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Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20180001, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041589


Abstract INTRODUCTION: Studies have demonstrated that pathogens react to the harsh conditions in human tissues by inducing mechanisms that promote survival. METHODS: Persistence and biofilm-forming ability were evaluated during stress conditions that mimic those in the host. RESULTS: Carbon-source availability had a positive effect on Staphylococcus epidermidis RP62A adhesion during hypoxia, accompanied by a decrease in pH. In contrast, iron limitation led to decreased surface-adherent biomass, accompanied by an increase medium acidification and lactate levels. Interestingly, iron starvation and hypoxia induced persister cells in planktonic culture. CONCLUSIONS: These findings highlight the role of host stress in the virulence of S. epidermidis.

Humans , Staphylococcus epidermidis/physiology , Virulence/physiology , Biofilms/growth & development , Culture Media/pharmacology , Host Microbial Interactions/physiology , Staphylococcus epidermidis/drug effects , Staphylococcus epidermidis/pathogenicity , Stress, Physiological , Virulence/drug effects , Biological Assay , Host Microbial Interactions/drug effects
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 51(3): 304-309, Apr.-June 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-957419


Abstract INTRODUCTION: The increasing reports of vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus strains (VRS) haves caused concern worldwide, from the laboratory detection to patient management. This study aimed to identify the occurrence of VRS strains among healthcare professionals from a university hospital. METHODS: A total of 102 Staphylococcus sp. isolates from healthcare professionals, obtained in a previous study were evaluated according to standard techniques for VRS detection. RESULTS: After screening inoculation of plates containing 6µg/ml of vancomycin, 19 resistant isolates were identified. The susceptibility profile to other antimicrobials revealed 18 multidrug resistant isolates. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined by E-test and broth microdilution. According to E-tests, of 19 isolates grown in BHI-V6, four isolates presented MIC ≥ 128 µg/ml, seven with MIC ranging from 4 to 8 µg/ml, and eight with MIC ≤ 2µg/ml. By broth microdilution, 14 isolates presented MIC ≤ 2 µg/ml and five with MIC ≥ 16µg/ml. The presence of the gene vanA was determined by PCR in the five resistant isolates, and this gene was detected in one of the strains. Furthermore, among the 19 strains, the gene mecA was found in 13 (39,4%) isolates, including the strain carrying the gene vanA. CONCLUSIONS: Based on these results, we highlight the presence of one strain carrying both vanA and the mecA genes, as well as multidrug-resistant strains colonizing healthcare professionals, and their importance as potential vectors to spread strains carrying resistance genes in the hospital environment.

Humans , Staphylococcus epidermidis/genetics , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Nasopharynx/microbiology , Methicillin Resistance/genetics , Health Personnel , Carbon-Oxygen Ligases/genetics , Vancomycin Resistance , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Staphylococcus epidermidis/isolation & purification , Staphylococcus epidermidis/drug effects , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Polymerase Chain Reaction
Int. braz. j. urol ; 42(6): 1183-1189, Nov.-Dec. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-828943


ABSTRACT Introduction: Aim of this study is to investigate bacterial growth on non-infected devices and compare antibiotic-coated and non-coated implants. Materials and methods: The charts of 71 patients who underwent revision surgeries for penile prosthesis between 1995 and 2013 were reviewed. Of those, 31 devices were antibiotic-coated prostheses, while 40 of the implants were non-coated. Swab cultures were routinely obtained from corporal, pump or reservoir site during the operation. If a bacterial biofilm was determined on the prosthesis, it was also cultured. Results: A total of 5 different organisms were cultured from 18 patients. Of them, 4 devices were antibiotic-coated and the other 14 were non-coated devices. Staphylococcus epidermidis was the most common organism, while Staphylococcus hominis, beta hemolitic streptococcus, Escherichia coli and Proteus mirabilis were also cultured. All patients who had positive cultures were treated with appropriate antibiotics for four weeks postoperatively. Median follow-up time was 41 months, ranging between 8 and 82 months. One prosthesis (non-coated) became clinically infected in the follow-up period with a totally different organism. Culture positivity rates of antibiotic-coated and non-coated devices were 13% and 35% respectively and the result was significant (p=0.00254). Conclusions: Positive bacterial cultures are present on non-infected penile prostheses at revision surgeries in some of the patients. Antibiotic coated prostheses have much less positive cultures than non-coated devices.

Humans , Staphylococcus epidermidis/growth & development , Penile Prosthesis/microbiology , Prosthesis-Related Infections/prevention & control , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Staphylococcus epidermidis/drug effects , Time Factors , Colony Count, Microbial , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Penile Prosthesis/adverse effects , Cells, Cultured , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , Prosthesis-Related Infections/etiology , Drug Delivery Systems , Middle Aged
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 20(5): 419-428, Sept.-Oct. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-828136


Abstract The mechanisms contributing to persistence of coagulase-negative staphylococci are diverse; to better understanding of their dynamics, the characterization of nosocomial isolates is needed. Our aim was to characterize phenotypic and molecular characteristics of Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus haemolyticus human blood isolates from two tertiary care hospitals in Mexico, the Hospital Universitario in Monterrey and the Hospital Civil in Guadalajara. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined. Biofilm formation was assessed by crystal violet staining. Detection of the ica operon and Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome mec typing were performed by PCR. Clonal relatedness was determined by Pulsed-fiel gel electrophoresis and Multi locus sequence typing. Methicillin-resistance was 85.5% and 93.2% for S. epidermidis and S. haemolyticus, respectively. Both species showed resistance >70% to norfloxacin, clindamycin, levofloxacin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, and erythromycin. Three S. epidermidis and two S. haemolyticus isolates were linezolid-resistant (one isolate of each species was cfr+). Most isolates of both species were strong biofilm producers (92.8% of S. epidermidis and 72.9% of S. haemolyticus). The ica operon was amplified in 36 (43.4%) S. epidermidis isolates. SCCmec type IV was found in 47.2% of the S. epidermidis isolates and SCCmec type V in 14.5% of S. haemolyticus isolates. No clonal relatedness was found in either species. Resistance to clindamycin, levofloxacin, erythromycin, oxacillin, and cefoxitin was associated with biofilm production for both species (p < 0.05). A G2576T mutation in 23S rRNA gene was detected in an S. haemolyticus linezolid-resistant isolate. All linezolid-resistant S. epidermidis isolates belonged to ST23; isolate with SCCmec type IV belonged to ST7, and isolate with SCCmec type III belonged to ST2. This is the first report of ST7 in Mexico. There was a high genetic diversity in both species, though both species shared characteristics that may contibute to virulence.

Humans , Male , Female , Staphylococcus epidermidis/isolation & purification , Staphylococcus epidermidis/drug effects , Coagulase/blood , Staphylococcus haemolyticus/drug effects , Linezolid/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Reference Values , Staphylococcus epidermidis/genetics , DNA, Bacterial , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field , Coagulase/isolation & purification , Coagulase/genetics , Biofilms/growth & development , Biofilms/drug effects , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Staphylococcus haemolyticus/isolation & purification , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Multilocus Sequence Typing , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction , Mexico
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 111(3): 155-160, Mar. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-777372


Coagulase-negative staphylococci, particularly Staphylococcus epidermidis, can be regarded as potential reservoirs of resistance genes for pathogenic strains, e.g., Staphylococcus aureus. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of different resistance phenotypes to macrolide, lincosamide, and streptogramins B (MLSB) antibiotics among erythromycin-resistant S. epidermidis, together with the evaluation of genes promoting the following different types of MLSB resistance:ermA, ermB, ermC,msrA, mphC, and linA/A’. Susceptibility to spiramycin was also examined. Among 75 erythromycin-resistantS. epidermidis isolates, the most frequent phenotypes were macrolides and streptogramins B (MSB) and constitutive MLSB (cMLSB). Moreover, all strains with the cMLSB phenotype and the majority of inducible MLSB (iMLSB) isolates were resistant to spiramycin, whereas strains with the MSB phenotype were sensitive to this antibiotic. The D-shape zone of inhibition around the clindamycin disc near the spiramycin disc was found for some spiramycin-resistant strains with the iMLSB phenotype, suggesting an induction of resistance to clindamycin by this 16-membered macrolide. The most frequently isolated gene was ermC, irrespective of the MLSB resistance phenotype, whereas the most often noted gene combination wasermC, mphC, linA/A’. The results obtained showed that the genes responsible for different mechanisms of MLSB resistance in S. epidermidis generally coexist, often without the phenotypic expression of each of them.

Humans , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial/genetics , Genotype , Lincosamides/pharmacology , Macrolides/pharmacology , Staphylococcus epidermidis/drug effects , Staphylococcus epidermidis/genetics , Streptogramin Group B/pharmacology , Clindamycin/pharmacology , Disk Diffusion Antimicrobial Tests , Erythromycin/pharmacology , Genetic Testing/methods , Lincomycin/pharmacology , Phenotype , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Prevalence , Spiramycin/pharmacology , Staphylococcus epidermidis/isolation & purification
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 34(4): 506-513, oct.-dic. 2014. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-730933


La histoplasmosis es una afección polifacética producida por el hongo dimorfo Histoplasma capsulatum , cuyas esporas son inhaladas y llegan al pulmón, órgano primario de infección. La forma meníngea, considerada como una de las manifestaciones más graves de esta micosis, suele presentarse en individuos con alteraciones en la inmunidad celular: pacientes con síndrome de inmunodeficiencia humana adquirida, con lupus eritematoso sistémico o con trasplante de órgano sólido, así como en lactantes, debido a su inmadurez inmunológica. La forma de presentación más usual es de resolución espontánea y se observa en individuos inmunocompetentes que se han expuesto a altas concentraciones de conidias y fragmentos miceliares del hongo. En estas personas, la afección se manifiesta por trastornos pulmonares y por la posterior diseminación a otros órganos y sistemas. Se presenta un caso de histoplasmosis del sistema nervioso central en un niño inmunocompetente.

Histoplasmosis is a multifaceted condition caused by the dimorphic fungi Histoplasma capsulatum whose infective spores are inhaled and reach the lungs, the primary organ of infection. The meningeal form, considered one of the most serious manifestations of this mycosis, is usually seen in individuals with impaired cellular immunity such as patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, systemic lupus erythematous or solid organ transplantation, and infants given their immunological immaturity. The most common presentation is self-limited and occurs in immunocompetent individuals who have been exposed to high concentrations of conidia and mycelia fragments of the fungi. In those people, the condition is manifested by pulmonary disorders and late dissemination to other organs and systems. We report a case of central nervous system histoplasmosis in an immunocompetent child.

Child , Humans , Male , Diagnostic Errors , Histoplasmosis/diagnosis , Meningitis, Fungal/diagnosis , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Amphotericin B/adverse effects , Amphotericin B/therapeutic use , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Cerebrospinal Fluid/microbiology , Device Removal , Headache/etiology , Histoplasma/immunology , Histoplasma/isolation & purification , Histoplasmin/blood , Histoplasmin/cerebrospinal fluid , Histoplasmosis/complications , Histoplasmosis/cerebrospinal fluid , Histoplasmosis/drug therapy , Hydrocephalus/diagnosis , Hydrocephalus/etiology , Hydrocephalus/surgery , Hypokalemia/etiology , Immunocompetence , Itraconazole/therapeutic use , Meningitis, Fungal/complications , Meningitis, Fungal/cerebrospinal fluid , Meningitis, Fungal/drug therapy , Meningitis, Fungal/microbiology , Migraine Disorders/diagnosis , Prosthesis-Related Infections/etiology , Prosthesis-Related Infections/microbiology , Staphylococcal Infections/etiology , Staphylococcus epidermidis/drug effects , Vancomycin Resistance , Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt/adverse effects
Braz. j. microbiol ; 45(3): 799-805, July-Sept. 2014. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-727005


The aim of the study was to analyze epidemiological and microbiological aspects of oral colonization by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus of health care workers in a cancer hospital. Interview and saliva sampling were performed with 149 health care workers. Antimicrobial resistance was determined by disk diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration. Polymerase Chain Reaction, Internal Transcribed Spacer-Polymerase Chain Reaction and Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis were performed for genotypic characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus. Risk factors were determined by logistic regression. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus colonization prevalence was 19.5%, denture wearing (p = 0.03), habit of nail biting (p = 0.04) and preparation and administration of antimicrobial (p = 0.04) were risk factors identified. All methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus were S. epidermidis, 94.4% of them had mecA gene. Closely related and indistinguishable methicillin-resistant S. epidermidis were detected. These results highlight that HCWs which have contact with patient at high risk for developing infections were identified as colonized by MRSE in the oral cavity, reinforcing this cavity as a reservoir of these bacteria and the risk to themselves and patients safety, because these microorganisms may be spread by coughing and talking.

Humans , Carrier State/epidemiology , Carrier State/microbiology , Health Personnel , Methicillin Resistance , Staphylococcal Infections/epidemiology , Staphylococcal Infections/microbiology , Staphylococcus epidermidis/drug effects , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Cancer Care Facilities , Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field , Genotype , Interviews as Topic , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Mouth/microbiology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Saliva/microbiology , Staphylococcus epidermidis/classification , Staphylococcus epidermidis/genetics , Staphylococcus epidermidis/isolation & purification
Braz. j. microbiol ; 45(2): 539-544, Apr.-June 2014. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-723115


Staphylococcus epidermidis which exists in healthy human skin as a commensal inhabitant is also an important pathogen forming biofilms on many surfaces and recently, increased resistance traits were suggested to be acquired in biofilm environments. In this study; clinical Prevalences, antibiotic resistances and biofilm formations of S. epidermidis strains were determined and comparison of all these findings with each other was carried out in order to take precautions against them and figure out if high biofilm forming S. epidermidis strains display multi drug resistance. According to our results; samples of wound and blood were the most S. epidermidis isolated clinical materials (40%; 35%) and cardiothoracic surgery was the most S. epidermidis observed service unit. All of these strains were sensitive to vancomycin, however 65% of them showed resistance to all β-lactam antibiotics (Penicillin, Oxacillin, Amoxicilin / Clavulonic acid), used in this study and 60% of all S. epidermidis strains were found as multi drug resistant. When the results of strong biofilm forming S. epidermidis strains are examined; they were isolated from sample of blood and service unit of cardiovascular surgery in highest frequency and 80% of them were β-lactam resistant whereas 100% of them were multi drug resistant. One of these multi drug resistant strains which was resistant to maximum amount of different antimicrobial classes, was also observed as maximum biofilm forming strain among all the other S. epidermidis isolates. Multi drug resistance in strong biofilm forming strains shows that; biofilms play a role in antimicrobial resistance traits of S. epidermidis.

Humans , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Biofilms/growth & development , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Staphylococcus epidermidis/drug effects , Staphylococcus epidermidis/physiology , Staphylococcal Infections/microbiology , Staphylococcus epidermidis/isolation & purification
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-163052


Aims: This study describes the potential of real-time bioluminescence imaging in evaluating the antibiotic efficiency of two cylinder-shaped bioabsorbable antibiotic-releasing composites by in vitro inhibition zone tests. The bacterial infections of bone tissue can cause extensive hard and soft tissue damage and decrease the efficiency of oral antibiotic therapy due to the poor blood circulation in the infected area. To overcome this problem, new, locally antibiotic-releasing biodegradable composites have been developed. Study Design & Methodology: The two composites evaluated in this study were composed of poly(L-lactide-co-ε-caprolactone) matrix, β-tricalcium phosphate ceramic and either ciprofloxacin or rifampicin antibiotic. The composites were tested with genetically modified model pathogens of osteomyelitis (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus epidermidis) in vitro in inhibition zone tests using a method of real-time bioluminescence. Results: The first signs of the effect of the released ciprofloxacin or rifampicin became visible after four hours of incubation and were seen as changed bioluminescence around the composite pellet on a culture dish. Both of the composite types showed excellent effects against the sensor bacteria within the diffusion area. Bioluminescence measurements suggested that no survivor bacteria capable of evolving resistant strains were left inside the inhibition zones. The S. epidermidis bacterial strain was an inhibition sensor and P. aeruginosa was a stress sensor. Conclusion: These results highlight the potential of the composite materials against the pathogens of osteomyelitis. The approach allows continuous visual inspection of the efficacy of the antibiotics against the bacteria

Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Bioluminescence Resonance Energy Transfer Techniques , Ciprofloxacin/administration & dosage , Ciprofloxacin/pharmacology , Drug Delivery Systems/methods , Drug Resistance, Microbial , In Vitro Techniques , Luminescence/methods , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/drug effects , Rifampin/administration & dosage , Rifampin/pharmacology , Staphylococcus epidermidis/drug effects
Braz. oral res ; 27(1): 20-25, Jan.-Feb. 2013. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-660447


This study evaluated the in vitro effects of four natural substances on the biomass of bacterial biofilms to assess their potential use as root canal irrigants. The following substances and their combinations were tested: 0.2% farnesol; 5% xylitol; 20% xylitol; 0.2% farnesol and 5% xylitol; 0.2% farnesol, 5% xylitol, and 0.1% lactoferrin; 5% xylitol and 0.1% lactoferrin; and 20 mM salicylic acid. The crystal violet assay was used to evaluate the effects of these substances on the biomass of biofilms formed by Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus epidermidis. All substances except for 20 mM salicylic acid and 20% xylitol reduced biofilm mass when compared to controls. The combination of farnesol and xylitol was the most effective agent against E. faecalis ATCC 29212 (p < 0.05). Farnesol combined with xylitol and lactoferrin was the most effective against biofilms of the endodontic strain of E. faecalis MB35 (p < 0.05). Similarly, combinations involving farnesol, xylitol, and lactoferrin reduced the biomass of S. epidermidis biofilms. In general, farnesol, xylitol, and lactoferrin or farnesol and xylitol reduced biofilm biomass most effectively. Therefore, it was concluded that combinations of antibiofilm substances have potential use in endodontic treatment to combat biofilms.

Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Biofilms/drug effects , Root Canal Irrigants/pharmacology , Root Canal Therapy/methods , Drug Combinations , Enterococcus faecalis/drug effects , Enterococcus faecalis/growth & development , Farnesol/pharmacology , Gentian Violet/chemistry , Lactoferrin/pharmacology , Reproducibility of Results , Salicylic Acid/pharmacology , Staphylococcus epidermidis/drug effects , Staphylococcus epidermidis/growth & development , Time Factors , Xylitol/pharmacology
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-139428


Background & objectives: Staphylococcus epidermidis is the most common pathogen associated with infections of surgical implants and other prosthetic devices owing to its adhesion and biofilm-forming ability on biomaterials surfaces. The objective of this study was to compare susceptibilities of biofilm-grown cells to single antibiotic and in combination with others to identify those that were effective against S. epidermidis biofilms. Methods: Biofilms were grown in the MBEC™ assay system. The use of this methodology allowed a rapid testing of an array of antibiotics alone (eight) and in combination (25 double combinations). The antibacterial effect of all treatments tested was determined by colony forming units (cfu) enumeration method. Results: The MBEC™ assay system produced multiple and reproducible biofilms of S. epidermidis. Although none of the antibiotics tested have demonstrated an antimicrobial effect (log reduction >3) against all S. epidermidis isolates biofilms, but combinations containing rifampicin showed in general a broader spectrum namely rifampicin-gentamicin and rifampicin-clindamycin. Levofloxacin in combination with rifampicin showed a killing effect against three isolates but failed to attain a bactericidal action against the other two. Interpretation & conclusions: Our findings showed that rifampicin should be a part of any antibiotic therapy directed against S. epidermidis biofilms. However, the efficient antibiotics combination might be dependent on S. epidermidis isolate being tested.

Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Biological Assay/methods , Biofilms , Clindamycin , Drug Combinations , Gentamicins , Humans , Infections/etiology , Infections/microbiology , Ofloxacin , Prostheses and Implants/microbiology , Rifampin , Staphylococcus epidermidis/drug effects
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 44(1): 0-0, mar. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-639712


Staphylococcus epidermidis is a common pathogen in medical device-associated infections. Its major pathogenic factor is the ability to form adherent biofilms. In this work, three S. epidermidis strains isolated from infected catheters were chosen with the objective of investigating the effect of D-glucosamine (D-Glu) on reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, adhesion and biofilm formation. The chemiluminescence and nitroblue tetrazolium reduction assays were used to determine ROS production by planktonic S. epidermidis and the microtiter plate assay to quantify in vitro biofilm formation. D-Glu generated a dose-dependent increase in ROS in planktonic cells with maximum stimuli at a concentration of 0.05 mM, and reduced adhesion and biofilm formation. On the other hand, glucose showed an antioxidative stress action and promoted biofilm adhesion and growth. This study suggests a potential application of D-Glu against infections associated with indwelling medical devices, since the oxidative stress caused by this hexosamine in planktonic S. epidermidis contributed to reducing biofilm formation.

Staphylococcus epidermidis es un patógeno común en infecciones asociadas a dispositivos médicos. Su factor de patogenicidad más importante es la capacidad para formar biofilms. Se trabajó con tres cepas de S. epidermidis aisladas de catéteres, con las que se efectuaron ensayos de quimioluminiscencia y de reducción de azul de nitrotetrazolio, para determinar la producción de especies reactivas del oxígeno (ERO) en S. epidermidis planctónico, y ensayos dirigidos a cuantificar la formación de biofilm in vitro, empleando placas multipocillos. La D-glucosamina generó un aumento dependiente de la dosis en la producción de ERO en las células planctónicas, con un estímulo máximo a una concentración de 0,05 mM. Este aumento condμlo a la reducción de la adhesión y de la formación de biofilm. La adición de glucosa, en cambio, mostró un efecto anti estrés oxidativo y promovió la adhesión y el crecimiento de biofilm. Este estudio sugiere una posible aplicación de la D-glucosamina contra las infecciones asociadas a dispositivos médicos, ya que el estrés oxidativo provocado por esta hexosamina contribuyó a una menor formación de biofilm.

Bacterial Adhesion/drug effects , Biofilms/drug effects , Glucosamine/pharmacology , In Vitro Techniques , Oxidants/pharmacology , Staphylococcus epidermidis/drug effects , Catheters/microbiology , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Equipment Contamination , Glass , Glucose/pharmacology , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Polystyrenes , Staphylococcus epidermidis/isolation & purification , Staphylococcus epidermidis/physiology
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 32(1): 125-133, ene.-mar. 2012. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-639818


Introducción. Actualmente, la resistencia a los antimicrobianos de las cepas bacterianas involucradas en el desarrollo del acné es una realidad y se hace necesario buscar alternativas terapéuticas para su tratamiento. Objetivos. Diseñar fórmulas en gel a base de aceites esenciales y ácido acético, y evaluar su efectividad en pacientes voluntarios afectados por acné. Materiales y métodos. Se trata de un estudio experimental simple enmascarado de tres fórmulas en gel sobre cuatro grupos de siete pacientes. Los tratamientos antibacterianos (aceites esenciales), queratolíticos y mixtos (ácido acético), se aplicaron diariamente por espacio de ocho semanas. Se hicieron controles semanales para evaluar la evolución de los pacientes. Resultados. Todos los grupos reportaron mejoría (desaparición de las lesiones) de la condición del acné, la cual osciló entre 43 y 75 %, con leves efectos secundarios transitorios relacionados con la aplicación de los tratamientos utilizados. Conclusiones. Las fórmulas estudiadas mostraron ser estables química y físicamente durante la aplicación de los tratamientos, lo cual se demostró mediante análisis de cromatografía de gases, en la cual no se evidenció ningún cambio en los perfiles de composición de los aceites esenciales ni en el del ácido acético. Los resultados se catalogaron entre buenos y excelentes, en particular, el del ácido acético, que logró mejorías superiores al 75 %, dada su actividad mixta antiséptica y queratolítica. Los efectos secundarios (ardor y enrojecimiento) desaparecieron a los pocos minutos de realizada la aplicación y no impidieron el cumplimiento de los tratamientos.

Introduction. Currently, the antimicrobial resistance has developed in bacterial strains involved in the development of acne. Therefore, alternatives to antibiotic treatment have become necessary. Objectives. Gel formulations were designed based on essential oils and acetic acid, and their effectiveness was evaluated in patients affected by acne. Materials and methods. Masked simple experimental study of three gel formulations on 28 volunteer patients, separated in four groups of seven patients. Treatments were applied daily for eight weeks and consisted of (1) antibacterial (essential oils), (2) keratolytic medication (3) essential oils mixed with acetic acetic, and (4) kerolytic medication with acetic acid. Weekly checks were conducted to evaluate patient improvement. Results. All groups reported an improvement of the acne condition, which ranged between 43% and 75% clearance of lesions. Evidence of treatment disappeared within minutes, showing little discomfort or side effects after application. Conclusions. The essential oil formulations were chemically and physically stable during application of treatments. This was demonstrated by gas chromatography, where no evidence no change neither the composition profiles of essential oils nor in acetic acid. The results were ranked good to excellent, particularly for the acetic acid mixture, which achieved improvements of 75%. This appeared to be a result of their joint antiseptic and keratolytic activity. Side effects (burning and redness) disappeared within a few minutes of completing the application, therefore, did not interfere with adherence to treatment.

Adolescent , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Young Adult , Acne Vulgaris/drug therapy , Citrus sinensis , Dermatologic Agents/therapeutic use , Ocimum basilicum , Oils, Volatile/therapeutic use , Phytotherapy , Plant Oils/therapeutic use , Administration, Cutaneous , Acetic Acid/administration & dosage , Acetic Acid/therapeutic use , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Chemistry, Pharmaceutical , Chromatography, Gas , Drug Combinations , Dermatologic Agents/chemistry , Gels , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Keratolytic Agents/administration & dosage , Keratolytic Agents/therapeutic use , Oils, Volatile/administration & dosage , Plant Oils/administration & dosage , Propionibacterium acnes/drug effects , Single-Blind Method , Staphylococcus epidermidis/drug effects
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 43(6): 682-685, Nov.-Dec. 2010. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-569431


INTRODUÇÃO: Devido à sepse bacteriana associada à transfusão de concentrados plaquetários (CPs) ter sérias consequências clínicas para os pacientes, alguns procedimentos têm sido incorporados na preparação e no controle de qualidade dos componentes sanguíneos para reduzir o risco da contaminação bacteriana. Este artigo descreve a prevalência da contaminação bacteriana dos CPs que foram transfundidos, o espectro bacteriano detectado com seu perfil de sensibilidade aos antimicrobianos e as reações transfusionais nos receptores. MÉTODOS: Um total de 292 CPs (278 randômicos e 14 por aférese), proveniente do Hemocentro do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul (HEMORGS) de Santa Maria foi testado. As quantidades de 100μL e 200μL foram coletadas da porção tubular da bolsa de plaquetas e semeadas utilizando dois tipos de metodologias. RESULTADOS: Em cinco unidades(1,7 por cento; 5/292) foram isoladas bactérias pela metodologia qualitativa e apenas uma pela quantitativa. Staphylococcus epidermidis foi o microrganismo identificado em todas as amostras. Dois pacientes apresentaram sepse associada à transfusão com desfecho fatal. CONCLUSÕES: A contaminação bacteriana pelas transfusões de CPs constitui-se num importante problema de saúde pública devido a sua associação com altas taxas de morbidade e mortalidade. Neste estudo, somente microrganismos gram-positivos foram isolados sendo que nenhuma amostra obtida por aférese apresentou contaminação.

INTRODUCTION: Bacterial sepsis associated with the transfusion of platelet concentrates (PCs) results in serious clinical implications for patients. Given these implications, certain procedures have been integrated into the preparation and quality control of blood components to reduce the risk of bacterial contamination. This article describes the prevalence of bacterial contamination on transfused PCs, the bacterial spectrum detected and their antimicrobial susceptibility profile and transfusion reactions in receptors. METHODS: A total of 292 PCs (278 random and 14 per apheresis) from the Blood Center of the State of Rio Grande do Sul (HEMORGS), located in the city of Santa Maria, were tested. Quantities of 100μL and 200μL were collected from platelet bag tubing and seeded using two methodologies. RESULTS: Using the qualitative methodology, bacteria were isolated in five units (1.7 percent; 5/292), while only one was isolated using the quantitative methodology. Staphylococcus epidermidis was the microorganism identified in all samples. Two patients died of transfusion-related sepsis. CONCLUSIONS: Bacterial contamination due to PC transfusion is considered a major public health problem due to its association with high rates of morbidity and mortality. In this study only gram-positive microorganisms were isolated and none of the samples obtained by apheresis presented contamination.

Adult , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Middle Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Blood Platelets/microbiology , Platelet Transfusion/adverse effects , Sepsis/etiology , Staphylococcal Infections/etiology , Staphylococcus epidermidis/isolation & purification , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Staphylococcus epidermidis/drug effects , Staphylococcus epidermidis/enzymology
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 72(5): 626-630, set.-out. 2009. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-534180


OBJETIVO: Avaliar a influência da ação antimicrobiana das soluções multiuso para desinfecção de lentes de contato hidrofílicas. MÉTODOS: Duas soluções multiuso denominadas solução A (poliquaternário-1 a 0,001 por cento e miristamidopropil dimetilamina a 0,0005 por cento) e solução B (poliaminopropil biguanida a 0,0001 por cento) foram testadas em lentes de contato hidrofílicas contaminadas com Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC27583), Staphylococcus epidermidis (ATCC1226), Klebsiella pneumoniae (ATCC13883), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC25923) e Candida albicans (ATCC 10231) para verificar a quantidade de redução do crescimento dos microrganismos após o enxágue com as soluções. Foram seguidas as instruções preconizadas pelos fabricantes. RESULTADOS: Houve redução de 90 por cento do crescimento de Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus e Candida albicans. Não houve crescimento de Klebsiella pneumoniae. CONCLUSÃO: As soluções testadas neste trabalho mostraram redução do número de microrganismos testados.

PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy of disinfecting solutions in hydrophilic contact lenses (CL). METHODS: Two multi-use solutions denominated solution A (0.001 percent polyquaternium-1 and 0.0005 percent myristamidopropyl dimethylamine) and solution B (0.0001 percent polyaminopropyl biguanide) were used. The solutions were tested in hydrophilic contact lenses infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC27583), Staphylococcus epidermidis (ATCC1226), Klebsiella pneumoniae (ATCC13883), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC25923) and Candida albicans (ATCC 10231) and the decrease in microorganisms growth after the hydrophilic contact lenses were cleaned with the respective solutions was verified. The manufacture's instructions were followed. RESULTS: A decrease of 90 percent of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans and a decrease 100 percent of Klebsiella pneumoniae was observed. CONCLUSION: The solutions decreased the amount of microorganisms tested.

Animals , Bacteria/drug effects , Candida albicans/drug effects , Contact Lens Solutions/pharmacology , Contact Lenses, Hydrophilic/microbiology , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Bacteria/growth & development , Biguanides/pharmacology , Colony Count, Microbial , Candida albicans/growth & development , Klebsiella/drug effects , Klebsiella/growth & development , Polymers/pharmacology , Propylamines/pharmacology , Propylamines/standards , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/drug effects , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/growth & development , Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Staphylococcus aureus/growth & development , Staphylococcus epidermidis/drug effects , Staphylococcus epidermidis/growth & development
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 13(3): 177-182, June 2009. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-538517


Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci are the main cause of sepsis in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). Central venous catheters (CVCs) are an important part of critical neonates' treatment and are associated with sepsis. The aim of this study was to investigate two outbreaks caused by Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis associated with CVC inserted by phlebotomy in critical neonates. The surveillance was performed from January 2001 to December 2005 at the Brazilian NICU. The genotypic analysis of oxacillin susceptible S. aureus (OSSA) and oxacillin resistant S. epidermidis (ORSE) was performed based on pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Staphylococcus was the most frequent pathogen (65.8 percent) with highest incidence of CoNS (59.9 percent) followed by S. aureus (40.1 percent). During the five years of surveillance, there were two outbreaks detected, occurred in January-February/02 and August/02 and confirmed by PFGE analysis. The predisposing factors for infection corresponding to both outbreaks were: age <7 days, hospitalization > 7 days, and use of polyethylene CVC through dissection of vein (phlebotomy). This is the first relate of staphylococcal outbreaks associated with CVC inserted by phlebotomy in NICU. PFGE showed polyclonal spread of OSSA during both epidemic and endemic period, and two monoclonal outbreaks of ORSE in the same epidemic period of OSSA.

Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Male , Catheterization, Central Venous/adverse effects , Cross Infection/microbiology , Disease Outbreaks , Staphylococcal Infections/microbiology , Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Staphylococcus epidermidis/isolation & purification , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Brazil/epidemiology , Coagulase/metabolism , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal/statistics & numerical data , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Phlebotomy/adverse effects , Staphylococcal Infections/epidemiology , Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Staphylococcus epidermidis/drug effects
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 42(3): 294-298, Mar. 2009. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-507342


The skin and mucous membranes of healthy subjects are colonized by strains of Staphylococcus epidermidis showing a high diversity of genomic DNA polymorphisms. Prolonged hospitalization and the use of invasive procedures promote changes in the microbiota with subsequent colonization by hospital strains. We report here a patient with prolonged hospitalization due to chronic pancreatitis who was treated with multiple antibiotics, invasive procedures and abdominal surgery. We studied the dynamics of skin colonization by S. epidermidis leading to the development of catheter-related infections and compared the genotypic profile of clinical and microbiota strains by pulsed field gel electrophoresis. During hospitalization, the normal S. epidermidis skin microbiota exhibiting a polymorphic genomic DNA profile was replaced with a hospital-acquired biofilm-producer S. epidermidis strain that subsequently caused repetitive catheter-related infections.

Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Catheter-Related Infections/microbiology , Cross Infection/microbiology , Staphylococcal Infections/microbiology , Staphylococcus epidermidis/isolation & purification , DNA, Bacterial/genetics , Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field , Genotype , Length of Stay , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Pancreatitis, Chronic/surgery , Staphylococcus epidermidis/drug effects , Staphylococcus epidermidis/genetics
Braz. oral res ; 21(1): 35-39, Jan.-Mar. 2007. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-444559


The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of different trademarks and compositions of gutta-percha points and calcium hydroxide pastes used in endodontic therapy. The evaluated material consisted of gutta-percha points containing calcium hydroxide (RoekoTM), gutta-percha points containing chlorhexidine (RoekoTM), two convencional gutta-percha points (Endo PointsTM and RoekoTM) and two calcium hydroxide pastes (CalenTM and Calen/PMCC TM). Antimicrobial tests included five species of microorganisms: Escherichia coli (ATCC10538), Staphylococcus epidermidis (ATCC12228), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC6538), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC27853), and Micrococcus luteus (ATCC9341). The Agar difusion method was employed. The plates were kept at room temperature for 2 h for prediffusion and then incubated at 37°C for 24 h. The triphenyltetrazolium chloride gel was added for optimization and the zones of inhibition were measured. Statistical evaluation was carried out using analysis of variance and Tukey Test. The obtained results showed that all microbial species used in the study were inhibited by the gutta-percha points containing chlorhexidine and by the calcium hydroxide pastes (CalenTM and Calen/PMCC TM), with similar results (p > 0.05). No antimicrobial activity was observed for the other groups. It was concluded that the gutta-percha points containing chlorhexidine presented antimicrobial activity, whereas the gutta-percha points containing calcium hydroxide did not.

O objetivo deste estudo foi a avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana de diferentes marcas e composições de cones de guta-percha e pastas à base de hidróxido de cálcio utilizados em endodontia. Os materiais avaliados foram: cones de guta-percha contendo hidróxido de cálcio (RoekoTM), cones de guta-percha contendo clorexidina (RoekoTM), duas marcas de cones de guta-percha (Endo PointsTM e RoekoTM) e duas pastas à base de hidróxido de cálcio (CalenTM e Calen/PMCC TM). Os testes antimicrobianos incluíram 5 espécies de microrganismos: Escherichia coli (ATCC10538), Staphylococcus epidermidis (ATCC12228), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC6538), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC27853) e Micrococcus luteus (ATCC9341). O método empregado foi o de difusão em Agar. As placas foram mantidas em temperatura ambiente por 2 horas para pré-difusão e então incubadas a 37°C por 24 horas. O gel de cloreto de trifeniltetrazólio foi acrescentado para otimização e as zonas de inibição foram medidas. A análise estatística foi realizada pela análise de variância e pelo teste de Tukey. Os resultados obtidos demonstraram que todas as espécies microbianas usadas foram inibidas pelos cones de guta-percha com clorexidina e pelas pastas à base de hidróxido de cálcio (CalenTM e Calen/PMCC TM), com resultados similares entre os materiais (p > 0.05). Nenhuma atividade antimicrobiana foi observada para os demais grupos. Concluiu-se que os cones de guta-percha com clorexidina apresentaram atividade antimicrobiana, enquanto os cones com hidróxido de cálcio não demonstraram esta propriedade.

Anti-Infective Agents, Local/pharmacology , Calcium Hydroxide/pharmacology , Chlorhexidine/pharmacology , Gutta-Percha , Gram-Positive Bacteria/drug effects , Analysis of Variance , Endodontics , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Gutta-Percha/standards , Micrococcus luteus/drug effects , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/drug effects , Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Staphylococcus epidermidis/drug effects , Tooth Root/drug effects , Tooth Root/microbiology
Sudan Journal of Medical Sciences. 2007; 2 (4): 257-262
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-103811


In Nigeria, the widespread use of antibiotics had led to high levels of resistance among bacterial isolates from patients with nosocomial infections. This had led to prolonged hospital stay and antibiotic therapy, especially beta-lactam antibiotics that predispose patients to acquisition of methicillin - resistant Staph. aureus [MRSA] and coagulase negative resistant staphylococci. To evaluate the resistant pattern of multi-drug resistant strains of 80 clinical Staph. aureus, 22 environmental Staph. aureus, 30 clinical Staph. epidermidis and 12 environmental Staph. epidermidis to methicillin and vancomycin from teaching hospitals in Nigeria. The Staphylococcus species were identified and confirmed by gram-positive positive reaction, tested for mannitol salt fermentation and DNase production. The organisms were confirmed to be Staph. aureus and Staph. epidermidis by the tube coagulase test. The antibiotics susceptibility patterns were determined both by overnight broth-micro-dilution and agar disk diffusion methods. The isolates were resistant to ampicillin, followed by penicillin, tetracycline, erythromycin and gentamicin but to a lesser extent were sensitive to ciprofloxacin. All the multi-drug resistant [MDR] Staphylococcus species were 100% sensitive to vancomycin and methicillin with a minimum inhibition concentration [MIC] breakpoint <4 micro g/ml to vancomycin and MIC < 5 micro g/ml to methicillin on Mueller Hinton agar supplemented with 2% NaCI. The results indicated that methicillin and vancomycin are still very potent antibiotics against staphylococcal infections in Nigeria

Humans , Staphylococcus epidermidis/drug effects , Drug Resistance, Multiple , Methicillin , Vancomycin , Hospitals, Teaching
Journal of Isfahan Medical School. 2007; 25 (84): 79-87
in Persian | IMEMR | ID: emr-83394


Some needs of patients can be provided by application of antimicrobial fibers in fabrics preparation. The aim of this study was to assess the antimicrobial effect of a particular kind of these fibers. The antimicrobial fibers were produced by Isfahan Poly Acryl company. We studied three resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains, one Staphylococcus epidermidis strain and one standard Staphylococcus aureus strain [ATCC6538p=PTCC1112]. At first sensitivity of sample strains to the controlling effect of pure antimicrobial agent was proved, and then their MIC was determined with agar dilution method. In the next stage, the effect of antibacterial activity of antibacterial fibers on these strains was studied before and after washing. The effect of antimicrobial pure agent of fibers was compared with the effect of penicillin G as the first selected antibiotic for treatment of Staphylococcus originated infections. Antimicrobial fibers containing 30%, 60% and 100% antimicrobial agent had significant effects on Staphylococcus strains after 24 hours. In spite of the high MIC of penicillin G on these bacteria [32-64 microg/ml], the antibacterial pure agent of fibers with a MIC about 10-4 microl/ml inhibited the bacteria growth. The results confirmed the antibacterial activity of examined fibers in preventing and controlling nosocomial infections resulted from Staphylococcus sp. We hope that clinical trial in the near future would provide the possibility of using these fibers in clinical experiences

Anti-Infective Agents , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Wounds and Injuries/microbiology , Staphylococcus epidermidis/drug effects , Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Penicillin G