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1.
Arch. pediatr. Urug ; 92(2): e212, dic. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY, UY-BNMED | ID: biblio-1339132

ABSTRACT

Introducción: la sepsis tardía por estafilococo coagulasa negativo (SCoN) es una causa común de morbimortalidad en la unidad neonatal. Los SCoN son los microorganismos más frecuentemente involucrados con aproximadamente el 50% de los casos. El objetivo de este estudio es analizar la incidencia y las características de los neonatos portadores de sepsis tardía por SCoN. Materiales y métodos: se realizó un estudio descriptivo, longitudinal, retrospectivo. Se utilizaron las bases de datos del laboratorio de microbiología del hospital y las historias clínicas electrónicas para obtener la información. El período de estudio analizado fueron los años 2018 y 2019 en la unidad de cuidados intensivos e intermedios de recién nacidos del Centro Hospitalario Pereira Rossell. Resultados: obtuvimos una incidencia de 2,5% de los ingresos a cuidados intensivos e intermedios (25 pacientes). La edad gestacional al nacer fue de 28 semanas (25,0-35,0) y la mediana del peso fue de 1.070 g (730,0-2.365,0). La media de edad gestacional posmenstrual al momento del diagnóstico fue de 32,92±7,921 semanas. Por sospecha de sepsis precoz, 17 pacientes habían recibido un curso de antibióticos previo. El signo clínico más frecuentemente observado fue el deterioro del estado general, en 11 pacientes, seguido de distensión abdominal en 6 y fiebre en 5. Dentro de los SCoN, el más frecuentemente aislado fue el Staphylococcus epidermidis (13 pacientes); 22 pacientes recibieron tratamiento, 18 de ellos con vancomicina-meropenem y 4 con monoterapia con vancomicina. Conclusión: estos patógenos representan una causa importante de morbimortalidad en la unidad neonatal, particularmente en pacientes que presentan mayor gravedad y mayor necesidad de soporte vital. Se necesitan pautas claras de interpretación del rol de estos microorganismos y de abordaje de pacientes con riesgo de sepsis tardía, incluyendo el tratamiento antibiótico empírico.


Introduction: Coagulase Negative Staphylococci (CoNS) late onset sepsis is a common cause of morbidity and mortality in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). CoNS are the most frequently isolated microorganisms and total 50% of cases. The objective of this study is to analyze the incidence and characteristics of newborns carriers of late onset CoNS. Materials and methods: we performed a descriptive, retrospective, longitudinal study. Data was obtained from the hospital's microbiology laboratory database and electronic medical records. Patients included were those admitted to NICU during the period between 2018 and 2019. Results: we obtained an incidence of 2.5% of patients admitted to the NICU (25 patients). Median gestational age at birth was 28 weeks 25.0-35.0 and median birth weight was 1.070 g 730.0-2365.0. Mean gestational age at the time of diagnosis was 32.92±7.921 weeks. 17 patients had received an antibiotics course at birth because of early onset sepsis suspicion. The most frequently observed clinical symptom was deterioration of general condition, 11 patients, followed by abdominal distention in 6 and fever in 5. Among CoNS, the most frequently isolated pathogen was Staphylococcus epidermidis (13 patients). 22 patients received treatment, 18 a combination of vancomycin and meropenem and 4 received vancomycin monotherapy. Conclusion: these pathogens are a common cause of morbidity and mortality in the newborn intensive care unit, particularly in patients with more serious conditions and in those who require more advanced life support measures. Clearer interpretation of their role is needed as well as to determine a proper approach to patients at risk of late onset sepsis, including empiric antibiotic treatment.


Sepse tardia para Staphylococcus coagulase negativa (SCoN) é uma causa comum de morbidade e mortalidade na unidade neonatal. SCoNs são os microrganismos mais frequentemente envolvidos e representam aproximadamente 50% dos casos. O objetivo deste estudo é analisar a incidência e as características de neonatos com sepse tardia por SCoN. Materiais e métodos: foi realizado um estudo descritivo, longitudinal e retrospectivo. Usamos os bancos de dados do laboratório de microbiologia e prontuários médicos eletrônicos de nosso hospital para obter as informações. O período de estudo analisado foi de 2018 e 2019 na unidade de terapia intensiva e intermediária para recém-nascidos do Centro Hospitalar Pereira Rossell. Resultados: obtivemos uma incidência de 2,5% de internações em Terapia Intensiva e Intermediária (25 pacientes). A idade gestacional ao nascer foi de 28 semanas 25,0-35,0 e o peso médio foi de 1070g 730,0-2365,0. A média da idade gestacional pós-menstrual no momento do diagnóstico foi de 32,92 ± 7,921 semanas. 17 pacientes haviam recebido um curso anterior de antibióticos por suspeita de sepse precoce. O sinal clínico mais frequentemente observado foi deterioração do estado geral em 11 pacientes, seguido por distensão abdominal em 6 e febre em 5. Dentre os SCoN, o mais isolado foi o Staphylococcus Epidermidis (13 pacientes). 22 pacientes receberam tratamento, 18 deles com Vancomicina-Meropenem e 4 com Vancomicina em monoterapia. Conclusão: esses patógenos representam uma importante causa de morbimortalidade na unidade neonatal, principalmente em pacientes com maior gravidade e maior necessidade de suporte de vida. Orientações claras são necessárias para interpretar o papel desses microrganismos e para abordar pacientes com risco de sepse tardia, incluindo tratamento com antibióticos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Infant, Newborn , Staphylococcal Infections/epidemiology , Neonatal Sepsis/epidemiology , Staphylococcal Infections/diagnosis , Staphylococcal Infections/drug therapy , Staphylococcus epidermidis/virology , Uruguay/epidemiology , Vancomycin/therapeutic use , Cross Infection , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Incidence , Retrospective Studies , Longitudinal Studies , Coagulase , Staphylococcus haemolyticus/virology , Staphylococcus hominis/virology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
2.
Arch. pediatr. Urug ; 92(2): e306, dic. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY, UY-BNMED | ID: biblio-1278306

ABSTRACT

Los estafilococos coagulasa negativos son microorganismos frecuentemente aislados cuya significancia clínica puede ser difícil de establecer por su carácter de comensales habituales de la piel. En la población neonatal estos patógenos han ido adquiriendo mayor protagonismo debido a la sobrevida de pacientes mas prematuros que en el pasado, así como sus necesidades de tratamiento, que determinan mayores tiempos de estadía hospitalaria. Estos elementos representan factores de riesgo también para el desarrollo de endocarditis en estos pacientes, particularmente debido a la utilización de catéteres intravasculares centrales por tiempo prolongado. En este caso clínico se presenta un paciente pretérmino severo que presentó una endocarditis a estafilococo coagulasa negativo a partir del cual discutiremos las características de las infecciones por estos microorganismos, las características de la endocarditis infecciosa en el recién nacido pretérmino y la utilización de antibióticos en estos pacientes, así como algunos elementos asociados a la vigilancia activa en el uso de antibióticos.


Coagulase negative staphylococcus (CoNS) are commonly isolated microorganisms whose clinical importance may be difficult to establish due to their role as part of our usual skin microbiota. These pathogens have gained relevance in neonatal population due to an improvement in neonatal care that determine longer survival rates and hospitals stays. Neonatal endocarditis is also affected by these microorganisms and particularly by the use of central intra vascular lines for long periods of time. In this clinical case we introduce a severe preterm patient who developed a CoNS endocarditis and discuss the characteristics of CoNS infections and endocarditis in preterm newborns as well as some antibiotic vigilance principles.


Os estafilococos coagulase negativos são microrganismos frequentemente isolados, cujo significado clínico pode ser difícil de estabelecer devido ao seu caráter de comensais cutâneos comuns. Na população neonatal, esses patógenos vêm adquirindo maior destaque devido à sobrevida de pacientes mais prematuros do que no passado, bem como suas necessidades de tratamento, as quais determinam tempos de internação mais longos. Esses elementos também representam fatores de risco para o desenvolvimento de endocardite nesses pacientes, principalmente pelo uso prolongado de cateter intravascular central. Neste caso clínico apresentaremos um paciente pré-termo grave que apresentou endocardite estafilocócica coagulase-negativa a partir do qual discutiremos as características das infecções por esses microrganismos, as características da endocardite infecciosa no recém-nascido pré-termo e o uso de antibióticos nesses pacientes bem como alguns elementos associados à vigilância ativa no uso de antibióticos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Staphylococcal Infections/diagnosis , Staphylococcal Infections/drug therapy , Staphylococcus epidermidis/virology , Vancomycin/therapeutic use , Endocarditis/diagnosis , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Staphylococcal Infections/complications , Coagulase , Infant, Very Low Birth Weight , Endocarditis/etiology , Infant, Extremely Premature
3.
Rev. Pesqui. (Univ. Fed. Estado Rio J., Online) ; 13: 17-26, jan.-dez. 2021. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1145877

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: verificar a demanda de hemoculturas, aspirados traqueais e uroculturas realizadas no HU-UNIVASF/ EBSERH e a prevalência dos microrganismos identificados no período de janeiro a junho de 2016. Métodos: estudo retrospectivo documental com abordagem quantitativa. Resultados: o setor de microbiologia realizou 488 hemoculturas, 427 uroculturas e 197 aspirados traqueais. A positividade de hemoculturas mostrou-se entre 10,9 à 25,7%, e o percentual de contaminações variou de 6,8 à 14,0%. Os microrganismos mais prevalência nas hemoculturas foram Staphylococcus epidermidis (23,7%), Staphylococcus aureus (19,3%) e Klebisiella pneumoniae (9,6%). Nas uroculturas foram Klebisiella pneumoniae (23,1%), Candida sp. (13,5%) e Escherichia coli (12,5%). Nos aspirados traqueais foram Acinetobacter baumannii (29,2%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (26,6%) e Staphylococcus aureus (16,2%). Conclusão: a cultura mais solicitada foi hemocultura. A bactéria mais prevalente nas hemoculturas foi Staphylococcus epidermidis, nos aspirados traqueais Acinetobacter baumannii e nas uroculturas Klebisiella pneumoniae


Objective: the study's purpose has been to verify the demand for blood cultures, tracheal aspirates and urine cultures performed at a University Hospital from the Universidade Federal do Vale do São Francisco (HU-UNIVASF/EBSERH), as well as the predominance of microorganisms identified over the period from January to June 2016. Methods: it is a retrospective documentary study with a quantitative approach. Results: the microbiology sector carried out 488 blood cultures, 427 urine cultures and 197 tracheal aspirates. The positivity of blood cultures was between 10.9 and 25.7%, and the percentage of contaminations ranged from 6.8 to 14.0%. The most prevalent microorganisms in blood cultures were Staphylococcus epidermidis (23.7%), Staphylococcus aureus (19.3%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (9.6%). In urine cultures were Klebsiella pneumoniae (23.1%), Candida sp. (13.5%) and Escherichia coli (12.5%). In tracheal aspirates were Acinetobacter baumannii (29.2%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (26.6%) and Staphylococcus aureus (16.2%). Conclusion: the most requested culture was blood culture. The most prevalent bacterium in blood cultures was Staphylococcus epidermidis, in tracheal aspirates was Acinetobacter baumannii, and in urine cultures was Klebsiella pneumoniae


Objetivo: el propósito del trabajo es verificar la demanda de hemocultivos, aspirados traqueales y urocultivos realizados en el Hospital Universitário de la Universidade Federal do Vale do São Francisco (HU-UNIVASF/ EBSERH) y la prevalencia de los microorganismos identificados en el período de enero a junio de 2016. Métodos: este trabajo es un estudio retrospectivo documental con abordaje cuantitativo. Resultados: el sector de microbiología realizó 488 hemocultivos, 427 urocultivos y 197 aspirados traqueales. La positividad de hemocultivos se mostró entre el 10,9 al 25,7%, y el porcentaje de contaminaciones varía de 6,8 a 14,0%. Los microorganismos más prevalentes en los hemocultivos fueron Staphylococcus epidermidis (23,7%), Staphylococcus aureus (19,3%) y Klebsiella pneumoniae (9,6%). En los urocultivos fueron Klebisiella pneumoniae (23,1%), Candida sp. (13,5%) y Escherichia coli (12,5%). En los aspirados traqueales fueron Acinetobacter baumannii (29,2%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (26,6%) y Staphylococcus aureus (16,2%). Conclusión: la cultura más solicitada fue hemocultivo. La bacteria más prevalente en los hemocultivos fue Staphylococcus epidermidis, en los aspirados traqueales, Acinetobacter baumannii y en los urocultivos, Klebisiella pneumoniae


Subject(s)
Urine/microbiology , Cross Infection/microbiology , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Bacteriological Techniques/methods , Blood Culture , Staphylococcus aureus , Staphylococcus epidermidis , Prevalence , Acinetobacter baumannii , Escherichia coli , Hospitals, University , Klebsiella pneumoniae
4.
Vitae (Medellín) ; 27(3): 1-6, 2020-09-02. Ilustraciones
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1362121

ABSTRACT

Background: Globally,the need to address strategies for preventing infections associated with health care has increased worldwide. In the city of Valledupar, Colombia, reports of bacteria resistant to chemical or enzymatic biocides in hospital environments and surfaces are increasingly frequent, evidencing the importance of conducting studies aimed at identifying alternative active ingredients for disinfectant products. Objective: Evaluate the in vitro effectiveness of Neem leaves extract over bacteria strains isolated from different areas and surfaces of a health institution in Valledupar, compared to disinfectants for hospital use, an enzymatic detergent, and a commercial chemical disinfectant. Methods: Biocidal activities on bacteria isolated from hospital surfaces, such as Acinetobacter baumanni, Bacillus subtilis, Enterobacter aerogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Micrococcus sp, and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia were analyzed. The Neem leaves extract was evaluated at concentrations of 3, 4, and 5 % for each bacterium during 15-minute contact time, incubated at 37 °C for 18 hours. We compared two antimicrobial chemicals, a disinfectant (based on formaldehyde, cetrimide, and glutaraldehyde), and an enzymatic detergent (based on protease, lipase, and amylase). Results: The aqueous Neem extract did not show significant differences with the other treatments with 99.48 to 100% inhibition against bacteria of the species Acinetobacter baumanni, Enterobacter aerogenes, Staphylococcus aureus,and Micrococcus sp.; Bacillus subtilis, and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia strains were the most resistant strains inhibited by enzymatic detergent and disinfectant, respectively. None of the products evaluated were effective against all in vitro strains. Conclusions: These data show Neem's bacteriostatic properties, its potential in in-hospital products and the need to combine different active ingredients in a disinfection plan.


Antecedentes: A nivel mundial ha aumentado la necesidad de abordar estrategias para la prevención de infecciones asociadas a la atención de salud. En la ciudad de Valledupar, Colombia, cada vez son más frecuentes los reportes de bacterias resistentes a biocidas químicos o enzimáticos, en ambientes y superficies hospitalarias, lo cual evidencia la importancia de realizar estudios orientados a la identificación de principios activos alternativos para productos desinfectantes. Objetivo: Evaluar la efectividad in vitrodel extracto de hojas de Neem en cepas de bacterias aisladas en diferentes áreas y superficies de una institución de salud en Valledupar, en comparación con desinfectantes de uso hospitalario, un detergente enzimático y un desinfectante químico comercial. Métodos: Se analizó la actividad biocida sobre las bacterias aisladas de superficies hospitalarias Acinetobacter baumanni, Bacillus subtilis, Enterobacter aerogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Micrococcus sp, y Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. El extracto de hojas de Neem se evaluó a concentraciones de 3, 4 y 5% para cada bacteria durante un tiempo de contacto de 15 minutos, incubados a 37 ° C durante 18 horas. Se comparó dos productos químicos antimicrobianos, un desinfectante (a base de formaldehído, cetrimide y glutaraldehído), y un detergente enzimático (a base de Proteasa, Lipasa y amilasa). Resultados: El extracto acuoso de Neem no presentó diferencias significativas con los demás tratamientos con inhibición del 99,48 al 100%, sobre bacterias de las especies Acinetobacter baumanni, Enterobacter aerogenes, Staphylococcus aureus y Micrococcus sp; las cepas Bacillus subtilisy Stenotrophomonas maltophilia fueron las más resistentes a ser inhibidas por el detergente enzimático y el desinfectante, respectivamente. Ninguno de los productos evaluados fue efectivo contra todas las cepas in vitro. Conclusiones: Estos datos evidencian las propiedades bacteriostáticas del Neem, su potencial en productos de uso intrahospitalario y la necesidad de combinar diferentes principios activos en un plan de desinfección.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Staphylococcus epidermidis , Cross Infection , Acinetobacter baumannii
5.
Rev. Ciênc. Méd. Biol. (Impr.) ; 19(2): 258-264, set 24, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1358136

ABSTRACT

Introduction: bacterial infections are a public health problem. Besides, the emergence of strains resistant to antimicrobials has contributed to the search for new alternatives, such for the terpenes with antimicrobial potential. Objectives: the objective of this study was to determine the possible interaction of isolated monoterpenes (-)-Carveol, Geraniol, Citronellol, α-terpineol, R-(-) Carvone, (-)-Menthol, Linalool, D-Dihydrocarvone, and (-)-Terpine-4-ol with conventional antimicrobials (Chloramphenicol, Minocycline, Amoxicillin and Ciprofloxacin) when they are evaluated on Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains. Methodology: the minimum inhibitory concentrations of these test drugs were determined using the microdilution method. The Checkerboard method was used to assess the interactions, by determining the fractional inhibitory concentration index (FIC index). Results: aamong the monoterpenes, only Carveol, Citronellol, and Geraniol presented antimicrobial activity (MIC < 1024 µg/mL). They presented synergistic effects against Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC-9027 (FIC index ≤ 0.5) when in combination with Minocycline. Conclusion: this study contributes to the development of new approaches to control bacterial resistance and to the possibility of discovering new drugs.


Introdução: as infecções bacterianas são um problema de saúde pública. Além disso, o surgimento de cepas resistentes aos antimicrobianos tem contribuído para a busca de novas alternativas, como a pesquisa de terpenos com potencial antimicrobiano. Objetivos: o objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a possível interação de monoterpenos isolados (-) - Carveol, Geraniol, Citronelol, α-terpineol, R - (-) Carvona, (-)-Mentol, Linalol, D-Diidrocarvona e (-)-Terpina-4-ol com antimicrobianos convencionais (cloranfenicol, minociclina, amoxicilina e ciprofloxacina) quando avaliados em Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli e Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Metodologia: as concentrações inibitórias mínimas destas drogas foram determinadas usando o método de microdiluição. O método checkerboard foi utilizado para avaliar as interações, determinando o índice de concentração inibitória fracionária (índice FIC). Resultados: entre os monoterpenos, apenas Carveol, Citronelol e Geraniol apresentaram atividade antimicrobiana (CIM < 1024 µg/mL). Eles apresentaram efeitos sinérgicos contra Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC-9027 (índice FIC ≤ 0,5) quando em combinação com Minociclina. Conclusão: este estudo contribui para o desenvolvimento de novas abordagens para o controle da resistência bacteriana e para a possibilidade de descoberta de novas drogas.


Subject(s)
Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Staphylococcus aureus , Staphylococcus epidermidis , Bacillus subtilis , Complementary Therapies , Monoterpenes , Escherichia coli , Gram-Negative Bacteria , Gram-Positive Bacteria , Anti-Infective Agents
6.
Rev. otorrinolaringol. cir. cabeza cuello ; 80(2): 209-217, jun. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1115837

ABSTRACT

El vestíbulo nasal corresponde a la primera porción de la fosa nasal, éste se encuentra delimitado lateralmente por los cartílagos alares y medialmente por el borde caudal del septum nasal y la columela. Las enfermedades infecciosas del vestíbulo nasal son patologías frecuentes en la práctica clínica; su diagnóstico se realiza en base a sospecha clínica y examen físico, requiriendo habitualmente solo manejo médico ambulatorio. Desde el punto de vista etiológico pueden ser virales, bacterianas y fúngicas. Las principales especies bacterianas involucradas corresponden a Staphylococcus coagulasa negativa, S. epidermidis, S. hominis y S. haemolyticus, difteroides spp y S. aureus. Su manejo es esencialmente médico con casos excepcionales requiriendo manejo quirúrgico. En la actualidad existe escasa información epidemiológica al respecto, lo que dificultad la clasificación de los dichos cuadros clínicos. Se realizó una revisión de la literatura sobre cuadros infecciosos que afectan el vestíbulo nasal para lograr sistematizar y clarificar las distintas patologías y sus tratamientos.


The nasal vestibule corresponds to the first portion of the nasal passage, limited laterally by the lateral crus and medially by the caudal edge of the nasal septum and columella. Infectious diseases of the nasal vestibule are frequent in clinical practice, diagnosis is made based on clinical suspicion and physical examination, usually requiring only ambulatory medical management. In terms of etiology, they can be viral, bacterial and fungal. The main bacterial species involved correspond: Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus, S. epidermidis, S. hominis and S. haemolyticus, difteroides spp and S. aureus. Management is essentially medical and only exceptionally requires surgery. Currently, there is a lack of epidemiological information in this regard, which makes it difficult to classify these clinical conditions. A review of the literature on infectious conditions that affect the nasal vestibule was performed, to systematize and clarify the different pathologies and their management.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bacterial Infections/complications , Nose Diseases/etiology , Nasal Cavity/microbiology , Papilloma/complications , Staphylococcus aureus , Staphylococcus epidermidis , Rhinoscleroma/complications , Nose Diseases/microbiology , Risk Factors , Staphylococcus haemolyticus , Staphylococcus hominis , Folliculitis/complications , Nasal Cavity/pathology
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828963

ABSTRACT

The oral microbial community is widely regarded as a latent reservoir of antibiotic resistance genes. This study assessed the molecular epidemiology, susceptibility profile, and resistance mechanisms of 35 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE) strains isolated from the dental plaque of a healthy human population. Broth microdilution minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) revealed that all the isolates were nonsusceptible to oxacillin and penicillin G. Most of them were also resistant to trimethoprim (65.7%) and erythromycin (54.3%). The resistance to multiple antibiotics was found to be largely due to the acquisition of plasmid-borne genes. The mecA and dfrA genes were found in all the isolates, mostly dfrG (80%), aacA-aphD (20%), aadD (28.6%), aphA3 (22.9%), msrA (5.7%), and the ermC gene (14.3%). Classical mutational mechanisms found in these isolates were mainly efflux pumps such as qacA (31.4%), qacC (25.7%), tetK (17.1%), and norA (8.6%). Multilocus sequence type analysis revealed that sequence type 59 (ST59) strains comprised 71.43% of the typed isolates, and the eBURST algorithm clustered STs into the clonal complex 2-II(CC2-II). The staphyloccoccal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) type results showed that 25 (71.43%) were assigned to type IV. Moreover, 88.66% of the isolates were found to harbor six or more biofilm-associated genes. The aap, atlE, embp, sdrF, and IS256 genes were detected in all 35 isolates. This research demonstrates that biofilm-positive multiple-antibiotic-resistant ST59-SCCmec IV S. epidermidis strains exist in the dental plaque of healthy people and may be a potential risk for the transmission of antibiotic resistance.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents , Therapeutic Uses , Dental Plaque , Microbiology , Female , Humans , Methicillin , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Staphylococcal Infections , Diagnosis , Staphylococcus epidermidis
9.
Rev. latinoam. enferm. (Online) ; 28: e3337, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1126989

ABSTRACT

Objective: to determine the microbiological characteristics of the red blood cells obtained with the cell saver in heart surgery patients on an extra-body circuit. Method: a cross-sectional and descriptive study conducted with 358 patients scheduled for heart surgery where the saver was used. Sociodemographic variables were collected, as well as from the saver and of the microbial identification in the re-infusion bag proceeding from the cell saver. Informed consent performed. Results: of the 170 GRAM+ bacteria isolations, the most frequent species were Staphylococcus epidermidis in 69% (n=138) of the cases and Streptococcus sanguinis with a report of 10% (n=20). Significant differences were found in the Staphylococcus epidermidis strain in patients with a Body Mass Index ≥25 (p=0.002) submitted to valve surgery (p=0.001). Vancomycin was the antimicrobial which resisted the Staphylococcus epidermidis strain with a minimum inhibitory concentration of >16 µg/ml. Conclusion: the microbiological characteristics of the red blood cells obtained after processing autologic blood recovered with the cell saver during heart surgery are of GRAM+ bacterial origin, the most isolated species being Staphylococcus epidermidis. Consequently, in order to reduce the presence of these GRAM+ cocci, an antibiotic should be added to the cell saver reservoir, according to a previously established protocol.


Objetivo: determinar as características microbiológicas dos glóbulos vermelhos obtidos com o "cell saver" em pacientes submetidos à cirurgia cardíaca em circuito extracorpóreo. Método: estudo descritivo transversal com 358 pacientes de cirurgia cardíaca em que o "cell saver" foi utilizado. Foram coletadas variáveis sociodemográficas e identificação microbiana da bolsa de reinfusão do "cell saver". Foi confirmado o Termo de Consentimento. Resultados: das 170 baterias isoladas GRAM+, as mais frequentes foram Staphylococcus epidermidis em 69% (n=138) dos casos e Streptococcus sanguinis com um registro de 10% (n=20). Diferenças significativas foram encontradas na cepa Staphylococcus epidermidis em pacientes com índice de massa corporal ≥25 (p=0,002) submetidos a cirurgia valvular (p=0,001). A vancomicina foi o antimicrobiano resistente à cepa Staphylococcus epidermidis com uma concentração inibitória mínima >16 µg/ml. Conclusão: as características microbiológicas dos glóbulos vermelhos obtidas após o processamento do sangue autólogo recuperado com o "cell saver" em cirurgia cardíaca são de origem bacteriana GRAM+, sendo a espécie mais isolada o Staphylococcus epidermidis. Portanto, para reduzir a presença desses cocos GRAM+, um antibiótico deve ser adicionado ao "cell saver", de acordo com um protocolo previamente estabelecido.


Objetivo: determinar las características microbiológicas de los glóbulos rojos obtenidos con el "cell saver" en el paciente de cirugía cardíaca bajo un circuito extracorpóreo. Método: estudio descriptivo transversal con 358 pacientes programados para cirugía cardíaca donde se utilizó el "cell saver". Se recogieron variables sociodemográficas e identificación microbiana de la bolsa de reinfusión procedente del "cell saver". Consentimiento informado realizado. Resultados: de 170 aislamientos de bacterias GRAM+, las especies más frecuentes fueron el Staphylococcus epidermidis en el 69% (n=138) de los casos y el Streptococcus sanguinis con un reporte del 10% (n=20). Se encontraron diferencias significativas en la cepa Staphylococcus epidermidis en pacientes con índice de masa corporal ≥25 (p=0,002) sometidos a cirugía valvular (p=0,001). La vancomicina fue el antimicrobiano resistente a la cepa Staphylococcus epidermidis con una concentración mínima inhibitoria >16 ug/ml. Conclusión: las características microbiológicas de los glóbulos rojos obtenidos tras el procesamiento de sangre autóloga recuperada con el "cell saver" en cirugía cardíaca son de origen bacteriano GRAM+ siendo la especie más aislada el Staphylococcus epidermidis. Por ello, con el fin de reducir la presencia de estos cocos GRAM+ se debería añadir un antibiótico en el reservorio del "cell saver", según un protocolo previamente establecido.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Operating Room Nursing , Staphylococcus epidermidis , Thoracic Surgery , Blood Transfusion, Autologous , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Bacteremia , Erythrocytes , Extracorporeal Circulation , Anti-Bacterial Agents
10.
Infectio ; 23(2): 183-188, Apr.-June 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-989950

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: El cultivo de la sangre es el método más utilizado en la búsqueda de infecciones del paciente pediátrico porque orienta la terapia antimicrobiana. Objetivo: Determinar la incidencia de hemocultivos positivos y su caracterización microbiológica en pacientes de cuidado intensivo pediátrico del Hospital de San José, Bogotá-Colombia. Materiales y métodos: Descripción de hemocultivos positivos en pacientes pediátricos de la unidad desde abril de 2012 a 2017. Se determinó la incidencia de hemocultivos positivos y se describió la población estudiada y los gérmenes aislados incluido su perfl de antibiograma. Resultados: Ingresaron 1773 pacientes a la UCIP, 241 pacientes (13,6%) fueron hemocultivados, de los cuales 80 (33,2%) fueron positivos, pero 50% de estos fueron catalogados como contaminaciones. La mediana de edad fue de 21 meses, con 64% de sexo masculino. El 57% fue ventilado y 45% tuvieron un catéter central. La mortalidad fue de 15,4%. La patología más frecuentemente fue respiratoria (75%). De los gérmenes no contaminantes el más frecuente aislado fue Staphylococcus aureus (30%), seguido de Klebsiella pneumoniae (17,5%) y Streptococcus pneumoniae (17,5%). El germen contaminante más frecuente fue Staphylococcus epidermidis (47,5%). Conclusión: La frecuencia de hemocultivos positivos es baja y es frecuente que se aíslen gérmenes contaminantes. El patrón fue similar a lo reportado por la red GREBO.


Abstract Introduction. Blood culture is the method most used in the search for pediatric infections because it guides the antimicrobial therapy. Objective. To determine the incidence of positive blood cultures and their microbiological characterization in patients of the pediatric intensive care service of San José Hospital, Bogotá-Colombia. Materials and methods: Description of positive blood cultures in pediatric patients of the unit from April 2012 to 2017. The incidence of positive blood cultures was determined and the population studied and the isolated germs were described, including their antibiogram profle. Results: 1773 patients were admitted to the PICU, 241 patients (13.6%) were blood cultures, of which 80 (33.2%) were positive, but 50% of these were classifed as contaminations. The median age was 21 months, with 64% male. 57% were ventilated and 45% had a central catheter. Mortality was 15.4%. The most frequent pathology was respiratory (75%). Of the non-polluting organisms, the most frequent isolate was Staphylococcus aureus (30%), followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (17.5%) and Streptococcus pneumoniae (17.5%). The most frequent contaminant was Staphylococcus epidermidis (47.5%). Conclusion: The frequency of positive blood cultures is low and polluting organisms are often isolated. The pattern was similar to that reported by the GREBO network.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Infant , Staphylococcus epidermidis , Critical Care , Blood Culture , Staphylococcus aureus , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Bacterial Infections , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Microbiological Phenomena , Anti-Infective Agents
11.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766900

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We investigated the regional characteristics and trends in causative agents, clinical features, and antibiotic susceptibility in infectious keratitis in western Gyeongnam province. METHODS: This retrospective chart review included 551 eyes of 551 patients with infectious keratitis, who were referred to our center from January 2004 to December 2017. The period of this study was divided into two terms of 7 years before and after 2011 to analyze the changes in causative organisms and antibiotic susceptibilities and to investigate the clinical features and regional characteristics in western Gyeongnam province. RESULTS: The most common occupation among patients was farming; the mean time taken for initial treatment was 8.6 days. The culture positivity rate was 35.8%, the most commonly isolated microorganisms were Staphylococcus epidermidis (14.5%) for Gram-positive bacteria and Pseudomona aeruginosa (13.5%) for Gram-negative bacteria. The distribution of culture-positive organisms before and after 2011 did not show any significant difference, but the increase in resistance to second and third generation quinolones was significantly greater in Gram-positive bacteria after 2011. There was no significant difference in clinical characteristics before and after 2011, but the hospital stay duration and treatment needs were significantly reduced. CONCLUSIONS: This was a large-scale study analyzing the clinical features of infectious keratitis in western Gyeognam province over a 14-year period. The results will help us understand the characteristics, microbiology, and community in infectious keratitis by analyzing patients referred to tertiary centers.


Subject(s)
Agriculture , Gram-Negative Bacteria , Gram-Positive Bacteria , Humans , Keratitis , Length of Stay , Occupations , Quinolones , Republic of Korea , Retrospective Studies , Staphylococcus epidermidis
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773377

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of oral cadmium (Cd) ingestion on the pulmonary immune response.@*METHODS@#Determination of Cd content in lungs and histopathological evaluation of the tissue was performed in rats following 30-day oral Cd administration (5 and 50 mg/L). Antioxidant enzyme defense (superoxide dismutase and catalase), cell infiltration, and production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interferon (IFN)-γ, as well as the activity of myeloperoxidase (MPO), nitric oxide (NO), and various cytokines [interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-10, and IL-17] were investigated.@*RESULTS@#Cd caused tissue damage and cell infiltration in the lungs, and this damage was more pronounced at higher doses. Cd deposition resulted in lung inflammation characterized by a dose-dependent IL-1β increase in lung homogenates, increased TNF levels at both doses, and IL-6 stimulation at low doses with inhibition observed at higher doses. Cd exerted differential effects on lung leukocytes isolated by enzyme digestion, and these effects were characterized by a lack of change in the production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, an inhibition of IL-1β and TNF, and stimulation of MPO and IFN-γ. The higher capacity of Cd-exposed lung cells to respond to the opportunistic pathogen Staphylococcus epidermidis was demonstrated in vitro.@*CONCLUSION@#The potential of ingested Cd to exert both proinflammatory and immunosuppressive effects on pulmonary tissue inflammation and immune reactivity highlights the complex immunomodulatory actions of this metal.


Subject(s)
Administration, Oral , Animals , Cadmium , Toxicity , Leukocytes , Metabolism , Lung , Allergy and Immunology , Pathology , Male , Rats , Staphylococcus epidermidis , Toxicity Tests, Subchronic
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762806

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Implant-related deformities in aesthetic rhinoplasty are a major problem for rhinoplasty surgeons. Capsular contracture is believed to be the pathological cause of delayed contour deformities, comparable to breast implant-related contracture. This study investigated the prevalence of bacterial biofilms and other epidemiological factors related to capsular contracture in cases of silicone augmentation rhinoplasty. METHODS: Thirty-three patients who underwent corrective rhinoplasty due to a delayed contour deformity or aesthetic revision after implant rhinoplasty were studied from December 2014 to December 2016. All recruited patients received surgical correction by the authors. The patients were categorized by clinical severity into four grades. Demographic data and related confounding factors were recorded. Samples of capsular tissue and silicone removed from each patient were analyzed for the presence of a biofilm by ultrasonication with bacterial culture and scanning electron microscopy. RESULTS: Thirty-three paired samples of capsular tissue and silicone implants from the study group were analyzed. Biofilms were detected in one of 10 subjects (10%) with grade 1 contracture, two of four (50%) with grade 2 contracture, 10 of 14 (71.40%) with grade 3 contracture, and four of five (80%) with grade 4 contracture (P<0.05). The organisms found were Staphylococcus epidermidis (47.10%), coagulase-negative staphylococci (35.30%), and Staphylococcus aureus (17.60%). CONCLUSIONS: As with breast implant-related capsular contracture, silicone nasal augmentation deformities likely result from bacterial biofilms. We demonstrated the prevalence of biofilms in patients with various degrees of contracture. Implant type and operative technique seemed to have only vague correlations with biofilm presence.


Subject(s)
Asymptomatic Infections , Biofilms , Breast , Congenital Abnormalities , Contracture , Humans , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Prevalence , Rhinoplasty , Silicon , Silicones , Staphylococcus aureus , Staphylococcus epidermidis , Surgeons
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762792

ABSTRACT

Intraorbital infection shows a low incidence, but it might cause blindness or even death. This case is unusual in that its origin from a craniofacial bone fracture prior to infection of the maxillary sinus. A 33-year-old female patient was referred for right cheek swelling. When she visited the emergency room, we removed right cheek hematoma and bacterial examination was done. In the past, she had craniofacial bone surgical history due to a traffic accident 6 years ago. Next day, the swelling had remained with proptosis and pus was recognized in the conjunctiva. We planned an emergency operation and removed the pus which was already spread inside the orbit. And the evaluation for sinusitis was consulted to the otorhinolaryngology department simultaneously. There were Prevotella oralis and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis bacterial infection in the intraorbital and sinus respectively. Afterwards, the vigorous dressing was done for over a month with intravenous antibiotics. Though the intraorbital infection was resolved, blindness and extraocular movement limitation were inevitable. In conclusion, close follow up of the maxillary sinus in facial bone fracture patients is important and aggressive treatment is needed when an infection is diagnosed.


Subject(s)
Accidents, Traffic , Adult , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Bacterial Infections , Bandages , Blindness , Cheek , Conjunctiva , Emergencies , Emergency Service, Hospital , Exophthalmos , Eye Infections , Facial Bones , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Fractures, Bone , Hematoma , Humans , Incidence , Maxillary Sinus , Methicillin Resistance , Orbit , Otolaryngology , Prevotella , Sinusitis , Staphylococcus epidermidis , Suppuration
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760489

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Blood culture is an important method for identifying infectious microorganisms and confirming that a selected antimicrobial treatment is appropriate. In this study, we investigated the annual changes in the frequencies of blood isolates and antibiotic susceptibility test (AST) results. METHODS: We created a large database comprising data on all patient-unique blood cultures obtained from January 2007 through December 2016. Blood specimens were cultured using the BD BACTEC FX system, and species identification and AST were performed using the VITEK 2 system. RESULTS: During the 10-year study period, a total of 203,651 blood culture results were collected. Of these, gram-positive cocci, gram-negative rods, and fungi were isolated in 2.15%, 0.55%, and 0.12% of the blood cultures, respectively. Escherichia coli was the most commonly isolated species (22.8%), followed by Staphylococcus epidermidis (16.8%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (8.1%), and Staphylococcus aureus (8.0%). Fungal species were isolated in 3.0% of all positive blood cultures. Candida albicans was the most commonly isolated species (1.1%), followed by Candida parapsilosis (0.6%). Methicillin resistance was seen in 55.2% of S. aureus isolates. The frequencies of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) and carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (CRPA) were 13.1% and 10.9%, respectively. The isolation rates of MRSA, VRE, and CRPA showed different patterns each year. CONCLUSIONS: Among the isolates, E. coli was the most common, followed by S. epidermidis and K. pneumoniae. This study represents a long-term analysis of bloodstream infections, and the results can be used to identify trends in the microorganisms isolated and their drug resistance.


Subject(s)
Bacteremia , Candida , Candida albicans , Drug Resistance , Enterococcus , Escherichia coli , Fungi , Gram-Positive Cocci , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Korea , Methicillin Resistance , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Methods , Pneumonia , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Staphylococcus aureus , Staphylococcus epidermidis
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741983

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Irrigants are imperative in endodontic therapy for the elimination of pathogens from the infected root canal. The present study compared the antimicrobial efficacy of octenidine dihydrochloride (OCT) with chlorhexidine (CHX) and sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) against Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis) for root canal disinfection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was obtained using serial dilution method. The agar diffusion method was then used to determine the zones of inhibition for each irrigant. Lastly, forty 6-mm dentin blocks were prepared from human mandibular premolars and inoculated with S. epidermidis. Samples were randomly divided into 4 groups of 10 blocks and irrigated for 3 minutes with saline (control), 2% CHX, 3% NaOCl, or 0.1% OCT. Dentin samples were then collected immediately for microbial analysis, including an analysis of colony-forming units (CFUs). RESULTS: The MICs of each tested irrigant were 0.05% for CHX, 0.25% for NaOCl, and 0.0125% for OCT. All tested irrigants showed concentration-dependent increase in zones of inhibition, and 3% NaOCl showed the largest zone of inhibition amongst all tested irrigants (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences among the CFU measurements of 2% CHX, 3% NaOCl, and 0.1% OCT showing complete elimination of S. epidermidis in all samples. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that OCT was comparable to or even more effective than CHX and NaOCl, demonstrating antimicrobial activity at low concentrations against S. epidermidis.


Subject(s)
Agar , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Bicuspid , Chlorhexidine , Dental Pulp Cavity , Dentin , Diffusion , Disinfection , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Methods , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Sodium Hypochlorite , Staphylococcus epidermidis , Staphylococcus , Stem Cells
17.
Belo Horizonte; s.n; [s. n.]; 2019. 119 p. ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1369458

ABSTRACT

Ao longo de sua vida útil, instrumentais cirúrgicos são submetidos a sucessivos ciclos de contaminação e processamento. A presença em áreas de difícil acesso, como serrilha e cremalheira, assim como a adoção de práticas inadequadas, durante a prélimpeza e a limpeza, pode dificultar a remoção de resíduos a cada reúso, favorecendo a formação de biofilme. Amplamente isolados como contaminantes de instrumentais cirúrgicos, após o uso, Staphylococcus epidermidis são reconhecidos pela sua capacidade de formar biofilme em diferentes superfícies. Neste sentido, questiona-se: como os métodos de limpeza manual e automatizada atuam na remoção de S. epidermidis aderido à superfície de instrumental cirúrgico submetido à contaminação experimental por diferentes intervalos? Objetivou-se comparar dois protocolos de limpeza, manual e automatizada, quanto à capacidade de remoção de S. epidermidis da superfície de instrumental cirúrgico submetido a diferentes intervalos de contaminação. Tratou-se de uma pesquisa experimental, realizada no Laboratório de Microbiologia Oral e Anaeróbios do Instituto de Ciências Biológicas da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (ICB/UFMG) e no centro de microscopia da UFMG. Foram selecionadas pinças do tipo crile reta, para a análise de áreas com diferentes desafios ao processo de limpeza: superfície irregular (serrilha e cremalheira) e lisa (haste). Os corpos de prova foram contaminados por imersão em Triptical Soya Broth (TSB), contendo 106 UFC/mL de uma amostra clínica de S. epidermidis. A aderência bacteriana, logo após a contaminação e a capacidade de remoção desses microrganismos, submetidos à limpeza manual ou automatizada, foram verificadas depois de uma, duas, quatro, seis, oito e 12 horas. Os resultados foram avaliados por meio de cultura microbiológica e pela microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV). A análise dos resultados ocorreu pelo emprego de técnicas de estatística descritiva e análise de variância (ANOVA) em nível de confiança de 5%. No grupo submetido à contaminação, a carga bacteriana apresentou aumento, ao longo do tempo, variando entre 101­102 UFC/cm2 após uma hora e 104 UFC/cm2 em 12 horas. Verificou-se aderência bacteriana, depois de uma hora, com a formação de biofilme após duas horas e, em geral, um aumento na concentração de microrganismos nos tempos subsequentes. A carga microbiana foi reduzida em 1-2 log10 após limpeza manual e entre 1-3 log10 depois de limpeza automatizada, sendo significativa (p<0,05) em todos os fragmentos e tempos avaliados neste último grupo. A análise, por meio de MEV, demostrou a permanência de biofilme após ambos os métodos. Em geral, fragmentos de haste apresentaram menor carga microbiana, nos diferentes grupos avaliados, sendo essa diferença significativa (p<0,05) ao tempo de seis horas. Concluiu-se que S. epidermidis apresentou a capacidade de aderência rápida levando à formação de biofilme após duas horas de contato com o instrumental cirúrgico com carga bacteriana de 102 UFC/cm2. A limpeza automatizada foi mais efetiva que a limpeza manual, contudo nenhum dos métodos removeu o biofilme formado completamente. As condições de pré-limpeza, bem como a presença em áreas de difícil acesso, como cremalheira e serrilha, são fatores críticos à qualidade do processamento de instrumentais cirúrgicos.


Surgical instruments are subjected to successive contamination and processing cycles throughout their useful life. The presence of areas of difficult access, such as serration and rack, as well as the adoption of improper practices during pre-cleaning and cleaning, can make it difficult to remove residues after each use, favoring the formation of biofilm. Widely isolated as contaminants of surgical instruments after use, Staphylococcus epidermidis are recognized for their ability to form biofilm on different surfaces. In this sense, the question is: how the manual and automated cleaning methods perform on the removal of S. epidermidis adhered to the surface of surgical instruments submitted to experimental contamination for different intervals? We aimed at comparing two leaning protocols, manual and automated, regarding their capacity for removing S. epidermidis from the surface of surgical instruments submitted to different intervals of contamination. This was an experimental research conducted at the Oral and Anaerobic Microbiology Laboratory, ICB/UFMG and at the UFMG microscopy center. Straight crile tweezers were selected to analyze areas with different challenges to the cleaning process: uneven (serrated and rack) and smooth (rod) surface. The specimens were contaminated by immersion in Triptical Soya Broth (TSB), containing 106 CFU/mL of a clinical sample of S. epidermidis. The bacterial adherence and the removal capacity of these microorganisms, submitted to manual or automated cleaning, were verified after one, two, four, six, eight, and 12 hours. Results were evaluated by microbiological culture and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results were analyzed using descriptive statistics and analysis of variance (ANOVA) techniques at a level of 5% confidence. In the group subjected to contamination, the bacterial load increased over time, ranging from 101­102 CFU/cm2 after one hour to 104 CFU/cm2 within 12 hours. Bacterial adhesion was observed after one hour, with the formation of biofilm after two hours, and, in general, an increase in the concentration of microorganisms at subsequent times. The microbial load was reduced by 1-2 log10 after manual cleaning and between 1-3 log10 after automated cleaning and was considered significant (p<0.05) in all fragments and times evaluated in the last group. SEM analysis showed the permanence of biofilm after using both methods. In general, rod fragments presented lower microbial load during the evaluation period in the different groups evaluated, and this difference (p<0.05) was significant at six hours. In conclusion, the S. epidermidis presented fast adherence capacity and biofilm formation after two hours of contact with the surgical instruments with bacterial load of 102 CFU/cm2. The automated cleaning was more effective than manual cleaning. However, neither method completely removed the biofilm formed. Pre-cleaning conditions, as well as the presence of difficult access areas, such as serration and rack, are critical factors in the processing quality of surgical instruments.


Subject(s)
Staphylococcus epidermidis , Surgical Instruments , Sterilization , Biofilms , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Patient Safety
18.
Clinics ; 74: e837, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001824

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To report our experience using conventional culture methods (CM) and pediatric blood culture bottles (PBCBs) for vitreous sample culture of acute postoperative endophthalmitis. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted at the Department of Ophthalmology, Hospital das Clinicas, HCFMUSP, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, BR, from January 2010 to December 2015, and it included 54 patients with clinically suspected acute postoperative endophthalmitis. Vitreous samples were obtained by vitreous tap or vitrectomy. Samples from January 2010 to December 2011 were cultivated in CM, whereas samples from January 2012 to December 2015 were inoculated in PBCBs. The measured outcome was the yield of positive cultures. RESULTS: Twenty cases were included in the CM group, and 34 cases were included in the PBCB group. The yield of positive cultures in PBCBs (64.7%) was significantly higher than that in conventional CM (35%, p=0.034). Staphylococcus epidermidis and Streptococcus viridans were the two most commonly found agents. CONCLUSION: PBCBs can be used successfully in clinically suspected endophthalmitis. The method showed a higher yield of positive cultures than the conventional method. This technique appears to have several advantages over the traditional method: it saves time, as only one medium needs to be inoculated; transportation to a laboratory is easier than in the traditional method, and there is no need to maintain a supply of fresh agar media. The use of PBCBs may be recommended as the primary method for microbiological diagnosis and is especially suitable for office settings and remote clinics.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Postoperative Complications/diagnosis , Staphylococcus epidermidis/isolation & purification , Endophthalmitis/diagnosis , Culture Media/standards , Viridans Streptococci/isolation & purification , Blood Culture/instrumentation , Vitreous Body/microbiology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests/methods , Acute Disease , Retrospective Studies , Blood Culture/methods
19.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20180001, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041589

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Studies have demonstrated that pathogens react to the harsh conditions in human tissues by inducing mechanisms that promote survival. METHODS: Persistence and biofilm-forming ability were evaluated during stress conditions that mimic those in the host. RESULTS: Carbon-source availability had a positive effect on Staphylococcus epidermidis RP62A adhesion during hypoxia, accompanied by a decrease in pH. In contrast, iron limitation led to decreased surface-adherent biomass, accompanied by an increase medium acidification and lactate levels. Interestingly, iron starvation and hypoxia induced persister cells in planktonic culture. CONCLUSIONS: These findings highlight the role of host stress in the virulence of S. epidermidis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Staphylococcus epidermidis/physiology , Virulence/physiology , Biofilms/growth & development , Culture Media/pharmacology , Host Microbial Interactions/physiology , Staphylococcus epidermidis/drug effects , Staphylococcus epidermidis/pathogenicity , Stress, Physiological , Virulence/drug effects , Biological Assay , Host Microbial Interactions/drug effects
20.
Infectio ; 22(3): 141-146, July-Sept. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-953982

ABSTRACT

Resumen Objetivo: Describir las características clínicas y microbiológicas de recién nacidos con sepsis admitidos a UCI neonatal de la Fundación Valle del Lili. Materiales y métodos: estudio retrospectivo descriptivo entre los años 2012 y 2015. Se seleccionaron neonatos con diagnóstico de sepsis con más de tres días de manejo antibiótico. Resultados: Se analizaron datos de las historias de 569 pacientes. El 37.9% (216) de los neonatos tenían peso al nacimiento <1500 g, 29.2% (166) entre 1500-2500 g, y 33.9% (187) >2500 g. Para un total de 396 (69.6%) pacientes con sepsis temprana, 308 (54.1%) con sepsis tardía. Las características clínicas más comunes fueron las respiratorias. El principal diagnóstico de infección en sepsis tardía fue la bacteremia (46.4%), seguido de la infección asociada al catéter (17.8%). El aislamiento más común para sepsis temprana fue Streptococcus agalactiae en el 21.9%, mientras que en sepsis tardía fue Staphylococcus epidermidis en el 22.6%. La mortalidad encontrada en sepsis temprana fue de 8.8% y en tardía de 8.5%. Conclusiones: La sepsis neonatal, a pesar de la mejoría en los controles prenatales, continúa siendo una patología frecuente con un importante porcentaje de morbimortalidad. El Streptococcus agalactiae fue la principal causa de sepsis temprana en nuestros pacientes.


Abstract Objective: To describe the clinical and microbiological characteristics of newborns with sepsis admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of Fundación Valle del Lili in Cali, Colombia. Methods: Descriptive, observational, retrospective study between 2012 and 2015. We included newborns with diagnosis of sepsis with more than three days of antibiotic management. Results: A total of 569 patients were included, 37.9% (216) of the newborns had a birth weight <1500g, 29.2% (166) between 1500 and 2500g , and 32.9% (187) >2500g. 396 (69.6%) patients with early-onset sepsus, 308 (54.1%) had late-onset sepsis. The most common clinical characteristics were respiratory symptoms. The main diagnosis of infection in late-onset sepsis was bacteremia (46.4%) followed by catheter associated infection (17.8%). The most common blood culture isolation for early-onset sepsis was Streptococcus agalactiae (21.9%) and Staphylococcus epidermidis in late onset sepsis (22.6%). The mortality found in early-onset sepsis was 8.8% and in late-onset sepsis was 8.5%. Conclusions: Neonatal sepsis continue to be a frequent diagnosis with significant morbidity and mortality. Better strategies for the prevention of this entity are required including the prenatal period.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Neonatal Sepsis , Infections , Staphylococcus epidermidis , Streptococcus agalactiae , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal , Bacteremia , Colombia , Sepsis , Diagnosis , Catheters , Blood Culture , Anti-Bacterial Agents
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