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1.
Arch. pediatr. Urug ; 92(2): e212, dic. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY, UY-BNMED | ID: biblio-1339132

ABSTRACT

Introducción: la sepsis tardía por estafilococo coagulasa negativo (SCoN) es una causa común de morbimortalidad en la unidad neonatal. Los SCoN son los microorganismos más frecuentemente involucrados con aproximadamente el 50% de los casos. El objetivo de este estudio es analizar la incidencia y las características de los neonatos portadores de sepsis tardía por SCoN. Materiales y métodos: se realizó un estudio descriptivo, longitudinal, retrospectivo. Se utilizaron las bases de datos del laboratorio de microbiología del hospital y las historias clínicas electrónicas para obtener la información. El período de estudio analizado fueron los años 2018 y 2019 en la unidad de cuidados intensivos e intermedios de recién nacidos del Centro Hospitalario Pereira Rossell. Resultados: obtuvimos una incidencia de 2,5% de los ingresos a cuidados intensivos e intermedios (25 pacientes). La edad gestacional al nacer fue de 28 semanas (25,0-35,0) y la mediana del peso fue de 1.070 g (730,0-2.365,0). La media de edad gestacional posmenstrual al momento del diagnóstico fue de 32,92±7,921 semanas. Por sospecha de sepsis precoz, 17 pacientes habían recibido un curso de antibióticos previo. El signo clínico más frecuentemente observado fue el deterioro del estado general, en 11 pacientes, seguido de distensión abdominal en 6 y fiebre en 5. Dentro de los SCoN, el más frecuentemente aislado fue el Staphylococcus epidermidis (13 pacientes); 22 pacientes recibieron tratamiento, 18 de ellos con vancomicina-meropenem y 4 con monoterapia con vancomicina. Conclusión: estos patógenos representan una causa importante de morbimortalidad en la unidad neonatal, particularmente en pacientes que presentan mayor gravedad y mayor necesidad de soporte vital. Se necesitan pautas claras de interpretación del rol de estos microorganismos y de abordaje de pacientes con riesgo de sepsis tardía, incluyendo el tratamiento antibiótico empírico.


Introduction: Coagulase Negative Staphylococci (CoNS) late onset sepsis is a common cause of morbidity and mortality in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). CoNS are the most frequently isolated microorganisms and total 50% of cases. The objective of this study is to analyze the incidence and characteristics of newborns carriers of late onset CoNS. Materials and methods: we performed a descriptive, retrospective, longitudinal study. Data was obtained from the hospital's microbiology laboratory database and electronic medical records. Patients included were those admitted to NICU during the period between 2018 and 2019. Results: we obtained an incidence of 2.5% of patients admitted to the NICU (25 patients). Median gestational age at birth was 28 weeks 25.0-35.0 and median birth weight was 1.070 g 730.0-2365.0. Mean gestational age at the time of diagnosis was 32.92±7.921 weeks. 17 patients had received an antibiotics course at birth because of early onset sepsis suspicion. The most frequently observed clinical symptom was deterioration of general condition, 11 patients, followed by abdominal distention in 6 and fever in 5. Among CoNS, the most frequently isolated pathogen was Staphylococcus epidermidis (13 patients). 22 patients received treatment, 18 a combination of vancomycin and meropenem and 4 received vancomycin monotherapy. Conclusion: these pathogens are a common cause of morbidity and mortality in the newborn intensive care unit, particularly in patients with more serious conditions and in those who require more advanced life support measures. Clearer interpretation of their role is needed as well as to determine a proper approach to patients at risk of late onset sepsis, including empiric antibiotic treatment.


Sepse tardia para Staphylococcus coagulase negativa (SCoN) é uma causa comum de morbidade e mortalidade na unidade neonatal. SCoNs são os microrganismos mais frequentemente envolvidos e representam aproximadamente 50% dos casos. O objetivo deste estudo é analisar a incidência e as características de neonatos com sepse tardia por SCoN. Materiais e métodos: foi realizado um estudo descritivo, longitudinal e retrospectivo. Usamos os bancos de dados do laboratório de microbiologia e prontuários médicos eletrônicos de nosso hospital para obter as informações. O período de estudo analisado foi de 2018 e 2019 na unidade de terapia intensiva e intermediária para recém-nascidos do Centro Hospitalar Pereira Rossell. Resultados: obtivemos uma incidência de 2,5% de internações em Terapia Intensiva e Intermediária (25 pacientes). A idade gestacional ao nascer foi de 28 semanas 25,0-35,0 e o peso médio foi de 1070g 730,0-2365,0. A média da idade gestacional pós-menstrual no momento do diagnóstico foi de 32,92 ± 7,921 semanas. 17 pacientes haviam recebido um curso anterior de antibióticos por suspeita de sepse precoce. O sinal clínico mais frequentemente observado foi deterioração do estado geral em 11 pacientes, seguido por distensão abdominal em 6 e febre em 5. Dentre os SCoN, o mais isolado foi o Staphylococcus Epidermidis (13 pacientes). 22 pacientes receberam tratamento, 18 deles com Vancomicina-Meropenem e 4 com Vancomicina em monoterapia. Conclusão: esses patógenos representam uma importante causa de morbimortalidade na unidade neonatal, principalmente em pacientes com maior gravidade e maior necessidade de suporte de vida. Orientações claras são necessárias para interpretar o papel desses microrganismos e para abordar pacientes com risco de sepse tardia, incluindo tratamento com antibióticos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Infant, Newborn , Staphylococcal Infections/epidemiology , Neonatal Sepsis/epidemiology , Staphylococcal Infections/diagnosis , Staphylococcal Infections/drug therapy , Staphylococcus epidermidis/virology , Uruguay/epidemiology , Vancomycin/therapeutic use , Cross Infection , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Incidence , Retrospective Studies , Longitudinal Studies , Coagulase , Staphylococcus haemolyticus/virology , Staphylococcus hominis/virology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
2.
Arch. pediatr. Urug ; 92(2): e306, dic. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY, UY-BNMED | ID: biblio-1278306

ABSTRACT

Los estafilococos coagulasa negativos son microorganismos frecuentemente aislados cuya significancia clínica puede ser difícil de establecer por su carácter de comensales habituales de la piel. En la población neonatal estos patógenos han ido adquiriendo mayor protagonismo debido a la sobrevida de pacientes mas prematuros que en el pasado, así como sus necesidades de tratamiento, que determinan mayores tiempos de estadía hospitalaria. Estos elementos representan factores de riesgo también para el desarrollo de endocarditis en estos pacientes, particularmente debido a la utilización de catéteres intravasculares centrales por tiempo prolongado. En este caso clínico se presenta un paciente pretérmino severo que presentó una endocarditis a estafilococo coagulasa negativo a partir del cual discutiremos las características de las infecciones por estos microorganismos, las características de la endocarditis infecciosa en el recién nacido pretérmino y la utilización de antibióticos en estos pacientes, así como algunos elementos asociados a la vigilancia activa en el uso de antibióticos.


Coagulase negative staphylococcus (CoNS) are commonly isolated microorganisms whose clinical importance may be difficult to establish due to their role as part of our usual skin microbiota. These pathogens have gained relevance in neonatal population due to an improvement in neonatal care that determine longer survival rates and hospitals stays. Neonatal endocarditis is also affected by these microorganisms and particularly by the use of central intra vascular lines for long periods of time. In this clinical case we introduce a severe preterm patient who developed a CoNS endocarditis and discuss the characteristics of CoNS infections and endocarditis in preterm newborns as well as some antibiotic vigilance principles.


Os estafilococos coagulase negativos são microrganismos frequentemente isolados, cujo significado clínico pode ser difícil de estabelecer devido ao seu caráter de comensais cutâneos comuns. Na população neonatal, esses patógenos vêm adquirindo maior destaque devido à sobrevida de pacientes mais prematuros do que no passado, bem como suas necessidades de tratamento, as quais determinam tempos de internação mais longos. Esses elementos também representam fatores de risco para o desenvolvimento de endocardite nesses pacientes, principalmente pelo uso prolongado de cateter intravascular central. Neste caso clínico apresentaremos um paciente pré-termo grave que apresentou endocardite estafilocócica coagulase-negativa a partir do qual discutiremos as características das infecções por esses microrganismos, as características da endocardite infecciosa no recém-nascido pré-termo e o uso de antibióticos nesses pacientes bem como alguns elementos associados à vigilância ativa no uso de antibióticos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Staphylococcal Infections/diagnosis , Staphylococcal Infections/drug therapy , Staphylococcus epidermidis/virology , Vancomycin/therapeutic use , Endocarditis/diagnosis , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Staphylococcal Infections/complications , Coagulase , Infant, Very Low Birth Weight , Endocarditis/etiology , Infant, Extremely Premature
4.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 37(5): 570-576, nov. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY | ID: biblio-1144253

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: La endocarditis infecciosa (EI) es causa importante de morbimortalidad. En los últimos años se han visto cambios en la epidemiología de esta enfermedad. Objetivo: Describir las características epidemiológicas, clínicas y microbiológicas de pacientes con diagnóstico de EI ingresados en un hospital pediátrico de 2011 al 2018. Pacientes y Método: Estudio observacional, descriptivo, retrospectivo. Se incluyeron pacientes bajo 15 años de edad, hospitalizados con EI en un hospital pediátrico de referencia de Uruguay. Se utilizaron cálculos de medidas de tendencia central y dispersión, así como frecuencias absolutas y porcentuales. Resultados: Se identificaron 11 niños, media de edad 4 años 6 meses (rango 5 meses - 13 años). Cinco sin factores de riesgo, seis con factores de riesgo: cinco con cardiopatía congénita (2 con cirugía cardíaca) y uno con catéter venoso central. En 11 se obtuvo hemocultivo previo a la antibioterapia, en 10 una sola muestra, en uno hubo dos muestras. En nueve casos se recuperó el microorganismo causal; Staphylococcus aureus en cuatro (dos cepas resistentes a meticilina), seguido de Streptococcus grupo viridans tres niños. En 10 niños se encontraron vegetaciones en el ecocardiograma, seis valvulares. El tratamiento empírico más frecuente fue ceftriaxona y vancomicina. Las complicaciones fueron falla cardiaca y embolias sépticas. Cinco niños requirieron cirugía cardíaca. Falleció un paciente. Conclusiones: Se observó un aumento de EI en niños sin cardiopatía, por tanto, es necesario tener alta sospecha clínica en pacientes febriles. Importante es realizar hemocultivos previos al inicio de la antibioterapia y contemplar una cobertura contra Staphylococcus aureus en la terapia empírica inicial.


Abstract Background: Infective endocarditis (IE) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality. In recent years there have been changes in the epidemiology of this disease. Aim: To describe epidemiological, clinical and microbiological characteristics of patients with a diagnosis of IE admitted to a pediatric hospital from 2011 to 2018. Methods: Observational, descriptive, retrospective study. Children under 15 years of age hospitalized with IE in a reference pediatric hospital in Uruguay were included. Calculations of measures of central tendency and dispersion were used, as well as absolute and percentage frequencies. Results: 11 children were identified, mean age 4 years 6 months (range 5 months - 13 years). Five without risk factors, 6 with risk factors: 5 congenital heart disease (2 with cardiac surgery) and 1 central venous catheter. In 11 blood cultures were obtained prior to antibiotics, 10 a single sample, 1 with two samples. In 9 cases a microorganism was isolated. The most frequent was Staphylococcus aureus 4 children (2 methicillin resistant), followed by group viridans Streptococcus 3 children. In 10 children vegetations were found in the echocardiogram, 6 valvular. The most frequent empirical treatment was ceftriaxone and vancomycin. Complications were heart failure and septic emboli. 5 children required heart surgery. One patient died. Conclusions: An increase of IE in children without heart disease has been observed, then, it is necessary to have high clinical suspicion in febrile patients. It is important to perform blood cultures prior to the start of antibiotics and to consider coverage against Staphylococcus aureus in empirical initial treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Staphylococcal Infections/drug therapy , Staphylococcal Infections/epidemiology , Endocarditis, Bacterial/drug therapy , Endocarditis, Bacterial/epidemiology , Uruguay/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies
5.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 80(5): 531-540, ago. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1287207

ABSTRACT

Resumen Las infecciones graves de piel y partes blandas presentan una elevada morbimortalidad y requieren un complejo tratamiento quirúrgico. Su incidencia anual está estimada en 0.3 a 5 casos por 10 000 personas. Los agentes etiológicos más comunes son Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, anaerobios y bacilos Gram negativos. El diagnóstico precoz y el tratamiento oportuno, tanto empírico antibiótico como quirúrgico, determinan el pronóstico. Existen nuevas opciones terapéuticas para estas infecciones, especialmente las producidas por gérmenes multirresistentes. Un enfoque terapéutico multidisciplinario es fundamental para su correcto manejo.


Abstract Severe skin and soft tissue infections present a high morbidity and mortality and require a complex surgical treatment. Its estimated annual incidence is 0.3 to 5 cases per 10 000 people. The most common etiologic agents are Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, anaerobes and gram-negative bacilli. A prompt diagnosis and the timely initiation of an empirical antibiotic scheme and repeated surgical debridement can avert a worrisome outcome. New therapeutic options are promising, especially for infections caused by multidrug resistant germs. A multidisciplinary approach is fundamental for the correct management of these conditions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Soft Tissue Infections/diagnosis , Staphylococcal Infections/drug therapy , Streptococcus pyogenes , Skin Diseases, Bacterial/diagnosis , Skin Diseases, Bacterial/therapy , Soft Tissue Infections/therapy , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
7.
Rev. medica electron ; 42(3): 1948-1959, mayo.-jun. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1127055

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN El absceso cerebral es un proceso infeccioso focal del parénquima cerebral. Se inicia con un área localizada de cerebritis y progresa a una colección de pus rodeada por una cápsula bien vascularizada. La mortalidad oscila entre 5 a 15 % de los casos, excepto en la ruptura intraventricular del absceso cerebral, situación en que la mortalidad oscila entre 38 a 84 %, con tasas altas de discapacidad en los sobrevivientes. Se presentó un caso de 47 años, con sintomatología neurológica infecciosa, además de signos neurológicos que demuestran el trastorno funcional del lóbulo temporal no dominante. Se realizaron varios exámenes complementarios y se diagnosticó dos abscesos cerebrales temporales derechos. Fue intervenido neuroquirúrgicamente, su evolución fue satisfactoria con regresión de casi la totalidad de los síntomas prequirúrgicos presentados (AU).


ABSTRACT Brain abscess is a focal infectious process of the brain parenchyma. It begins with a located area of cerebritis and progresses to a pus collection surrounded by a well-vasculirized capsule. Mortality oscillates from 5 % to 15% of the cases, except in the intraventricular rupture of the brain abscess, situation in which mortality oscillates from 38 % to 84 %, with high rates of disability in survivors. The case presented is the case of a patient aged 47 years, with infectious neurologic symptoms besides neurologic signs showing the functional disorder of the non-dominant temporal lobe. Several complementary tests were carried out and two right temporal brain abscesses were diagnosed. The patient underwent a neurosurgery; his evolution was satisfactory with the almost total regression of the symptoms before surgery (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Staphylococcal Infections/diagnosis , Trephining , Brain Abscess/etiology , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Meningoencephalitis/diagnosis , Staphylococcal Infections/drug therapy , Brain Abscess/surgery , Brain Abscess/diagnosis , Brain Abscess/drug therapy , Brain Abscess/epidemiology , Intensive Care Units , Meningoencephalitis/drug therapy
8.
Rev. chil. ortop. traumatol ; 61(3): 83-89, 2020. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1177638

ABSTRACT

Intentar el tratamiento retentivo de material protésico ante heridas quirúrgicas infectadas por gérmenes resistentes es objeto de debate, especialmente cuando el agente causal es un Staphylococcus aureus resistente a meticilina (SARM). Una paciente diabética y con obesidad tipo I sufrió infección de la herida quirúrgica tras artroplastia de rodilla que no evolucionó bien con antibioterapia empírica y terapia hiperosmolar. Se planificó una reintervención que fue demorada por motivos extramédicos (falta de terapia de presión negativa para cubrir la herida postoperatoria, pues se preveía no poder realizar cierre primario). Mientras se conseguía este material, y tras obtener el consentimiento de la paciente, se iniciaron irrigaciones de la herida con sevoflurano tópico off-label, pues ese fármaco ha mostrado capacidad antimicrobiana. La evolución clínica fue excelente desde el inicio a pesar de que en el cultivo se aisló un SARM resistente a la antibioterapia empírica, por lo que se desestimó la reintervención y se continuó con sevoflurano tópico junto a la antibioterapia dirigida por antibiograma, lográndose la curación completa de la herida tras 6 semanas. Durante ese tiempo, la paciente no experimentó ningún efecto adverso atribuible al sevoflurano. El sevoflurano tópico aparece como una valiosa nueva opción terapéutica ante heridas postoperatorias infectadas, especialmente cuando los gérmenes causantes son resistentes a los antibióticos convencionales.


It is challenging to try a retentive treatment of prosthetic material superinfected by resistant microorganisms, especially when the causative agent is a methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). A diabetic, obese female patient suffered from a postoperative wound infection after a knee arthroplasty. Initial treatment with antibiotics and hyperosmolar therapy failed and clinical evolution was no good. Surgery was scheduled, but it was delayed due to nonmedical reasons (lack of negative-pressure therapy to cover the wound since primary wound closure was anticipated to be very improbable to perform). While waiting for this therapy, off-label irrigations with topical sevoflurane were started after obtaining written consent, since this drug has exhibited antimicrobial properties. Clinical evolution turned out to be excellent since the very beginning, even though a MRSA resistant to the antibiotics empirically administered was isolated. Thus, surgery was discarded, and culture-guided antibiotic therapy was added to topical sevoflurane, which was followed by a complete healing of the wound after 6 weeks. Sevoflurane treatment was well tolerated as the patient reported no adverse effects. Therefore, treating postsurgical wounds with topical sevoflurane appears as a valuable new alternative, especially when infections are caused by microorganisms resistant to conventional antibiotics.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged , Staphylococcal Infections/drug therapy , Surgical Wound Infection/drug therapy , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee/adverse effects , Sevoflurane/administration & dosage , Staphylococcal Infections/etiology , Surgical Wound Infection/etiology , Administration, Topical , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Anti-Bacterial Agents
9.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20200431, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136795

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a common pathogen causing healthcare-associated infections. Owing to the restricted use of beta-lactams in MRSA infections, non-beta-lactam antimicrobials are required for treatment. However, MRSA can develop resistance mechanisms to non-beta-lactam antimicrobials, which reduces viable treatment options. Here, we evaluated the antimicrobial susceptibility and resistance genes of MRSA isolated from hospitalized patients in South Brazil. METHODS: The antimicrobial susceptibilities of hospital MRSA (217) isolates were determined by disk diffusion or microdilution methods. Additionally, the presence of 14 resistance genes and SCCmec typing was performed by PCR. RESULTS: Among the antimicrobials tested, we observed high erythromycin (74.2%), ciprofloxacin (64.5%), and clindamycin (46.1%) resistance rates and complete susceptibility to linezolid and vancomycin. Seventeen different patterns of MRSA antimicrobial resistance were observed, of which 42.9% represented multidrug resistance. Among erythromycin-resistant MRSA, 53.4%, 45.3%, 37.9%, 13.0%, and 6.8% carried ermA, msrA, msrB, ermC, and ermB genes, respectively. Among clindamycin-resistant MRSA, 83%, 17%, 10%, 4%, and 2% carried ermA, ermC, ermB, linA, and linB genes, respectively. Among gentamicin-resistant MRSA, 96.8%, 83.9%, and 9.7% carried aac(6')/aph(2''), aph(3')-IIIa, and ant(4')-Ia genes, respectively. Among tetracycline-resistant MRSA, 6.5% and 93.5% carried tetK and tetM genes, respectively. Lastly, among trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole-resistant MRSA, 13.3% and 100% carried dfrA and dfrG genes, respectively. The SCCmec type IV isolates were detected more frequently, whereas the SCCmec type III isolates exhibited higher multidrug resistance. CONCLUSIONS: The study data provides information regarding the MRSA resistance profile in South Brazil that is associated with the clinical conditions of patients and can contribute to clinical decision-making.


Subject(s)
Humans , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/genetics , Anti-Infective Agents , Staphylococcal Infections/drug therapy , Brazil , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Hospitals , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
10.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 36(6): 687-697, dic. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058100

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: Vancomicina, terapia estándar para enterococos y estafilococos resistentes a β-lactámicos tradicionales (Staphylococcus aureus [SARM] y Staphylococcus coagulasa negativa), tiene extenso uso empírico en infecciones nosocomiales. Farmacológicamente débil, de estrecho margen terapéutico y farmacocinética poco predecible, es un fármaco sub-estándar según criterios contemporáneos. Tiene excesivo uso, por sobrediagnóstico de infecciones bacterianas y, en infecciones genuinas, por sobre-estimación etiológica de patógenos β-lactámico-resistentes. Últimamente han surgido nuevas amenazas a su efectividad: peores desenlaces en infecciones por SARM con CIM en rango alto de sensibilidad y resistencia de enterococos. Hay frecuente administración inadecuada en: dosis e intervalos, ausencia de dosis de carga inicial, falta de monitoreo con concentraciones plasmáticas, inadecuada dosificación en presencia de insuficiencia renal o diálisis e, importantemente, mantención de uso en ausencia de clara documentación de su necesidad. Nuevos fármacos anti-estafilocócicos no han permitido un reemplazo generalizado de vancomicina por lo que ésta mantiene un importante rol en la medicina contemporánea. Conclusiones: Una comprensión de las fortalezas y debilidades del fármaco, así como de la cambiante epidemiología y propiedades microbiológicas de los patógenos relevantes, al igual que un uso prudente y selectivo, permitirán optimizar su uso y mantener su rol terapéutico en la medicina actual y futura.


Background: Vancomycin, standard parenteral therapy for Gram positive cocci resistant to traditional beta-lactam antibiotics (Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase negative staphylococci [CNS]) and Enterococcus spp, frequent agents of nosocomial infections, is extensively used empirically in that setting. However, its pharmacological weakness, narrow therapeutic margin and poorly predictable pharmacokinetics, make it a suboptimal drug according to contemporary criteria. Vancomycin is over utilized due to both, overestimation of bacterial infections and, in genuine cases, overestimation of the etiological role of these resistant cocci, either nosocomially or community acquired. New threats narrow further its therapeutic role: poorer outcomes in infections with higher vancomycin MIC and resistance by enterococci. It is frequently given at inappropriate dosage and intervals, failing to: give loading dose when recommended, measure blood levels, adjust dosing to changing renal function and continued use when not necessary. Newer anti staphylococcal drugs haven't replaced completely the role of vancomycin, which maintains its usefulness in contemporary medicine. Conclusion: Understanding the strengths and weaknesses of vancomycin, current epidemiology and microbiology of infections for which it may be indicated, as well as the proper administration and monitoring, together with a prudent and selective indication will allow to preserve its present and future utility in the changing medical scenario.


Subject(s)
Humans , Staphylococcal Infections/drug therapy , Vancomycin , Staphylococcus , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Enterococcus , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
11.
Rev. cuba. med. trop ; 71(2): e427, mayo.-ago. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1093560

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Staphylococcus aureus resistente a meticilina constituye la causa principal de bacteriemia relaciona a catéter en pacientes con enfermedad renal crónica avanzada en hemodiálisis. Objetivos: Estimar la tasa de incidencia de bacteriemia relaciona con catéter por Staphylococcus aureus resistente a meticilina en pacientes con enfermedad renal crónica avanzada en el Hospital General Freyre de Andrade, Cuba, y vigilar los valores de concentración mínima inhibitoria de vancomicina frente a los aislados recuperados de bacteriemia. Métodos: El estudio se realizó entre mayo 2017 y febrero 2018, el cual incluyó 64 pacientes con Staphylococcus aureus resistente a meticilina (total de los atendidos en hemodiálisis). De cada uno se recogió información acerca de tipo de acceso vascular y tiempo de uso; de los que desarrollaron un episodio sugerente de bacteriemia se obtuvieron muestras de sangre para hemocultivo. Se informó bacteriemia relacionada con catéter utilizando los criterios de Bouza y otros 2004 y estas se confirmaron debidas a Staphylococcus aureus resistente a meticilina tras determinar la concentración mínima inhibitoria de oxacilina, empleando el método de microdilución en caldo y los criterios del CLSI 2017. Asimismo se evaluó la concentración mínima inhibitoria de vancomicina. Resultados: Las tasas de incidencia de bacteriemia relaciona con catéter por S. aureus y Staphylococcus aureus resistente a meticilina fueron de 0,66 y 0,59/1000 días-catéter, respectivamente. Predominaron las bacteriemia relacionada con catéter en los pacientes con accesos vasculares temporales. No se observó incremento en la concentración mínima inhibitoria de vancomicina (1 y 2 (g/mL) para los aislados responsables de bacteriemia a repetición y persistente. Conclusiones: La tasas de incidencia de bacteriemia relacionada con catéter indican que en la unidad de hemodiálisis se mantienen buenas prácticas clínicas. Los valores de concentración mínima inhibitoria de vancomicina sugieren una reducción en la eficacia de la droga en el tratamiento(AU)


Introduction: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is the leading cause of catheter-related bacteremia in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease undergoing hemodialysis. Objective: Estimate the incidence rate of catheter-related bacteremia by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease from General Freyre de Andrade Hospital in Cuba, and survey the vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentration values for isolates obtained from bacteremia. Methods: A study was conducted of 64 patients with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (total of those undergoing hemodialysis) from May 2017 to February 2018. For each one of them, information was collected about vascular access type and time of use. Blood culture samples were obtained from patients who developed an episode suggesting bacteremia. Catheter-related bacteremia was reported using Bouza et al (2004) criteria, and it was confirmed as due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus after determining oxacillin minimum inhibitory concentration by broth microdilution and CLSI 2017 criteria. Vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentration was also evaluated. Results: The incidence rates for catheter-related bacteremia by S. aureus and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus were 0.66 and 0.59/1000 catheter-days, respectively. A predominance was found of catheter-related bacteremia in patients with temporary vascular accesses. No increase was observed in vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentration (1 and 2 g/mlL for the isolates responsible for recurrent and persistent bacteremia. Conclusions: The incidence rates for catheter-related bacteremia show that good clinical practices are maintained in the hemodialysis unit. Vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentration values suggest a decrease in the efficacy of the drug during treatment(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Staphylococcal Infections/drug therapy , Bacteremia/epidemiology , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/complications , Catheter-Related Infections/complications
12.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 36(3): 371-375, jun. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013795

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: La piomiositis es la infección del músculo esquelético, entidad poco frecuente en pediatría. Objetivo: Describir las características de 21 niños con piomiositis. Métodos: Estudio prospectivo-analítico de niños ingresados con diagnóstico de piomiositis entre mayo de 2016 y abril de 2017 en el Hospital de Niños Ricardo Gutiérrez, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Resultados: Tasa de hospitalización de 21,5/10.000 admisiones (IC 95% 4,65- 71,43). La mediana de edad fue de 5,4 años (rango 1,25-11,6). El 90,4% presentaba algún factor predisponente. La localización más frecuente fue en miembros inferiores. La proteína C reactiva (PCR) estuvo elevada en todos los pacientes, con una media de 124 mg/L (DS 96), siendo significativamente más elevada en los pacientes que tuvieron hemocultivos positivos 206 (DS 101) vs 98 (DS 81), (p = 0,02). Se obtuvo rescate microbiológico en 17 pacientes (80,9%): Staphylococcus aureus resistente a meticilina (SARM) (n: 15) y Streptococcus pyogenes (n: 2). Se presentó con bacteriemia 23,8% de los pacientes. El 81% requirió drenaje quirúrgico. Conclusión: Staphylococcus aureus RM adquirido en la comunidad (SARMAC) es el patógeno predominante. En la selección del tratamiento empírico adecuado debería tenerse en cuenta: el patrón de resistencia local y el valor de PCR.


Background: Pyomyositis is the infection of skeletal muscle, a rare pathology in children. Aim To describe the characteristics of pyomyositis in pediatric patients. Methods: Prospective analytical study of hospitalized children diagnosed with pyomyositis from May 2016 to April 2017 at the Ricardo Gutiérrez Children's Hospital, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Results: Twenty-one patients with pyomyositis were identified. Annual rate: 21.5/10,000 admissions (95% CI 4.65-71.43). The median age was 5.4 years (range 1.25-11.6). The lower limbs were the most affected site. C-reactive protein (CRP) was elevated in all patients, with a mean of 124 mg/L (SD 96), being significantly higher in patients with bacteremia: 206 (DS 101) vs 98 (DS 81), p = 0.02. Bacterial cultures were positive in 17/21 (80.9%): 15 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), and 2 Streptococcus pyogenes. Blood cultures were positive in 5 (23.8%). Conclusion: MRSA-community acquired is the predominant pathogen in our setting. In the selection of the appropriate empirical treatment, the local resistance pattern and the CRP value should be taken into account.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Staphylococcal Infections/diagnosis , Bacteremia/diagnosis , Pyomyositis/diagnosis , Argentina , Staphylococcal Infections/microbiology , Staphylococcal Infections/drug therapy , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Clindamycin/therapeutic use , Vancomycin/therapeutic use , Drainage , Prospective Studies , Ultrasonography , Bacteremia/microbiology , Bacteremia/drug therapy , Lower Extremity , Pyomyositis/microbiology , Pyomyositis/drug therapy , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Hospitals, Pediatric , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
14.
Rev. cuba. obstet. ginecol ; 45(1): 1-13, ene.-mar. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1093618

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El mecanismo más común de actividad antibiótica es la interferencia en la síntesis de la pared celular bacteriana. Las cefalosporinas tienen el mismo mecanismo de acción que las penicilinas; sin embargo, tienen un espectro antibacteriano más amplio, son resistentes a muchas b-lactamasas y tienen propiedades farmacocinéticas mejoradas. Objetivos: Identificar por servicios los gérmenes aislados y determinar la resistencia del Staphylococcus aureus a las cefalosporinas. Método: Se realizó un estudio retrospectivo, transversal y descriptivo en hospital Ginecobstétrico de Guanabacoa desde enero de 2014 hasta diciembre de 2016. Se seleccionaron como variables los gérmenes aislados y el patrón de resistencia del germen que predominó frente a todas las generaciones de cefalosporinas. Resultados: En el servicio de neonatología el mayor aislamiento fue en el hemocultivo seguido del catéter venoso (19 pacientes) y tubo endotraqueal. En el servicio de Obstetricia, los loquios y el sitio quirúrgico fue donde se aisló mayor número (69 y 31 pacientes, respectivamente). Conclusiones: El germen más frecuente aislado en ambos servicios fue el Staphylococcus aureus y la resistencia a las cefalosporinas fue muy elevado(AU)


Introduction: The synthesis interference of bacterial cell wall is the most common antibiotic mechanism. Cephalosporins have the same mechanism of action as penicillin. However, they have wider antibacterial spectrum, they are more resistant to B-lactamases and better pharmacokinetics properties. Additionally, cephalosporins have higher activity in front of gram-negative bacteria than penicillin. Objective: To identify isolated germs in these services and to determine the Staphylococcus aureus resistance to cephalosporins. Method: A retrospective, transversal and descriptive study was conducted in Guanabacoa Gynecobstetric hospital from January 2014 to December 2016. selected variables as isolated microorganism, and resistance pattern in front of cephalosporin generations. The isolated germs and the resistance pattern of the germ that prevailed against all generations of cephalosporins were selected as variables. In the Obstetrics Service, the largest number of germs was isolated in the lochia and surgical sites. (69 and 31, respectively). Results: In neonatology service, the most frequent isolation occurred in blood culture (35), venous catheter (19) and endotracheal tube (10). In Obstetric service, the most frequent isolation occurred in liquors (69) and the surgical site isolated (31). Conclusions: Staphylococcus Aureus was the main microorganism isolated in hospital and its cephalosporin resistance was very high(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Puerperal Infection/drug therapy , Staphylococcal Infections/drug therapy , Cephalosporins/therapeutic use , Cephalosporin Resistance/drug effects , Neonatal Sepsis/drug therapy
15.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 23(2): 86-94, Mar.-Apr. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011581

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Early antibiotic switch and early discharge protocols have not been widely studied in Latin America. Our objective was to describe real-world treatment patterns, resource use, and estimate opportunities for early switch from intravenous to oral antibiotics and early discharge for patients hospitalized with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus complicated skin and soft-tissue infections. Materials/methods: This retrospective medical chart review recruited 72 physicians from Brazil to collect data from patients hospitalized with documented methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus complicated skin and soft tissue infections between May 2013 and May 2015, and discharged alive by June 2015. Data collected included clinical characteristics and outcomes, hospital length of stay, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus-targeted intravenous and oral antibiotic use, and early switch and early discharge eligibility using literature-based and expert-validated criteria. Results: A total of 199 patient charts were reviewed, of which 196 (98.5%) were prescribed methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus -active therapy. Only four patients were switched from intravenous to oral antibiotics while hospitalized. The mean length of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus-active treatment was 14.7 (standard deviation, 10.1) days, with 14.6 (standard deviation, 10.1) total days of intravenous therapy. The mean length of hospital stay was 22.2 (standard deviation, 23.0) days. The most frequent initial methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus-active therapies were intravenous vancomycin (58.2%), intravenous clindamycin (19.9%), and intravenous daptomycin (6.6%). Thirty-one patients (15.6%) were discharged with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus -active antibiotics of which 80.6% received oral antibiotics. Sixty-two patients (31.2%) met early switch criteria and potentially could have discontinued intravenous therapy 6.8 (standard deviation, 7.8) days sooner, and 65 patients (32.7%) met early discharge criteria and potentially could have been discharged 5.3 (standard deviation, 7.0) days sooner. Conclusions: Only 2% of patients were switched from intravenous to oral antibiotics in our study while almost one-third were early switch eligible. Additionally, one-third of hospitalized patients with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus complicated skin and soft tissue infections were early discharge eligible indicating opportunity for reducing intravenous therapy and days of hospital stay. These results provide insight into possible benefits of implementation of early switch/early discharge protocols in Brazil.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Patient Discharge/statistics & numerical data , Staphylococcal Infections/drug therapy , Soft Tissue Infections/drug therapy , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Drug Substitution/statistics & numerical data , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Time Factors , Staphylococcal Skin Infections/drug therapy , Brazil , Administration, Oral , Retrospective Studies , Administration, Intravenous , Length of Stay
16.
Braz. j. biol ; 78(4): 661-666, Nov. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951610

ABSTRACT

Abstract Mastitis is an inflammatory process of the udder tissue caused mainly by the bacteria Staphylococcus aureus. The indiscriminate use of antibiotics fosters conditions that favor the selection of resistant microorganisms, suppressing at the same time susceptible forms, causing a serious problem in dairy cattle. Given the importance in performing an antibiogram to select the most adequate antimicrobial therapy, the aim of this study was to identify bacteria isolated from cow's milk with mastitis, in dairy farms situated in the city of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, and to determinate the susceptibility profile of these isolates against the antibiotics used to treat this illness. A total of 30 isolates of Staphylococcus spp., were selected from milk samples from the udder quarters with subclinical mastitis whose species were identified through the Vitek system. The susceptibility profile was performed by the disk diffusion assay, against: ampicillin, amoxicillin, bacitracin, cephalexin, ceftiofur, enrofloxacin, gentamicin, neomycin, norfloxacin, penicillin G, tetracycline and trimethoprim. In the antibiogram, 100.0% of the isolates were resistant to trimethoprim and 96.7% to tetracycline and neomycin, three strains of Staphylococcus spp., (10.0%) presented resistance to the 12 antibiotics tested and 24 (80.0%) to at least eight. These results showed the difficulty in treating mastitis, due to the pathogens' resistance.


Resumo A mastite se constitui no processo inflamatório da glândula mamária causada principalmente por bactérias Staphylococcus aureus. O uso indiscriminado dos antibióticos promove condições que favorecem a seleção de micro-organismos resistentes e, ao mesmo tempo, suprime formas suscetíveis, causando um grave problema para a bovinocultura leiteira. Tendo em vista a importância da realização do antibiograma para a seleção da terapia antimicrobiana mais adequada, o objetivo deste estudo foi identificar bactérias isoladas de leite de vaca com mastite, oriundas de propriedades leiteiras localizadas na cidade de Pelotas, RS, bem como determinar o perfil de suscetibilidade desses isolados frente a antibióticos usados para o tratamento desta doença. Foram selecionados 30 isolados de Staphylococcus spp. de amostras de leite provenientes de quartos mamários com mastite subclínica, cujas espécies foram identificadas através do sistema Vitek. O perfil de suscetibilidade foi realizado pela técnica de difusão em disco, frente a: ampicilina, amoxicilina, bacitracina, cefalexina, ceftiofur, enrofloxacina, gentamicina, neomicina, norfloxacina, penicilina G, tetraciclina e trimetoprima. No antibiograma, 100,0% dos isolados foram resistentes a trimetoprima e 96,7% a tetraciclina e a neomicina, três cepas (10,0%) foram resistentes aos 12 antibióticos testados e 24 (80,0%) a pelo menos oito. Esses resultados demonstram a dificuldade encontrada no tratamento da mastite devido à resistência dos agentes patológicos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Staphylococcal Infections/microbiology , Staphylococcus/drug effects , Dairying , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/drug effects , Milk/microbiology , Mastitis, Bovine/microbiology , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Staphylococcal Infections/drug therapy , Staphylococcal Infections/transmission , Cattle , Animal Husbandry , Mastitis, Bovine/drug therapy , Mastitis, Bovine/transmission
17.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 22(5): 371-376, Sept.-Oct. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974237

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) is spreading worldwide, but little is known about the epidemiology of this pathogen in Brazil. Objective: To evaluate clinical and microbiological features of children with S. aureus infections admitted to a university hospital. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study evaluating the potential risk factors for CA-MRSA, and a retrospective cohort evaluating in-hospital clinical outcomes. To include patients with both community and hospital-associated infections, we screened the results of the microbiological laboratory tests from January 1, 2012, to December 31, 2016. According to the phenotype, we classified the isolates in Methicillin-Susceptible S. aureus (MSSA), Hospital-Associated Methicillin-Resistant S. aureus (HA-MRSA), and CA-MRSA. Clinical data were collected from the patients' medical records. Results: We identified 279 cases of S. aureus infections (MSSA = 163, CA-MRSA = 69, HA-MRSA = 41). Overall, the incidence density of CA-MRSA and MSSA infections increased while the HA-MRSA incidence density decreased over the study period. CA-MRSA infected patients were more likely to present with skin and soft tissue infections (OR: 2.83, 95%CI: 1.54-5.33, p < 0.001) and osteomyelitis (OR: 4.76; 95%CI: 1.16-22.71, p = 0.014) when compared to MSSA and HA-MRSA infections. Unadjusted case fatality rates were similar between MSSA-infected patients (3.14%, 5/159) and CA-MRSA infected patients (3.80%, 3/79, p = 0.792), while HA-MRSA infected patients were more likely to die in the hospital (12.20%, 5/41, p = 0.013). Conclusions: CA-MRSA is an emergent pediatric pathogen in Brazil. Our results highlight the relevance of choosing an appropriate initial antimicrobial drug for treating children with severe S. aureus infections.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Staphylococcal Infections/microbiology , Staphylococcal Infections/epidemiology , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Phenotype , Reference Values , Staphylococcal Infections/drug therapy , Time Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Incidence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Community-Acquired Infections/microbiology , Community-Acquired Infections/drug therapy , Community-Acquired Infections/epidemiology , Statistics, Nonparametric , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
18.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 51(4): 554-556, July-Aug. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-957447

ABSTRACT

Abstract Staphylococcus lugdunensis is a rare virulent coagulase-negative staphylococcus (CoNS) that behaves similarly to Staphylococcus aureus in causing deep abscesses, skin and soft tissue infections, and central nervous system infections. Additionally, there can be certain blood stream infections including sepsis, septic shock, toxic shock syndrome, and endocarditis complicated by embolic events. Reports of septic arthritis of a native joint associated with this organism have been infrequent, justifying the presentation and discussion of this case.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Staphylococcal Infections/microbiology , Arthritis, Infectious/microbiology , Staphylococcus lugdunensis/isolation & purification , Hip Joint/microbiology , Staphylococcal Infections/diagnosis , Staphylococcal Infections/drug therapy , Arthritis, Infectious/diagnosis , Arthritis, Infectious/drug therapy , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Middle Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Nafcillin/therapeutic use
19.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 84(4): 441-447, July-Aug. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951855

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction Methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus is an emerging problem for the treatment of chronic suppurative otitis media, and also for pediatric tympanostomy tube otorrhea. To date, there are no effective topical antibiotic drugs to treat methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus otorrhea. Objective In this study, we evaluated the ototoxicity of topical KR-12-a2 solution on the cochlea when it is applied topically in the middle ear of guinea pigs. Methods The antimicrobial activity of KR-12-a2 against methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus strains was examined by using the inhibition zone test. Topical application of KR-12-a2 solution, gentamicin and phosphate buffered saline were applied in the middle ear of the guinea pigs after inserting ventilation tubes. Ototoxicity was assessed by auditory brainstem evoked response and scanning electron microscope examination. Results KR-12-a2 produced an inhibition zone against methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus from 6.25 µg. Hearing threshold in the KR-12-a2 and PBS groups were similar to that before ventilation tube insertion. However, the gentamicin group showed elevation of the hearing threshold and there were statistically significant differences compared to the phosphate buffered saline or the KR-12-a2 group. In the scanning electron microscope findings, the KR-12-a2 group showed intact outer hair cells. However, the gentamicin group showed total loss of outer hair cells. In our experiment, topically applied KR-12-a2 solution did not cause hearing loss or cochlear damage in guinea pigs. Conclusion In our experiment, topically applied KR-12-a2 solution did not cause hearing loss or cochlear damage in guinea pigs. The KR-12-a2 solution can be used as ototopical drops for treating methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus otorrhea; however, further evaluations, such as the definition of optimal concentration and combination, are necessary.


Resumo Introdução O staphylococcus aureus resistente à meticilina é um problema emergente não só para a otite média supurativa crônica, mas também para casos de otorreia crônica em crianças com tubo de ventilação. Até o momento, não há antibióticos tópicos efetivos para a otorreia causada por staphylococcus aureus resistente à meticilina. Objetivo Nesse estudo, avaliamos a ototoxicidade da solução tópica de KR-12-a2 na cóclea quando aplicada topicamente na orelha média de cobaias. Método A atividade antimicrobiana de KR-12-a2 contra cepas de staphylococcus aureus resistente à meticilina foi avaliada utilizando-se o teste de zona de inibição de crescimento. Foram aplicados na orelhas médias de 3 grupos de cobaias, ou solução tópica de KR-12-a2, ou gentamicina ou solução salina tamponada com fosfato após timpanostomia. A ototoxicidade foi avaliada através do exame auditivo de potencial evocado auditivo de tronco encefálico e por microscopia eletrônica de varredura. Resultados O KR-12-a2 produziu uma zona de inibição contra o staphylococcus aureus resistente à meticilina a partir de 6,25 µg. Alterações do limiar de audição no grupo KR-12-a2 e no grupo com solução salina foram semelhantes aos observados antes da inserção do tubo de ventilação. No entanto, o grupo gentamicina apresentou um limiar auditivo mais elevado, estatisticamente significativo em comparação ao grupo solução salina ou ao grupo KR-12-a2. Nos achados da microscopia eletrônica, o grupo KR-12-a2 apresentou células ciliadas externas intactas. No entanto, o grupo gentamicina apresentou perda total das células ciliadas externas. Em nosso experimento, a solução de KR-12-a2 aplicada topicamente não causou perda auditiva ou dano coclear em cobaias. Conclusão Em nosso experimento, a solução de KR-12-a2 aplicada topicamente não causou perda auditiva ou dano coclear em cobaias. A solução de KR-12-a2 pode ser utilizada como gotas otológicas para o tratamento da otorreia causada por staphylococcus aureus resistente à meticilina; no entanto, são necessárias outras avaliações, para a definição da concentração e das associações ideais.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Peptide Fragments/toxicity , Cochlea/drug effects , Cathelicidins/toxicity , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/toxicity , Otitis Media, Suppurative/microbiology , Peptide Fragments/administration & dosage , Auditory Threshold , Staphylococcal Infections/drug therapy , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Reproducibility of Results , Administration, Topical , Evoked Potentials, Auditory, Brain Stem , Treatment Outcome , Cochlea/physiopathology , Disease Models, Animal , Cathelicidins/administration & dosage , Guinea Pigs , Hair Cells, Auditory/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage
20.
Rev. chil. obstet. ginecol. (En línea) ; 83(3): 291-294, jun. 2018. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-959517

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN El Staphylococcus sciuri es un estafilococo coagulasa negativo presente en animales de granja que en raras ocasiones se puede encontrar como microorganismo colonizador en humanos. Su importancia radica en que se ha asociado con infecciones graves como la endocarditis, peritonitis e infección del tracto urinario; constituyendo el 0,79% del número total de estafilococos coagulasa negativos aislados en muestras clínicas. Presentamos el caso de una primigesta de 22 años, con un embarazo de 17,5 semanas. La exploración física inicial evidenció taquicardia y temperatura de 39.3 ° C. Los estudios de laboratorio informaron leucocitos de 25,000, neutrófilos de 83%, plaquetas en 350,000, uroanálisis con marcada piuria, con más de 500 células/uL, nitritos negativos; tinción de Gram de orina con cocos Gram positivos. Después de tres días de tratamiento con Ceftriaxona un gramo cada doce horas intravenosamente, se obtienen informes positivos para S.sciuri multiresistente. Finalmente, se inició manejo con Clindamicina 600 mg cada seis horas intravenosamente, más Gentamicina a dosis de 1 mg/kg cada ocho horas intravenosamente. S.sciuri es una bacteria que se ha encontrado en el ambiente hospitalario y ocasionalmente es aislada en humanos, produciendo infecciones graves. Países como Colombia continúan tratando las infecciones sin tener en cuenta su propio entorno, en el cual los patógenos silvestres son causa frecuente de infecciones, debido al estrecho rango de coexistencia entre animales y humanos en las regiones rurales. Conclusión. Este caso pone de manifiesto la necesidad de considerar como agenta causal aquellos patógenos presentes en animales de granja que pueden causar infecciones en humanos, sobretodo en pacientes que proceden de las áreas lejanas a los centros urbanos.


SUMMARY Staphylococcus sciuri is a negative coagulase staphylococcus present in farm animals that can rarely be found as a colonizing microorganism in humans. Its importance is that it has been associated with serious infections such as endocarditis, peritonitis and urinary tract infection; constituting 0.79% of the total number of coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated in clinical samples. We present the case of a woman in her first pregnancy of 22 years, with a pregnancy of 17.5 weeks. The initial physical examination showed tachycardia and temperature of 39.3 ° C. Laboratory studies reported leukocytes of 25,000, neutrophils of 83%, platelets in 350,000, urinalysis with marked pyuria, with more than 500 cells / uL, negative nitrites; Gram stain of urine with Gram positive cocci. After three days of treatment with Ceftriaxone one gram every twelve hours intravenously, positive reports for multiresistant S. sciuri are obtained. Finally, management was started with Clindamycin 600 mg every six hours intravenously and Gentamicin at a dose of 1 mg / kg every eight hours intravenously. S.sciuri is a bacterium that has been found in the hospital environment and is occasionally isolated in humans, causing serious infections. Countries such as Colombia continue to treat infections without taking into account their own environment, in which wild pathogens are a frequent cause of infections, due to the narrow range of coexistence between animals and humans in rural regions. Conclusion. This case highlights the need to consider as a causal agent those pathogens present in animals that can cause infections in humans, especially in patients who come from areas far away from urban centers.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Young Adult , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/drug therapy , Staphylococcal Infections/complications , Staphylococcal Infections/diagnosis , Patient Isolation , Staphylococcal Infections/drug therapy , Staphylococcus , Sepsis
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