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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: 1-7, 2023. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468862

ABSTRACT

ncreasing trend in antimicrobial resistance and failure of chemically synthesized antibiotics lead to discover alternative methods for the treatment of bacterial infections. Various medicinal plants are in use traditionally and their active compounds can be further applied for treatment of bacterial diseases. This study was designed to determine the antibacterial activity of Punica granatum (P. granatum L.) (pomegranate) peel extract against Enterobacteriaceae [Escherichia coli (E. coli), Salmonella Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) and Shigella Dysenteriae (S. Dysenteriae)] and gram-positive bacterium [Staphylococcus aureus (Staph aureus)]. Methanolic extract of P. granatum L. peel was prepared by Soxhlet apparatus method. Total flavonoid and phenolic contents from the extract were determined by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The antibacterial activity of P. granatum L. peel extract was evaluated through agar well diffusion method. HPLC showed the range of phenolics (gallic acid, caffeic acid, benzoic acid, cinnamic acid) and flavonoid compounds. The chemical structures of flavonoid and phenolics found in the methanolic extract of P. granatum L. peel have been reported for the first time. The methanolic peel extract (50 ul) of yellow P. granatum L. showed 26, 10, 10 and 9mm zones of inhibition (ZOI) against S. aureus, S. Typhimurium, S. Dysenteriae and E. coli, respectively. The methanolic extract of red P. granatum L. (100 ul) showed 27, 8, 12 and 15 mm ZOI against Staph. aureus, S. Typhimurium, S. Dysenteriae and E. coli, respectively. Highest ZOI was observed against Staph. aureus. Many of the bacteria studied in the present work may cause serious gastrointestinal infections, which can lead to hemorrhagic diarrhea in children. These [...].


A tendência crescente na resistência antimicrobiana e na falha dos antibióticos sintetizados quimicamente leva à descoberta de métodos alternativos para o tratamento de infecções bacterianas. Várias plantas medicinais estão em uso tradicionalmente e seus compostos ativos podem ser posteriormente aplicados para o tratamento de doenças bacterianas. Este estudo foi desenhado para determinar a atividade antibacteriana do extrato de casca de Punica granatum (P. granatum L.) (romã) contra Enterobacteriaceae [Escherichia coli (E. coli), Salmonella Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) e Shigella Dysenteriae (S. Dysenteriae) ] e bactéria gram-positiva [Staphylococcus aureus (Staph aureus)]. O extrato metanólico da casca de P. granatum L. foi preparado pelo método do aparelho de Soxhlet. O conteúdo total de flavonoides e fenólicos do extrato foi determinado por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (HPLC). A atividade antibacteriana do extrato da casca de P. granatum L. foi avaliada através do método de difusão em ágar. HPLC mostrou a gama de compostos fenólicos (ácido gálico, ácido cafeico, ácido benzoico, ácido cinâmico) e flavonoides. As estruturas químicas de flavonoides e fenólicos encontradas no extrato metanólico da casca de P. granatum L. foram relatadas pela primeira vez. O extrato metanólico da casca (50 ul) de P. granatum L. amarelo apresentou zonas de inibição (ZOI) de 26, 10, 10 e 9mm contra S. aureus, S. Typhimurium, S. Dysenteriae e E. coli, respectivamente. O extrato metanólico de P. granatum L. vermelho (100 ul) apresentou 27, 8, 12 e 15 mm IOI contra Staph. aureus, S. Typhimurium, S. Dysenteriae e E. coli, respectivamente. O ZOI mais alto foi observado contra Staph. aureus. Muitas das bactérias estudadas no presente trabalho podem causar infecções gastrointestinais graves, que podem levar à diarreia [...].


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/analysis , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Enterobacteriaceae/drug effects , Lythraceae/chemistry , Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Chromatography, Liquid
2.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 26(3): 1218-1228, set-dez. 2022.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1414493

ABSTRACT

Bacteria that are resistant to several antibiotics are a serious One Health problem, as new alternatives for treatment do not appear at the same speed. Thus, the aim of this work was to carry out a survey of studies involving the activity of the essential oil of O. vulgare and its isolated compound carvacrol on antibiotic-resistant bacteria. To this end, a qualitative review of the literature was carried out in the PubMed database from 2015 to 2020. Both for the essential oil and for the isolated compound, the inhibitory action extends to strains often associated with difficult-to-treat infections such as oxacillin and vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, ß-lactamase-producing strains, carbapenemases, among others. The point that distinguishes the studies is the type of methodology used in the tests, with studies with carvacrol more directed towards mechanisms of molecular action and application in cells and animals, while those with oils are more preliminary. Although these substances have potential to control resistant bacteria, more research is needed to enable their use.


Bactérias resistentes a vários antibióticos são um grave problema para a Saúde Única, pois novas alternativas de tratamento não aparecem na mesma velocidade. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar um levantamento de estudos envolvendo a atividade do óleo essencial de O. vulgare e seu composto isolado, carvacrol, sobre bactérias resistentes a antibióticos. Para tanto, foi realizada uma revisão qualitativa da literatura na base de dados PubMed no período de 2015 a 2020. Tanto para o óleo essencial quanto para o composto isolado, a ação inibitória se estende a cepas frequentemente associadas a infecções de difícil tratamento como Staphylococcus aureus resistente à oxacilina e vancomicina, cepas produtoras de ß-lactamase, carbapenemases, entre outras. O ponto que diferencia os estudos é o tipo de metodologia utilizada nos testes, sendo os estudos com carvacrol mais direcionados para mecanismos de ação molecular e aplicação em células e animais, enquanto os com óleos são mais preliminares. Embora essas substâncias tenham potencial para controlar bactérias resistentes, mais pesquisas são necessárias para viabilizar seu uso.


Las bacterias resistentes a diversos antibióticos son un grave problema para la Sanidad Única, ya que las nuevas alternativas de tratamiento no aparecen a la misma velocidad. Así pues, el objetivo de este trabajo fue realizar una encuesta sobre los estudios relativos a la actividad del aceite esencial de O. vulgare y su compuesto aislado, el carvacrol, sobre las bacterias resistentes a los antibióticos. Para ello, se realizó una revisión bibliográfica cualitativa en la base de datos PubMed en el periodo comprendido entre 2015 y 2020. Tanto para el aceite esencial como para el compuesto aislado, la acción inhibidora se extiende a cepas frecuentemente asociadas a infecciones de difícil tratamiento como el Staphylococcus aureus resistente a la oxacilina y a la vancomicina, cepas productoras de ß-lactamasas, carbapenemasas, entre otras. El punto que diferencia los estudios es el tipo de metodología utilizada en las pruebas, siendo los estudios con carvacrol más dirigidos a mecanismos de acción molecular y aplicación en células y animales, mientras que los de aceites son más preliminares. Aunque estas sustancias tienen potencial para controlar las bacterias resistentes, es necesario seguir investigando para que su uso sea viable.


Subject(s)
Oils, Volatile/therapeutic use , Origanum/drug effects , Oxacillin/therapeutic use , Plants, Medicinal/drug effects , Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Vancomycin/therapeutic use , Vancomycin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/pathogenicity , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
3.
Rev. Ciênc. Méd. Biol. (Impr.) ; 21(1): 11-17, maio 05,2022. tab, fig
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1370480

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli are pathogens that cause chronic infections due to antibiotic resistance mechanisms and their ability to adhere to surfaces and to form biofilms. The search for new agents from natural resources to counter microbial biofilms is an urgent priority in healthcare. Objetive: chemical composition, antibacterial and anti-biofilm activity of Plectranthus amboinicus essential oil (PAEO) and carvacrol were investigated against E. coli and S. aureus. Methodology: PAEO was chemically analyzed using gas chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer. Antimicrobial activity was assessed by the disc diffusion method and broth microdilution method to determine minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs). Antibiofilm activity was investigated using 96-well plates with a crystal violet assay. Results: carvacrol (85.25%) was the major component of PAEO. The disc diffusion test confirmed the ability of PAEO and carvacrol in inhibiting bacteria in their planktonic form. The MICs of PAEO against S. aureus and E. coli were 0.31 and 1.25%, respectively, with bactericidal effect. Carvacrol demonstrated a significant antibacterial property (MIC = 0.31%), exhibiting bacteriostatic effects against S. aureus and bactericidal effects against E. coli. Carvacrol considerably inhibited E. coli biofilm formations (58.9%). Moreover, carvacrol inactivated the mature biofilms. Conclusion: the data obtained are promising, and facilitates the development of new therapeutic alternatives. These results indicate the potential of carvacrol in treating diseases caused by E. coli and S. aureus


Introdução: Escherichia coli e Staphylococcus aureus são patógenos que podem causar infecções persistentes devido aos mecanismos de resistência e à sua capacidade de aderir e formar biofilme. A busca por novos agentes a partir de recursos naturais para combater o biofilme é uma prioridade na área da saúde. Objetivo: a composição química, a atividade antibacteriana e anti-biofilme do óleo essencial de Plectranthus amboinicus (PAEO) e do carvacrol foram investigadas frente a S. aureus e E. coli. Metodologia: a análise química do PAEO foi realizada por cromatografia gasosa acoplada a espectrômetro de massa. A atividade antimicrobiana foi avaliada por difusão em disco e microdiluição em caldo para determinar as concentrações inibitórias mínimas (CIMs). As atividades do anti-biofilme foram investigadas usando placas de 96 poços pelo ensaio de cristal violeta. Resultados: o carvacrol (85,25%) foi o principal componente do PAEO. A capacidade do PAEO e do carvacrol para inibir bactérias planctônica foi confirmada por difusão em disco. A CIM do PAEO para S. aureus e E. coli foi de 0,31 e 1,25%, respectivamente, com efeito bactericida. O carvacrol demonstrou uma propriedade antibacteriana significativa (CIM=0,31%), exibindo efeito bacteriostático frente a S. aureus e efeito bactericida para E. coli. O carvacrol inibiu significativamente a formação de biofilme de E. coli (58,9%) e promoveu a desestabilização do biofilme maduro. Conclusão: os dados obtidos são promissores, possibilitando o desenvolvimento de novas alternativas terapêuticas e revelam a potencialidade do carvacrol como fonte para o tratamento de doenças causadas por E. coli e S. aureus.


Subject(s)
Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Biofilms/drug effects , Plectranthus/chemistry , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests/methods
4.
Vitae (Medellín) ; 29(2): 1-9, 2022-05-19. Ilustraciones
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1393060

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Propolis has been considered a highly valuable material due to its therapeutic properties. However, in Colombia, the commercialization of propolis is limited not only by low production but also by the little knowledge about its efficient extraction. Therefore, finding an optimal and economical extraction method to obtain propolis is a necessity for beekeepers that would open new possibilities for industrial use and, therefore, for the market. OBJECTIVES:The objective of this study was to evaluate a conventional and ultrasound-assisted extraction method, seeking to obtain the highest yield and a high amount of content of bioactive compounds in propolis extracts. METHODS: The extraction was carried out for three crude propolis from different types of bees: Tetragoniscaangustula or Angelita (ANG), Meliponaeburnea or Melipona(MEL), and Scaptotrigonaspp (SCT). The extracts were characterized by color, pH, visual appearance, solid content, antioxidant capacity, total polyphenol content, and bacterial inhibition capacity. RESULTS: The highest extraction performance was obtained when the ultrasound-assisted method was used, especially for the ANG extract, which in addition to presenting inhibition for gram-negative (E. coli) and gram-positive (S. Aureus) bacteria, had the best antioxidant activity with a value of 545 mg GAE / 100 g of sample and total polyphenol content of 1,884 mg GAE / 100 g of sample. CONCLUSIONS: Ultrasound-assisted extraction can be considered a low-cost alternative to increase the extraction performance of crude propolis, together with its total polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity, without altering its physical properties


ANTECEDENTES: El propóleos ha sido considerado un material de alto valor por sus propiedades terapéuticas. Sin embargo, en Colombia la comercialización de propóleos está limitada no solo por la baja producción sino también por el incipiente conocimiento sobre la extracción eficiente de este. Por ello, encontrar un método de extracción óptimo y económico para la obtención de propóleos es una necesidad para los apicultores que abriría nuevas posibilidades para el uso industrial y por tanto para el mercado. OBJETIVOS: El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar un método de extracción convencional y asistido por ultrasonido (US) buscando el mayor rendimiento y alto contenido de compuestos bioactivos en extractos de propóleos. MÉTODOS: La extracción se realizó para tres propóleos crudos de diferentes tipos de abejas Tetragonisca angustula o Angelita(ANG), Melipona eburnea o Melipona (MEL) y Scaptotrigona spp (SCT). Todos los extractos se caracterizaron por su color, pH, apariencia visual, contenido de sólidos, capacidad antioxidante, contenido total de polifenoles y capacidad de inhibición bacteriana. RESULTADOS: El mayor rendimiento de extracción se obtuvo cuando se usó el método asistido por ultrasonido y específicamente para el extracto ANG, que además de presentar inhibición para bacterias gram negativas (E. coli) y gram positivas (S. Aureus), tuvo la mejor actividad antioxidante con un valor de 545 mg GAE / 100 g de muestra y contenido total de polifenoles de 1884 mg GAE / 100 g de muestra. CONCLUSIONES: La extracción asistida por ultrasonido puede considerarse una alternativa de bajo costo para aumentar el rendimiento de extracción del propóleos crudo, así como su contenido total de polifenoles y capacidad antioxidante sin alterar sus propiedades físicas


Subject(s)
Humans , Propolis/chemistry , Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Ultrasonics , Bees , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: 1-8, 2022. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468571

ABSTRACT

Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) is an ecofriendly, cost-effective and promising approach for discovery of novel therapeutics. The aim of the current work was to biogenic synthesize, characterize AgNPs using seed extracts of three economically important varieties of date palm (Iklas, Irziz and Shishi), and assess their anti-pathogenic bacterial activities. AgNPs were synthesised then characterised using electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared analyses. The bactericidal activities of AgNPs against five different bacterial pathogens, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae, were determined in vitro. In particular, changes in membrane integrity of virulent bacterial strains in response to AgNPs were investigated. Results of lactate dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase activity assays, and measurement of membrane potential revealed that the cytotoxic effects of the AgNPs were mainly centred on the plasma membrane of bacterial cells, leading to loss of its integrity and eventually cell death. In conclusion, green synthesis of AgNPs is an efficient, cost-effective and promising strategy to combat virulent antibiotic-resistant strains.


A síntese verde de nanopartículas de prata (AgNPs) é uma abordagem ecologicamente correta, econômica e promissora para a descoberta de novas terapêuticas. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi sintetizar biogênica, caracterizar AgNPs usando extratos de sementes de três variedades economicamente importantes de tamareira (Iklas, Irziz e Shishi) e avaliar suas atividades bacterianas antipatogênicas. AgNPs foram sintetizados e caracterizados usando microscopia eletrônica e análise de infravermelho por transformada de Fourier. As atividades bactericidas de AgNPs contra cinco diferentes patógenos bacterianos, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus aureus resistente à meticilina e Streptococcus pneumoniae, foram determinadas in vitro. Em particular, foram investigadas alterações na integridade da membrana de cepas bacterianas virulentas em resposta a AgNPs. Os resultados da lactato desidrogenase, dos ensaios da atividade da fosfatase alcalina e da medição do potencial de membrana revelaram que os efeitos citotóxicos dos AgNPs estavam principalmente centrados na membrana plasmática das células bacterianas, levando à perda de sua integridade e, eventualmente, à morte celular. A síntese verde de AgNPs é uma estratégia eficiente, econômica e promissora para combater cepas virulentas resistentes a antibióticos.


Subject(s)
Antibiosis , Bacillus subtilis/drug effects , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Nanoparticles/analysis , Phoeniceae , Silver/analysis , Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Streptococcus pneumoniae/drug effects , Microscopy , In Vitro Techniques
6.
Int. j. morphol ; 40(5): 1276-1283, 2022. ilus, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1405294

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN: Las bacteriocinas son péptidos antimicrobianos de síntesis ribosomal secretadas por bacterias. Dentro de estas destaca nisina que posee potenciales usos en terapias antibióticas, como biopreservante de alimentos y probióticos. También se ha descrito que nisina posee citotoxicidad sobre líneas celulares neoplásicas, pero existe poca información de su efecto sobre células tumorales sanguíneas. Debido al potencial uso que presenta nisina, es relevante determinar la toxicidad que presenta sobre líneas celulares tumorales del tipo sanguíneo. Para esto, se realizaron ensayos de actividad hemolítica sobre eritrocitos humanos y de toxicidad sobre células mononucleares de sangre periférica humanas, determinándose que nisina no posee efecto citotóxico sobre este tipo de células normales humanas sanguíneas. Se realizaron también, ensayos de citotoxicidad con líneas celulares tumorales (K562 y U937), con el fin de determinar dosis, tiempo de exposición y selectividad en el efecto tóxico de nisina sobre las células tumorales humanas. Estos ensayos muestran que nisina presenta actividad citotóxica sobre líneas celulares K562 y U937 a las 72 h de exposición, a una concentración de 40 µg/mL, que corresponde a 100 veces la concentración mínima inhibitoria (MIC) usada para su acción sobre bacterias. Al comparar el efecto de nisina sobre células mononucleares de sangre periférica humanas con las líneas tumorales linfoides y mieloides (K562 y U937 respectivamente), se observa un efecto selectivo de nisina sobre las células tumorales sanguíneas.


SUMMARY: Bacteriocins are antimicrobial peptides of ribosomal synthesis secreted by bacteria. Among these, nisin stands out, which has potential uses in antibiotic therapies, as a food bio preservative and probiotics. Nisin has also been reported to have cytotoxicity on neoplastic cell lines, but there is little information on its effect on blood tumor cells. Due to the potential use that nisin presents, it is relevant to determine the toxicity it presents on tumor cell lines of the blood type. For this, hemolytic activity tests were carried out on human erythrocytes and toxicity on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, determining that nisin does not have a toxic effect on this type of normal human blood cells. Cytotoxicity tests were also carried out with tumor cell lines (K562 and U937), to determine dose, exposure time and selectivity in the toxic effect of nisin on human tumor cells. These tests show that nisin shows cytotoxic activity on K562 and U937 cell lines at 72 h of exposure, at a concentration of 40 µg / mL, which corresponds to 100 times the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) used for its action on bacteria. When comparing the effect of nisin on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells with lymphoid and myeloid tumor lines (K562 and U937 respectively), a selective effect of nisin on blood tumor cells is observed.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cell Line, Tumor/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Nisin/pharmacology , Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Bacteriocins/pharmacology , In Vitro Techniques , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Cell Survival/drug effects , K562 Cells/drug effects , U937 Cells/drug effects
7.
Rev. Fac. Odontol. (B.Aires) ; 37(85): 77-85, 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1411867

ABSTRACT

La resistencia antimicrobiana es un problema de sa-lud pública mundial. Las infecciones por microorga-nismos resistentes pueden ser altamente transmisi-bles e incluso causar la muerte. Este hecho genera grandes costos para los pacientes y para los servi-cios de salud. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue de-terminar el efecto antimicrobiano in vitro de extractos etanólicos de Caesalpinia spinosa sobre el crecimien-to de Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus y Candida albicans. Se recolectaron y certificaron muestras de C. spinosa. Se obtuvieron extractos de hojas, vainas y semillas en concentraciones de 100%, 75%, 50% y 25%. Mediante Kirby - Bauer, se cargaron los discos con los extractos y se depositaron en el medio inoculado con cepas de E. faecalis, S. aureus y C. albicans; junto a un CP (antimicrobiano), y un CN (etanol). Las placas se incubaron a 370°C durante 24 horas, y posteriormente se midieron los halos de inhi-bición con un vernier digital. Destaca el valor del halo de extracto de vainas; superó al de Ampicilina 10mg, sobre el E. faecalis. El extracto de vainas presentó ma-yor diámetro de inhibición (19mm), el de semillas pre-sentó el más bajo (1mm). ANOVA arrojó diferencia es-tadísticamente significativa entre los datos obtenidos para todos los extractos. En conclusión, los extractos etanólicos de Caesalpinia spinosa tienen efecto anti-microbiano in vitro sobre Enterococcus faecalis, Sta-phylococcus aureus y Candida albicans. La actividad antimicrobiana del extracto es directamente propor-cional a su concentración. Los extractos de C. spinosa podrían ser utilizados como coadyuvantes en el trata-miento contra Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans, que están relacionados con patologías orales (AU)


Antimicrobial resistance is a global public health problem. Infections with resistant microorganisms can be highly transmissible and even cause death. This fact generates great costs for patients and for health services. The objective of this work was to determine the in vitro antimicrobial effect of ethanolic extracts of Caesalpinia spinosa on the growth of Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans. Samples of C. spinosa were collected and certified. Leaf, pod and seed extracts were obtained at concentrations of 100%, 75%, 50% and 25%. Using Kirby-Bauer, the disks were loaded with the extracts and deposited in the medium inoculated with strains of E. faecalis, S. aureus and C. albicans; together with a CP (antimicrobial), and a CN (ethanol). The plates were incubated at 370°C for 24 hours, then the inhibition halos were measured with a digital vernier. The value of the pod extract halo stands out, surpassing that of Ampicillin 10mg, over E. faecalis. The pod extract presented the greatest diameter of inhibition (19mm), the seed extract presented the lowest (1mm). ANOVA showed a statistically significant difference between the data obtained for all the extracts. In conclusion, the ethanolic extracts of Caesalpinia spinosa have an in vitro antimicrobial effect on Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans. The antimicrobial activity of the extract is directly proportional to its concentration. C. spinosa extracts could be used as adjuvants in the treatment against Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans, which are related to oral pathologies (AU)


Subject(s)
Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Candida albicans/drug effects , Enterococcus faecalis/drug effects , Caesalpinia , In Vitro Techniques , Analysis of Variance , Culture Media , Drug Resistance, Bacterial
8.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 20(6): 575-597, nov. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1369745

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the antibacterial potential of Euphorbia hirtawhole plant extracts, honey and conventional antibiotics and their synergistic effects against selected multidrug resistant and typed bacterial strains associated with otitis media. E. hirtawhole plant extract was purified using column chromatography technique. The antibacterial assays of extracts were done using standard microbiological procedures. Protein, sodium and potassium ion leakage of the synergistic mixtures was determined using flame-photometry. At 100 mg/ml, acetone extracts presented highest inhibition against S. aureus (NCTC 6571) with 32 ± 0.83 mm zone of inhibition. The fractional inhibitory concentration indices displayed higher synergism in combination of plant extract, honey and ciprofloxacin against P. mirabilisat 0.02 compared to drug combination synergy standard (≤ 0.5). This work revealed augmentation of ciprofloxacin potency when combined with purified E. hirta acetone extract and honey and implies their high potential in the treatment of multidrug resistant infectionof otitis media.


Este estudio investigó el potencial antibacteriano de extractos de plantas enteras de Euphorbia hirta, miel y antibióticos convencionales y sus efectos sinérgicos contra cepas bacterianas seleccionadas multirresistentes y tipificadas asociadas con la otitis media. El extracto de la planta entera de E. hirtase purificó usando la técnica de cromatografía en columna. Los ensayos antibacterianos de extractos se realizaron utilizando procedimientos microbiológicos estándar. La fuga de iones de proteínas, sodio y potasio de las mezclas sinérgicas se determinó mediante fotometría de llama. A 100 mg/ml, los extractos de acetona presentaron la mayor inhibición contra S. aureus (NCTC 6571) con una zona de inhibición de 32 ± 0,83 mm. Los índices de concentración inhibitoria fraccional mostraron un mayor sinergismo en combinación de extracto de planta, miel y ciprofloxacina contra P. mirabilisa 0,02 en comparación con el estándar de sinergia de combinación de fármacos (≤ 0,5). Este trabajo reveló un aumento de la potencia de la ciprofloxacina cuando se combina con extracto de acetona purificado de E. hirtay miel e implica sualto potencial en el tratamiento de infecciones de otitis media resistentes a múltiples fármacos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Otitis Media/drug therapy , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Euphorbia/chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Proteus mirabilis/drug effects , Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Terpenes/analysis , Flavonoids/analysis , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Ciprofloxacin/pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Flame Emission Photometry , Chromatography, Thin Layer , Drug Resistance, Multiple , Drug Synergism , Glycosides/analysis , Honey , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
9.
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1363092

ABSTRACT

Fifty-two Staphylococcus aureus recovered from papillary ostium and milk samples collected from cows with subclinical mastitis and milking environments in three small dairy herds located in southeastern Brazil were subjected to PCR identification based on the thermonuclease (nuc) gene. All the strains were submitted to in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility testing, and we investigated the sequence types (STs), agr groups (I-IV), virulence genes encoding for Microbial Surface Components Recognizing Adhesive Matrix Molecules (MSCRAMMs), biofilm-associated proteins, bi-component toxins, pyrogenic toxin superantigens, and enterotoxins. Screening for oxacillin resistance (2-6 µg/ml oxacillin), beta-lactamase activity assays, and PCR for the mecA/mecC genes detected 26 methicillin-susceptible S. aureus(MSSA) and 26 mec-independent oxacillin-nonsusceptible S. aureus (MIONSA). While MSSA isolates were found to be susceptible to all antimicrobial agents tested, or only resistant to penicillin and ampicillin, MIONSA isolates were multidrug-resistant. ST126-agr group II MSSA isolates were prevalent in milk (n=14) and carried a broad set of virulence genes (clfA, clfB, eno, fnbA, fiB, icaA, icaD, lukED, hla, and hlb), as well as the ST126-agr group II MIONSA isolated from milking liners (n=1), which also carried the eta gene. ST1-agr group III MIONSA isolates (n=4) were found in papillary ostium and milk, but most MIONSA isolates (n=21), which were identified in both papillary ostium and milking liners, were agr-negative and assigned to ST126. The agr-negative and agr group III lineages showed a low potential for virulence. Studies on the characterization of bovine-associated MSSA/MIONSA are essential to reduce S. aureus mastitis to prevent economic losses in dairy production and also to monitor the zoonotic potential of these pathogens associated with invasive infections and treatment failures in healthcare.


Cinquenta e dois isolados de Staphylococcus aureus obtidos de amostras colhidas do óstio papilar, do leite de vacas com mastite subclínica e do ambiente de ordenha em três fazendas de rebanhos leiteiros localizadas no sudeste do Brasil foram identificados por PCR para o gene da termonuclease (nuc). Todos os isolados foram testados para sensibilidade a antimicrobianos e foram investigados os sequence types (STs), grupos agr (I-IV) e genes de virulência que codificam Microbial Surface Components Recognizing Adhesive Matrix Molecules (MSCRAMMs), proteínas associadas a biofilme, toxinas bi-componentes, toxinas pirogênicas com propriedades de superantígenos e enterotoxinas. Triagem para detecção de resistência à oxacilina (2-6 µg/ml oxacilina), ensaios de atividade de enzimas beta-lactamases e PCR para os genes mecA/mecC detectaram 26 estirpes de S. aureus sensíveis à meticilina (methicillin-susceptible S. aureus, MSSA) e 26 estirpes de S. aureus mec-negativas não sensíveis à meticilina (mec-independent oxacillin-nonsusceptible S. aureus, MIONSA). Enquanto os isolados MSSA foram sensíveis a todos os agentes antimicrobianos testados, ou apenas resistentes à penicilina e ampicilina, os isolados MIONSA foram multirresistentes. MSSA ST126-agr grupo II foram prevalentes no leite (n= 14) e apresentaram um amplo conjunto de genes de virulência (clfA, clfB, eno, fnbA, fiB, icaA, icaD, lukED, hla e hlb), assim como o isolado MIONSA ST126-agr grupo II proveniente de um insuflador (n= 1), o qual também apresentou o gene eta. MIONSA ST1-agr grupo III (n= 4) foram identificados no óstio papilar e leite, mas a maioria dos isolados MIONSA (n= 21), encontrados em óstios papilares e insufladores, foram agr-negativos e pertenceram ao ST126. As linhagens agr-negativas e agr grupo III apresentaram baixo potencial de virulência. Estudos sobre a caracterização de MSSA/MIONSA associados a bovinos são essenciais para a redução da mastite causada por S. aureus e de perdas econômicas na produção leiteira e, também, para o monitoramento do potencial zoonótico desses patógenos associados a infecções invasivas e falhas de tratamento em ambientes hospitalares.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Cattle , Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Mastitis, Bovine/microbiology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Staphylococcus aureus/genetics , Virulence , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Polymerase Chain Reaction
10.
Arq. odontol ; 57: 236-243, jan.-dez. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1348373

ABSTRACT

Objetivo:Avaliar in vitro a atividade de Staphylococcus aureus e Candida albicans em bases de próteses convencionais à base de polimetilmetacrilato de metila com nanopartículas de prata incorporadas a sua composição. Métodos: Foi realizado um estudo experimental laboratorial com resinas acrílicas autopolimerizáveis comercialmente disponíveis, Vipi Flash/VIPI e JET/Clássico. Foram confeccionados 80 corpos de prova, divididos em 16 grupos (n = 5), referentes ao tipo de resina, tratamento (incorporação e imersão na solução de nanopartículas de prata) e microrganismo inoculado. As nanopartículas foram sintetizadas com ácido polimetacrílico, nitrato de prata e irradiadas com luz ultravioleta de baixa potência (~8W) por 6 horas, e as suas concentrações idealizadas pelo método de microdiluição em placas para determinação da concentração mínima inibitória frente aos microrganismos selecionados. Verificou-se ação bactericida e fungicida com concentração inicial de 25% e após fator de diluição 12,5%. Resultados: Houve dificuldade de incorporação das nanopartículas na resina acrílica, que pode decorrer da alteração da proporção 3:1 recomendada pelo fabricante ou pela redução ou inativação da ação da nanopartícula de prata pela interação com o polimetilmetacrilato. VIPI com inclusão de nanopartícula obteve menor aderência de biofilme de Candida albicans. Conclusão:A nanopartícula de prata mostrou-se eficaz na sua ação de controle de Candida albicans e Staphylococcus aureus no método de imersão, entretanto, a sua ação antimicrobiana foi comprometida após inclusão nas resinas acrílicas.


Aim:To perform an in vitro evaluation of the activity of Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicansin conventional prosthesis bases, based on methyl polymethylmethacrylate with silver nanoparticles incorporated into the composition. Methods: An experimental laboratory study was carried out using commercially available self-curing acrylic resins, Vipi Flash/VIPI and JET/Clássico. Eighty specimens were manufactured and divided into 16 groups (n = 5), referent to the resin brand, treatment (incorporation and immersion in the silver nanoparticle solution), and inoculated microorganism. The nanoparticles were synthesized with polymethacrylic acid and silver nitrate, and were irradiated with a low power (~ 8W) ultraviolet light for 6 hours. Their concentrations were idealized by the method of microplate dilution to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration when compared to the selected microorganisms. Bactericidal and fungicidal activities were identified with an initial concentration of 25% and a subsequent dilution factor of 12.5%. Results:It was difficult to incorporate the AgNPs into the acrylic resin, which may well have resulted from the change from the 3:1 proportion recommended by the manufacturer or by reducing or inactivating the action of the silver nanoparticle by interaction with polymethylmethacrylate. VIPI with the inclusion of nanoparticles obtained a lesser Candida albicans biofilm adherence. Conclusion: Silver nanoparticles were effective in controlling Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus in the immersion method; however, the antimicrobial activity was compromised after inclusion in acrylic resins.


Subject(s)
Silver Nitrate/pharmacology , Dental Prosthesis/microbiology , Polymethyl Methacrylate/pharmacology , Nanotechnology/methods , Nanoparticles/chemistry , Biological Control Agents/pharmacology , Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Candida albicans/drug effects , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology
11.
RFO UPF ; 25(2): 184-190, 20200830. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1357786

ABSTRACT

Este estudo tem por objetivo verificar in vitro o efeito bactericida da laserterapia e da terapia fotodinâmica com laser de baixa potência (660 nm e 808 nm) em bactérias presentes nos canais radiculares. Métodos: foram preparadas 60 placas de Petri com bactérias: 20 placas com Enterococcus faecalis, 20 placas com Staphylococcus aureus e 20 com Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Aleatoriamente, dividiu-se cada grupo em 10 subgrupos (duas placas cada): três subgrupos tratados com laserterapia 660 nm em doses de 150, 225 e 300J/ cm², três subgrupos tratados com terapia fotodinâmica (azul de metileno 0,2% e laser 660 nm) em doses de 150, 225 e 300J/cm²; um subgrupo tratado com laserterapia 808 nm na dose de 225J/cm², um subgrupo com terapia fotodinâmica e laser 808 nm, em dose 225J/cm²; um subgrupo tratado apenas com fotossensibilizante (FS), e um não tratado (controle). Os tratados com laserterapia e terapia fotodinâmica foram irradiados uma única vez e incubados por 24 horas. Os últimos dois não receberam irradiação. As culturas foram analisadas visualmente para verificação do halo de inibição. Nos grupos submetidos somente à laserterapia, para o grupo FS e para o grupo controle, não foram observados halos de inibição, já onde houve aplicação da TFD, tanto com L1 quanto com L2, observaram-se halos de inibição em todas as espécies bacterianas estudadas. Conclui-se que a laserterapia, não produziu efeitos bactericidas e/ou bacteriostáticos, enquanto a terapia fotodinâmica nos dois comprimentos de onda produziu halos significativos de inibição de crescimento nas três bactérias do estudo.(AU)


This study aims to verify in vitro the bactericidal effect of laser therapy and photodynamic therapy with low power laser (660 nm and 808 nm), in bacteria present in the root canals.Methods: 60 Petri dishes were prepared with bacteria: 20 plates with Enterococcus faecalis, 20 plates with Staphylococcus aureus and 20 with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. At random, each group was divided into 10 subgroups (two plates each): three subgroups treated with 660nm laser therapy at doses of 150, 225 and 300J / cm², three subgroups treated with photodynamic therapy, (0.2% methylene blue and laser 660nm) in doses of 150, 225 and 300J / cm²; a subgroup treated with 808nm laser therapy at a dose of 225J / cm², a subgroup with (photodynamic therapy and 808nm laser) at a dose of 225J / cm²; a subgroup treated only with photosensitizer(FS), and an untreated (control). Those treated with laser therapy and photodynamic therapy were irradiated only once and incubated for 24 hours. The last two received no radiation. The cultures were analyzed visually to check the inhibition zone. In the groups submitted to laser therapy only, for the FS group and for the Control group, no inhibition halos were observed, since PDT was applied, with both L1 and L2, inhibition halos were observed in all studied bacterial species. It was concluded that laser therapy did not produce bactericidal and / or bacteriostatic effects, while photodynamic therapy at both wavelengths produced significant growth inhibition halos in the three studied bacteria.(AU)


Subject(s)
Photochemotherapy/methods , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/drug effects , Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Enterococcus faecalis/drug effects , Low-Level Light Therapy/methods , Dental Pulp Cavity/microbiology , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/growth & development , Radiation Dosage , Staphylococcus aureus/growth & development , Time Factors , Enterococcus faecalis/growth & development
12.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(3): 1047-1050, May-June, 2020. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1129749

ABSTRACT

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antibacterial behavior of polypyrrole nanoparticles (PPy-NPs) in water against biofilm producer or not S. aureus isolated from cows and goats with mastitis. One hundred and thirty-eight isolates of S. aureus were initially evaluated for biofilm formation by spectrophotometry in microplates. In addition, the minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of PPy-NPs in water for planktonic S. aureus were determined. From the bovine samples analyzed, 5 (4.46%) S. aureus isolates showed a strong biofilm production, 17 (15.18%) moderate production, 36 (32.14%) with weak production and 54 (48.21%) did not produce biofilms. Strains from goats (26) showed no biofilm production in 18 (69.23%) strains and weak biofilm production in 8 (30.76%) strains. The MIC and MBC of S. aureus to PPy-NPs were found in the same concentration (125搭/mL) in all strains tested, regardless of biofilm production or not. This finding provides a new insight into the interaction between PPy-NPs and S. aureus, and will offer potential benefits for the control of mastitis.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Cattle , Pyrroles/administration & dosage , Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Goats/microbiology , Mastitis/veterinary , Biofilms , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
13.
Rev. chil. nutr ; 47(2): 281-285, abr. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1115499

ABSTRACT

Synthetic preservatives are widely present in processed foods, but most of them have carcinogenic potential, requiring the development of new natural alternatives such as fruit extracts, for microbial control. The objective of the study was to evaluate the chemical characterization, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activity of the sugar apple pulp (Annona squamosa L.). Physicochemical characteristics were evaluated, an extract was prepared, and its antioxidant activity by DPPH method and antimicrobial by disk diffusion. Minimal inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration against strains of Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus were evaluated. The physicochemical analysis revealed that sugar apple pulp had 75.0% moisture, 3.0% ash, 4.0% protein, 0.2% lipids, 3.3% fibers, and 14.5% carbohydrates. The antioxidant activity of the extract by the DPPH method was 20.6%. The pulp extract from the sugar apple had inhibition zone for Staphylococcus aureus, satisfactory inhibitory effect against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella Typhimurium, but did not present a bactericidal effect. Sugar apple pulp presents adequate levels of nutrients and potential for food application due to its microbiological activity and antioxidant properties.


Los conservantes sintéticos están ampliamente presentes en los alimentos procesados, pero la mayoría tienen potencial carcinogénico, lo que requiere el desarrollo de nuevas alternativas naturales para el control microbiano, como los extractos de frutas. El objetivo del estudio fue evaluar la caracterización química, la actividad antioxidante y antimicrobiana de la pulpa de manzana de azúcar (Annona squamosa L.). Se evaluaron las características fisicoquímicas, y se evaluó su actividad antioxidante mediante el método DPPH y antimicrobiano por difusión en disco, concentración inhibitoria mínima y concentración bactericida mínima contra cepas de Salmonella Typhimurium, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes y Staphylococcus aureus. El análisis fisicoquímico reveló que la pulpa de manzana de azúcar tiene 75.0% de humedad, 3.0% de cenizas, 4.0% de proteínas, 0.2% de lípidos, 3.3% de fibras y 14.5% de carbohidratos. La actividad antioxidante del extracto por el método DPPH fue del 20.6%. El extracto de pulpa de la manzana de azúcar tenía zona de inhibición para Staphylococcus aureus, efecto inhibidor satisfactorio contra Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes y Salmonella Typhimurium, pero no presenta efecto bactericida. La pulpa de manzana de azúcar presenta niveles adecuados de nutrientes y potencial para la aplicación de alimentos debido a su actividad microbiológica y propiedades antioxidantes.


Subject(s)
Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Annona/chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Salmonella typhimurium/drug effects , Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Carbohydrates/analysis , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Proteins/analysis , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Lipids/analysis , Listeria monocytogenes/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry , Antioxidants/chemistry
14.
Rev. peru. med. exp. salud publica ; 37(1): 110-114, ene.-mar. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1101795

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la actividad antimicrobiana de un cultivo de Streptomyces sp. 6E3 aislado de minerales frente a diferentes cepas patógenas, producir un extracto y estimar la concen tración mínima inhibitoria (CMI) de las fracciones contra Staphylococcus aureus resistente a meticilina (SARM). La cepa Streptomyces sp. 6E3 mostró actividad antimicrobiana principalmente contra Staphy lococcus aureus (S. aureus). Cinco de las seis fracciones presentaron actividad antimicrobiana y la más efectiva dio una CMI de 0,88 ug/mL frente a S. aureus ATCC 33862, 0,44 ug/mL frente a S. aureus ATCC 43300 y 1,76 ug/mL frente a S. aureus cepa SARM. Streptomyces sp. 6E3 tiene un potencial antimicrobiano frente a cepas de S. aureus resistentes a meticilina y no resistentes, siendo de interés la realización de más estudios sobre sus metabolitos activos.


ABSTRACT The objectives of this study were to determine the antimicrobial activity of a culture of Streptomyces sp. 6E3 isolated from minerals against different pathogenic strains, to produce an extract and to estimate the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the fractions against methicillin-resistant Staphylococ cus aureus (MRSA). Streptomyces sp. 6E3 showed antimicrobial activity primarily against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). Five of the six fractions presented antimicrobial activity and the most effective gave a MIC of 0.88 ug / mL against S. aureus ATCC 33862, 0.44 ug / mL against S. aureus ATCC 43300 and 1.76 ug / mL vs. a S. aureus MRSA strain. Streptomyces sp. 6E3 has an antimicrobial potential against S. aureus strains resistant to methicillin and non-resistant, being of interest carrying out of more studies on its active metabolites.


Subject(s)
Streptomyces , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Minerals , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Streptomyces/isolation & purification , Streptomyces/drug effects , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
15.
Salud pública Méx ; 62(1): 42-49, ene.-feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1366000

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Objective: To establish the current situation of antimicrobial resistance and antibiotic consumption in Mexican hospitals. Materials and methods: Antimicrobial susceptibility data from blood and urine isolates were collected. Defined daily dose (DDD) of antibiotic consumption/100 occupied beds (OBD) was calculated. Results: Study period: 2016 and 2017. Of 4 382 blood isolates, E. coli and K. pneumoniae were most frequently reported, with antimicrobial resistance >30% for most drugs tested, only for carbapenems and amikacin resistance were <20%. A. baumannii had antimicrobial resistance >20% to all drugs. Resistance to oxacillin in S. aureus was 20%. From 12 151 urine isolates, 90% corresponded to E. coli; resistance to ciprofloxacin, cephalosporins and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole was >50%, with good susceptibility to nitrofurantoin, amikacin and carbapenems. Global median antimicrobial consumption was 57.2 DDD/100 OB. Conclusions: This report shows a high antimicrobial resistance level in Gram-negative bacilli and provides an insight into the seriousness of the problem of antibiotic consumption.


Resumen: Objetivo: Establecer la situación actual de la resistencia antimicrobiana y el consumo de antibióticos en hospitales mexicanos. Material y métodos:F Se colectaron datos de susceptibilidad antimicrobiana de aislamientos de sangre y orina. Se calculó la dosis diaria definida (DDD) del consumo de antibióticos/100 estancias. Resultados: Periodo de estudio de 2016 a 2017. De 4 382 aislamientos en sangre, E. coli y K. pneumoniae fueron las más frecuentes, con resistencia >30% a la mayoría de las drogas evaluadas; sólo para carbapenémicos y amikacina la resistencia fue <20%. A. baumannii tuvo resistencia >20% a todos los fármacos. La resistencia a oxacilina en S. aureus fue de 20%. De 12 151 aislamientos en urocultivos, 90% correspondió a E. coli; la resistencia a ciprofloxacina, cefalosporinas y trimetoprima/sulfametoxazol fue >50%, con buena susceptibilidad a nitrofurantoína, amikacina y carbapenémicos. La mediana del consumo global de antibióticos en DDD/100 estancias fue de 57.2. Conclusiones: Este reporte muestra el nivel elevado de resistencia en bacilos Gram-negativos y brinda una perspectiva de la gravedad del problema del consumo de antibióticos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Hospitals/statistics & numerical data , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Confidence Intervals , Retrospective Studies , Enterococcus faecium/drug effects , Enterobacter cloacae/drug effects , Acinetobacter baumannii/drug effects , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Hospitals/classification , Klebsiella pneumoniae/drug effects , Mexico
16.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63: e20190339, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132187

ABSTRACT

Abstract Conventional orthodontic treatment with the use of stainless steel may be detrimental to oral health by promoting demineralizing lesions appearance and increasing adhesion and formation of bacterial biofilm, inducing the development of cavities. An alternative that has been researched to reduce the side effects of orthodontic treatment is the coating of materials with antimicrobial nanoparticles. Nanometric- sized particles increase their surface area and contact with the microbial membrane, consequently intensifying their bacteriostatic and bactericidal effect. In this work, hydrothermal synthesis, a "green" process was used to attach silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) to the surface of two different brands of orthodontic wires. The coated materials were analyzed for their physicochemical properties by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), which showed the distribution of AgNPs along the wires without modifying their properties. In the microbiological test, one of the brands showed a statistically significant difference in microbial adhesion and biofilm formation by Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus mutans. Results lead to the conclusion that antimicrobial orthodontic wires coated with silver nanoparticles through hydrothermal synthesis is a promising material for the improvement of orthodontic treatment.


Subject(s)
Orthodontic Wires , Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Streptococcus mutans/drug effects , Metal Nanoparticles , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Silver , Bacterial Adhesion , Calorimetry , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Dental Plaque
17.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63: e20190286, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132191

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study aimed to develop and evaluate fermented milk by Lactobacillus reuteri LR92 with addition of juçara pulp (FMJ) and reuterin production in situ. The fermentation process was analyzed for 24 hours and the storage of FMJ for 30 days at 4 °C. During the fermentation, there was consumption of 25% (w / v) of lactose and increase of 0.01 to 0.85% (w / v) of lactic acid. The FMJ presented 0.43 ± 0.01 mM of reuterin, inhibiting Staphylococcus aureus strains under in vitro test. For the carbohydrates, the percentages (g.100g-1) found were 7.31 ± 1.07; 9.19 ± 0.82; 1.60 ± 0.50 and 0.08 ± 0.00 for sucrose, lactose, galactose and fructose respectively. The survival of L. reuteri, present in FMJ, was 2.47 log CFU / mL after 6 hours of gastrointestinal simulation. In sensory analysis FMJ received a grade 7 for global acceptance indicating good acceptance of the product.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cultured Milk Products/microbiology , Functional Food/microbiology , Limosilactobacillus reuteri/metabolism , Euterpe/metabolism , Propane/metabolism , Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Lactic Acid , Anti-Infective Agents
18.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63: e20190704, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132229

ABSTRACT

Abstract To the moment, there is no ideal substance for home-based denture disinfection. This study assessed in vitro the antimicrobial effect of the hydroalcoholic extract of Eugenia uniflora and the effect on the physical properties of denture polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA). Candida albicans, Staphylococcus aureus, and Klebsiella oxytoca were isolated from samples of saliva collected from denture wearers. The extracts were produced in three concentrations, according to the Brazilian Pharmacopeia. One hundred eighty-eight disc-shaped specimens of thermopolymerizable PMMA were prepared and randomly allocated to five treatment groups: sterile saline solution (0.85%; control); chlorhexidine digluconate (0.2%); and hydroalcoholic extract of E. uniflora (0.2%, 0.8%, and 1.16%). The specimens were disinfected for 8 hours/day for 30 days. Adherence of microorganisms to the surface, PMMA surface roughness, and color stability were assessed. Inferential statistics were performed with one- and two-way ANOVA/Tukey test, and Kruskal Wallis, Mann-Whitney U, and paired t-tests, at α=0.05. The extract of E. uniflora at 0.2% and 1.16% reduced the microbial load of K. oxytoca, while chlorhexidine digluconate significantly reduced microbial load of all microrganisms. Microbial adherence at day 10 was reduced by all experimental substances (p<0.001). Surface roughness was not affected by the disinfecting substances (p>0.05). Nevertheless, all experimental groups produced unacceptable color change at the end of the disinfection protocol (p<0.001). The non-adherent potential against microorganisms isolated from the oral cavity confirm the potential of use of the hydroalcoholic extract of E. uniflora as a denture disinfectant. Yet, unacceptable color changes may occur, regardless of extract concentration.


Subject(s)
Humans , Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Candida albicans/drug effects , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Dentures , Klebsiella oxytoca/drug effects , Eugenia/chemistry , Mouthwashes/pharmacology , Polymethyl Methacrylate
19.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 39(3): 513-523, jul.-set. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038811

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción. Las infecciones por Staphylococcus aureus y Staphylococcus coagulasa negativa multirresistentes a los antibióticos y asociadas con la atención en salud tienen un gran impacto epidemiológico por su alta morbimortalidad; además, se han relacionado con la formación de biopelículas, lo cual también se asocia con la resistencia a los antimicrobianos. Objetivo. Determinar la resistencia a la meticilina y cuantificar la producción de biopelículas para establecer su posible relación con los aislamientos clínicos de S. aureus y Staphylococcus coagulasa negativa. Materiales y métodos. Se estudiaron 11 cepas de S. aureus y 12 de Staphylococcus coagulasa negativa. La resistencia a la meticilina se determinó con discos de cefoxitina tomando como valores de referencia los estándares del Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) de 2018. La producción de biopelícula se cuantificó con cristal violeta. Los genes mecA e icaADBC se identificaron mediante reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR), y se hizo un análisis bivariado con la prueba de ji al cuadrado y el coeficiente V de Cramér, utilizando el programa SPSS™, versión 20.0. Resultados. Nueve cepas de S. aureus fueron resistentes a la meticilina (SARM) y dos fueron sensibles. Ocho cepas de Staphylococcus coagulasa negativa fueron resistentes y cuatro fueron sensibles. El genotipo mecA se encontró en ocho de las nueve cepas de S. aureus y en seis de las ocho de Staphylococcus coagulasa negativa resistentes a meticilina. Todas las cepas formaron biopelícula. Diez cepas de S. aureus y 11 de Staphylococcus coagulasa negativa presentaron el genotipo icaADCB. No se encontró asociación entre la resistencia a meticilina y la formación de biopelícula. Conclusiones. La cefoxitina es suficiente para determinar el fenotipo resistente a meticilina y se asoció con el genotipo mecA. Las cepas resistentes a la meticilina y poseedoras del gen mecA pueden presentar un mecanismo de resistencia alterno. Los dos grupos de cepas formadoras de biopelícula se relacionaron con la presencia del operón icaADCB. La formación de biopelícula y la resistencia a la meticilina se expresaron como características independientes en los dos grupos de cepas.


Abstract Introduction: Infections associated with health care caused by S. aureus and coagulase- negative Staphylococci multi-resistant to antibiotics cause a high epidemiological impact due to their high morbidity and mortality. Biofilm formation, which has been associated with antimicrobial resistance, can also occur. Objectives: To determine methicillin resistance and to quantify the biofilm production to establish if there is a relationship in clinical isolates of S. aureus and coagulase-negative Staphylococci. Material and methods: A total of 11 strains of S. aureus and 12 of coagulase-negative Staphylococci were studied. Methicillin resistance was determined with cefoxitin discs and the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CSLI), 2018 reference values. Biofilm production was quantified by the crystal violet method. The mecA and icaADBC genes were identified by PCR. A bivariate analysis was performed with chi-square (c2) and Cramér's V statistical tests, using SPSS™, version 20.0 software. Results: Nine S. aureus strains were methicillin-resistant and two were sensitive. Eight coagulase-negative Staphylococci strains were resistant and four were sensitive. The mecA genotype was found in eight of the nine S. aureus resistant strains and six of eight resistant coagulase-negative Staphylococci. All strains formed biofilms. Ten strains of S. aureus and 11 of coagulase-negative Staphylococci presented the icaADCB genotype. No association was found between methicillin-resistance and biofilm formation. Conclusions: Cefoxitin is enough to define the resistance phenotype and is associated with the mecA genotype. All strains formed biofilms and were related to the presence of the icaADCB operon. Biofilm formation and methicillin resistance were independent features in both groups of strains.


Subject(s)
Humans , Staphylococcus/drug effects , Staphylococcus/physiology , Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Staphylococcus aureus/physiology , Methicillin Resistance , Biofilms/growth & development , Oxacillin/pharmacology , Staphylococcal Infections/microbiology , Staphylococcus/enzymology , Staphylococcus/genetics , Staphylococcus aureus/genetics , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , DNA, Bacterial/isolation & purification , Microbial Sensitivity Tests/methods , Cefoxitin/pharmacology , Methicillin Resistance/genetics , Coagulase , Penicillin-Binding Proteins/genetics , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/genetics , Genes, Bacterial , Mexico , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
20.
Hig. aliment ; 33(288/289): 2292-2296, abr.-maio 2019. tab, ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1482205

ABSTRACT

O ozônio possui efeito bactericida, fungicida e viricida e tem sido usado para o trat amento de diversas enfermidades. O objetivo do trabalho, foi avaliar a ação bactericida do ozônio, in vitro, contra Staphylococcus aureus isolados de vacas leiteiras. O experimento foi realizado com vacas, produtoras de leite, uma fazenda do Sul da Bahia. Foram avaliadas vacas que foram positivas para mastite, depois de ter sido feito o teste California Mastitis Test. No laboratório realizou-se os testes de coloração de gram, catalase e coagulase, acetoína, maltose e trealose e foi realizada a diluição seriada das amostras em solução salina. Foi realizada também a ozonização das colônias na concentração de 40 microgramas por mililitro por 5 minutos. Nas análises após a ozonização, observou-se uma significativa diminuição do crescimento de colônias.


Subject(s)
Cattle , Anti-Bacterial Agents/analysis , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Milk , Mastitis, Bovine/drug therapy , Ozone/therapeutic use , Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Bacteriological Techniques/analysis , In Vitro Techniques/veterinary
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