METHODS: The presence of the icaACD genes was assessed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and biofilm formation was assessed on congo red agar (CRA), by the tube method (TM), and on tissue culture plates (TCP). RESULTS: Of the 176 CoNS isolates, 30.1% expressed icaACD and 11.4% expressed icaAD. The CRA assay and TM showed that 42% and 38.6% of the isolates were biofilm producing, respectively. On TCP, 40.9% of the isolates produced biofilms; 21% were weakly adherent and 19.9% were strongly adherent. When compared to the gold standard technique (PCR), the CRAassay showed 79% sensitivity and 84% specificity (kappa = 0.64), TM showed 78% sensitivity and 89% specificity (kappa = 0.68), and TCP showed 99% sensitivity and 100% specificity (kappa = 0.99). CONCLUSIONS: In this study, ~42% of CoNS isolates produced biofilms, and the presence of icaACD was associated with a greater capacity to form biofilms. Compared to the other phenotypic methodologies, TCP is an ideal procedure for routine laboratory use.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Staphylococcal Infections/diagnosis , Staphylococcus/isolation & purification , Bacteremia/microbiology , Biofilms/growth & development , Staphylococcal Infections/microbiology , Staphylococcus/genetics , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sensitivity and Specificity , Congo Red , Culture Techniques , Genotype
10.
Acta bioquím. clín. latinoam ; 52(4): 423-428, dic. 2018. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001066

ABSTRACT

Distintos autores difieren en la mayor o menor prevalencia de las infecciones urinarias (IU) por Streptococcus agalactiae y Staphylococcus saprophyticus en mujeres embarazadas (ME) y no embarazadas (NE). Se realizó un estudio retrospectivo, comparativo, de cohortes con el objetivo de evaluar la frecuencia de IU por S. agalactiae y S. saprophyticus en ME asintomáticas pertenecientes a centros de atención primaria de la salud del Municipio de La Plata (CAPS) entre 2008 y 2016 y se la comparó con la de NE sintomáticas en edad fértil, no internadas, que asistieron al Hospital "San Roque" (HSR) entre 2014 y 2017. Se procesaron 2.378 orinas de ME que concurrieron a las CAPS. De ese total, 201 fueron positivas (8,5%), el 10,4% de las mismas (n: 21) correspondieron a S. agalactiae y el 10,0% a S. saprophyticus (n: 20). En el 54% se aisló Escherichia coli. El total de urocultivos en la población de NE fue de 2.281 y 526 fueron positivos (23,1%): 7 correspondieron a S. agalactiae (1,3%), 18 a S. saprophyticus (3,4%) y el 78% a E. coli. En conclusión, la frecuencia de aislamiento de S. agalactiae y S. saprophyticus fue significativamente mayor en la población de ME pertenecientes a las CAPS respecto de las NE estudiadas en el HSR.


Several authors differ in the greater or lesser prevalence of urinary tract infections (UTI) due to Streptococcus agalactiae and Staphylococcus saprophyticus in pregnant women (PW) and non-pregnant women (NPW). A retrospective, comparative, cohort study was carried out with the objective of evaluating the frequency of UTI by S. agalactiae and S. saprophyticus in asymptomatic PW from primary care centers of the Municipality of La Plata (PCC) between 2008 and 2016 and comparing it with symptomatic NPW in a fertile age, not hospitalized women, who attended the "San Roque" Hospital (HSR) between 2014 and 2017. A total of 2,378 urine samples from PW assisted at the PCC were processed. Two hundred and one were positive (8.5%); 10.4% of them (n: 21) corresponded to S. agalactiae and 10.0% to S. saprophyticus (n: 20). Escherichia coli was isolated in 54%. The total of urine cultures in the population of NPW of the HSR was 2,281 and 526 were positive (23.1%): 7 corresponded to S. agalactiae (1.3%), 18 to S.saprophyticus (3.4%) and 78% to E. coli. In conclusion, the frequency of isolation of S. agalactiae and S. saprophyticus was significantly higher in the population of PW belonging to the PCC than in the NPW studied in the HSR.


Diferentes autores diferem na maior ou menor prevalência das infecções do trato urinário (ITU) devido a Streptococcus agalactiae e Staphylococcus saprophyticus em mulheres grávidas (MG) e mulheres não grávidas (NG). Realizou-se um estudo retrospectivo e comparativo de coortes com o objetivo de avaliar a frequência de ITU por S.agalactiae e S.saprophyticus em MGs assintomáticas pertencentes a salas de atendimento primário do município de La Plata (CAPS) entre 2008 e 2016 e compará-lo com NG sintomáticas em idade fértil, não hospitalizadas, que frequentaram o Hospital "San Roque" (HSR) entre 2014 e 2017. Foram processadas 2.378 amostras de urina de MG atendidas nas CAPS. Desse total, 201 foram positivos (8,5%), 10,4% das mesmas (n: 21) corresponderam a S. agalactiae e 10,0% a S. saprophyticus (n: 20). Escherichia coli foi isolada em 54%. As culturas de urina total na população de NG foram de 2.281 e 526 foram positivas (23.1%): 7 correspondem a S.agalactiae (1.3%), 18 a S.saprophyticus (3.4%) e 78% para E. coli. Em conclusão, a frequência de isolamento de S. agalactiae e S. saprophyticus foi significativamente maior na população de MG pertencente às CAPS do que as NG estudadas no HSR.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/microbiology , Staphylococcal Infections/diagnosis , Streptococcal Infections/diagnosis , Streptococcus agalactiae , Urinary Tract Infections/microbiology , Staphylococcus saprophyticus , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies
11.
Acta ortop. mex ; 32(5): 287-290, Sep.-Oct. 2018. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1124110

ABSTRACT

Resumen: La artritis séptica suele presentarse como un proceso articular agudo que puede provocar una rápida destrucción del cartílago, si no se toman las medidas terapéuticas necesarias. De manera poco frecuente, el Staphylococcus warneri puede ser la causa de esta patología aunque por su dificultad diagnóstica podemos cometer errores en su tratamiento. Presentamos el caso de un paciente con artritis séptica de rodilla por este germen y pretendemos remarcar cuáles son las medidas diagnósticas y recomendaciones a tener en cuenta para esta infección osteoarticular.


Abstract: Septic arthritis usually occurs as an acute joint process that can cause a rapid destruction of the cartilage, if the necessary therapeutic measures were not taken. Rarely, Staphylococcus warneri may be the cause of this pathology although due to its diagnostic difficulty we can make mistakes in its treatment. We present the case of a patient with septic arthritis of the knee by this germ and we intend to remark what are the diagnostic measures and recommendations to consider for this osteoarticular infection.


Subject(s)
Humans , Staphylococcal Infections/diagnosis , Arthritis, Infectious/diagnosis , Knee Joint/microbiology , Staphylococcus
12.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 94(4): 380-389, July-Aug. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-954633

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: Staphylococcus aureus is responsible for a large number of infections in pediatric population; however, information about the behavior of such infections in this population is limited. The aim of the study was to describe the clinical, epidemiological, and molecular characteristics of infections caused by methicillin-susceptible and resistant S. aureus (MSSA-MRSA) in a pediatric population. Method: A cross-sectional descriptive study in patients from birth to 14 years of age from three high-complexity institutions was conducted (2008-2010). All patients infected with methicillin-resistant S. aureus and a representative sample of patients infected with methicillin-susceptible S. aureus were included. Clinical and epidemiological information was obtained from medical records and molecular characterization included spa typing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). In addition, staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) and virulence factor genes were detected. Results: A total of 182 patients, 65 with methicillin-susceptible S. aureus infections and 117 with methicillin-resistant S. aureus infections, were included in the study; 41.4% of the patients being under 1 year. The most frequent infections were of the skin and soft tissues. Backgrounds such as having stayed in day care centers and previous use of antibiotics were more common in patients with methicillin-resistant S. aureus infections (p ≤ 0.05). Sixteen clonal complexes were identified and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus strains were more diverse. The most common cassette was staphylococcal cassette chromosomemec IVc (70.8%), which was linked to Panton-Valentine leukocidin (pvl). Conclusions: In contrast with other locations, a prevalence of infections in children under 1 year of age in the city could be observed; this emphasizes the importance of epidemiological knowledge at the local level.


Resumo Objetivo: O Staphylococcus aureus é responsável por um grande número de infecções na população pediátrica; contudo, as informações sobre o comportamento dessas infecções nessa população são limitadas. O objetivo do estudo foi descrever as características clínicas, epidemiológicas e moleculares de infecções causadas por Staphylococcus aureus suscetíveis e resistentes à meticilina (MSSA-MSRA) em uma população pediátrica. Método: Um estudo transversal descritivo foi realizado em pacientes entre 0 e 14 anos de idade de três instituições de alta complexidade (2008-2010). Todos os pacientes infectados com S. aureus resistentes à meticilina e uma amostra representativa de pacientes infectados com S. aureus suscetíveis à meticilina foram incluídos. As informações clínicas e epidemiológicas foram obtidas de prontuários médicos, e a caracterização molecular incluiu tipagem spa, Eletroforese em Gel de Campo Pulsado (PFGE) e Tipagem de sequências multilocus (MLST). Além disso, o Cassete Cromossômico Estafilocócico mec (SCCmec) e genes de fatores de virulência foram detectados. Resultados: 182 pacientes, 65 com infecções por S. aureus suscetíveis à meticilina e 117 com infecções por S. aureus resistentes à meticilina, foram incluídos no estudo; 41,4% dos pacientes com menos de um ano de idade. As infecções mais frequentes foram da pele e dos tecidos moles. Os históricos como internações em centros de atendimento e o uso prévio de antibióticos foram mais comuns em pacientes com infecções por S. aureus resistentes à meticilina (p ≤ 0,05). Dezesseis complexos clonais foram identificados, e as cepas de S. aureus suscetíveis à meticilina foram mais diversificadas. O cassete mais comum foi o Cassete Cromossômico Estafilocócicomec IVc (70,8%), relacionado à leucocidina de panton-valentine (pvl). Conclusões: Em comparação a outros locais, observamos uma prevalência de infecções em crianças com menos de um ano de idade na cidade; o que enfatiza a importância de conhecer a epidemiologia em nível local.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Skin Diseases, Infectious/microbiology , Staphylococcal Infections/microbiology , Soft Tissue Infections/microbiology , Virulence Factors/genetics , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/genetics , Skin Diseases, Infectious/diagnosis , Staphylococcal Infections/diagnosis , Cross-Sectional Studies , Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field , Soft Tissue Infections/diagnosis , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Multilocus Sequence Typing
13.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 51(4): 554-556, July-Aug. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-957447

ABSTRACT

Abstract Staphylococcus lugdunensis is a rare virulent coagulase-negative staphylococcus (CoNS) that behaves similarly to Staphylococcus aureus in causing deep abscesses, skin and soft tissue infections, and central nervous system infections. Additionally, there can be certain blood stream infections including sepsis, septic shock, toxic shock syndrome, and endocarditis complicated by embolic events. Reports of septic arthritis of a native joint associated with this organism have been infrequent, justifying the presentation and discussion of this case.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Staphylococcal Infections/microbiology , Arthritis, Infectious/microbiology , Staphylococcus lugdunensis/isolation & purification , Hip Joint/microbiology , Staphylococcal Infections/diagnosis , Staphylococcal Infections/drug therapy , Arthritis, Infectious/diagnosis , Arthritis, Infectious/drug therapy , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Middle Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Nafcillin/therapeutic use
15.
Rev. chil. obstet. ginecol. (En línea) ; 83(3): 291-294, jun. 2018. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-959517

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN El Staphylococcus sciuri es un estafilococo coagulasa negativo presente en animales de granja que en raras ocasiones se puede encontrar como microorganismo colonizador en humanos. Su importancia radica en que se ha asociado con infecciones graves como la endocarditis, peritonitis e infección del tracto urinario; constituyendo el 0,79% del número total de estafilococos coagulasa negativos aislados en muestras clínicas. Presentamos el caso de una primigesta de 22 años, con un embarazo de 17,5 semanas. La exploración física inicial evidenció taquicardia y temperatura de 39.3 ° C. Los estudios de laboratorio informaron leucocitos de 25,000, neutrófilos de 83%, plaquetas en 350,000, uroanálisis con marcada piuria, con más de 500 células/uL, nitritos negativos; tinción de Gram de orina con cocos Gram positivos. Después de tres días de tratamiento con Ceftriaxona un gramo cada doce horas intravenosamente, se obtienen informes positivos para S.sciuri multiresistente. Finalmente, se inició manejo con Clindamicina 600 mg cada seis horas intravenosamente, más Gentamicina a dosis de 1 mg/kg cada ocho horas intravenosamente. S.sciuri es una bacteria que se ha encontrado en el ambiente hospitalario y ocasionalmente es aislada en humanos, produciendo infecciones graves. Países como Colombia continúan tratando las infecciones sin tener en cuenta su propio entorno, en el cual los patógenos silvestres son causa frecuente de infecciones, debido al estrecho rango de coexistencia entre animales y humanos en las regiones rurales. Conclusión. Este caso pone de manifiesto la necesidad de considerar como agenta causal aquellos patógenos presentes en animales de granja que pueden causar infecciones en humanos, sobretodo en pacientes que proceden de las áreas lejanas a los centros urbanos.


SUMMARY Staphylococcus sciuri is a negative coagulase staphylococcus present in farm animals that can rarely be found as a colonizing microorganism in humans. Its importance is that it has been associated with serious infections such as endocarditis, peritonitis and urinary tract infection; constituting 0.79% of the total number of coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated in clinical samples. We present the case of a woman in her first pregnancy of 22 years, with a pregnancy of 17.5 weeks. The initial physical examination showed tachycardia and temperature of 39.3 ° C. Laboratory studies reported leukocytes of 25,000, neutrophils of 83%, platelets in 350,000, urinalysis with marked pyuria, with more than 500 cells / uL, negative nitrites; Gram stain of urine with Gram positive cocci. After three days of treatment with Ceftriaxone one gram every twelve hours intravenously, positive reports for multiresistant S. sciuri are obtained. Finally, management was started with Clindamycin 600 mg every six hours intravenously and Gentamicin at a dose of 1 mg / kg every eight hours intravenously. S.sciuri is a bacterium that has been found in the hospital environment and is occasionally isolated in humans, causing serious infections. Countries such as Colombia continue to treat infections without taking into account their own environment, in which wild pathogens are a frequent cause of infections, due to the narrow range of coexistence between animals and humans in rural regions. Conclusion. This case highlights the need to consider as a causal agent those pathogens present in animals that can cause infections in humans, especially in patients who come from areas far away from urban centers.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Young Adult , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/drug therapy , Staphylococcal Infections/complications , Staphylococcal Infections/diagnosis , Patient Isolation , Staphylococcal Infections/drug therapy , Staphylococcus , Sepsis
16.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 116(2): 119-125, abr. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-887457

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Las infecciones por Staphylococcus aureus meticilino resistente adquirido en la comunidad (SAMR-ac) son motivo de consulta frecuente en pediatría. La mayoría se presentan como infecciones de piel y partes blandas; sin embargo, en la última década, se ha constatado un aumento de las infecciones invasivas. Objetivos: El objetivo principal es describir las características clínico-epidemiológicas de las infecciones producidas por SAMR-ac. El objetivo secundario es comparar la prevalencia, presentación clínica y susceptibilidad antibiótica con un período previo de estudio (1/2004-12/2007). Material y métodos: Estudio descriptivo, prospectivo, de tipo transversal. Criterios de inclusión: niños con diagnóstico de infección por SAMR-ac admitidos en el Hospital de Niños de Rosario, período de enero de 2008 a diciembre de 2014. Criterios de exclusión: internación reciente, antibiótico o cirugía previa, comorbilidades o inmunocompromiso. Resultados: De 728 niños con infecciones por Staphylococcus aureus, 529 (73%) fueron por SAMR-ac. La tasa de incidencia de infecciones por SAMR-ac varió de 12,2/10 000 egresos hospitalarios de 2004 a 145/10 000 del 2014: 75% (391) fueron infecciones de piel y partes blandas; 8% (43), os teo articular es; 6% (30), pleuropulmonares; 5% (24), sepsis. Se observó un aumento en el número de infecciones invasivas en el 2º período sin significancia estadística (OR= 0,895; IC: 0,52-1,53). La resistencia a gentamicina, clindamicina y eritromicina se mantuvo estable en ambos períodos. Conclusión: Las infecciones por SAMR-ac fueron cada vez más frecuentes, principalmente, las de piel y partes blandas. Se observó un aumento en el número de infecciones invasivas sin significancia estadística. La resistencia antibiótica se mantuvo estable.


Introduction: Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) infections are a common reason for consultation in pediatrics. Most of them present as skin and soft tissue infections; however, invasive infections have increased during the last decade. Objectives: The main objective was to describe the clinical-epidemiological characteristics of CA-MRSA infections. The secondary objective was to compare prevalence, clinical presentation and antibiotic susceptibility with a pre-study period (1/2004-12/2007). Material and methods: This is a descriptive, prospective, cross-sectional study. Inclusion criteria: children who have been diagnosed with CA-MRSA infection and admitted to Hospital de Niños de Rosario between January 2008 and December 2014. Exclusion criteria: recent hospitalization, previous antibiotic treatment or surgery, comorbidities or immune compromise. Results: Out of 728 cases of children with Staphylococcus aureus infections, 529 (73%) were due to CA-MRSA. The incidence rate of CA-MRSA infections varied from 12.2/10 000 hospital discharges in 2004 to 145/10 000 in 2014: 75% (391) were skin and soft tissue infections; 8% (43) were osteoarticular infections; 6% (30), pleuropulmonary infections; 5% (24), sepsis. There was an increase in the number of invasive infections in the second period, with no statistical significance (OR= 0.895; CI: 0.52-1.53). Gentamicin, clindamycin and erythromycin resistance remained stable throughout both periods. Conclusion: CA-MRSA infections were increasingly more frequent, mainly skin and soft tissue infections. An increase was observed in the number of invasive infections, with no statistical significance. Antibiotic resistance remained stable.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Staphylococcal Infections/epidemiology , Community-Acquired Infections/epidemiology , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Argentina/epidemiology , Staphylococcal Infections/diagnosis , Staphylococcal Infections/microbiology , Staphylococcal Infections/drug therapy , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Incidence , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prospective Studies , Community-Acquired Infections/diagnosis , Community-Acquired Infections/microbiology , Community-Acquired Infections/drug therapy , Hospitals, Pediatric , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
17.
Rev. chil. ortop. traumatol ; 59(1): 35-39, mar. 2018. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-910217

ABSTRACT

Los síndromes dolorosos del hombro son relativamente comunes en la práctica clínica. Habitualmente son causados por un número limitado de patologías. Dentro de los diagnósticos diferenciales, el pinzamiento subacromial, las lesiones aisladas del manguito rotador, capsulitis adhesiva, tendinitis cálcica, patología degenerativa de las articulaciones glenohumeral y acromioclavicular, y la inestabilidad crónica del hombro, son causas comunes. Causas infrecuentes son la rotura del tendón del bíceps, neuralgias, patología infecciosa articular y tumores del hombro. Un absceso subpectoral sin sintomatología infecciosa clara es una causa extremadamente rara de hombro doloroso en el adulto. Presentamos el caso de un paciente de 60 años, que inicia con un cuadro de hombro doloroso cuya causa se identifica como un absceso subpectoral por staphylococcus aureus que se maneja con drenaje quirúrgico y tratamiento antibiótico endovenoso con buenos resultados.


Painful shoulder syndromes are commonly caused by a limited assortment of pathologies. Differential diagnosis include rotator cuff impingement syndrome, rotator cuff tears, adhesive capsulitis, calcific tendonitis, degenerative disease of the joint including acromio-clavicular and gleno-humeral joints and chronic instability. Less common causes are labral tears, biceps tendon rupture, soft tissue infection, neurologic disease, joint infection and shoulder tumors. A subpectoral abscess without infectious clinical features is a very rare cause of shoulder pain in adults. We present the case of a 52 years old male who develops a painful shoulder syndrome caused by a staphylococcus aureus subpectoral abscess, treated by surgical drainage and intravenous antibiotic therapy with good results.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Abscess/diagnosis , Shoulder Pain/etiology , Staphylococcal Infections/diagnosis , Abscess/complications , Abscess/microbiology , Abscess/therapy , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Diagnosis, Differential , Drainage/methods , Staphylococcal Infections/complications , Staphylococcal Infections/therapy , Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification
18.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 22(2): 99-105, Mar.-Apr. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951629

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: Staphylococcus spp. - both S. aureus, including methicillin-resistant strains (MRSA) and coagulase negative staphylococci (CoNS) - are relevant agents of healthcare-associated infections. Therefore, the rapid recognition of MRSA and methicillin-resistant CoNS from blood stream infections is critically important for patient management. It is worth noting that inappropriate empiric therapy has been associated with higher in-hospital mortality. Material and methods: In this study we evaluated a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (multiplex PCR) standardized to detect Staphylococcus spp., S. aureus, and mecA gene-encoded oxacillin resistance directly from blood culture bottles. A total of 371 blood cultures with Gram-positive microorganisms confirmed by Gram-stain were analyzed. Results from multiplex PCR were compared to phenotypic characterization of isolates. Results: Staphylococcus aureus was detected in 85 (23.0%) blood cultures and CoNS in 286 (77.0%). There was 100% agreement between phenotypic and multiplex PCR identification. Forty-three (50.6%) of the 85 S. aureus carried the mecA gene and among the 286 CoNS, 225 (78.7%) were positive for the mecA gene. Conclusions: The multiplex PCR assay developed here was found to be sensitive, specific, rapid, and showed good agreement with the phenotypic results besides being less expensive. This PCR method could be used in clinical laboratories for rapid identification and initiation of specific and effective treatment, reducing patient mortality and morbidity. Furthermore, this method may reduce misuse of antimicrobial classes that are more expensive and toxic, thus contributing to the selection of antibiotic-resistant Staphylococcus spp.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Blood/microbiology , Bacteremia/diagnosis , Penicillin-Binding Proteins/genetics , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/genetics , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction , Oxacillin/pharmacology , Staphylococcal Infections/diagnosis , Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Bacterial Proteins/isolation & purification , DNA, Bacterial/genetics , Bacteremia/microbiology , Penicillin-Binding Proteins/isolation & purification , Blood Culture , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
19.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 50(6): 833-838, Nov.-Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041437

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Wounds can be colonized by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). METHODS: We evaluated the prevalence of S. aureus and MRSA in the wounds of patients treated at Basic Health Units in Brazil and identified risk factors associated with their presence. RESULTS: The prevalence rates of S. aureus and MRSA were 51.5% and 8.7%, respectively. There was a correlation between the presence of S. aureus in wounds and nostrils (p<0.01). A positive association was detected between S. aureus infection and previous benzylpenicillin use (p=0.02). No associations were observed for MRSA. CONCLUSIONS: Multidrug-resistant pathogens are present in primary healthcare settings in Brazil.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Staphylococcal Infections/epidemiology , Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Wounds and Injuries/microbiology , Primary Health Care , Socioeconomic Factors , Staphylococcal Infections/diagnosis , Brazil/epidemiology , Chronic Disease , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification
20.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 115(5): 294-297, oct. 2017. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-887380

ABSTRACT

El absceso renal representa una patología infrecuente en el recién nacido. Puede presentar consecuencias graves: sepsis con alta mortalidad, cicatrices renales y riesgo de enfermedad renal crónica. Se reporta sobre un recién nacido con absceso renal unilateral a Staphylococcus aureus, con cuadro de septicemia, sin otro foco supurativo ni malformación urinaria, que evolucionó adecuadamente con antibióticos endovenosos, sin tratamiento quirúrgico, aunque con cicatrices renales como secuela. A partir de este caso, se analizan las estrategias de diagnóstico, tratamiento y seguimiento del absceso renal en un neonato y se destaca el diagnóstico precoz para evitar cicatrices renales.


Renal abscess is a rare disease in newborn, but severe consequences can occur: sepsis with high mortality, renal scar formation and risk of chronic renal failure. A neonate with unilateral renal abscess due to Staphylococcus aureus is reported, with septicemia, with no other suppurative focus, nor with urinary malformation, with good clinical evolution with intravenous antibiotics and without surgical treatment, but with renal scars sequel. From this case, the strategies of diagnosis, treatment and followup of the renal abscess in a neonate are analyzed, emphasizing the early diagnosis to avoid renal scars.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Infant, Newborn , Staphylococcal Infections/diagnosis , Staphylococcal Infections/drug therapy , Abscess/diagnosis , Abscess/drug therapy , Kidney Diseases/microbiology , Kidney Diseases/diagnosis , Kidney Diseases/drug therapy
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