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1.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 23(3): 401-409, mayo 2024. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1538160

ABSTRACT

Bovine mastitis is a disease wi th far - reaching consequences for the dairy industry. Staphylococcus aureus is a pathogen that is especially resistant to antibiotics. The objective of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of the essential oils Lippia citriodora (Lam.), Thy mus vulgaris (L), and a mixture of the essential oils Lippia citriodora and Thymus vulgaris (50/50 v/v), against isolates of oxacillin - resistant Staphylococcus aureus (n=15) of positive cases of bovine mastitis. For the statistical analysis, the IBM SPSS s tatistical package was used. The mixture of essential oils ( Lippia citriodora and Thymus vulgaris (50/50 v/v)) obtained the most significant antimicrobial activity in relation to pure essential oils. It is therefore concluded that the mixture of these oils boosts their antimicrobial activity ( p <0.05). The minimum inhibitory and bactericidal concentration of this mixture for the total isolations was 12 µL/L and 25 µL/mL, respectively.


La mastitis bovina es una enfermedad de gran impacto para la industria lechera. El Staphylococcus aureus es uno de los principales patógenos, especialmente aquellos resistentes a los antibióticos. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la actividad antimicrobiana de los aceites esenciales de Lippia citriodora (Lam.), Thymus vulgaris (L), y una mezcla de aceites esenciales de Lippia citriodora y Thymus vulgaris (50/50 v/v), frente a aislamientos clínicos de Staph ylococcus aureus oxacilino - resistentes (n=15) de mastitis bovina. Se utilizó p rograma estadístico IBM SPSS y se concluyó la diferencia significativa a un p <0.05. La mezcla de aceites esenciales ( Lippia citriodora y Thymus vulgaris (50/50 v/v)), obtuvo la m ayor actividad antimicrobiana en relación a los aceites esenciales puros, se concluye que la mezcla de estos aceites potencia su actividad antimicrobiana ( p <0.019). La concentración mínima inhibitoria y bactericida de esta mezcla fue del 12 µL/mL y 25 µL/m L, respectivamente, y puede ser una alternativa terapéutica.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Cattle , Oils, Volatile/isolation & purification , Mastitis, Bovine/microbiology , Mastitis, Bovine/therapy , Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Colombia
3.
Ibom Medical Journal ; 17(1): 56-61, 2024.
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1552049

ABSTRACT

Background:Methicillin resistant S. aureus(MRSA) has become a major public health predicament worldwide. This is owing to its involvement in the evolution of MDR strains and difficulty in therapeutic management of infected patients. This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of methicillin resistance Staphylococcus aureusamong patients in two health facilities in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria.Materials and Methods:Clinical isolates of patients from University of Uyo Teaching Hospital (UUTH), Uyo and General Hospital, Ikot Abasi (GHIA) were investigated based on the strategic location of the hospitals. The study design was a descriptive cross-sectional study. Three hundred clinical samples were collected from male and female in and out-patients of all ages and processed using standard bacteriological methods. Detection of Staphylococcus aureusand MRSAstrains were done according to standard protocols while antibiotic susceptibility testing of MRSAisolates was conducted using Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method and interpreted following the CLSI 2021 guidelines. Results:The prevalence of MRSAstrains in this study was 42.9%. Majority of patients with MRSAwere from UUTH (44%) closely followed by patients from GHIA(40%). High antibiotics resistant rates of MRSAwere recorded for ampicillin (96.6%), ciprofloxacin (73.3%), erythromycin (63.3%) and cotrimoxazole (60%). Gentamicin and ceftriaxone sensitivity rates were 53.3% and 63.4%, respectively. Conclusion:Health facilities in the state should institute effective antimicrobial stewardship, intensify surveillance and screening of Staphylococcus aureusfor MRSAstrains to guard against dissemination of multidrug resistant strains in both hospital and community settings because of the clinical implications.


Subject(s)
Staphylococcus aureus , Prevalence , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Therapeutics , Clindamycin , Diagnosis , Health Facilities
4.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 121(5): e202202869, oct. 2023. ilus
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1509965

ABSTRACT

La bacteriemia por Staphylococcus aureus se define como el aislamiento de dicho germen en al menos un cultivo de sangre. Las metástasis infecciosas se originan por diseminación hematógena y su posterior localización en un sitio distinto al órgano en donde se originó el proceso infeccioso. La prevalencia en la presentación de estos focos infecciosos secundarios es baja en la edad pediátrica, por lo que representa un desafío diagnóstico. Se presenta el caso de un paciente pediátrico con una celulitis facial por Staphylococcus aureus, con metástasis infecciosas y evolución tórpida.


Bacteremia due to Staphylococcus aureus is defined as the isolation of this microorganism in at least one blood culture. A metastatic infection is caused by the hematogenous dissemination and subsequent location of the microorganism in a site other than the one where the infection started. The prevalence of these secondary sources of infection is low in the pediatric population, which is a diagnostic challenge. Here we describe the case of a pediatric patient with facial cellulitis due to Staphylococcus aureus, with metastatic infection and torpid course.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child , Staphylococcal Infections/epidemiology , Bacteremia/epidemiology , Staphylococcus aureus , Cellulitis/diagnosis , Cellulitis/etiology
5.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 121(5): e202201449, oct. 2023. ilus
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1509734

ABSTRACT

La osteomielitis primaria de esternón es muy infrecuente en niños, con menos de 100 casos publicados hasta la actualidad. Su presentación clínica es a menudo inespecífica, lo que causa un retraso en el diagnóstico. Se presentan dos nuevos casos de osteomielitis primaria de esternón. Ambos referían un cuadro de fiebre, malestar general, dolor torácico y rechazo del decúbito, con eritema preesternal en uno de los casos. La velocidad de sedimentación globular y la proteína C-reactiva estaban elevadas en ambos casos. El diagnóstico se confirmó mediante estudios de imagen y en un caso se aisló Staphylococcus aureus sensible a meticilina en el hemocultivo. Ambos se recuperaron sin complicaciones con tratamiento antibiótico. Debe tenerse en cuenta la osteomielitis primaria de esternón en el diagnóstico diferencial del dolor torácico, especialmente si se acompaña de fiebre, signos inflamatorios locales, intolerancia al decúbito o elevación de reactantes de fase aguda.


Primary sternal osteomyelitis is very rare in children, with less than 100 cases published to date. Its clinical presentation is often non-specific, which results in a diagnostic delay. Here we describe 2 new cases of primary sternal osteomyelitis. Both referred fever, malaise, chest pain, and refusal to lie down, with pre-sternal erythema in one of the cases. The erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein values were high in both cases. The diagnosis was confirmed by imaging studies; methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus was isolated in the blood culture of one of them. Both recovered without complications with antibiotic treatment. Primary sternal osteomyelitis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of chest pain, especially if accompanied by fever, local inflammatory signs, intolerance to lying down, or increased acute phase reactants.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Infant , Child , Osteomyelitis/diagnosis , Osteomyelitis/drug therapy , Staphylococcal Infections/diagnosis , Staphylococcal Infections/drug therapy , Staphylococcus aureus , Chest Pain/drug therapy , Delayed Diagnosis , Fever , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
6.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 43(2): 200-212, jun. 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1533925

ABSTRACT

Introduction. The identity of Staphylococcus aureus virulence factors involved in chronic osteomyelitis remains unresolved. SapS is a class C non-specific acid phosphatase and a well-known virulence factor that has been identified in S. aureus strain 154 but in protein extracts from rotting vegetables. Objective. To identify the SapS gene and characterize the activity of SapS from S. aureus strains: 12 isolates from bone infected samples of patients treated for chronic osteomyelitis and 49 from a database with in silico analysis of complete bacterial genomes. Materials and methods. The SapS gene was isolated and sequenced from 12 S. aureus clinical isolates and two reference strains; 49 S. aureus strains and 11 coagulase-negative staphylococci were tested using in silico PCR. Culture media semi-purified protein extracts from the clinical strains were assayed for phosphatase activity with p-nitro-phenyl- phosphate, O-phospho-L-tyrosine, O-phospho-L-serine, and OphosphoL-threonine in conjunction with various phosphatase inhibitors. Results. SapS was detected in the clinical and in-silico S. aureus strains, but not in the in silico coagulase-negative staphylococci strains. Sec-type I lipoprotein-type N-terminal signal peptide sequences; secreted proteins, and aspartate bipartite catalytic domains coding sequences were found in the SapS nucleotide and amino acid sequence analysis. SapS dephosphorylated with p-nitro-phenyl-phosphate and ophosphoLtyrosine were selectively resistant to tartrate and fluoride, but sensitive to vanadate and molybdate. Conclusion. SapS gene was found in the genome of the clinical isolates and the in silico S. aureus strains. SapS shares biochemical similarities with known virulent bacterial, such as protein tyrosine phosphatases, suggesting it may be a virulence factor in chronic osteomyelitis.


Introducción. Se desconoce la identidad de los factores de virulencia de Staphylococcus aureus implicados en la osteomielitis crónica. Sin embargo, SapS, una fosfatasa ácida no específica de clase C, es un factor de virulencia reconocido y ya fue identificada en la cepa 154 de S. aureus, pero en extractos proteicos de vegetales podridos. Objetivo. Detectar el gen SapS y caracterizar la actividad de la fosfatasa SapS en cepas de S. aureus aisladas de pacientes con osteomielitis crónica y en las reportadas en una base de datos de análisis in silico de genomas bacterianos completos. Materiales y métodos. Se aisló y secuenció el gen SapS en los 12 aislamientos clínicos de S. aureus y en dos cepas de referencia; estas secuencias se analizaron junto con las secuencias de las cepas reportadas en la base de datos de genomas bacterianos: 49 cepas de S. aureus y 11 cepas de estafilococos negativos para coagulasa. Se evalúo la actividad de la fosfatasa SapS, presente en los extractos de los sobrenadantes de los cultivos de las cepas clínicas, mediante la hidrólisis de fosfato p-nitrofenil, O-fosfo-L- tirosina, O-fosfo-L serina y O-fosfo-L treonina junto con varios inhibidores de fosfatasas. Resultados. Se detectó el gen SapS en el genoma de las cepas clínicas y en las 49 cepas de S. aureus analizadas in silico, pero no en las 11 cepas de estafilococos negativos para coagulasa. La secuenciación de SapS reveló un péptido señal presente en el extremo N-terminal de proteínas extracelulares y los dominios bipartitos de aspartato (DDDD) en su sitio catalítico. SapS hidroliza selectivamente el fosfato p-nitrofenil y la O-fosfo-L-tirosina, pero es sensible a vanadato y molibdato. Conclusión. Se encontró SapS en el genoma de S. aureus de las cepas clínicas y de las cepas de simulación computacional. La SapS con actividad específica para la hidrólisis de la O-fosfo-L-tirosina comparte similitudes bioquímicas con las fosfatasas-tirosina bacterianas, por lo que puede formar parte de la red de factores de virulencia de la osteomielitis crónica.


Subject(s)
Osteomyelitis , Staphylococcus aureus , Virulence Factors
7.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 121(3): e202202779, jun. 2023. tab
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1435653

ABSTRACT

Introducción. En neonatos internados es frecuente sospechar sepsis neonatal, pero solo en el 25 % al 30 % se confirma con cultivos positivos. La selección del esquema antibiótico basándose en la epidemiología local favorece el uso racional y minimiza sus efectos colaterales. Objetivo primario. Describir la prevalencia de sepsis precoz y tardía con rescate microbiológico y sus características clínicas. Población y método. Estudio transversal retrospectivo, realizado del 1 de enero de 2013 al 31 de diciembre de 2017, en una maternidad pública de Argentina, que incluyó todos los recién nacidos internados en la unidad con diagnóstico de sepsis precoz y tardía con rescate microbiológico, y aquellos reingresados dentro del mes de vida. Resultados. Ingresaron 3322 recién nacidos, 1296 evaluados por sospecha de sepsis precoz, cultivos positivos en 25 (1,9 %; tasa: 0,86 ‰). El 52 % eran menores de 33 semanas de edad gestacional. Microorganismos: Escherichia coli 5, Listeria monocytogenes 4, Streptococcus agalactiae (SGB) 3, Streptococcus pneumoniae 3. Sepsis tardía (tasa 8,73 ‰), el 68 % ocurridas en menores de 33 semanas. Microorganismos intrahospitalarios: Staphylococcus coagulasa negativos 115, Staphylococcus aureus 47, Escherichia coli 30, Cándida spp. 16, Enterococcus faecalis 13, Klebsiella pneumoniae 11 y Streptococcus agalactiae 10. En los reingresos: E. coli 11, S. aureus 12, SGB 3 y Haemophilus influenzae 3. Conclusiones. Se observa en el período estudiado una frecuencia de sepsis precoz similar a los reportes internacionales, con predominio de E. coli y L. monocytogenes. La tasa de sepsis tardía presentó una tendencia descendente en los años analizados, con predominio de los cocos grampositivos


Introduction. Neonatal sepsis is often suspected in hospitalized newborn infants, but only in 25­30% of cases it is confirmed via a positive culture. Selecting the antibiotics based on local epidemiology favors their rational use and minimizes their side effects. Primary objective. To describe the prevalence of early- and late-onset sepsis with microorganism isolation and their clinical characteristics. Population and method. Retrospective, cross-sectional study conducted between 01-01-2013 and 12-31-2017 in a public maternity center of Argentina in all hospitalized newborn infants with a diagnosis of early- and late-onset sepsis with microorganism isolation, and those re-admitted in their first month of life. Results. A total of 3322 newborn infants were admitted; 1296 were assessed for suspected early- onset sepsis; 25 had a positive culture (1.9%; rate: 0.86‰). Of these, 52% were born before 33 weeks of gestation. Microorganisms: Escherichia coli 5, Listeria monocytogenes 4, Streptococcus agalactiae (SGB) 3, Streptococcus pneumoniae 3. Also, 68% of late-onset sepsis cases (rate: 8.73‰) occurred in infants born before 33 weeks of gestation. Hospital-acquired microorganisms: coagulase-negative Staphylococcus 115, Staphylococcus aureus 47, Escherichia coli 30, Candida spp. 16, Enterococcus faecalis 13, Klebsiella pneumoniae 11, and Streptococcus agalactiae 10. In re-admissions: E. coli 11, S. aureus 12, SGB 3, and Haemophilus influenzae 3. Conclusions. During the study period, the frequency of early-onset sepsis was similar to international reports, with a predominance of E. coli and L. monocytogenes. The rate of late-onset sepsis showed a downward trend in the analyzed years, with a predominance of Gram-positive cocci.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Sepsis/microbiology , Neonatal Sepsis/drug therapy , Neonatal Sepsis/epidemiology , Staphylococcus aureus , Streptococcus agalactiae , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Escherichia coli , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
8.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 27(1): 383-400, Jan-Abr. 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1414920

ABSTRACT

Introdução: O aumento contínuo da resistência bacteriana aos antibióticos convencionais é um problema de importância global. Encontrar produtos como alternativas terapêuticas naturais é essencial. As plantas medicinais possuem uma composição química muito rica, que podem ser estruturalmente otimizadas e processadas em novos antimicrobianos. Objetivo: Avaliar o potencial antibacteriano frente a microrganismos humanos potencialmente patogênicos do extrato etanólico e frações de Copernicia prunifera. Metodologia: A triagem fitoquímica de plantas foi realizada usando métodos de precipitação e coloração e a atividade antibacteriana utilizando o método de difusão em disco e microdiluição em caldo contra cepas padronizadas de Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa e Staphylococcus aureus. Resultados: A triagem fitoquímica revela a presença de taninos, flavonoides, esteroides, triterpernóides, saponinas e alcaloides. Os extratos etanólico e frações da casca do caule e folhas tiveram atividade inibitória contra S. aureus e K. pneumonie com zona de inibição que variou de 7,0±1,73 a 9,33±0,58 mm pelo método de difusão em disco. Pelo método de microdiluição em caldo os extratos foram satisfatórios somente contra K. pneumoniae (CIM = 125 a 1000 µg/mL) S. aureus, P. aeruginosa e E. coli se mostraram resistentes aos testes (CIM > 1000 µg/mL). Conclusão: Esses resultados fornecem uma base para futuras investigações em modelos in vivo, para que os compostos de C. prunifera possam ser aplicados no desenvolvimento de novos agentes antimicrobianos contra K. pneumoniae.


Introduction: The continuous increase in bacterial resistance to conventional antibiotics is a problem of global importance. Finding products as natural therapeutic alternatives is essential. Medicinal plants have a very rich chemical composition, which can be structurally optimized and processed into novel antimicrobials. Objective: To evaluate the antibacterial potential against potentially pathogenic human microorganisms of the ethanolic extract and fractions of Copernicia prunifera. Methodology: Phytochemical screening of plants was performed using precipitation and staining methods and antibacterial activity using the disk diffusion and broth microdilution method against standardized strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Results: Phytochemical screening reveals the presence of tannins, flavonoids, steroids, triterpernoids, saponins and alkaloids. The ethanolic extracts and fractions of stem bark and leaves had inhibitory activity against S. aureus and K. pneumonie with zone of inhibition ranging from 7.0±1.73 to 9.33±0.58 mm by disc diffusion method. By broth microdilution method the extracts were satisfactory only against K. pneumoniae (MIC = 125 to 1000 µg/mL) S. aureus, P. aeruginosa and E. coli were resistant to the tests (MIC > 1000 µg/mL). Conclusion: These results provide a basis for further investigation in in vivo models, so that compounds from C. prunifera can be applied in the development of new antimicrobial agents against K. pneumoniae.


Introducción: El continuo aumento de la resistencia bacteriana a los antibióticos convencionales es un problema de importancia mundial. Es esencial encontrar productos como alternativas terapéuticas naturales. Las plantas medicinales tienen una composición química muy rica, que puede optimizarse estructuralmente y transformarse en nuevos antimicrobianos. Objetivo: Evaluar el potencial antibacteriano frente a microorganismos humanos potencialmente patógenos del extracto etanólico y fracciones de Copernicia prunifera. Metodología: Se realizó el cribado fitoquímico de las plantas mediante los métodos de precipitación y tinción y la actividad antibacteriana mediante el método de difusión en disco y microdilución en caldo frente a cepas estandarizadas de Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa y Staphylococcus aureus. Resultados: El cribado fitoquímico revela la presencia de taninos, flavonoides, esteroides, triterpernoides, saponinas y alcaloides. Los extractos etanólicos y las fracciones de la corteza del tallo y las hojas presentaron actividad inhibitoria contra S. aureus y K. pneumonie con una zona de inhibición que osciló entre 7,0±1,73 y 9,33±0,58 mm por el método de difusión en disco. Por el método de microdilución en caldo, los extractos sólo fueron satisfactorios frente a K. pneumoniae (CMI = 125 a 1000 µg/mL). S. aureus, P. aeruginosa y E. coli fueron resistentes a las pruebas (CMI > 1000 µg/mL). Conclusiones: Estos resultados proporcionan una base para futuras investigaciones en modelos in vivo, de modo que los compuestos de C. prunifera puedan aplicarse en el desarrollo de nuevos agentes antimicrobianos contra K. pneumoniae.


Subject(s)
In Vitro Techniques/instrumentation , Public Health , Arecaceae , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Food Preservatives , Noxae , Plants, Medicinal , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Staphylococcus aureus , Plant Extracts , Escherichia coli , Phytochemicals , Klebsiella pneumoniae/pathogenicity
9.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 39: e39029, 2023. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1425193

ABSTRACT

Rifampicin has broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity, but it can cause nephrotoxic and hepatotoxic damage because high doses are required. Nanosystems emerge as a perspective to improve the transport systems of this drug. In this work, iron oxide nanoparticles were synthesised, functionalized with lauric acid, and rifampicin was incorporated into the nanosystem. The samples were characterized by spectroscopic techniques: electronics in the visible ultraviolet region (UV-vis), vibrational absorption in the infrared region (IR), X-ray diffractometry (XRD), and dynamic light scattering (DSL). The toxicity of the nanocompounds and the antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 were studied by the Artemia salina lethality and disc diffusion techniques, respectively. As a result, IR analysis showed characteristic vibrations of laurate and rifampicin on the surface of the nanosystem. The presence of magnetic iron oxide was confirmed by XRD and the mean diameter of the crystallites was 8.37 nm. The hydrodynamic diameter of rifampicin associated with the nanosystem was 402 nm and that of the nanosystem without rifampicin was 57 nm. The compounds did not show toxicity to Artemia salina and the in vitro antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus was slightly decreased when rifampicin was associated with the nanosystem. In general terms, the results showed that iron oxide nanoparticles showed no toxicity and reduced the toxicity of rifampicin by 41.54% when carried compared to free rifampicin. Therefore, magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles may have the potential to act as a platform for associated drugs.


Subject(s)
Rifampin , Staphylococcus aureus , Magnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles , Anti-Infective Agents
10.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 59: e23068, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1505851

ABSTRACT

Abstract Bovine infectious mastitis is largely resistant to antibacterial treatment, mainly due to mechanisms of bacterial resistance in the biofilms formed by Staphylococcus aureus. Melaleuca (MEO) and citronella essential oils (CEO) are promising agents for reducing or eliminating biofilms. Free melaleuca oil presented a medium Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of 0.625% and a Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) of 1.250%, while free citronella oil showed medium MIC and MBC of 0.313%. Thus, free CEO and MEO demonstrate bacteriostatic and bactericidal potential. We generated polymeric nanocapsules containing MEO or CEO and evaluated their efficacy at reducing biofilms formed by S. aureus. Glass and polypropylene spheres were used as test surfaces. To compare the responses of free and encapsulated oils, strains were submitted to 10 different procedures, using free and nanoencapsulated essential oils (EOs) in vitro. We observed no biofilm reduction by MEO, free or nanoencapsulated. However, CEO nanocapsules reduced biofilm formation on glass (p=0.03) and showed a tendency to diminish biofilms on polypropylene (p=0.051). Despite nanoencapsulated CEO reducing biofilms in vitro, the formulation could be improved to modify the CEO component polarity and, including MEO, to obtain more interactions with surfaces and the biofilm matrix


Subject(s)
Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Oils, Volatile/analysis , Biofilms/classification , Nanocapsules/adverse effects , Mastitis, Bovine/pathology , In Vitro Techniques/methods , Melaleuca/adverse effects , Cymbopogon/adverse effects
11.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 982-989, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985623

ABSTRACT

Objective: To understand the population structure of food-borne Staphylococcus (S.) aureus in China. Methods: Whole genome sequencing was used to analyze 763 food-borne S. aureus strains from 16 provinces in China from 2006 to 2020. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST), staphylococcal protein A gene (spa) typing, and staphylococcal chromosome cassettemec (SCCmec) typing were conducted, and minimum spanning tree based on ST types (STs) was constructed by BioNumerics 7.5 software. Thirty-one S. aureus strains isolated from imported food products were also included in constructing the genome phylogenetic tree. Results: A total of 90 STs (20 novel types) and 160 spa types were detected in the 763 S. aureus isolates. The 72 STs (72/90, 80.0%) were related to 22 clone complexes. The predominant clone complexes were CC7, CC1, CC5, CC398, CC188, CC59, CC6, CC88, CC15, and CC25, accounting for 82.44% (629/763) of the total. The STs and spa types in the predominant clone complexes changed over the years. The methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) detection rate was 7.60%, and 7 SCCmec types were identified. The ST59-t437-Ⅳa (17.24%, 10/58), ST239-t030-Ⅲ (12.07%, 7/58), ST59-t437-Ⅴb (8.62%, 5/58), ST338-t437-Ⅴb (6.90%, 4/58) and ST338-t441-Ⅴb (6.90%, 4/58) were the main types in MRSA strains. The genome phylogenetic tree had two clades, and the strains with the same CC, ST, and spa types clustered together. All CC7 methicillin sensitive S. aureus strains were included in Clade1, while 21 clone complexes and all MRSA strains were in Clade2. The MRSA strains clustered according to the SCCmec and STs. The strains from imported food products in CC398, CC7, CC30, CC12, and CC188 had far distances from Chinese strains in the tree. Conclusions: In this study, the predominant clone complexes of food-borne strains were CC7, CC1, CC5, CC398, CC188, CC59, CC6, CC88, CC15, and CC25, which overlapped with the previously reported clone complexes of hospital and community-associated strains in China, suggesting that close attention needs to be paid to food, a vehicle of pathogen transmission in community and food poisoning.


Subject(s)
Humans , Staphylococcus aureus/genetics , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/genetics , Multilocus Sequence Typing , Phylogeny , Staphylococcal Infections/epidemiology , China/epidemiology
12.
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 1161-1169, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009864

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To explore the molecular characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) in children, and to compare the molecular characteristics of different types of strains (infection and colonization strains) so as to reveal pathogenic molecular markers of S. aureus.@*METHODS@#A cross-sectional study design was used to conduct nasopharyngeal swab sampling from healthy children in the community and clinical samples from infected children in the hospital. Whole genome sequencing was used to detect antibiotic resistance genes and virulence genes. A random forest method to used to screen pathogenic markers.@*RESULTS@#A total of 512 S. aureus strains were detected, including 272 infection strains and 240 colonization strains. For virulence genes, the carrying rates of enterotoxin genes (seb and sep), extracellular enzyme coding genes (splA, splB, splE and edinC), leukocytotoxin genes (lukD, lukE, lukF-PV and lukS-PV) and epidermal exfoliating genes (eta and etb) in infection strains were higher than those in colonization strains. But the carrying rates of enterotoxin genes (sec, sec3, seg, seh, sei, sel, sem, sen, seo and seu) were lower in infection strains than in colonization strains (P<0.05). For antibiotic resistance genes, the carrying rates of lnuA, lnuG, aadD, tetK and dfrG were significantly higher in infection strains than in colonization strains (P<0.05). The accuracy of cross-validation of the random forest model for screening pathogenic markers of S. aureus before and after screening was 69% and 68%, respectively, and the area under the curve was 0.75 and 0.70, respectively. The random forest model finally screened out 16 pathogenic markers (sem, etb, splE, sep, ser, mecA, lnuA, sea, blaZ, cat(pC233), blaTEm-1A, aph(3')-III, ermB, ermA, ant(9)-Ia and ant(6)-Ia). The top five variables in the variable importance ranking were sem (OR=0.40), etb (OR=3.95), splE (OR=1.68), sep (OR=3.97), and ser (OR=1.68).@*CONCLUSIONS@#The random forest model can screen out pathogenic markers of S. aureus and exhibits a superior predictive performance, providing genetic evidence for tracing highly pathogenic S. aureus and conducting precise targeted interventions.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Staphylococcus aureus/genetics , Cross-Sectional Studies , Enterotoxins/genetics , Staphylococcal Infections , Whole Genome Sequencing
13.
Journal of Clinical Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery ; (12): 247-251, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982726

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the etiological characteristics of nasal bacterial infection in patients with nasal lymphoma. Methods:The results of bacterial culture of nasal secretions from 39 healthy people and 86 patients with nasal lymphoma in the Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University from January 2019 to June 2022 were retrospectively analyzed, and the differences in nasal bacteria distribution between nasal lymphoma and healthy people were analyzed and compared. Results:Corynebacterium(38.90%) was the most common bacteria in the nasal cavity of healthy people, followed by coagulase-negative Staphylococcus(31.95%), Staphylococcus epidermidis(15.28%) and Staphylococcus aureus(6.95%). The most common bacteria in nasal lymphoma patients was Staphylococcus aureus(30.37%), followed by Corynebacterium(9.63%), Staphylococcus epidermidis(7.41%) and coagulase negative Staphylococcus(6.67%). A total of 81 nasal lymphoma patients were detected with bacteria, positive rate is as high as 94.19%(81/86). Conclusion:Staphylococcus aureus is the main pathogenic bacteria in nasal secretion of patients with nasal lymphoma, which provides guiding significance for the clinical prevention and treatment of nasal lymphoma complicated with infection or not.


Subject(s)
Humans , Retrospective Studies , Coagulase , Nasal Cavity , Bacteria , Staphylococcus aureus , Rhinitis/complications , Staphylococcal Infections
14.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e245807, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285613

ABSTRACT

Abstract Linum usitatissimum L is a widely used traditionally for multiple ailments. The present research was carried out to explore the antimicrobial, and anti-biofilm activity of crude extract of Linum usitatissimum L (Lu. Cr). Phytochemical and proximate analyses were performed. The bandages of diabetic foot patients were collected from the various hospitals. The bandages were cultured to isolate the bacterial strains present on it. The disc diffusion method was used to identify the antimicrobial potential whereas the minimum inhibitory concentration of the Lu.Cr were also determined. Proximate analysis confirms moisture content 8.33%, ash content 4.33%, crude protein 21.20%, crude fat 49.2% and crude fiber 5.63%. It was revealed that Gram-positive bacteria are most prevalent among all study groups. Lu.Cr possess significant bactericidal potential against S. aureus among all other microbes. Owing to this potential, linseed coated bandages can be used alternatively for the treatment of diabetic foot.


Resumo Linum usitatissimum L é amplamente utilizado tradicionalmente para doenças múltiplas. O presente trabalho foi realizado para explorar a atividade antimicrobiana e antibiofilme do extrato bruto de Linum usitatissimum L (Lu.Cr). Foram realizadas análises fitoquímicas e aproximadas. As ataduras de pacientes diabéticos com pé foram recolhidas nos vários hospitais. As bandagens foram cultivadas para isolar as cepas bacterianas presentes nas mesmas. O método de difusão em disco foi utilizado para identificar o potencial antimicrobiano e a concentração inibitória mínima do Lu.Cr também foi determinada. A análise aproximada confirma o teor de umidade 8,33%, teor de cinzas 4,33%, proteína bruta 21,20%, gordura bruta 49,2% e fibra bruta 5,63%. Foi revelado que as bactérias Gram-positivas são mais prevalentes entre todos os grupos de estudo. Lu.Cr possui potencial bactericida significativo contra S. aureus entre todos os outros micróbios. Devido a esse potencial, as ligaduras revestidas com linhaça podem ser utilizadas alternativamente para o tratamento do pé diabético.


Subject(s)
Humans , Diabetic Foot/drug therapy , Flax , Diabetes Mellitus , Staphylococcus aureus , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Biofilms , Methanol
15.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e244435, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285619

ABSTRACT

Abstract Increasing trend in antimicrobial resistance and failure of chemically synthesized antibiotics lead to discover alternative methods for the treatment of bacterial infections. Various medicinal plants are in use traditionally and their active compounds can be further applied for treatment of bacterial diseases. This study was designed to determine the antibacterial activity of Punica granatum (P. granatum L.) (pomegranate) peel extract against Enterobacteriaceae [Escherichia coli (E. coli), Salmonella Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) and Shigella Dysenteriae (S. Dysenteriae)] and gram-positive bacterium [Staphylococcus aureus (Staph aureus)]. Methanolic extract of P. granatum L. peel was prepared by Soxhlet apparatus method. Total flavonoid and phenolic contents from the extract were determined by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The antibacterial activity of P. granatum L. peel extract was evaluated through agar well diffusion method. HPLC showed the range of phenolics (gallic acid, caffeic acid, benzoic acid, cinnamic acid) and flavonoid compounds. The chemical structures of flavonoid and phenolics found in the methanolic extract of P. granatum L. peel have been reported for the first time. The methanolic peel extract (50 ul) of yellow P. granatum L. showed 26, 10, 10 and 9mm zones of inhibition (ZOI) against S. aureus, S. Typhimurium, S. Dysenteriae and E. coli, respectively. The methanolic extract of red P. granatum L. (100 ul) showed 27, 8, 12 and 15 mm ZOI against Staph. aureus, S. Typhimurium, S. Dysenteriae and E. coli, respectively. Highest ZOI was observed against Staph. aureus. Many of the bacteria studied in the present work may cause serious gastrointestinal infections, which can lead to hemorrhagic diarrhea in children. These infections can be life-threatening to young children and the elderly. There is an incentive to find alternative control measures, such as plant and herbal extracts, especially in lesser-developed countries where traditional antibiotics may not be readily available.


Resumo A tendência crescente na resistência antimicrobiana e na falha dos antibióticos sintetizados quimicamente leva à descoberta de métodos alternativos para o tratamento de infecções bacterianas. Várias plantas medicinais estão em uso tradicionalmente e seus compostos ativos podem ser posteriormente aplicados para o tratamento de doenças bacterianas. Este estudo foi desenhado para determinar a atividade antibacteriana do extrato de casca de Punica granatum (P. granatum L.) (romã) contra Enterobacteriaceae [Escherichia coli (E. coli), Salmonella Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) e Shigella Dysenteriae (S. Dysenteriae) ] e bactéria gram-positiva [Staphylococcus aureus (Staph aureus)]. O extrato metanólico da casca de P. granatum L. foi preparado pelo método do aparelho de Soxhlet. O conteúdo total de flavonoides e fenólicos do extrato foi determinado por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (HPLC). A atividade antibacteriana do extrato da casca de P. granatum L. foi avaliada através do método de difusão em ágar. HPLC mostrou a gama de compostos fenólicos (ácido gálico, ácido cafeico, ácido benzoico, ácido cinâmico) e flavonoides. As estruturas químicas de flavonoides e fenólicos encontradas no extrato metanólico da casca de P. granatum L. foram relatadas pela primeira vez. O extrato metanólico da casca (50 ul) de P. granatum L. amarelo apresentou zonas de inibição (ZOI) de 26, 10, 10 e 9mm contra S. aureus, S. Typhimurium, S. Dysenteriae e E. coli, respectivamente. O extrato metanólico de P. granatum L. vermelho (100 ul) apresentou 27, 8, 12 e 15 mm IOI contra Staph. aureus, S. Typhimurium, S. Dysenteriae e E. coli, respectivamente. O ZOI mais alto foi observado contra Staph. aureus. Muitas das bactérias estudadas no presente trabalho podem causar infecções gastrointestinais graves, que podem levar à diarreia hemorrágica em crianças. Essas infecções podem ser fatais para crianças pequenas e idosos. Há um incentivo para encontrar medidas de controle alternativas, como extratos de plantas e ervas, especialmente em países menos desenvolvidos, onde os antibióticos tradicionais podem não estar prontamente disponíveis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Child , Aged , Pomegranate , Staphylococcus aureus , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Escherichia coli , Anti-Infective Agents
16.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e245585, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339413

ABSTRACT

Abstract Many soil microorganisms' i.e., bacteria and fungi produce secondary metabolites called antibiotics. These are used for the treatment of some of the bacterial, fungal and protozoal diseases of humans. There is a need for isolation of a broad spectrum of antibiotics from microorganisms due to the emergence of antibiotic resistance. In the present study two antibiotic producing bacteria Klebsiella pneumoniae and Bacillus cereus were isolated from pharmaceutical and poultry feed industry of Hattar, Haripur Pakistan. Total 10 waste samples were collected from different industries (Marble, Ghee, Soap, Mineral, Steel, Poultry Feed, Pharmaceutical, Qarshi, Cosmetic and Glass). Thirty-three bacterial strains were isolated from industrial wastes of these ten different industries. Fourteen out of thirty-three bacterial strains exhibited antimicrobial activities against at least one of the test microbes considered in this study including Escherchia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella typhi. The bacteria were isolated by standard serial dilution spread plate technique. Morphological characterization of the isolates was done by Gram staining. Nine bacterial isolates out of fourteen were initially identified as B. cereus and five as K. pneumoniae through biochemical characterization. The antibacterial activities were tested by well diffusion method. Maximum number of antibiotic producing bacteria were isolated from pharmaceutical and poultry feed industry based on the results of primary screening, the most potential isolates S9, S19, S20, S22 and S23 were selected for secondary screening. The maximum activity against E. coli and S. aureus was recorded by bacterial isolate S19 i.e zones of inhibition of 6.5mm and 9mm while S20 showed 7.5mm and 6mm zones respectively. Molecular identification was carried out on the basis of 16S rRNA sequence analysis. Finally, the isolates were identified as B. cereus accession number LC538271and K. pneumoniae accession number MT078679. Analysis of bacterial extract S20 through GC-MS indicated the presence of 8 compounds of diverse nature and structure. Present study suggests that wastes of pharmaceutical and poultry feed industry may have antibiotic producing bacteria. These bacteria could be utilized for the production of antibiotics. B. cereus and K. pneumoniae isolated from wastes of poultry feed and pharmaceutical industries have the potential to produce antibiotics and could be used to control the microbial growth.


Resumo Muitos microrganismos do solo, ou seja, bactérias e fungos produzem metabólitos secundários chamados antibióticos. Eles são usados ​​para tratamento de algumas doenças bacterianas, fúngicas e protozoárias em humanos. Há necessidade de isolamento de um amplo espectro de antibióticos de microrganismos devido ao surgimento de resistência aos antibióticos. No presente estudo, duas bactérias produtoras de antibióticos, Klebsiella pneumoniae e Bacillus cereus, foram isoladas da indústria farmacêutica e de ração avícola de Hattar, Haripur, Paquistão. Um total de 10 amostras de resíduos foi coletado de diferentes indústrias (mármore, ghee, sabão, mineral, aço, ração para aves, farmacêutica, Qarshi, cosmética e vidro). Trinta e três cepas bacterianas foram isoladas de resíduos industriais dessas dez diferentes indústrias. Quatorze das 33 cepas bacterianas exibiram atividades antimicrobianas contra pelo menos um dos micróbios de teste considerados neste estudo, incluindo Escherchia coli, Staphylococcus aureus e Salmonella typhi. As bactérias foram isoladas pela técnica de placa de diluição em série padrão. A caracterização morfológica dos isolados foi feita por coloração de gram. Nove isolados bacterianos de 14 foram inicialmente identificados como B. cereus e cinco como K. pneumoniae por meio de caracterização bioquímica. As atividades antibacterianas foram testadas pelo método de difusão em poço. O número máximo de bactérias produtoras de antibióticos foi isolado da indústria farmacêutica e de ração avícola com base nos resultados da triagem primária, os isolados mais potenciais S9, S19, S20, S22 e S23 foram selecionados para a triagem secundária. A atividade máxima contra E. coli e S. aureus foi registrada pelo isolado bacteriano S19, ou seja, zonas de inibição de 6,5 mm e 9 mm, enquanto S20 mostrou zonas de 7,5 mm e 6 mm, respectivamente. A identificação molecular foi realizada com base na análise da sequência 16S rRNA. Finalmente, os isolados foram identificados como B. cereus número de acesso LC538271 e K. pneumoniae número de acesso MT078679. A análise do extrato bacteriano S20 por meio de GC-MS indicou a presença de oito compostos de natureza e estrutura diversas. O presente estudo sugere que resíduos da indústria farmacêutica e de ração para aves podem conter bactérias produtoras de antibióticos. Essas bactérias podem ser utilizadas para a produção de antibióticos B. cereus e K. pneumoniae isolados de resíduos de rações de aves e indústrias farmacêuticas têm potencial para produzir antibióticos e podem ser usados ​​para controlar o crescimento microbiano.


Subject(s)
Humans , Staphylococcus aureus , Industrial Waste , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S , Plant Extracts , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Escherichia coli , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
17.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e247016, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339416

ABSTRACT

Abstract Pheretima posthuma (Vaillant, 1868), a native earthworm of Pakistan and Southeast Asia, has wide utilization in vermicomposting and bioremediation process. In this study, P. posthuma coelomic fluid (PCF) and body paste (PBP) was evaluated as antibacterial agent against ampicillin (AMP) resistant five Gram positive and four Gram negative clinical isolates. The antibacterial effect of different doses (i.e. 25-100 µg/ml) of PCF and PBP along with AMP and azithromycin (AZM) (negative and positive controls, respectively) were observed through disc diffusion and micro-dilution methods. All nine clinical isolates were noticed as AMP resistant and AZM sensitive. Antibacterial effects of PCF and PBP were dose dependent and zone of inhibitions (ZI) against all clinical isolates were between 23.4 ± 0.92 to 0 ± 00 mm. The sensitivity profile of PCF and PBP against clinical isolates was noticed as 44.44 and 55.56%, respectively. Both PCF and PBP showed bacteriostatic (BTS) action against S. aureus, S. pyogenes, K. pneumonia, N. gonorrhoeae. Moreover, the cumulative BTS potential of PCF and PBP against all isolates was 66.67 and 55.56%, respectively. The MICs of PCF and PBP were ranged from 50-200 µg/ml against selected isolates. The bacterial growth curves indicated that PCF and PBP inhibited the growth of all isolates at their specific MIC concentrations. However, PBP has better antibacterial potential compared to PCF against selected isolates. Therefore, it is concluded that both PCF and PBP of P. posthuma possess antibacterial and BTS potential against ampicillin resistant clinical isolates. This organism might be considered as a second choice of antibacterial agents and can further be utilized in pharmaceutical industries for novel drug manufacturing by prospecting bioactive potential agents.


Resumo Pheretima posthuma (Vaillant, 1868), uma minhoca nativa do Paquistão e sudeste da Ásia, tem ampla utilização em processos de vermicompostagem e biorremediação. Neste estudo, o fluido celômico de P. posthuma (PCF) e a pasta corporal (PBP) foram avaliados como agente antibacteriano contra cinco isolados clínicos Gram-positivos e quatro Gram-negativos resistentes à ampicilina (AMP). O efeito antibacteriano de diferentes doses (ou seja, 25-100 µg / ml) de PCF e PBP juntamente com AMP e azitromicina (AZM) (controles negativo e positivo, respectivamente) foi observado por meio de métodos de difusão em disco e microdiluição. Todos os nove isolados clínicos foram notados como resistentes a AMP e sensíveis a AZM. Os efeitos antibacterianos de PCF e PBP foram dependentes da dose e a zona de inibição (ZI) contra todos os isolados clínicos foi entre 23,4 ± 0,92 a 0 ± 00 mm. O perfil de sensibilidade do PCF e PBP contra isolados clínicos foi observado como 44,44% e 55,56%, respectivamente. Tanto o PCF quanto o PBP mostraram ação bacteriostática (BTS) contra S. aureus, S. pyogenes, K. pneumonia, N. gonorrhoeae. Além disso, o potencial BTS cumulativo de PCF e PBP contra todos os isolados foi de 66,67% e 55,56%, respectivamente. Os MICs de PCF e PBP variaram de 50-200 µg / ml contra isolados selecionados. As curvas de crescimento bacteriano indicaram que o PCF e o PBP inibiram o crescimento de todos os isolados em suas concentrações específicas de MIC. No entanto, PBP tem melhor potencial antibacteriano em comparação com PCF contra isolados selecionados. Portanto, conclui-se que tanto o PCF quanto o PBP de P. posthuma possuem potencial antibacteriano e BTS contra isolados clínicos resistentes à ampicilina. Esse organismo pode ser considerado como uma segunda escolha de agentes antibacterianos e pode ainda ser utilizado nas indústrias farmacêuticas para a fabricação de novos medicamentos por meio da prospecção de agentes com potencial bioativo.


Subject(s)
Animals , Oligochaeta , Staphylococcus aureus , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Ampicillin/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
18.
Biomedical and Environmental Sciences ; (12): 174-184, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970304

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To study the effectiveness and feasibility of cryogenic disinfectants in different cold scenarios and analyze the key points of on-site cryogenic disinfection.@*METHODS@#Qingdao and Suifenhe were selected as application sites for the manual or mechanical spraying of cryogenic disinfectants. The same amount of disinfectant (3,000 mg/L) was applied on cold chain food packaging, cold chain containers, transport vehicles, alpine environments, and article surfaces. The killing log value of the cryogenic disinfectant against the indicator microorganisms ( Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli) was used to evaluate the on-site disinfection effect.@*RESULTS@#When using 3,000 mg/L with an action time of 10 min on the ground in alpine regions, the surface of frozen items, cold-chain containers, and cold chain food packaging in supermarkets, all external surfaces were successfully disinfected, with a pass rate of 100%. The disinfection pass rates for cold chain food packaging and cold chain transport vehicles of centralized supervised warehouses and food processing enterprises were 12.5% (15/120), 81.67% (49/60), and 93.33% (14/15), respectively; yet, the surfaces were not fully sprayed.@*CONCLUSION@#Cryogenic disinfectants are effective in disinfecting alpine environments and the outer packaging of frozen items. The application of cryogenic disinfectants should be regulated to ensure that they cover all surfaces of the disinfected object, thus ensuring effective cryogenic disinfection.


Subject(s)
Humans , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Disinfection , Escherichia coli , Staphylococcal Infections , Staphylococcus aureus
19.
Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 241-246, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969873

ABSTRACT

To understand the clinical characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infection and the main risk factors affecting clinical prognosis, providing a reference for clinical prevention and control of Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infection. In this study, the clinical data of 152 patients with Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infection admitted to Guangdong Provincial People's Hospital from January 2019 to December 2021 were retrospectively analyzed by reviewing the electronic medical record system, including underlying diseases, clinical characteristics, risk factors, and bacterial resistance. Statistical methods such as Chi-Squared Test and t Test were used to analyze the related risk factors that may affect the clinical characteristics and prognosis of patients with Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bloodstream infection, then the variables with P<0.05 in univariate analysis were included in the multivariate logistic regression model to analyze the independent risk factors of poor prognosis. The results showed among 152 patients with Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infection, 50 patients (32.89%) were infected with MRSA. In comparison, 102 patients (67.11%) were infected with methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA). Except for rifampicin, the resistance rate of MRSA to commonly used antibiotics was all higher than that of MSSA, and the difference was statistically significant (Chi-square values were 8.272, 11.972, 4.998, 4.776, respectively;all P-values are less than 0.05). Strains resistant to vancomycin, linezolid, and quinupristin/dalfopristin were not found. In the MRSA group, indwelling catheter and drainage tube, carbapenems, and β-lactamase inhibitor treatment were significantly higher than the MSSA group. The difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). The incidence of poor prognosis of bloodstream infection in the MRSA group was higher than that in the MSSA group (34.00% vs 13.73%), and the difference was statistically significant (χ2=8.495, P<0.05). No independent risk factors associated with poor prognosis were found in the included patients with MRSA bloodstream infection.Multivariate Logistic regression model analysis showed that solid malignant tumors (OR=13.576, 95%CI: 3.352-54.977, P<0.05), mechanical ventilation (OR=7.468, 95%CI: 1.398-39.884, P<0.05) were the most important independent risk factors for poor prognosis in patients with Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infection. In summary, the poor prognosis rate of MRSA bloodstream infection is higher than that of MSSA. The clinical evaluation of related risk factors should be strengthened, targeted prevention and control interventions should be taken to improve the prognosis of patients with Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infection, and the use of antibiotics should be rational and standardized, to control bacterial infection and drug resistance effectively .


Subject(s)
Humans , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Staphylococcus aureus , Retrospective Studies , Prognosis , Staphylococcal Infections/microbiology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Methicillin/therapeutic use , Sepsis
20.
Biomedical and Environmental Sciences ; (12): 732-742, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007846

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility of causative microorganisms recovered from patients with intra-abdominal infections (IAIs).@*METHODS@#A total of 2,926 bacterial and fungal strains were identified in samples collected from 1,679 patients with IAIs at the Peking Union Medical College Hospital between 2011 and 2021. Pathogenic bacteria and fungi were identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) was performed using the VITEK 2 compact system and the Kirby-Bauer method. AST results were interpreted based on the M100-Ed31 clinical breakpoints of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute.@*RESULTS@#Of the 2,926 strains identified, 49.2%, 40.8%, and 9.5% were gram-negative bacteria, gram-positive bacteria, and fungi, respectively. Escherichia coli was the most prevalent pathogen in intensive care unit (ICU) and non-ICU patients; however, a significant decrease was observed in the isolation of E. coli between 2011 and 2021. Specifically, significant decreases were observed between 2011 and 2021 in the levels of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing E. coli (from 76.9% to 14.3%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (from 45.8% to 4.8%). Polymicrobial infections, particularly those involving co-infection with gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, were commonly observed in IAI patients. Moreover, Candida albicans was more commonly isolated from hospital-associated IAI samples, while Staphylococcus epidermidis had a higher ratio in community-associated IAIs. Additionally, AST results revealed that most antimicrobial agents performed better in non-ESBL-producers than in ESBL-producers, while the overall resistance rates (56.9%-76.8%) of Acinetobacter baumanmii were higher against all antimicrobial agents than those of other common gram-negative bacteria. Indeed, Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus faecalis, S. epidermidis, and S. aureus were consistently found to be susceptible to vancomycin, teicoplanin, and linezolid. Similarly, C. albicans exhibited high susceptibility to all the tested antifungal drugs.@*CONCLUSION@#The distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility of the causative microorganisms from patients with IAIs were altered between 2011 and 2021. This finding is valuable for the implementation of evidence-based antimicrobial therapy and provides guidance for the control of hospital infections.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Escherichia coli , Gram-Negative Bacteria , Gram-Positive Bacteria , Retrospective Studies , Staphylococcus aureus , Intraabdominal Infections/epidemiology , Candida albicans , Coinfection
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