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Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1363092


Fifty-two Staphylococcus aureus recovered from papillary ostium and milk samples collected from cows with subclinical mastitis and milking environments in three small dairy herds located in southeastern Brazil were subjected to PCR identification based on the thermonuclease (nuc) gene. All the strains were submitted to in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility testing, and we investigated the sequence types (STs), agr groups (I-IV), virulence genes encoding for Microbial Surface Components Recognizing Adhesive Matrix Molecules (MSCRAMMs), biofilm-associated proteins, bi-component toxins, pyrogenic toxin superantigens, and enterotoxins. Screening for oxacillin resistance (2-6 µg/ml oxacillin), beta-lactamase activity assays, and PCR for the mecA/mecC genes detected 26 methicillin-susceptible S. aureus(MSSA) and 26 mec-independent oxacillin-nonsusceptible S. aureus (MIONSA). While MSSA isolates were found to be susceptible to all antimicrobial agents tested, or only resistant to penicillin and ampicillin, MIONSA isolates were multidrug-resistant. ST126-agr group II MSSA isolates were prevalent in milk (n=14) and carried a broad set of virulence genes (clfA, clfB, eno, fnbA, fiB, icaA, icaD, lukED, hla, and hlb), as well as the ST126-agr group II MIONSA isolated from milking liners (n=1), which also carried the eta gene. ST1-agr group III MIONSA isolates (n=4) were found in papillary ostium and milk, but most MIONSA isolates (n=21), which were identified in both papillary ostium and milking liners, were agr-negative and assigned to ST126. The agr-negative and agr group III lineages showed a low potential for virulence. Studies on the characterization of bovine-associated MSSA/MIONSA are essential to reduce S. aureus mastitis to prevent economic losses in dairy production and also to monitor the zoonotic potential of these pathogens associated with invasive infections and treatment failures in healthcare.

Cinquenta e dois isolados de Staphylococcus aureus obtidos de amostras colhidas do óstio papilar, do leite de vacas com mastite subclínica e do ambiente de ordenha em três fazendas de rebanhos leiteiros localizadas no sudeste do Brasil foram identificados por PCR para o gene da termonuclease (nuc). Todos os isolados foram testados para sensibilidade a antimicrobianos e foram investigados os sequence types (STs), grupos agr (I-IV) e genes de virulência que codificam Microbial Surface Components Recognizing Adhesive Matrix Molecules (MSCRAMMs), proteínas associadas a biofilme, toxinas bi-componentes, toxinas pirogênicas com propriedades de superantígenos e enterotoxinas. Triagem para detecção de resistência à oxacilina (2-6 µg/ml oxacilina), ensaios de atividade de enzimas beta-lactamases e PCR para os genes mecA/mecC detectaram 26 estirpes de S. aureus sensíveis à meticilina (methicillin-susceptible S. aureus, MSSA) e 26 estirpes de S. aureus mec-negativas não sensíveis à meticilina (mec-independent oxacillin-nonsusceptible S. aureus, MIONSA). Enquanto os isolados MSSA foram sensíveis a todos os agentes antimicrobianos testados, ou apenas resistentes à penicilina e ampicilina, os isolados MIONSA foram multirresistentes. MSSA ST126-agr grupo II foram prevalentes no leite (n= 14) e apresentaram um amplo conjunto de genes de virulência (clfA, clfB, eno, fnbA, fiB, icaA, icaD, lukED, hla e hlb), assim como o isolado MIONSA ST126-agr grupo II proveniente de um insuflador (n= 1), o qual também apresentou o gene eta. MIONSA ST1-agr grupo III (n= 4) foram identificados no óstio papilar e leite, mas a maioria dos isolados MIONSA (n= 21), encontrados em óstios papilares e insufladores, foram agr-negativos e pertenceram ao ST126. As linhagens agr-negativas e agr grupo III apresentaram baixo potencial de virulência. Estudos sobre a caracterização de MSSA/MIONSA associados a bovinos são essenciais para a redução da mastite causada por S. aureus e de perdas econômicas na produção leiteira e, também, para o monitoramento do potencial zoonótico desses patógenos associados a infecções invasivas e falhas de tratamento em ambientes hospitalares.

Animals , Female , Cattle , Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Mastitis, Bovine/microbiology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Staphylococcus aureus/genetics , Virulence , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Polymerase Chain Reaction
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 23(1): 8-14, Jan.-Feb. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001504


ABSTRACT Introduction: Bacterial tonsillitis is an upper respiratory tract infection that occurs primarily in children and adolescents. Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most frequent pathogens in the etiology of tonsillitis and its relevance is due to its antimicrobial resistance and persistence in the internal tissues of the tonsils. Tonsillectomy is indicated in cases of recurrent tonsillitis after several failures of antibiotic therapy. Material and methods: In this study we evaluated 123 surgically removed tonsils from patients who had history of recurrent tonsillitis. The tonsils were submitted to microbiological analysis for detection of S. aureus. The isolates were identified by PCR for femA gene. Antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolates was determined by disk diffusion tests. All isolates were submitted to PCR to detect mecA and Panton-Valentine leucocidin (PVL) genes. The genetic similarity among all isolates was determined by pulsed field gel electrophoresis. Results: Sixty-one S. aureus isolates were obtained from 50 patients (40.7%) with mean age of 11.7 years. The isolates showed high level resistance to penicillin (83.6%), 9.8% had inducible MLSb phenotype, and 18.0% were considered multidrug resistant (MDR). mecA gene was detected in two isolates and the gene coding for PVL was identified in one isolate. The genetic similarity analysis showed high diversity among the isolates. More than one genetically different isolate was identified from the same patient, and identical isolates were obtained from different patients. Conclusions: MDR isolates colonizing tonsils even without infection, demonstrate persistence of the bacterium and possibility of antimicrobial resistance dissemination and recurrence of infection. A specific clone in patients colonized by S. aureus was not demonstrated.

Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Staphylococcal Infections/microbiology , Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Staphylococcus aureus/genetics , Tonsillitis/microbiology , Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Tonsillectomy/methods , Tonsillitis/surgery , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Cross-Sectional Studies , Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial/drug effects , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20190095, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013299


Abstract INTRODUCTION Staphylococcus aureus is a major nosocomial pathogen that is associated with high virulence and the rapid development of drug resistance. METHODS We analyzed and compared the antimicrobial resistance, virulence profiles, and molecular epidemiology of 67 S. aureus strains, including 36 methicillin-sensitive (MSSA) and 31 methicillin-resistant (MRSA) strains recovered from a public hospital located in south-eastern Brazil. RESULTS The clones circulating in this hospital presented a great diversity, and the majority of the strains were related to clones responsible for causing worldwide epidemics: these included USA100 (New York/Japan clone), USA300, and USA600. The 31 MRSA (22 SCCmecII and 9 SCCmecIV) and 36 MSSA strains exhibited low resistance against gentamicin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. No MRSA strain showed resistance to tetracycline. Virulence gene carriage was more diverse and abundant in MSSA than in MRSA. Of the evaluated adhesion-related genes, ebpS was the most prevalent in both MSSA and MRSA strains. The genes bbp and cna showed a strong association with MSSA strains. CONCLUSIONS Our findings reinforce the idea that MSSA and MRSA strains should be carefully monitored, owing to their high pathogenic potential.

Humans , Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Staphylococcus aureus/genetics , Methicillin Resistance , Virulence Factors/genetics , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/genetics , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Staphylococcal Infections/epidemiology , Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Staphylococcus aureus/classification , Virulence/genetics , Brazil/epidemiology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Molecular Epidemiology , Tertiary Care Centers , Hospitals, Public
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 22(6): 487-494, Nov.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-984020


ABSTRACT Background: The rate of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) among the total of S. aureus isolates decreased to 35.3% in 2017 in China. It is unclear whether the molecular characteristics of S. aureus isolates have changed as the rate decreased. Objective: This study aimed to investigate the molecular characteristics and virulence genes profile of S. aureus isolates causing bloodstream infection and analyze the correlation between the prevalence rates of the common sequence types and MRSA. Methods: A total of 112 S. aureus strains from eight hospitals of four cities, including 32 MRSA isolates, were identified and evaluated through multilocus sequence typing, spa typing, and determination of virulence genes. Results: Twenty-five STs were identified, of which ST5 (21.4%) was the most prevalent, whereas the prevalence of ST239 correlated with the rate of MRSA among all S. aureus isolates. Forty-six spa types were identified, of which t2460 (14.3%) was the most common. clfa, hla, seb, fnbA and hlb were the prevailing virulence genes. 81.3% MRSA and 45.0% methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) isolates harbored six or more tested virulence genes. ST5-t2460, seldom noted in bloodborne S. aureus isolates in China, was the most common clone. The prevalence of harboring six or more virulence genes in ST5-t2460 and ST188-t189 were 93.8% and 8.3%, respectively. Conclusion: ST5-t2460 was the most common clone in S. aureus causing bloodstream infection followed by ST188-t189, which had never been noted in China before. Moreover, ST5-t2460 harbored more virulence genes than ST188-t189, and the prevalence of ST239 clone decreased with the proportion of MRSA among all S. aureus isolates.

Humans , Staphylococcus aureus/genetics , Staphylococcus aureus/pathogenicity , Virulence/genetics , Bacteremia/virology , Phenotype , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Virulence Factors/genetics , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/genetics , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/pathogenicity , Molecular Typing , Multilocus Sequence Typing , Genotype
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 38(11): 2029-2036, Nov. 2018. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-976405


The present study determined the frequency of Staphylococcus aureus virulence genes in 2,253 milk samples of cows (n=1000) and goats (n=1253) raised in three different geographical regions of the state Pernambuco, Brazil. The presence of genes of virulence factors associated to adhesion to host cells (fnbA, fnbB, clfA and clfB), toxinosis (sea, seb, sec, sed, seg, seh, sei, tsst, hla and hlb), and capsular polysaccharide (cap5 and cap8) was evaluated by PCR. A total of 123 and 27 S. aureus strains were isolated from cows' and goats' milk, respectively. The sec and tsst genes were detected exclusively in goats' isolates, while the seh gene was only identified in cows' isolates. The number of toxin genes per strain showed that goats' isolates are likely more toxic than bovines' isolates. The cap5 genotype predominated in both host species, especially in strains collected from cows raised in the Agreste region. The cap8 genotype is likely more virulent due to the number of virulence genes per strain. The results of the present study demonstrate that S. aureus may pose a potential threat to human health in Brazil, and, therefore, these results should support actions related to mastitis control programs.(AU)

O presente estudo determinou a frequência de genes de virulência de Staphylococcus aureus em 2253 amostras de leite, sendo de vacas n=1000 e de cabras n=1253, procedentes das três regiões geográficas do estado de Pernambuco, Brasil. A presença de genes de fatores de virulência associados à adesão às células hospedeiras (fnbA, fnbB, clfA e clfB), toxinosis (sea, seb, sec, sed, seg, seh, sei, tsst, hla e hlb) e polissacarídeo capsular (cap5 e cap8) foram avaliadas por PCR. Um total de 123 e 27 cepas de S. aureus foram isoladas do leite de vacas e cabras, respectivamente. Os genes sec e tsst foram detectados exclusivamente em isolados de cabras, enquanto o gene seh foi identificado apenas em isolados de vaca. O número de genes de toxina por cepa mostrou que os isolados de cabras são potencialmente mais tóxicos do que os isolados obtidos de bovinos. O genótipo cap5 predominou em ambas as espécies hospedeiras, especialmente em cepas coletadas de vacas criadas na região Agreste. O genótipo cap8 é potencialmente mais virulento devido ao número de genes de virulência por isolado. Os resultados do presente estudo demonstram que S. aureus pode representar uma ameaça potencial para a saúde humana no Brasil e, portanto, estes resultados devem subsidiar ações relacionadas aos programas de controle de mastite.(AU)

Animals , Female , Cattle , Staphylococcus aureus/genetics , Cattle/microbiology , Goats/microbiology , Mastitis/microbiology , Mastitis/epidemiology , Mastitis, Bovine/microbiology , Mastitis, Bovine/epidemiology , Virulence , Dairying , Milk/microbiology
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 51(4): 528-532, July-Aug. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041475


Abstract INTRODUCTION Molecular techniques for the detection of pathogens have been shown to be effective diagnostic tools with high sensitivity and short turnaround times. METHODS This study compared five Staphylococcus aureus DNA extraction methods for detection by the polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: The concentration and purity of the extracted DNA showed that the methods did not yield DNA of significant quality. However, most protocols yielded 100% positivity, even with low DNA concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: Although one protocol seemed more efficient than the others, PCR was sensitive enough to allow for detection of S. aureus with all the protocols.

Staphylococcus aureus/genetics , DNA, Bacterial/isolation & purification , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Bacteriological Techniques/methods , DNA, Bacterial/genetics , Sensitivity and Specificity
J. appl. oral sci ; 26: e20170141, 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-893685


Abstract Objective Staphylococcus aureus strains can be disseminated during dental treatments and occasionally lead to the contamination and infection of patients and dentists, which is an important public health problem. The dynamics of the airborne propagation and the genetic diversity of S. aureus isolated in an academic dental clinic environment were investigated using isoenzyme typing. Material and Methods The isoenzymes of 44 previously reported isolates were obtained from fresh cultures and extracted using glass beads. Nine isoenzymes were investigated using multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MLEE). The genetic diversity and relationship among the strains (electrophoretic type - ET) were determined using statistics previously described by Nei25 (1972) and the SAHN grouping method (UPGMA algorithm). Results Clonal pattern analyses indicated a high level of genetic polymorphism occurring among the 33 ETs, which were grouped into five taxa. Each taxon presented one or more clusters that were moderately related and that contained two or more identical/highly related isolates, revealing seasonal airborne propagation in these dental clinic environments. Conclusions These data suggest the occurrence of active microevolutionary processes in S. aureus as well as the possibility of environmental propagation during a 14-month time span. Such findings are important to show that multiuser academic dental clinics can retain certain strains that are spreadable to different niches.

Seasons , Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Staphylococcus aureus/genetics , Dental Clinics/statistics & numerical data , Polymorphism, Genetic , Reference Values , Staphylococcal Infections/microbiology , Staphylococcus aureus/enzymology , Time Factors , Genetic Variation , Cluster Analysis , Cross Infection/microbiology , Equipment Contamination , Bacterial Typing Techniques/methods , Multilocus Sequence Typing/methods , Isoenzymes/isolation & purification
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 69(4): 843-850, jul.-ago. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-876602


This study aims to detect the main virulence and antimicrobial resistance genes in Stapylococcus aureus from bovine mastitic milk as well as classifying them according to agr typing. A total of 55 strains from six dairy unities in the state of Rio de Janeiro were selected, of these 27.3% presented fbnA and 78,2% for fbnB genes, respectively. None of the strains tested were positive for cap5 gene, 3.6% were positive for cap8 gene. Additionally, 94.5% of strains had hlA gene and 89.1% had hlB gene while 67.3% of the strains had icaA gene and 87.3% had icaD gene. From these results it was possible to establish 12 different virulence profiles. Prevalence of agrII type was detected in 81.8% of the isolates. Concerning antimicrobial resistance evaluation, the studied strains were susceptible to all antibiotics tested except penicillin, 83.6% being resistant strains. None of the strains had mecA gene, however, 40% of the strains had blaZ gene. Associating virulence and resistance data made it possible to obtain 23 different profiles. This great diversity of strains shows wide array of bacterial strategies and the challenge of mastitis prevention in cattle. Despite antimicrobial susceptibility, these strains presented certain genes that allow its persistence in the herd.(AU)

O presente estudo teve como objetivo detectar os principais genes de virulência e resistência antimicrobiana em Staphylococcus aureus oriundos de leite bovino mastítico e classificá-los de acordo com a tipagem do gene agr. Foram selecionados 55 isolados de seis unidades produtores no estado do Rio de Janeiro. Destas, o gene fbnA foi encontrado em 27,3% das cepas e 78,2% possuíam o gene fbnB. Em nenhuma cepa foi encontrado o gene cap5 e 3,6% possuíam o gene cap8. O gene hlA foi encontrado em 94,5% das cepas e 89,1% possuíam o gene hlB. O gene icaA foi encontrado em 67,3% das cepas e 87,3% possuíam o gene icaD. Com base nesses resultados, foi possível estabelecer 12 diferentes perfis de virulência. Prevalência do agr tipo II foi detectada em 81,8% dos isolados. Considerando-se a avaliação da resistência antimicrobiana, as cepas estudadas foram suscetíveis a todos os antibióticos exceto penicilina, sendo detectado um percentual de 83,6% de cepas resistentes. Nenhuma das cepas apresentou o gene mecA, contudo 40% das cepas apresentaram o gene blaZ. Vinte e três perfis diferentes foram estabelecidos por associação de dados de virulência e resistência. Essa grande diversidade de cepas mostra a ampla gama de estratégias bacterianas e o desafio da prevenção à mastite no gado bovino, considerando-se que, a despeito da suscetibilidade antimicrobiana, essas cepas apresentam genes que permitem sua persistência no rebanho.(AU)

Drug Resistance, Microbial , Staphylococcus aureus/genetics , Staphylococcus aureus/virology , Virulence , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Cattle , Mastitis, Bovine , Milk
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 112(7): 499-503, July 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040573


ABSTRACT Staphylococcus aureus pandemic clone USA300 has, in addition to its constitutive arginine catabolism (arc) gene cluster, an arginine catabolism mobile element (ACME) carrying another such cluster, which gives this clone advantages in colonisation and infection. Gene arcR, which encodes an oxygen-sensitive transcriptional regulator, is inside ACME and downstream of the constitutive arc gene cluster, and this situation may have an impact on its activation. Different relative expression behaviours are proven here for arcRACME and the arcACME operon compared to the constitutive ones. We also show that the artificially expressed recombinant ArcRACME protein binds to the promoter region of the arcACME operon; this mechanism can be related to a positive feedback model, which may be responsible for increased anaerobic survival of the USA300 clone during infection-related processes.

Humans , Operon/genetics , Arginine/genetics , Staphylococcus aureus/genetics , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , DNA-Binding Proteins/genetics , Arginine/metabolism , Staphylococcus aureus/metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial/genetics , Interspersed Repetitive Sequences/genetics , Genes, Bacterial/genetics
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 37(7): 691-696, jul. 2017. tab, ilus, mapas
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-895474


A capacidade de produção de toxinas pelo Staphylococcus aureus no leite e produtos derivados está relacionado com surtos de intoxicação alimentar. Objetivou-se nesta pesquisa, estudar a ocorrência de genes que codificam para enterotoxinas estafilocócicas (sea, seb, sed, seg, seh e sei) e toxinas α e ß hemolítica (hla e hlb) em S. aureus isolados de 53 amostras de leite de tanques expansão comunitários no Estado de Alagoas, Brasil. Foram identificados 27 isolados (50,94%) como S. aureus pela amplificação do gene nuc. 13/27 isolados (48,1%) foram positivos para pelo menos um gene das enterotoxinas estudadas, sendo as frequências dos genes sea 33,3%, seh 18,5%, sei 11,1% e sed 7,4%; não entanto não foram identificados os genes seb e seg nestas bactérias. Para as toxinas hemolíticas, 51,9% dos isolados portavam ambos genes (hla e hlb), sendo a frequência para o gene hla de 81,5% e para o gene hlb de 51,9%. A frequência de genes das toxinas avaliadas é alta o que constitui um risco potencial para a saúde pública em especial, as enterotoxinas por serem termoestáveis e estarem asssociados com surtos de intoxicação alimentar.(AU)

The capacity of toxin production by Staphylococcus aureus in milk and dairy products is associated with food poisoning outbreaks. The objective of this research was to study the frequency of genes encoding staphylococcal enterotoxin (sea, seb, sed, seg, seh and sei) and α and ß hemolytic toxins (hla and hlb) in S. aureus isolates from 53 milk samples from community tanks in the State of Alagoas, Brazil. Twenty-seven isolates (50.94%) were identified as S. aureus by nuc gene amplification; 13/27 isolates (48.1%) were positive for at least one gene of the studied enterotoxins and the frequency of genes sea was 33.3%, seh 18.5%, sei 11.1% and sed 7.4%; the seb and sec genes have not been identified in the bacteria. For the hemolytic toxins, 51.9% of isolates harbored both genes (hla and hlb), the frequency of hla gene was 81.5% and 51.9% for the hlb gene. The evaluated toxin-encoding gene frequency is high and constitutes a potential risk for public health, especially staphylococcal enterotoxin genes; because they are heat-stable enterotoxins and have been associated with food poisoning.(AU)

Staphylococcus aureus/genetics , Superantigens/genetics , Milk/microbiology , Enterotoxins , Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 115(3): 274-277, jun. 2017.
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1038370


Antecedentes/Objetivo. Describir el perfil epidemiológico de la portación nasal de cepas de Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), su resistencia a antibióticos y la presencia de los genes de leucocidina de Panton-Valentine (LPV) y mecA en niños en edad escolar que viven en zonas de gran altitud del sudoeste de China. Métodos. En el estudio transversal, se analizaron hisopados nasales de estudiantes a fin de detectar S. aureus. Se realizó la prueba de la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (RCP) para identificar los genes de LPV y mecA. Resultados. Del total de 314 niños, se detectó S. aureus en el 5,10% (16/314). La resistencia de las cepas aisladas a la penicilina, eritromicina, clindamicina, rifampicina y cefoxitina fue del 100%, 81,3%, 81,3%, 0,0% y 6,3%, respectivamente. Ninguna de las cepas mostró resistencia a la vancomicina. Se detectó la expresión del gen mecA en 3 cepas aisladas, y 10 cepas aisladas dieron resultado positivo para el gen de LPV. Conclusión. Se detectó S. Aureus en el 5,10% (16/314) de la población del estudio; el 0,96% (3 /314) presentó S. Aureus resistente a la meticilina (SARM). Además, se detectó la expresión de los genes de LPV y mecA en 10 y 3 cepas aisladas, respectivamente.

Background/Aim. To describe the epidemiological profile of nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) strains, its antibiotic resistance and mecA and Panton Valentine leukocidin (PVL) genes presence, in school children residing in high altitude areas of Southwestern China. Methods. The cross sectional study screened nasal swabs taken from students for S. aureus. PCR was performed to identify mecA and PVL genes. Results. Of the total 314 children 5.10% (16/314) was detected S. aureus. The resistance of isolated strains to penicillin, erythromycin, clindamycin, rifampicin and cefoxitin was 100%, 81.3%, 81.3%, 0.0%, and 6.3% respectively. No strains demonstrated resistance to vancomycin; expression of mecA gene was detected in 3 isolates and 10 isolates were PVL-positive. Conclusion. S. aureus was detected in 5.10% (16/314) of the study population; 0.96% (3/314) had methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA); expression of the mecA and PVL genes were detected in 3 and 10 isolates respectively.

Humans , Male , Female , Child , Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Carrier State/microbiology , Nose/microbiology , Altitude , Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Staphylococcus aureus/genetics , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Bacterial Toxins/genetics , China , Cross-Sectional Studies , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Penicillin-Binding Proteins/genetics , Exotoxins/genetics , Leukocidins/genetics
Braz. J. Vet. Res. Anim. Sci. (Online) ; 54(2): 117-128, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-875078


Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most common microorganisms responsible for high morbidity and mortality in humans and animals. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus are responsible for several outbreaks worldwide and therapeutic arsenal has become scarce. The present investigation verified the epidemiological profile of S. aureus strains isolated from the veterinary hospital staff, from dairy cattle workers and also from milk samples of dairy cattle presenting mastitis. Samples were characterized phenotypically by antibiogram, catalase, and coagulase tests, and also by Voges-Proskauer test. The isolated strains were characterized genotypically by specific Polymerase Chain Reaction and Amplified Ribosomal DNA Restriction Analysis (ARDRA). From the 218 isolated strains, 27 were identified as S. aureus (12%), four of them were resistant to oxacillin and two of them were classified as MRSA (Methicillin-resistant S. aureus). The prevalence of isolated strains among animal personnel care was low (2%) but all MRSA isolates were found among the clinical staff. Results of ARDRA pointed out that S. aureus strains isolated from different animal care personnel were grouped in the same cluster when HindIII and HinfII restriction enzymes were used. When ARDRA was performed with HaeIII enzyme, the formation of two clusters was observed, but the isolated strains were not correlated. The prevalence of S. aureus strains isolated was higher in clinical staff and the biochemical and molecular assays of them presented 100% of correlation.(AU)

Staphylococcus aureus está entre os microrganismos que apresentam as maiores taxas de morbidade e mortalidade em seres humanos e animais. Linhagens de S. aureus resistentes a meticilina podem causar surtos de infecção em todo o mundo, o que contribui para a escassez de arsenal terapêutico. Este trabalho analisou o perfil epidemiológico de estirpes de S. aureus isoladas de pessoas que trabalham em contato com animais em um hospital veterinário com gado leiteiro e também em amostras de leite de vacas acometidas por mastite. As estirpes de S. aureus isoladas foram caracterizadas fenotipicamente por meio de antibiograma, testes de catalase e coagulase, e pelo teste de Voges-Proskauer. As amostras também foram caracterizadas genotipicamente pela técnica de Análise de Restrição de DNA Ribossômico Amplificado (ARDRA-PCR). Das 218 estirpes isoladas, 27 foram identificadas como S. aureus (12%). Entre essas, quatro estirpes foram resistentes à oxacilina e duas classificadas como SARM (S. aureus resistente à meticilina). A ocorrência de estirpes de S.aureus isoladas entre o pessoal que trabalha em contato com os animais foi baixa (2%), mas estirpes identificadas como SARM foram encontradas na equipe clínica. As análises de ARDRA realizadas com as enzimas de restrição HindIII e HinfII demonstraram que S. aureus isolados de diferentes indivíduos que trabalhavam com animais foram agrupados no mesmo cluster. Quando a ARDRA foi realizada com HaeIII foi observada formação de dois grupos, mas os isolados não se correlacionaram. Conclusão: a ocorrência de estirpes de S. aureus isoladas foi maior na equipe clínica, apresentando também correlação de 100% nos ensaios bioquímicos e moleculares.(AU)

Animals , Cattle , Animal Technicians , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Milk/microbiology , Staphylococcus aureus/genetics , Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Mastitis, Bovine , Microbial Sensitivity Tests/veterinary , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 20(6): 525-533, Nov.-Dec. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-828162


ABSTRACT The spread of pandemic Staphylococcus aureus clones, mainly methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), must be kept under surveillance to assemble an accurate, local epidemiological analysis. In Ecuador, the prevalence of the USA300 Latin American variant clone (USA300-LV) is well known; however, there is little information about other circulating clones. The aim of this work was to identify the sequence types (ST) using a Multiple-Locus Variable number tandem repeat Analysis 14-locus genotyping approach. We analyzed 132 S. aureus strains that were recovered from 2005 to 2013 and isolated in several clinical settings in Quito, Ecuador. MRSA isolates composed 46.97% (62/132) of the study population. Within MRSA, 37 isolates were related to the USA300-LV clone (ST8-MRSA-IV, Panton-Valentine Leukocidin [PVL] +) and 10 were related to the Brazilian clone (ST239-MRSA-III, PVL−). Additionally, two isolates (ST5-MRSA-II, PVL−) were related to the New York/Japan clone. One isolate was related to the Pediatric clone (ST5-MRSA-IV, PVL−), one isolate (ST45-MRSA-II, PVL−) was related to the USA600 clone, and one (ST22-MRSA-IV, PVL−) was related to the epidemic UK-EMRSA-15 clone. Moreover, the most prevalent MSSA sequence types were ST8 (11 isolates), ST45 (8 isolates), ST30 (8 isolates), ST5 (7 isolates) and ST22 (6 isolates). Additionally, we found one isolate that was related to the livestock associated S. aureus clone ST398. We conclude that in addition to the high prevalence of clone LV-ST8-MRSA-IV, other epidemic clones are circulating in Quito, such as the Brazilian, Pediatric and New York/Japan clones. The USA600 and UK-EMRSA-15 clones, which were not previously described in Ecuador, were also found. Moreover, we found evidence of the presence of the livestock associated clone ST398 in a hospital environment.

Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Staphylococcal Infections/microbiology , Staphylococcus aureus/genetics , Bacterial Toxins/genetics , Exotoxins/genetics , Leukocidins/genetics , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Staphylococcus aureus/classification , DNA, Bacterial , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Prevalence , Virulence Factors/genetics , Ecuador , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/classification , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/genetics , Multilocus Sequence Typing , Genotype
Rev. chil. infectol ; 33(6): 609-618, dic. 2016. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-844414


Introduction: The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus in the community has increased, being the pediatric population the most affected. This fact highlights the need for epidemiological surveillance. Aim: To characterize clinical, phenotypic and genotypic isolates of S. aureus children’s samples with community-acquired infections, collected in hospitals of Asuncion and the Central Department, between November 2009 and December 2010. Materials and Methods: Descriptive and transverse analysis with analytical component. Clinical data collected by medical records, antibiotic susceptibility according to CLSI criteria and detection of mecA (encoding methicillin resistance) and luk-PV genes (encoding Panton Valentine leucocidin) by PCR using specific oligonucleotides. Results: 123 isolates of S. aureus, 76% came from skin and soft tissue infections and 20% from sepsis. 18.7% (n = 23) were resistant to methicillin (MRSA). The presence of the mecA gene, a variant there and the PVL was detected in 12.2 and 48 isolates respectively. 43% of MRSA (n = 10) was carrying luk-PV. The clinical and demographic differences between patients infected with MRSA or MSSA were not statistically significant. Discussion: This study constitutes the first phenotypic and genotypic characterization of S. aureus associated with pediatric patients in Paraguay.

Introducción: La prevalencia de infecciones por Staphylococcus aureus en la comunidad ha aumentado, siendo la población pediátrica la más afectada; poniendo de relieve la necesidad de una vigilancia epidemiológica. Objetivo: Caracterizar clínica, fenotípica y genotípicamente aislados de S. aureus de muestras de niños con infecciones adquiridas en la comunidad, recolectadas en hospitales de Asunción y el Departamento Central, entre noviembre de 2009 y diciembre de 2010. Materiales y Métodos: Estudio descriptivo de corte trasverso. Datos clínicos fueron recabados de fichas, la susceptibilidad a antimicrobianos se hizo según criterio del CLSI y la detección de genes mecA y luk-PV se realizó por RPC empleando oligonucleótidos específicos. Resultados: De 123 aislados de S. aureus, 76% provenían de infecciones de piel y tejidos blandos y 20% de pacientes con bacteriemias. 18,7% (n: 23) fueron resistentes a meticilina (SARM). Se detectó la presencia de genes mecA, una variante del mismo y luk-PV en 9,8%, 1,6 y 39% de los aislados, respectivamente. El 43% de los SARM (n: 10) fue portador de luk-PV. Las diferencias clínicas y demográficas entre pacientes infectados por SARM o SASM no fueron estadísticamente significativas. Discusión: Este estudio constituye la primera caracterización clínica, fenotípica y genotípica de S. aureus asociados a la comunidad en población pediátrica realizada en Paraguay.

Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Staphylococcal Infections/microbiology , Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Staphylococcus aureus/genetics , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Bacterial Toxins/genetics , Penicillin-Binding Proteins/genetics , Exotoxins/genetics , Leukocidins/genetics , Paraguay , Phenotype , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Community-Acquired Infections/microbiology , Genotype
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 36(10): 951-956, out. 2016. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-841989


In intensive dairy farming, persistent intramammary infection has been associated with specific Staphylococcus (S.) aureus strains, and these strains may be resistant to antimicrobials. The objective of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial resistance phenotypes of S. aureus isolates and to assess the distribution and the persistence of clonal groups in small dairy herds of southern Brazil. Milk samples were collected from all lactating cows from 21 dairy farms over a two-year period, totaling 1,060 samples. S. aureus isolates were tested for susceptibility to thirteen antimicrobials using the disk diffusion method. The total DNA of the isolates was subjected to SmaI digestion followed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Banding patterns differing by ≤4 bands were considered members of a single PFGE cluster. The frequency of S. aureus isolation ranged from 3.45% to 70.59% among the 17 S. aureus-positive herds. Most S. aureus isolates (87.1%) were susceptible to all antimicrobials; resistance to penicillin (18.2%) was the most frequently observed. The 122 isolates subjected to macrorestriction analysis were classified into 30 PFGE-clusters. Among them, only 10 clusters were intermittent or persistent over the two-year period. The majority (93.6%) of isolates belonging to persistent and intermittent clusters were susceptible to all tested antimicrobials. S. aureus intramammary colonization in small dairy farms of southern Brazil is most frequently caused by sporadic PFGE clusters, although some persistent clusters can arise over time. Both sporadic and persistent isolates were highly susceptible to antimicrobials.(AU)

A infecção intramamária persistente em bovinos leiteiros tem sido associada com estirpes de Staphylococcus (S.) aureus específicos, os quais podem ser resistentes a antimicrobianos. Os objetivos deste estudo foram avaliar os fenótipos de resistência aos antimicrobianos de isolados de S. aureus e a distribuição e persistência de grupos clonais em pequenos rebanhos leiteiros do sul do Brasil. As amostras de leite foram coletadas de todas as vacas em lactação de 21 propriedades leiteiras, ao longo de um período de dois anos, perfazendo um total de 1.060 amostras. Isolados de S. aureus foram testados quanto à resistência frente a treze antimicrobianos, pelo método de disco-difusão. O DNA total dos isolados foi clivado com a enzima Smal e submetido a eletroforese em gel de campo pulsado (PFGE). Padrões de bandas diferentes por ≤4 bandas foram considerados como pertencentes ao mesmo grupo clonal. A freqüência de S. aureus variou de 3,45% até 70,59%, entre os 17 rebanhos com isolamento positivo de S. aureus. A maioria dos isolados de S. aureus (87,1%) foi suscetível a todos os antimicrobianos; resistência à penicilina (18,2%) foi a mais freqüentemente observada. Os 122 isolados submetidos à análise de macrorestrição foram classificados em 30 grupos clonais de PFGE. Entre eles, apenas dez grupos clonais foram intermitentes ou persistentes ao longo do período de dois anos. A maioria (93,6%) dos isolados pertencentes a grupos clonais persistentes e intermitentes foram suscetíveis a todos os antimicrobianos testados. Concluiu-se que a colonização intramamária em bovinos de pequenas propriedades leiteiras do Sul do Brasil é mais frequentemente causada por grupos clonais esporádicos de S. aureus, embora alguns grupos clonais persistentes possam ocorrer ao longo do tempo. Em ambos os grupos clonais os isolados foram majoritariamente suscetíveis a antimicrobianos.(AU)

Animals , Cattle , Clone Cells , Mastitis, Bovine , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Staphylococcus aureus/genetics , Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field/veterinary , Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary
Braz. j. microbiol ; 47(1): 177-180, Jan.-Mar. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-775102


Abstract We report the first description of a rare catalase-negative strain of Staphylococcus aureus in Chile. This new variant was isolated from blood and synovial tissue samples of a pediatric patient. Sequencing analysis revealed that this catalase-negative strain is related to ST10 strain, which has earlier been described in relation to S. aureus carriers. Interestingly, sequence analysis of the catalase gene katA revealed presence of a novel nonsense mutation that causes premature translational truncation of the C-terminus of the enzyme leading to a loss of 222 amino acids. Our study suggests that loss of catalase activity in this rare catalase-negative Chilean strain is due to this novel nonsense mutation in the katA gene, which truncates the enzyme to just 283 amino acids.

Child, Preschool , Humans , Codon, Nonsense , Catalase/genetics , Catalase/metabolism , Staphylococcal Infections/microbiology , Staphylococcus aureus/enzymology , Staphylococcus aureus/genetics , Arthritis/microbiology , Bacteremia/microbiology , Chile , DNA, Bacterial/chemistry , DNA, Bacterial/genetics , Genotype , Sequence Analysis, DNA
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 48(12): 1071-1076, Dec. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-762924


Biofilm formed by Staphylococcus aureus is considered an important virulence trait in the pathogenesis of infections associated with implantable medical devices. Gene expression analyses are important strategies for determining the mechanisms involved in production and regulation of biofilm. Obtaining intact RNA preparations is the first and most critical step for these studies. In this article, we describe an optimized protocol for obtaining total RNA from sessile cells of S. aureus using the RNeasy Mini Kit. This method essentially consists of a few steps, as follows: 1) addition of acetone-ethanol to sessile cells, 2) lysis with lysostaphin at 37°C/10 min, 3) vigorous mixing, 4) three cycles of freezing and thawing, and 5) purification of the lysate in the RNeasy column. This simple pre-kit procedure yields high-quality total RNA from planktonic and sessile cells of S. aureus.

Bacteriological Techniques/standards , Biofilms/growth & development , RNA, Bacterial/isolation & purification , Staphylococcus aureus/genetics , Bacteriological Techniques/methods , Electrophoresis, Agar Gel , Hemolysin Proteins/metabolism , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/genetics , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Quality Control , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reverse Transcription , Staphylococcus aureus/physiology
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 19(6): 614-622, Nov.-Dec. 2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-769633


ABSTRACT A better understanding of the antimicrobial susceptibility, carriage of virulence determinants and molecular characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus isolates associated with skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) may provide further insights related to clinical outcomes with these infections. From January 2012 to September 2013, a total of 128 non-duplicateS. aureus isolates were recovered from patients with SSTIs. All 128 S. aureus SSTI isolates carried at least five virulence genes tested. Virulence genes detected among at least 70% of all tested isolates included hld (100%), hla (95.3%),icaA (96.9%), clf (99.2%),sdrC (79.7%), sdrD (70.3%), andsdrE (72.7%). The prevalence of MRSA isolates with 10 virulence genes tested (54.4%, 31/56) was significantly higher than that among MSSA isolates (35.2%, 25/71) (p < 0.05). The positive rates of seb, sen, sem, sdrE and pvl among MRSA isolates were significantly higher than among MSSA isolates (p< 0.05). ST7 and ST630 accounting for 10.9% were found to be the predominant STs. The most prevalent spa type was t091 (8.6%). MRSA-ST59-SCCmec IV was the most common clone (12.3%) among MRSA isolates whereas among MSSA isolates the dominant clone was MSSA-ST7 (15.5%). Six main clonal complexes (CCs) were found, including CC5 (52.3%), CC7 (11.7%), CC59 (8.6%), CC88 (6.3%), CC398 (4.7%), and CC121 (3.1%). A higher carriage of seb and sec was found among CC59 isolates. In comparison to CC5 and CC7 isolates, those with the highest carriage rates (>80.0%) of sdrC and sdrD, CC59 isolates had lower prevalence of these two virulence genes. All CC59 isolates were susceptible to gentamicin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, while CC5 and CC7 isolates had resistance rates to these two antimicrobials of 25.4% and 20.9%, and 40.0% and 40.0%, respectively. The resistance rates for tetracycline, clindamycin, and erythromycin among CC5 isolates were lower than among CC7 and CC59 isolates. In conclusion, the molecular typing of S. aureusSSTI isolates in the present study showed considerable heterogeneity. ST7 and ST630 became prevailing clones. Different S. aureus clones causing SSTIs were associated with specific antimicrobial resistance and virulence gene profiles.

Humans , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Soft Tissue Infections/microbiology , Staphylococcal Skin Infections/microbiology , Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Staphylococcus aureus/pathogenicity , Virulence Factors/genetics , Bacterial Typing Techniques , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/genetics , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/pathogenicity , Staphylococcus aureus/genetics
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 47(5): 589-592, Sep-Oct/2014. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-728903


Introduction Infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) have become common in hospitals and the community environment, and this wide resistance has limited patient treatment. Clindamycin (CL) represents an important alternative therapy for infections caused by S. aureus. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing using standard methods may not detect inducible CL resistance. This study was performed to detect the phenotypes of resistance to macrolides-lincosamides-streptogramin B (MLSB) antibiotics, including CL, in clinical samples of S. aureus from patients at a tertiary hospital in Santa Maria, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Methods One hundred and forty clinical isolates were submitted to the disk diffusion induction test (D-test) with an erythromycin (ER) disk positioned at a distance of 20mm from a CL disk. The results were interpreted according to the recommendations of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Results In this study, 29 (20.7%) of the 140 S. aureus samples were resistant to methicillin (MRSA), and 111 (79.3%) were susceptible to methicillin (MSSA). The constitutive resistance phenotype (cMLSB) was observed in 20 (14.3%) MRSA samples and in 5 (3.6%) MSSA samples, whereas the inducible resistance phenotype (iMLSB) was observed in 3 (2.1%) MRSA samples and in 8 (5.8%) MSSA samples. Conclusions The D-test is essential for detecting the iMLSB phenotype because the early identification of this phenotype allows clinicians to choose an appropriate treatment for patients. Furthermore, this test is simple, easy to perform and inexpensive. .

Humans , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Clindamycin/pharmacology , Erythromycin/pharmacology , Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/genetics , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Phenotype , Staphylococcus aureus/genetics , Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Tertiary Care Centers
Braz. j. microbiol ; 45(3): 857-859, July-Sept. 2014. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-727014


This study evaluated the relationship between previous colonization of the oropharynx and development of ventilator-associated pneumonia through the classification of genomic fingerprint pattern by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of both oxacillin-resistant and oxacillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus isolates obtained from hospitalized patients in an intensive care unit.

Humans , Carrier State/microbiology , Oropharynx/microbiology , Pneumonia, Staphylococcal/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated/epidemiology , Genotype , Molecular Epidemiology , Molecular Typing , Pneumonia, Staphylococcal/microbiology , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated/microbiology , Staphylococcus aureus/classification , Staphylococcus aureus/genetics , Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification