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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e254016, 2024. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364529

ABSTRACT

The present study was conducted to isolate and characterize bacteria from water and soil sample taken from the Lahore Canal at different sites i.e. Mall Road, Mohlanwal and Khera site. Isolated bacterial strains were identified on the basis of morphological and biochemical tests. Identification was confirmed by culturing bacteria on selective media. Antibiotic resistance test was also performed to observe the resistance of bacteria against different antibiotics. Blood agar test was performed for identification of different pathogenic bacteria. The result revealed that water and soil samples of Lahore Canal Lahore from different sites were contaminated with Escherichia coli, Salmonella sp., Vibrio sp., Bacillus spp., Enterococcus sp. and Staphylococcus spp. Due to presence of these pathogens, this water is not suitable for any domestic and irrigation use. Study also revealed that water of the Lahore Canal is harmful for human health as it is contaminated with bacteria that can cause severe disease e.g., Escherichia coli can cause gastroenteritis, Bacillus spp. can cause nausea and vomiting, Enterococcus may infect urinary tract, Salmonella sp. is responsible for Bacteremia, Staphylococcus spp. can cause mild fever and Vibrio sp. can be the reason of cholera. Thus it is rendered unfit for any kind of human use even other than drinking like swimming, bathing, washing etc., until and unless some remedial measures are employed to eradicate pathogenic microorganisms by WASA and LWMS according to standards of WHO. Similarly, it is quite harmful, when and where ever it is used for irrigation without proper treatment.


O presente estudo foi realizado para isolar e caracterizar bactérias de amostras de água e solo retiradas do Canal Lahore, em Lahore, em diferentes locais, ou seja, Mall Road, Mohlanwal e Khera. As cepas bacterianas isoladas foram identificadas com base em testes morfológicos e bioquímicos. A identificação foi confirmada por cultura de bactérias em testes de meios seletivos. O teste de resistência aos antibióticos também foi realizado para observar a resistência das bactérias a diferentes antibióticos. Foi realizado o teste de ágar sangue para identificar diferentes bactérias patogênicas. O resultado revelou que amostras de água e solo do Canal Lahore, Lahore, de diferentes localidades estavam contaminadas com Escherichia coli, Salmonella sp., Vibrio sp., Bacillus spp., Enterococcus sp. e Staphylococcus spp. Por causa da presença desses patógenos, essa água não é adequada para qualquer uso doméstico e de irrigação. O estudo revelou que a água do Canal Lahore é prejudicial à saúde humana, pois está contaminada com bactérias que podem causar doenças graves, por exemplo: Escherichia coli pode ocasionar gastroenterite; Bacillus spp. pode causar náuseas e vômitos; Enterococcus sp. pode infectar o trato urinário; Salmonella sp. é responsável pela bacteremia; Staphylococcus spp. pode causar febre leve; e Vibrio sp. pode ser a razão da cólera. Assim, torna-se imprópria para uso humano, como natação, banho, lavagem etc., até que algumas medidas corretivas sejam empregadas para erradicar microrganismos patogênicos por WASA e LWMS de acordo com os padrões da OMS. Da mesma forma, é bastante prejudicial, quando usada para irrigação sem tratamento adequado.


Subject(s)
Animals , Soil , Staphylococcus , Vibrio , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Water Samples , Enterococcus , Escherichia coli
2.
Rev. Inst. Adolfo Lutz ; 82: e38777, maio 2023. graf, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, CONASS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP, VETINDEX, SESSP-ACVSES, SESSP-IALPROD, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1435644

ABSTRACT

Xilooligossacarídeos (XOS) são reconhecidos pelo seu potencial prebiótico relevante para diversos setores industriais e foram obtidos após o pré-tratamento hidrotérmico da biomassa lignocelulósica residual de galhos de eucalipto. Subprodutos inibitórios são gerados durante o processo de solubilização dos oligossacarídeos e acabam comprometendo a utilização do licor em microrganismos. Neste trabalho, o processo de destoxificação, hidrólise enzimática e atividade estimulantes de crescimento da bactéria Staphylococcus xylosus foram estabelecidos. Os resultados mostraram que a adsorção com carvão ativado em pó removeu cerca de 55% do ácido acético e mais de 90% do ácido fórmico, compostos fenólicos, lignina solúvel, furfural e 5-hidroximetilfurfural, e que a soma dos oligossacarídeos xilobiose (X2) e xilotriose (X3) foram maximizadas de 0,57 g/L para 1,21 g/L com 110 U/gXOS da enzima endoxilanase e 6,3% do licor destoxificado na hidrólise enzimática. O consumo de cerca de 63% de X2 e de 46% de X3 pela bactéria em meio basal deficiente em fontes de carbono, mas acrescido com os oligômeros, proporcionou maior crescimento celular em relação aos meios basais com alta composição de carbono, com e sem XOS, revelando seu potencial prebiótico pelo efeito estimulante de crescimento. (AU)


Xylooligosaccharides (XOS) are recognized for their prebiotic potential relevant to several industrial sectors and were obtained after hydrothermal pretreatment of residual lignocellulosic biomass from eucalyptus branches. Inhibitory by-products are generated during the solubilization process of oligosaccharides and end up compromising the utilization of the liquor in microorganisms. In this work, the detoxification process, enzymatic hydrolysis and growth stimulating activity of Staphylococcus xylosus bacteria were established. The results showed that adsorption with powdered activated carbon removed about 55% of acetic acid and more than 90% of formic acid, phenolic compounds, soluble lignin, furfural, and 5-hydroxymethyl furfural and the sum of the oligosaccharides xylobiose (X2) and xylotriose (X3) were maximized from 0.57 g/L to 1.21 g/L with 110 U/gXOS of the enzyme endoxylanase and 6.3% of the detoxified liquor in the enzymatic hydrolysis. The consumption of X2 and X3 were about 63% and 46%, respectively, by the bacteria in basal medium deficient in carbon sources, but in medium added with the oligomers, provided higher cell growth compared to basal medium with high carbon composition, with and without XOS, revealing its prebiotic potential by its growth-stimulating effect. (AU)


Subject(s)
Oligosaccharides , Staphylococcus , Xylose , Charcoal , Biomass , Eucalyptus , Prebiotics
3.
Rev. cuba. oftalmol ; 36(1)mar. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1530152

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La endoftalmitis posquirúrgica es la complicación más temida de la cirugía de catarata. Resulta potencialmente devastadora, puede amenazar seriamente la visión y tiene una incidencia estimada de entre 0,02 y 0,71 por ciento. Objetivo: Determinar la incidencia de endoftalmitis poscirugía de catarata y su comportamiento clínico. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio observacional, descriptivo y de corte transversal. Se revisaron 13 850 cirugías consecutivas de catarata realizadas en el Centro Oftalmológico del Hospital Universitario Clínico Quirúrgico "Arnaldo Milián Castro" de Villa Clara, Cuba. Resultados: La incidencia de endoftalmitis poscirugía de catarata en esta serie fue de 0,17 por ciento (IC 95 por ciento: 0,10-0,24 por ciento); 0,18 por ciento (IC 95 por ciento 0,11-0,25 por ciento) para extracción extracapsular del cristalino y sin incidencia en la facoemulsificación. La forma de presentación aguda fue más frecuente que la crónica; 0,13 por ciento (IC 95 por ciento: 0,07-0,19 por ciento) y 0,04 por ciento (IC 95 por ciento: 0,01-0,07 por ciento), respectivamente. Los hombres fueron más afectados que las mujeres y la edad media fue de 71,8 años. La forma aguda se presentó con una media de 5,1 días entre la cirugía y el inicio de los síntomas y la crónica con una media de 21,2 semanas. El 39,1 por ciento de los pacientes tuvo agudeza visual de percepción luminosa al momento del diagnóstico. Se reportó un crecimiento bacteriano en el 44,7 por ciento de las muestras, con una positividad en humor acuoso y vítreo del 42,1 por ciento y 47,4 por ciento, respectivamente. El Staphylococcus coagulasa negativo fue el germen más frecuente. Los antibióticos intravítreos más vitrectomía plana precoz fue la conducta terapéutica más empleada. Conclusiones: La incidencia de endoftalmitis poscirugía de catarata en esta serie está en el rango de lo reportado a nivel mundial. Se presenta comúnmente de forma aguda y con pobre agudeza visual. El agente etiológico aislado con más frecuencia fue el Staphylococcus coagulasa negativa(AU)


Introduction: Postoperative endophthalmitis is the most feared complication of cataract surgery. It is potentially devastating, can seriously threaten vision and has an estimated incidence of between 0.02 and 0.71 percent. Objective: To determine the incidence of endophthalmitis after cataract surgery and its clinical behavior. Methods: An observational, descriptive, cross-sectional, descriptive study was performed. Thirteen 850 consecutive cataract surgeries performed at the Ophthalmologic Center of the Clinical Surgical University Hospital "Arnaldo Milián Castro" of Villa Clara were reviewed. Results: The incidence of endophthalmitis after cataract surgery in this series was 0.17 percent (95 percent CI: 0.10-0.24 percent); 0.18 percent (95 percent CI: 0.11-0.25 percent) for extracapsular extraction of the crystalline lens and no incidence in phacoemulsification. The acute form of presentation was more frequent than the chronic form; 0.13 percent (95 percent CI: 0.07-0.19 percent) and 0.04 percent (95 percent CI: 0.01-0.07 percent), respectively. Males were more affected than females and the mean age was 71.8 years. The acute form occurred with a mean of 5.1 days between surgery and symptom onset and the chronic form with a mean of 21.2 weeks. Thirty-nine.1 percent of patients had visual acuity of light perception at the time of diagnosis. Bacterial growth was reported in 44.7 percent of the specimens, with positivity in aqueous and vitreous humor of 42.1 percent and 47.4 percent, respectively. Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus was the most frequent germ. Intravitreal antibiotics plus remission for early flat vitrectomy was the most commonly employed therapeutic behavior. Conclusions: The incidence of post cataract surgery endophthalmitis in this series is in the range of that reported worldwide. It commonly presents acutely and with poor visual acuity. The most frequently isolated etiologic agent was coagulase-negative Staphylococcus(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged , Vitrectomy/methods , Cataract/etiology , Endophthalmitis/epidemiology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Staphylococcus , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Observational Studies as Topic
4.
Rev. cienc. salud (Bogotá) ; 21(1): 1-14, ene.-abr. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1427751

ABSTRACT

Staphylococcus aureus y Staphylococcus epidermidis son los principales agentes etiológicos de las conjuntivitis bacterianas, que al tratarse con antibióticos de manera empírica, incrementan la resistencia antimicrobiana después de exposiciones repetidas. Se están buscando alternativas naturales para el tratamiento de infecciones bacterianas autolimitadas de la conjuntiva. Objetivo: determinar la actividad antimicrobiana de ocho extractos de las plantas frente a bacterias aisladas de pacientes con conjuntivitis bacterianas. Materiales y métodos: se tomaron muestras de 15 pacientes con conjuntivitis bacterianas. Se cultivaron en agar sangre y chocolate durante 24 h a 37 °C y se identificaron mediante el sistema automatizado vitek y pruebas de susceptibilidad antimicrobiana por el método de Kirby-Bauer. A cada aislamiento identificado con el género Staphylococcus se le evaluó su susceptibilidad frente a siete extractos: Ocimum basilicum, Sambucus nigra L., Delphinium elatum, Calendula officinalis, Bixa ore-llana (parte aérea y fruto independiente), Clinopodium brownei y Laurus nobilis, con un uso tradicional reportado para el tratamiento de infecciones oculares. Resultados: las bacterias aisladas con más frecuencia fueron S. epidermidis, S. hominis y S. aureus, las cuales presentaron resistencia antimicrobiana a oxacilina, tetraciclinas y eritromicina. Todos los aislamientos fueron inhibidos por los extractos de O. basilicum (cmi: >0.9 mg/mL) y L. nobilis (cmi: hasta 15 mg/mL). Conclusión: los extractos de C. officinalis y D. elatum tuvieron actividad antimicrobiana solo frente a los aislados con mayor sensibilidad antimi-crobiana. Los extractos etanólicos de O. basilicum y L. nobilis pueden ser una alternativa de tratamiento de las infecciones de la conjuntiva.


Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis are the primary etiological agents of bacterial conjunctivitis which are empirically treated with antibiotics. This results in an increase in antimicrobial resistance due to repeated exposure. Currently, natural treatment alternatives are being sought for self-limited bacterial infections of the conjunctiva. Objective: To determine the antimicrobial activity of eight extracts from Colombian plants against bacteria isolated from patients with bacterial conjunctivitis. Materials and methods: Samples were taken from 15 patients with bacterial conjunctivitis which were grown on blood and chocolate agar for 24 h at 37 °C. These samples were identified by the vitek automated system and antimicrobial susceptibility tests by the Kirby Bauer method. Each isolate identified with the genus Staphylococcus was evaluated for susceptibility to the following eight plant extracts of seven plant: Ocimum basilicum (basil), Sambucus nigra L. (elderberry), Delphinium elatum(belladonna), Calendula officinalis (marigold), Bixa orellana (annatto) (aerial part and independent fruit), Clinopodium brownei (pennyroyal), and Laurus nobilis (laurel), with traditional use previously reported for treating eye infections. Results: The most frequently isolated bacteria were S. epidermidis, S. hominis, and S. aureus, which exhibited antimicrobial resistance mainly to oxacillin, tetracyclines, and erythromycin. All isolates were inhibited by O. basilicum extracts (mic > 0.9 mg/mL) and L. nobilis (mic < 15 mg/mL). Conclusion: The extracts of C. officinalis y D. elatum showed antimicrobial activity only against isolates with higher antimicrobial sensitivity. Ethanolic extracts of O. basilicum y L. nobilis can be used as an alternative treatment for infections of the anterior segment of the eye.


Staphylococcus aureus e Staphylococcus epidermidis são os principais agentes etiológicos da conjuntivite bacteriana, estes são tratados empiricamente com antibióticos, causando aumento da resistência antimicrobiana após repetidas exposições aos mesmos. Atualmente, estão sendo estudadas alternativas naturais para o tratamento de infecções bacterianas autolimitadas da conjuntiva. Objetivo: determinar a atividade antimicrobiana de oito extratos de sete vegetais contra bactérias isoladas de pacientes com conjuntivite bacteriana. Materiais e métodos: foram retiradas amostras de 15 pacientes com conjuntivite bacteriana. As amostras foram cultivadas em ágar sangue e ágar chocolate por 24 horas a 37°C e os isolados foram identificados pelo sistema automatizado vitek, além de testes de susce-tibilidade antimicrobiana pelo método Kirby Bauer. Cada isolado identificado como sendo pertencente ao gênero Staphylococcus foi avaliado quanto à suscetibilidade a oito extratos vegetais: Ocimum basili-cum (manjericão), Sambucus nigra L. (sabugueiro), Delphinium elatum (belladona), Calendula officinalis(calêndula), Bixa orellana (urucum; parte aérea e fruto independente), Clinopodium brownei (poejo) e Laurus nobilis (louro), anteriormente relatados como uso tradicional para o tratamento de infecções ocu-lares. Resultados: as bactérias mais frequentemente isoladas foram S. epidermidis, S. hominis e S. aureus, que apresentaram resistência antimicrobiana principalmente à oxacilina, tetraciclinas e eritromicina. Todos os isolados foram inibidos por extratos de O. basilicum (cim: >0,9 mg/mL) e L. nobilis (cim: até 15 mg/mL). Conclusão: os extratos de C. officinalis e D. elatum apresentaram atividade antimicrobiana apenas contra os isolados com maior sensibilidade antimicrobiana. Os extratos etanólicos de O. basilicum e L. nobilis podem ser uma alternativa de tratamento para infecções conjuntivais.


Subject(s)
Humans , Patients , Staphylococcus , Bacteria , Bacterial Infections , Plant Extracts , Eye Infections , Conjunctivitis, Bacterial , Conjunctivitis , Anti-Bacterial Agents
5.
Acta Medica Philippina ; : 44-49, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-980256

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#Staphylococcal blepharitis is a common ocular condition that can cause significant visual morbidities due to corneal complications. This study described the clinical profile of patients with staphylococcal blepharitis seen in a tertiary referral eye center, and determined the frequency and the type of corneal complications, the possible reasons for the delay in diagnosis, and the management prior to the consult.@*Methods@#This study was a single-center, five-year retrospective case series design. The charts of all patients from January 2016 to December 2021 with the diagnosis of staphylococcal blepharitis seen at the External Disease and Cornea Clinic of the Philippine General Hospital that have fulfilled the inclusion and exclusion criteria were included. The data extracted were age, sex, chief complaint, laterality, time of onset of symptoms to consult, previous consults, lid and lid margin findings, conjunctival and corneal findings, pre- and post-treatment uncorrected distance visual acuity, duration of follow-up, and treatments received.@*Results@#Fifty-five (55) charts out of 107 charts with a diagnosis of staphylococcal blepharitis were included. Eighty percent (80%) or 44 patients had bilateral disease. Ninety-nine (99) eyes of 55 patients were analyzed. The median age of the study population was 19 years. Sixty-seven percent (67%) were female, and 33% were male. The mean duration of follow-up at the External Disease and Cornea Clinic was 10.8 ± 14.61 months. Corneal opacity, eye redness, and blurring of vision comprised 70% of the reasons for consult. The mean time from the onset of symptoms to consult was 18.36 ± 25.69 months. Sixty-seven percent (67%) had prior consults elsewhere and 45% came in with a different diagnosis. Seventy-eight (78) eyes had fibrin or crust on the lashes. Fifty percent (50%) of the eyes had concomitant conjunctivitis, while 30% had meibomitis. Fifty-eight percent (58%) of patients had corneal complications. Seventy-two percent (72%) of eyes had bilateral involvement. The median age of patients with corneal complications subgroup was 13 years. The most common corneal complications noted were neovascularization, phlyctenulosis, pannus formation, and marginal infiltrates or ulcers. Twenty-two percent (22%) of all study eyes had visually disabling corneal complications like corneal ulcer, descemetocele, corneal perforation, and corneal scar. Ninety percent (90%) of the patients received standard medical treatment and three patients underwent penetrating keratoplasty. The mean uncorrected distance visual acuity at initial consult of eyes with corneal complication was 20/55 (LogMAR 0.43 ± 0.51) and 20/35 (LogMAR 0.25 ± 0.40) after treatment (p = 0.032).@*Conclusion@#Staphylococcal blepharitis was most prevalent among young female patients, and it affected both eyes. Almost all patients manifested the typical lid margin lesions. Nearly 60% of the patients presented with corneal complications and 22% had corneal lesions that were potentially blinding. Close to 50% had delay in treatment due to misdiagnosis.


Subject(s)
Blepharitis , Staphylococcus , Cornea , Blindness
6.
Rev. AMRIGS ; 66(4): 01022105, out.-dez.2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1425317

ABSTRACT

Introdução: A sedimentação do Programa de Stewardship de Antimicrobianos (ATMs), além de reduzir a indução da resistência bacteriana, assegura maior segurança aos pacientes. Este estudo teve por objetivo descrever o perfil de sensibilidade do Staphylococcus aureus e Staphylococcus coagulase negativo (S. CON) nas unidades de internação adulta do hospital para instrumentalizar as equipes e realizar o gerenciamento de ATMs. Métodos: Este estudo retrospectivo foi realizado através de busca em prontuário eletrônico de culturas laboratoriais com S. aureus e S. CON, independentemente do foco, dos anos de 2017, 2018 e 2019, das unidades de internação adultas não críticas e UTI adulto. Para análise, foi realizado o cálculo de coeficiente de sensibilidade absoluto e de médias. As variáveis qualitativas foram apresentadas em relação ao agente etiológico, antibiótico e local de isolamento, com posterior identificação de variabilidade e possibilidades terapêuticas disponíveis. Resultados: Apesar de ocorrer similaridade na distribuição das cepas de Staphylococcus spp. nos locais analisados do hospital, observou-se divergência entre os perfis de sensibilidade do S. aureus e S. CON. Existe superioridade no perfil de sensibilidade do S. aureus em comparação com o S. CON em relação a todos ATMs. A sensibilidade do S. aureus à oxacilina, ainda, possibilita tratamento com ß-lactâmicos; entretanto, a escolha de outras classes de ATMs torna-se necessária em casos de infecções complexas e graves. Conclusão: A análise periódica do perfil de sensibilidade aos ATMs é uma estratégia a ser alcançada para um eficaz programa de gerenciamento de ATMs, com fundamentação de protocolos e melhor assistência dos pacientes.


Introduction: The sedimentation of the antimicrobial stewardship program (ASP) reduces the induction of bacterial resistance and ensures greater patient safety. This study aimed to describe the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and negative-coagulase Staphylococcus (CoNS) in adult inpatient units of the hospital to instrumentalize the teams and perform ASP management. Methods: This retrospective study was conducted by searching electronic medical records for laboratory cultures with S. aureus and CoNS, regardless of the focus, from 2017, 2018, and 2019, from the adult non-critical inpatient units and adult ICU. For the analysis, the study calculated the absolute sensitivity coefficient and means. Qualitative variables were related to the etiologic agent, antibiotic, and isolation site, with subsequent identification of variability and available therapeutic possibilities. Results: Although similarity occurred in the distribution of Staphylococcus spp. strains in the analyzed hospital sites, divergence was observed between the sensitivity profiles of S. aureus and CoNS. There is superiority in the sensitivity profile of S. aureus over CoNS concerning all ASP. The sensitivity of S. aureus to oxacillin still allows treatment with ß-lactams. However, the choice of other classes of ASP becomes necessary in cases of complex and severe infections. Conclusion: Periodic analysis of the ASP sensitivity profile is a strategy to achieve an effective ASP management program to support protocols and better patient care.


Subject(s)
Staphylococcus
7.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 35(4): 467-475, July-Aug. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385281

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background Infective endocarditis (IE) is a disease with high morbimortality and an increasing incidence. With improved diagnosis and treatment, a number of epidemiological changes have been reported over time. Objectives We sought to describe the epidemiological profile, mortality predictors, and analysis of a possible microbiological transition in patients admitted to three tertiary centers in Brazil. Methods In this cross-sectional retrospective study, data from 211 patients with definite or probable IE were analyzed according to the modified Duke criteria between 2003 and 2017. The association between categorical variables was assessed using the chi-square or Fisher's exact test, and binary logistic models were built to investigate mortality. We considered p <0.05 statistically significant. Results The median age of the sample was 48 (33-59) years old, 70.6% were men, and the most prevalent pathogen was Staphylococcus spp. (19%). Mortality was 22.3%, with increasing age being the leading risk factor for death (p = 0.028). Regarding the location of the disease, native valves were the most affected site, with the aortic valve being more affected in men than women (p = 0.017). The mean number of cases of Staphylococcus spp. (τ = 0.293, p = 0.148) and Streptococcus spp. (τ = -0.078, p = 0.727) has remained stable over the years. Conclusion No trend towards reduced or increased mortality was evident between 2003 and 2017. Although Staphylococcus spp. were the most prevalent pathogen, the expected epidemiological transition could not be observed.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Staphylococcus/pathogenicity , Streptococcus/pathogenicity , Endocarditis/epidemiology , Brazil , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Endocarditis/complications , Endocarditis/diagnosis
8.
Rev. MVZ Córdoba ; 27(1): 1-8, Enero-abril. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1406911

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Objetivo. El objetivo de este estudio fue caracterizar las bacterias de una sala de autopsias veterinarias, su perfil de susceptibilidad antimicrobiana y probar la eficacia de dos desinfectantes frente a estos microorganismos. Materiales y métodos. Tres puntos de la sala en los que los profesionales normalmente no usan equipo de protección personal (EPP) al entrar en contacto directo con estas bacterias. Antes y después de la desinfección con hipoclorito y alquilbencenosulfonato sódico se realizaron recuentos anaeróbicos y aeróbicos mesófilos, luego se identificaron los aislamientos por sus características morfotintoriales y bioquímicas y su susceptibilidad antibiótica. Resultados. Los resultados preliminares indicaron que el hipoclorito fue el agente desinfectante de elección para la desinfección de superficies y contra las bacterias patógenas potenciales aislados más frecuentes como Staphylococcus spp (75%), E. coli y Klebsiella spp (15%) y Pseudomonas spp (10%). Además, el 25.0% de los estafilococos fueron resistentes a al menos un antimicrobiano probado y se tomaron en consideración Klebsiella spp, E. coli y Pseudomonas spp, se observó una amplia resistencia antimicrobiana probada. Conclusiones. La caracterización de estas bacterias encontradas en la sala de autopsias es importante para alertar a los profesionales sobre los riesgos biológicos a los que están expuestos, así como las precauciones que deben tomar.


ABSTRACT Objective. The aim of this study was to characterize the bacteria of a veterinary autopsy room, their antimicrobial susceptibility profile and testing the efficiency of two sanitizers against these microorganisms. Materials and methods. Three points of the room that professionals do not normally wear personal protective equipment (PPE) getting in direct contact with these bacterias. Anaerobic and aerobic mesophilic count were performed before and after disinfection with hypochlorite and sodium alkylbenzene sulfonate then, isolates were identified by their morphotintorials and biochemical characteristics and their antibiotic susceptibility. Results. Preliminary results indicated that the hypochlorite was the sanitizing agent of choice for surface disinfection and against the most frequent potential pathogenic bacterials isolated such as Staphylococcus spp (75%), E. coli and Klebsiella spp (15%), and Pseudomonas spp (10%). In addition, 25% of the staphylococci were resistant to at least one antimicrobial tested and Klebsiella spp, E. coli, and Pseudomonas spp were taken into consideration, wide antimicrobial resistance tested were observed. Conclusions. The characterization of these bacteria found in the autopsy room is important to alert professionals about the biological risks they are exposed to, as well as the precautions they should take.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Staphylococcus
9.
Rev. SOBECC (Online) ; 27: 1-10, 01-01-2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1399713

ABSTRACT

: Introdução: Os serviços de saúde têm grande preocupação com qualidade de assistência, segurança do paciente e redução da incidência das infecções relacionadas à assistência à saúde, as quais são consideradas eventos adversos e influenciam o aumento da morbimortalidade. A disseminação do uso de celulares é generalizada, e eles têm se tornado ferramentas de trabalho para profissionais de saúde. Por terem uma superfície de contato direto entre as mãos e outros objetos, tornam-se importante fonte de microrganismos dentro dos ambientes hospitalares. Objetivo: Realizar busca de publicações existentes que relacionam o uso de celulares com as infecções relacionadas à assistência à saúde dentro do ambiente hospitalar. Método: Revisão integrativa, com busca em cinco bases de dados, realizada no período entre março e abril de 2021. Resultados: Foram incluídos 17 artigos, publicados na língua inglesa em periódicos internacionais, entre 2016 e 2021. Conclusão: Identificou-se em todos os artigos a ocorrência de contaminação dos celulares. Evidenciou-se também que a descontaminação frequente dos celulares e a higiene das mãos são indicadas para reduzir o risco de infecção.


Introduction: Health services are very concerned with quality of care, patient safety and reduction of the incidence of infections related to health care, which are considered adverse events and influence the increase in morbidity and mortality. The widespread use of cell phones is widespread, and they have become work tools for healthcare professionals. As they have a direct contact surface between hands and other objects, they become an important source of microorganisms within hospital environments. Objective: To conduct a search for existing publications that relate the use of cell phones with infections related to health care within the hospital environment. Method: Integrative review, with a search in five databases, carried out between March and April 2021. Results: 17 articles were included, published in English in international journals, between 2016 and 2021. Conclusion: Identified in all articles the occurrence of cell phone contamination. It was also shown that frequent decontamination of cell phones and hand hygiene are indicated to reduce the risk of infection.


Introducción: Los servicios de salud están muy preocupados por la calidad de la atención, la seguridad del paciente y la reducción de la incidencia de infecciones relacionadas con la atención de la salud (IRAS), que son consideradas eventos adversos e influyen en el aumento de la morbimortalidad. El uso generalizado de los teléfonos celulares está muy extendido y se han convertido en herramientas de trabajo para los profesionales de la salud. Al tener una superficie de contacto directo entre las manos y otros objetos, se convierten en una fuente importante de microorganismos dentro de los ambientes hospitalarios. Objetivo: Realizar una búsqueda de publicaciones existentes que relacionen el uso de teléfonos celulares con IRAS dentro del ámbito hospitalario. Método: Revisión integradora, con búsqueda en cinco bases de datos, realizada entre marzo y abril de 2021. Resultados: se incluyeron 17 artículos, publicados en inglés en revistas internacionales, entre 2016 y 2021. Conclusión: Se identificó la ocurrencia de contaminación de celulares en todos los artículos. También mostraron que la descontaminación frecuente de los teléfonos celulares y la higiene de manos están indicadas para reducir el riesgo de infección


Subject(s)
Humans , Nursing , Cell Phone , Infections , Staphylococcus , Staphylococcus aureus , Hospitals
10.
Ciênc. cuid. saúde ; 21: e59515, 2022. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1404235

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: analisar a infecção primária da corrente sanguínea associada ao cateter venoso central em neonatos internados em unidades de terapia intensiva. Método: tratou-se de um estudo ecológico realizado em 2017 a partir de notificações de infecção primária da corrente sanguínea associada ao cateter venoso central ocorridas na capital de um estado da região Centro-Oeste do Brasil. Os dados foram coletados por meio de um formulário a partir de dois bancos de dados, municipal (2012 a 2016) e nacional (2014 a 2016). Resultados: a tendência temporal da densidade de incidência de infecção foi decrescente (p=0,019), com taxa de utilização de cateter venoso central de 45%. Os patógenos mais frequentes foram Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus coagulase negativo e Enterobacter spp. Aumento de resistência às cefalosporinas e à oxacilina ocorreu para bactérias Gram-negativo e Gram-positivo, respectivamente. Conclusão: Conclui-se que houve uma redução na taxa de IPCS associada ao cateter em neonatos no período avaliado e os episódios infecciosos foram predominantemente causados por bactérias Gram-negativo, incluindo isolados multirresistentes aos antimicrobianos. Esses achados apontam para a importância e necessidade de estratégias educacionais para a equipe multiprofissional sobre vigilância de infecção, medidas preventivas e uso racional de antimicrobianos.


Resumen: Objetivo: analizar la infección primaria del torrente sanguíneo asociada al catéter venoso central en neonatos ingresados en unidades de cuidados intensivos. Método: se trató de un estudio ecológico, realizado en 2017, a partir de notificaciones de infección primaria del torrente sanguíneo asociada al catéter venoso central, ocurridas en la capital de un estado de la región Centro-Oeste de Brasil. Los datos fueron recogidos por medio de un formulario de dos bases de datos, municipal (2012 a 2016) y nacional (2014 a 2016). Resultados: la tendencia temporal de la densidad de incidencia de infección fue decreciente (p=0,019), con tasa de utilización de catéter venoso central del 45%. Los patógenos más frecuentes fueron Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus coagulase negativa y Enterobacter spp. Aumento de resistencia a las cefalosporinas y a la oxacilina ocurrió para bacterias Gramnegativas y Grampositivas, respectivamente. Conclusión: hubo una reducción en la tasa de infección primaria del torrente sanguíneo asociada al catéter en neonatos en el período evaluado, y los episodios infecciosos fueron predominantemente causados por bacterias gramnegativas, incluyendo aislados multirresistentes a los antimicrobianos. Estos hallazgos señalan la importancia y necesidad de estrategias educativas para el equipo multiprofesional sobre vigilancia de infecciones, medidas preventivas y uso racional de antimicrobianos.


ABSTRACT Objective: to analyze primary bloodstream infections associated with central venous catheter in neonates admitted to intensive care units. Method: ecological study, conducted in 2017, from reports of primary bloodstream infections associated with central venous catheter, which occurred in the capital of a state in the Midwest region of Brazil. Data were collected using a form from two databases, municipal (2012 to 2016) and national (2014 to 2016). Results: the temporal trend of the infection incidence density was decreasing (p=0.019), with a central venous catheter use rate of 45%. The most frequent pathogens were Klebsiella pneumoniae, Coagulase-negative staphylococci, and Enterobacter spp. Increased resistance to cephalosporins and oxacillin occurred for Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, respectively. Conclusion: There was a reduction in the rate of catheter-associated primary bloodstream infection in neonates in the period evaluated, and the infectious episodes were predominantly caused by Gram-negative bacteria, including antimicrobial multi-resistant isolates. These findings point to the importance and need for educational strategies for the multiprofessional team on infection surveillance, preventive measures, and rational use of antimicrobials.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Blood Circulation , Infant, Newborn , Catheters , Central Venous Catheters , Infections , Oxacillin , Staphylococcus , Bacteria , Health Strategies , Sepsis , Cephalosporin Resistance , Gram-Negative Bacteria , Gram-Positive Bacteria , Intensive Care Units , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Anti-Infective Agents , Noxae
11.
Mali Médical ; 28(3): 58-62, 30/09/2022. Tables
Article in French | AIM | ID: biblio-1397769

ABSTRACT

Introduction : L'infection néonatale bactérienne précoce (INBP) est une préoccupation majeure en néonatologie. Au Mali, aucune étude n'avait abordé cet aspect d'où l'initiation du présent travail afin d'étudier le profil épidémio-clinique, biologique et bactériologique de l'INBP. Matériel et méthodes :Il s'est agi d'une étude longitudinale descriptive qui s'est déroulée du 27 juin au 03 septembre 2016 ayant concerné les nouveau-nés d'âge ≤ à 72 heures hospitalisés pour INBP confirmée à l'hémoculture dans le service de néonatologie du département de pédiatrie du Centre Hospitalier et Universitaire (CHU) Gabriel Touré de Bamako. Les paramètres étudiés étaient les caractéristiques sociodémographiques et obstétricales des mères, les caractéristiques cliniques, biologiques et bactériologiques des nouveau-nés infectés précocement. Résultats : Sur les 324 hémocultures réalisées, 52 étaient positives soit une fréquence d'INBP de 11,04 %. Le sex-ratio était de 1,3 avec 73,1% de petit poids de naissance. A l'admission, 90,4 % des nouveau-nés avait moins de 24 H de vie et 86, 5%étaient des naissances hors du CHU Gabriel Touré. Les principaux signes cliniques étaient l'hyperthermie ou l'hypothermie et la détresse respiratoire. Les principales bactéries isolées à l'hémoculture étaient Staphylococcus aureus (55,8%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (13,5 %) et Escherichia coli (07,7 %). La sensibilité à la biantibiothérapie de première intention (ceftriaxone + gentamicine)était faible (63,6%) et celle de l'amikacine était meilleure (100 %). La moitié des nouveau-nés infectés précocement est décédée et 19,2% d'exéat sans accord médical a été enregistrée. Conclusion: L'infection néonatale bactérienne précoce est une cause majeure de morbi-mortalité néonatale. Dans notre contexte, l'amikacine pourrait être une meilleure alternative thérapeutique


Introduction: Early neonatal bacterial infection (ENBI) is a major concern in neonatology. In Mali, no study had addressed this aspect, hence the initiation of this work to study the epidemiological-clinical, biological and bacteriological profile of ENBI. Materials and methods: This were a descriptive longitudinal study that took place from june 27 to september 3, 2016 involving newborns aged ≤ 72 hours hospitalized for ENBI confirmed by blood culture in the neonatology service of the pediatrics department of the Center Hospitalier et Universitaire (CHU) Gabriel Toure in Bamako. The parameters studied were the socio-demographic and obstetrical characteristics of the mothers, the clinical, biological and bacteriological characteristics of newborns infected early. Results: Of the 324 blood cultures performed, 52 were positive, i.e. an ENBI frequency of 11.04%. The sex ratio was 1.3 with 73.1% low birth weight. On admission, 90.4% of newborns had less than 24 hours of life and 86.5% were births outside the CHU Gabriel Toure. The main clinical signs were hyperthermia or hypothermia and respiratory distress. The main bacteria isolated in blood culture were Staphylococcus aureus (55.8%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (13.5%) and Escherichia coli (07.7%). Sensitivity to first-line biantibiotic therapy (ceftriaxone + gentamicin) was low (63.6%) and that of amikacin was better (100%). Half of the newborns infected early died and 19.2% of exeat without medical agreement was recorded. Conclusion: Early neonatal bacterial infection is a major cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. In our context, amikacin could be a better therapeutic alternative


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections , Hyperthermia , Infant, Newborn, Diseases , Infections , Staphylococcus
12.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 42: e06958, 2022. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1487702

ABSTRACT

Bovine mastitis is the most common disease in dairy cattle and responsible for economic losses in the milk industry. The present study aimed to identify the main species and to evaluate the antimicrobial susceptibility of bacterial isolates from cow herds with mastitis in dairy farms from southern Brazil. A total of 107 milk samples were collected from different cow herds in one important dairy producing region in southern Brazil, including farms located in ten cities from the Northeast region in the Rio Grande do Sul state. Bacterial strains were isolated and submitted to presumptive identification by classical bacteriological methods. Bacterial species were also identified by MALDI-TOF MS and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed with 12 antimicrobials commonly used in dairy farms. Fifty-one bacterial strains were isolated and the presumptive identification demonstrated the occurrence of Staphylococcus spp. (82.3%), Bacillus spp. (3.9%), Klebsiella spp. (3.9%), Streptococcus spp. (3.9%), Corynebacterium sp. (2%), Enterococcus sp. (2%) and Serratia sp. (2%). Forty-one isolates were successfully identified in the MALDI-TOF analysis, including 35 isolates from eleven different bacterial species. Importantly, there were eight different Staphylococcus species, with a high frequency of Staphylococcus chromogenes (48.6%) and Staphylococcus aureus (20%). Overall, bacterial isolates demonstrated resistance to penicillin (46.3%), tetracycline (39%), amoxicillin (36.6%), ampicillin (34.1%) and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (31.7%). Enrofloxacin was the unique antimicrobial that all isolates were susceptible. In addition, there were six multidrug resistant isolates (five S. chromogenes and one S. aureus). This study highlights that bacterial pathogens with resistance to several antimicrobials were identified in cows from dairy farms in a very important milk producing region located in southern Brazil. Microbial identification of the bovine mastitis pathogens and determination of the antimicrobial profile is necessary for the rational use of the medicines.


A mastite bovina é a doença mais comum em gado leiteiro e responsável por perdas econômicas na indústria de laticínios. O presente estudo teve como objetivo identificar as principais espécies e avaliar a suscetibilidade antimicrobiana de isolados bacterianos de rebanhos bovinos com mastite em fazendas leiteiras no sul do Brasil. Um total de 107 amostras de leite foram coletadas em diferentes rebanhos bovinos em uma importante região produtora de leite do sul do Brasil, incluindo fazendas localizadas em 10 cidades da região Nordeste do estado do Rio Grande do Sul. As cepas bacterianas foram isoladas e submetidas à identificação presuntiva por métodos bacteriológicos clássicos. A identificação bacteriana foi confirmada por MALDI-TOF MS e o teste de sensibilidade antimicrobiana foi realizado com antimicrobianos comumente usados em fazendas leiteiras. Cinquenta e uma cepas bacterianas foram isoladas e a identificação presuntiva demonstrou a ocorrência de Staphylococcus spp. (82,3%), Bacillus spp. (3,9%), Klebsiella spp. (3,9%), Streptococcus spp. (3,9%), Corynebacterium sp. (2%), Enterococcus sp. (2%) e Serratia sp. (2%). Os 41 isolados foram identificados com sucesso na análise MALDI-TOF, incluindo 35 isolados de onze espécies bacterianas diferentes. É importante ressaltar que houve a ocorrência de oito espécies diferentes de Staphylococcus, com alta frequência de Staphylococcus chromogenes (48,6%) e Staphylococcus aureus (20%). No geral, os isolados bacterianos tiveram alta resistência à penicilina (46,3%), tetraciclina (39%), amoxicilina (36,6%), ampicilina (34,1%) e sulfametoxazol/trimetoprima (31,7%). A enrofloxacina foi o único antimicrobiano que todos os isolados foram suscetíveis. Além disso, havia seis isolados multirresistentes (cinco S. chromogenes e um S. aureus). Este estudo destaca que os patógenos bacterianos com resistência aos antimicrobianos estão presentes em fazendas leiteiras de subsistência em uma importante região produtora no sul do Brasil. É necessário o monitoramento constante dos patógenos da mastite bovina e a determinação de seu perfil antimicrobiano para o uso racional dos medicamentos.


Subject(s)
Female , Animals , Cattle , Milk/microbiology , Mastitis, Bovine , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Staphylococcus/isolation & purification , Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization
13.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 42: e06958, 2022. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1360626

ABSTRACT

Bovine mastitis is the most common disease in dairy cattle and responsible for economic losses in the milk industry. The present study aimed to identify the main species and to evaluate the antimicrobial susceptibility of bacterial isolates from cow herds with mastitis in dairy farms from southern Brazil. A total of 107 milk samples were collected from different cow herds in one important dairy producing region in southern Brazil, including farms located in ten cities from the Northeast region in the Rio Grande do Sul state. Bacterial strains were isolated and submitted to presumptive identification by classical bacteriological methods. Bacterial species were also identified by MALDI-TOF MS and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed with 12 antimicrobials commonly used in dairy farms. Fifty-one bacterial strains were isolated and the presumptive identification demonstrated the occurrence of Staphylococcus spp. (82.3%), Bacillus spp. (3.9%), Klebsiella spp. (3.9%), Streptococcus spp. (3.9%), Corynebacterium sp. (2%), Enterococcus sp. (2%) and Serratia sp. (2%). Forty-one isolates were successfully identified in the MALDI-TOF analysis, including 35 isolates from eleven different bacterial species. Importantly, there were eight different Staphylococcus species, with a high frequency of Staphylococcus chromogenes (48.6%) and Staphylococcus aureus (20%). Overall, bacterial isolates demonstrated resistance to penicillin (46.3%), tetracycline (39%), amoxicillin (36.6%), ampicillin (34.1%) and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (31.7%). Enrofloxacin was the unique antimicrobial that all isolates were susceptible. In addition, there were six multidrug resistant isolates (five S. chromogenes and one S. aureus). This study highlights that bacterial pathogens with resistance to several antimicrobials were identified in cows from dairy farms in a very important milk producing region located in southern Brazil. Microbial identification of the bovine mastitis pathogens and determination of the antimicrobial profile is necessary for the rational use of the medicines.(AU)


A mastite bovina é a doença mais comum em gado leiteiro e responsável por perdas econômicas na indústria de laticínios. O presente estudo teve como objetivo identificar as principais espécies e avaliar a suscetibilidade antimicrobiana de isolados bacterianos de rebanhos bovinos com mastite em fazendas leiteiras no sul do Brasil. Um total de 107 amostras de leite foram coletadas em diferentes rebanhos bovinos em uma importante região produtora de leite do sul do Brasil, incluindo fazendas localizadas em 10 cidades da região Nordeste do estado do Rio Grande do Sul. As cepas bacterianas foram isoladas e submetidas à identificação presuntiva por métodos bacteriológicos clássicos. A identificação bacteriana foi confirmada por MALDI-TOF MS e o teste de sensibilidade antimicrobiana foi realizado com antimicrobianos comumente usados em fazendas leiteiras. Cinquenta e uma cepas bacterianas foram isoladas e a identificação presuntiva demonstrou a ocorrência de Staphylococcus spp. (82,3%), Bacillus spp. (3,9%), Klebsiella spp. (3,9%), Streptococcus spp. (3,9%), Corynebacterium sp. (2%), Enterococcus sp. (2%) e Serratia sp. (2%). Os 41 isolados foram identificados com sucesso na análise MALDI-TOF, incluindo 35 isolados de onze espécies bacterianas diferentes. É importante ressaltar que houve a ocorrência de oito espécies diferentes de Staphylococcus, com alta frequência de Staphylococcus chromogenes (48,6%) e Staphylococcus aureus (20%). No geral, os isolados bacterianos tiveram alta resistência à penicilina (46,3%), tetraciclina (39%), amoxicilina (36,6%), ampicilina (34,1%) e sulfametoxazol/trimetoprima (31,7%). A enrofloxacina foi o único antimicrobiano que todos os isolados foram suscetíveis. Além disso, havia seis isolados multirresistentes (cinco S. chromogenes e um S. aureus). Este estudo destaca que os patógenos bacterianos com resistência aos antimicrobianos estão presentes em fazendas leiteiras de subsistência em uma importante região produtora no sul do Brasil. É necessário o monitoramento constante dos patógenos da mastite bovina e a determinação de seu perfil antimicrobiano para o uso racional dos medicamentos.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Cattle , Staphylococcus/isolation & purification , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Milk/microbiology , Mastitis, Bovine , Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization
14.
Malaysian Journal of Microbiology ; : 58-67, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-977452

ABSTRACT

Aims@#This study evaluated in vitro resistance and susceptibility of Enterobacteriaceae (Escherichia coli and Klebsiella oxytoca strains) and Staphylococci strains, isolated from sheep’s milk, against antibiotics and essential oils from Thymus satureioides and Mentha pulegium.@*Methodology and results@#Antibiotic resistance tests were done using disc diffusion while essential oils were extracted by steam distillation and yields were calculated relative to plant dry matter. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to analyze each oil's chemical composition. Amoxicillin + Clavulanic acid (AMC), Cefotaxime (CTX), Cefoxitine (FOX), Nalidixic acid (NA), Gentamicin (CN), Ciprofloxacin (CIP) and Ofloxacin (OFX) were very effective against the E. coli strains tested. Half of the strains were resistant to AMC, 60% to Ticarcillin (TIC) and 80% to Tetracycline (TE). Klebsiella oxytoca was resistant against AMC, FOX and TIC (100%). Antibiotic-resistant testing on Staphylococci strains indicated Staphylococcus capitis and S. chromogenes as the most sensitive. Staphylococcus aureus, S. xylosus and S. cohnii ureal exhibited less resistance to Oxacilin (OX), TE, Pristinamycin (PT), Erythromycin (E) and Penicillin (P). Mentha pulegium resulted in a higher yield of essential oil of 3.2% oil compared to T. satureioides with only 1.85% yield. The monoterpene oxygenated derivatives, monoterpene hydrocarbons and phenols are found in essential oil extracts. Thymus satureioides essential oil had high antibacterial activity even at low concentrations (0.2; 0.55 g/mL). The minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) values indicate that the essential oils from the plants analyzed had bactericidal effects on all strains tested and are similar to the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values.@*Conclusion, significance and impact of study@#The high antibacterial properties of these medicinal plants, against bacteria isolated from sheep’s milk, provide an opportunity to use these medicinal plants in the breeding sector, as additives and preservatives in the dairy industry.


Subject(s)
Enterobacteriaceae , Staphylococcus , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Sheep
15.
Bol. malariol. salud ambient ; 61(4): 620-632, dic. 2021. ilus, tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1395693

ABSTRACT

El presente trabajo de investigación tiene como objetivo evaluar la calidad microbiológica del aire en seis áreas de la Microestación Biológica-Zoocriadero de la Universidad Nacional Agraria de la Selva-Tingo María-Perú; procediéndose de la siguiente manera: Se seleccionaron seis áreas de muestreo (A1: Boletería, A2: Caseta gallito de las rocas, A3: Zona de las tortugas, A4: Caseta del otorongo, A5: Caseta de los monos y A6: Cocina), de los cuales para la determinación de los parámetros físicos (PAS, temperatura, humedad relativa, precipitación y rosa de viento) se obtuvo información de la estación meteorológica de la UNAS y de lecturas directas en campo, para la determinación de las PAS se realizó por el método pasivo obteniéndose la mayor concentración de PAS en el área 1 "Boletería" (12.61 t/km2/mes, 11.08 t/km2/mes y 8.4 t/km2/mes) y la más baja en el área 5 "caseta de los monos" (2.80 t/km2/mes, 2.80 t/km2/mes y 3.2 t/km2/mes); para el análisis microbiológico se realizó por el método de borboteo en líquidos, identificándose 27 géneros entre bacterias y hongos, siendo las bacterias más frecuentes Bacillus sp., Staphylococcus sp., Enterobacter agglomerans, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter hafniae y algunas bacterias patógenas para el hombre como Streptococcus sp., Clostridium perfringens, Bacillus anthracis. Los hongos de mayor frecuencia son Penicillium sp., Aspergillius sp., Geotrichum sp., algunos hongos patógenos identificados: Microsporum sp., Epirophyton sp. Por otro lado, para la percepción del público como trabajadores se aplicó encuestas, donde indicaron que la calidad microbiológica del aire en la Microestación Biológica-Zoocriadero es regular(AU)


The objective of this research paper is to assess the microbiological quality of the air in six areas of the Biologial Micro-station and animal breeding farm of the Peruvian Univeristy "Universidad Nacional Agraria de la Selva in Tingo María, Perú", proceeding as follows: Six sampling areas were selected (A1: Ticket Office, A2: Cock-of-the-Rock hut, A3: Turtle area, A4: Otorongo hut, A5: Monkey hut, A6: Kitchen), of wich for the determination of the phisical parameters (SBP, temperature, relative humidity, precipitation and wind rose) information was obtained from the UNAS meteorological station and direct readings in the field. For the determination of SBP was performed by the passive method obtaining the high concentration of SBP in area 1 "Ticket Office" (12.61 t/km2/month, 11.08 t/km2/month and 8.4 t/km2/month) and the lowest in area 5 "monkey house" (2.80 t/km2/month, 2.80 t/km2/month and 3.2 t/km2/month); microbiological analysis was performed by the liquid bubbling method, identifying 27 genera incluiding bacteria and fungi, with the most frequent bacteria being Bacillus sp., Staphylococcus sp., Enterobacter agglomerans, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter hafniae and some bacteria pathogenic for humans such as Streptococcus sp., Clostridium perfringens and Bacillus anthracis. The most frequent fungi are Penicillium sp., Aspergillius sp. and Geotrichum sp.; some pathogenic fungi identified: Microsporum sp., Epirophyton sp. On the other hand,regarding the perception of the public and workers, surveys were applied, wich indicated that the microbiologial quality of the air in the Biological Micro-station and animal breeding farm is regular(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Environmental Monitoring/methods , Climatologic Station , Air Microbiology , Air Pollution/analysis , Penicillium , Peru , Staphylococcus , Streptococcus , Bacillus , Bacillus anthracis , Microbiological Techniques/methods , Clostridium perfringens , Enterobacter , Geotrichum , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Microsporum , Occupational Groups
16.
Rev. med. vet. zoot ; 68(2): 95-104, mayo-ago. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1352096

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Mastitis is one of the most important illnesses in specialized dairy herds worldwide due to the effects on production and animal health. The types caused by CNS has a special importance in a production where the main pathogens are controlled. The objective of the present work is to determine the prevalence of CNS in a dairy herd in Boyaca and also quantify the effects of every species of CNS in SCC. 40 cows were selected and sampled during 6 months, CMT was performed, and results from 1 to trace were sampled. The routine bacteriological test was also performed for CNS identification, and the isolating of CNS was performed through rpoB gene identification and through the type of strain using the pulse gel electrophoresis procedure. Out of 960 samples, 619 were positive for CNS growth. The most prevalent species were Staphylococcus epidermidis, S. chromogenes, S. sciuri, S. simulaans, S. haemolyticus and S. capitis. The results that were found here are similar to the results observed in different parts of the world, which confirms that they are pathogens that must be constantly evaluated because they can go unnoticed in routine controls, especially in those farms where major pathogens are not a serious problem. The results determined in this study demonstrate that CNS generates a slight increase in somatic cells.


RESUMEN La mastitis es una de las enfermedades más importantes en los rebaños lecheros especializados alrededor de todo el mundo debido a los efectos sobre la producción y la salud animal. Los tipos ocasionados por estafilococos coagualasa negativo (ECN) tienen una importancia especial en una producción en la que los principales patógenos están controlados. El objetivo del presente trabajo es determinar la prevalência del ECN en un hato lechero en Boyacá y cuantificar los efectos de cada especie de ECN en el conteo de células somáticas (CCS). Se seleccionaron 40 vacas y se tomaron muestras durante 6 meses, se realizó california mastitis test (CMT) y se tomaron muestras de los resultados desde 1 hasta donde hubo trazas. También se realizó la prueba bacteriológica de rutina para la identificación del ECN y el aislamiento del ECN se realizó mediante la identificación del gen rpoB y del tipo de cepa, usando el procedimiento de electroforesis en gel de pulso. De 960 muestras, 619 fueron positivas para el crecimiento del ECN. Las especies más prevalentes fueron Staphylococcus epidermidis, S. chromogenes, S. sciuri, S. simulans, S. haemolyticus y S. capitis. Los resultados encontrados aquí son similares a resultados en diferentes partes del mundo, lo que confirma que son patógenos que deben ser evaluados constantemente porque pueden pasar desapercibidos en los controles de rutina, especialmente en aquellas fincas donde los patógenos mayores no son un problema grave. Los resultados determinados en este estudio demuestran que el SNC genera un ligero aumento de células somáticas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Staphylococcus , Cattle , Cells , Longitudinal Studies , Electrophoresis , Mammary Glands, Animal , Mastitis , Veterinary Medicine , Catalase , Cell Count , Prevalence , Gram-Positive Rods , Hemolysis
17.
Rev. epidemiol. controle infecç ; 11(2): [1-13], abr.-jun. 2021. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362763

ABSTRACT

Justification and Objectives: Circulating blood is sterile and the presence of microorganisms can be of clinical interest, especially in the hospital environment, being able to cause infectious processes and substantially increase morbidity and mortality. The objective of this work was to characterize the isolates of the genus Staphylococcus spp. from bloodstream infections as to the production of bacterial biofilm and resistance to the main antimicrobials used in clinical practice. Methods: Blood cultures were collected with an indication of positivity for bacterial growth from multiple sectors of the study hospital, which were subsequently processed to identify the bacterial genus through the use of phenotypic tests for Gram positive bacteria. The verification of the resistance profile was performed following the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion. The identification of the production and quantification of the bacterial biofilm occurred following the protocol described by O'toole (2010). Results: The most frequent clinical isolate was Coagulase negative Staphylococci 38 (54.29%), followed by Staphylococcus aureus 32 (45.71%). Resistance to erythromycin, norfloxacin, levofloxacin and azithromycin was observed in most isolates (70%). Regarding methicillin, more MRSA (59.38%) than MR-CONS (47.37%) were isolated. The ICU was the place where the formation of the biofilm showed indicative data of greater adherence, which was associated with MRSA strains. Conclusion: The bacterial isolates associated with bloodstream infections showed high resistance to antimicrobials. The presence of MRSA and MR-CONS with strong and/or moderate biofilm production capacity represents a greater risk to the health of patients affected by infections caused by these agents.(AU)


Justificativa e Objetivos: O sangue circulante é estéril e a presença de microrganismos pode ter interesse clínico, especialmente no ambiente hospitalar, sendo capaz de causar processos infecciosos e aumentar substancialmente a morbimortalidade. O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar os isolados do gênero Staphylococcus spp. oriundos de infecções de corrente sanguínea quanto à produção de biofilme bacteriano e resistência aos principais antimicrobianos utilizados na prática clínica. Métodos: Foram coletadas hemoculturas com indicação de positividade para o crescimento bacteriano de múltiplos setores do hospital de estudo, as quais posteriormente foram processadas para identificação do gênero bacteriano através da utilização de testes fenotípicos para bactérias Gram positivas. A verificação do perfil de resistência foi realizada seguindo a metodologia de disco difusão de Kirby-Bauer. A identificação da produção e quantificação do biofilme bacteriano ocorreu seguindo o protocolo descrito por O'toole (2010). Resultados: O isolado clínico mais frequente foi o Staphylococcus coagulase negativo 38 (54,29%), seguido pelo Staphylococcus aureus 32 (45,71%). A resistência à eritromicina, norfloxacina, levofloxacina e azitromicina foi observada na maioria dos isolados (70%). Em relação à meticilina, foram isolados mais Staphylococcus aureus resistente à meticilina (MRSA) (59,38%) que Staphylococcus coagulase negativa resistente à meticilina (MR-CONS) (47,37%). A UTI foi o local onde a formação do biofilme apresentou dados indicativos de maior aderência, sendo essa associada às cepas MRSA. Conclusão: Os isolados bacterianos associados às infecções da corrente sanguínea apresentaram elevada resistência aos antimicrobianos. A presença de MRSA e MR-CONS com forte e/ou moderada capacidade de produção de biofilme representa maior risco à saúde dos pacientes acometidos por infecções causadas por estes agentes.(AU)


Justificación y objetivos: la sangre circulante es estéril y la presencia de microorganismos puede ser de interés clínico, especialmente en el entorno hospitalario, ya que puede causar procesos infecciosos y aumentar sustancialmente la morbilidad y la mortalidad. El objetivo de este trabajo fue caracterizar los aislamientos del género Staphylococcus spp. de infecciones del torrente sanguíneo en cuanto a la producción de biopelículas bacterianas y la resistencia a los principales antimicrobianos utilizados en la práctica clínica. Métodos: Se recogieron hemocultivos con una indicación de positividad para el crecimiento bacteriano de múltiples sectores del hospital de estudio, que posteriormente se procesaron para identificar el género bacteriano mediante el uso de pruebas fenotípicas para bacterias Gram positivas. La verificación del perfil de resistencia se realizó siguiendo la metodología de difusión de disco de Kirby-Bauer. La identificación de la producción y cuantificación de la biopelícula bacteriana se produjo siguiendo el protocolo descrito por O'toole (2010). Resultados: El aislado clínico más frecuente fue Staphylococcus coagulasa negativo 38 (54.29%), seguido de Staphylococcus aureus 32 (45.71%). Se observó resistencia a la eritromicina, norfloxacina, levofloxacina y azitromicina en la mayoría de los aislamientos (70%). Con respecto a la meticilina, se aislaron más MRSA (59,38%) que MR-CONS (47,37%). La UCI fue el lugar donde la formación de la biopelícula mostró datos indicativos de una mayor adherencia, que se asoció con las cepas de MRSA. Conclusión: los aislamientos bacterianos asociados con infecciones del torrente sanguíneo mostraron una alta resistencia a los antimicrobianos. La presencia de MRSA y MR-CONS con una capacidad de producción de biopelículas fuerte y / o moderada representa un mayor riesgo para la salud de los pacientes afectados por infecciones causadas por estos agentes.(AU)


Subject(s)
Staphylococcus , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Biofilms , Blood Culture , Anti-Infective Agents , Cross Infection
18.
NOVA publ. cient ; 19(36): 95-108, ene.-jun. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356543

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción. La conjuntivitis bacteriana es una de las infecciones oculares con mayor tasa de consulta oftálmica, siendo el género Staphylococcus el agente etiológico que presenta mayor resistencia a los antibióticos. Objetivo. Determinar el potencial antimicrobiano de extractos de plantas medicinales y sus mezclas frente a bacterias asociadas con conjuntivitis. Métodos. A partir de plantas como Belladona, Caléndula, Albahaca, Achiote y Romerillo se prepararon los extractos etanólicos y se evaluó su potencial antibacteriano frente a S. aureus y S. epidermidis, mediante las técnicas de difusión en disco y dilución en tubo. El efecto de las mezclas se determinó para el extracto con mejor actividad y el antibiótico con mayor halo de inhibición a través de la técnica de tablero. Resultados. Se encontró que el extracto con mayor potencial para S. aureus fue el de achiote (hojas) con un halo de inhibición de 13 mm y CMIs de 15 mg/mL, mientras que para S. epidermidis fueron los de hojas y frutos de achiote con halos de 16,6 y 9,6 mm y CMIs de 15 y 30 mg/mL respectivamente. En relación con las combinaciones, el extracto de achiote y ciprofloxacina mostró un efecto de sinergia parcial para S. aureus con una CFI de 0,83 y un efecto aditivo para S. epidermidis con una CFI de 1,84. Conclusiones. Este trabajo se constituye en la base de futuras investigaciones orientadas hacia el desarrollo de bioproductos de uso ocular que puedan ser considerados como alternativa en el tratamiento de infecciones causadas por Staphylococcus.


Abstract Introduction. Bacterial conjunctivitis is one of the ocular infections with the highest rate of ophthalmic consultation, being the Staphylococcus genus the etiological agent that presents the greatest resistance to antibiotics. Objective. To determine the antimicrobial potential of medicinal plant extracts and their mixtures against bacteria associated with conjunctivitis. Methods. From plants such as Belladonna, Calendula, Basil, Achiote and Romerillo, ethanolic extracts were prepared and their antibacterial potential against S. aureus and S. epidermidis was evaluated by means of disk diffusion and tube dilution techniques. The effect of the mixtures was determined for the extract with the best activity and the antibiotic with the highest inhibition halo through the board technique. Results. It was found that the extract with the highest potential for S. aureus was that of annatto (leaves) with an inhibition halo of 13 mm and MICs of 15 mg / mL, while for S. epidermidis it was those of annatto leaves and fruits with halos of 16.6 and 9.6 mm and MICs of 15 and 30 mg / mL respectively. In relation to the combinations, the annatto extract and ciprofloxacin showed a partial synergistic effect for S. aureus with a CFI of 0.83 and an additive effect for S. epidermidis with a CFI of 1.84. Conclusions. This work constitutes the basis for future research aimed at the development of bioproducts for ocular use that can be considered as an alternative in the treatment of infections caused by Staphylococcus.


Subject(s)
Humans , Conjunctivitis , Staphylococcus , Ciprofloxacin , Conjunctivitis, Bacterial , Infections
19.
Cambios rev. méd ; 20(1): 10-14, 30 junio 2021. tabs.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1292684

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN. Las infecciones del tracto urinario son causa de mayor morbilidad en la población adulta y afectan con frecuencia a la mujer. Al ser un problema prevalente, fue fundamental realizar estudios sobre perfiles de susceptibilidad locales para establecer medidas de vigilancia y control de uso de antibióticos. OBJETIVO. Determinar el perfil de farmacorresistencia microbiana en adultos con infección del tracto urinario. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS. Estudio descriptivo, transversal. La población fue de 437 urocultivos y una muestra de 176 positivos con su antibiograma, realizados en el laboratorio del Hospital Básico de Sangolquí entre enero de 2017 hasta abril de 2018. Los criterios de inclusión fueron: pacientes mayores de 15 años de edad de ambos sexos, ambulatorios y hospitalizados, que presentaron urocultivos positivos definidos por una cuenta mayor a 100 000 Unidades Formadoras de Colonia. RESULTADOS. Del 40,27% (176; 437) de urocultivos positivos, la bacteria aislada con frecuencia fue Escherichia coli. 69,31% (122; 176), con resistencia a ampicilina 77,97% (92; 118), trimetropim-sulfametoxazole 62,26% (66; 106), norfloxacino 37,50% (42; 112), ciprofloxacino 35,65 % (41; 115), ampicilina/sulbactam 32,20% (38; 118) y con susceptibilidad a: fosfomicina, ceftriaxona, amikacina y nitrofurantoina. CONCLUSIÓN. Se determinó el perfil de farmacorresistencia microbiana en adultos con infección del tracto urinario; donde Escherichia coli. fue aislada con frecuencia, con susceptibilidad favorable para nitrofurantoína y fosfomicina.


INTRODUCTION. Urinary tract infections are the cause of greater morbidity in the adult population and it often affects women. As it is a prevalent problem, it was essential to carry out studies on local susceptibility profiles to establish surveillance measures and control of antibiotic use. OBJECTIVE. To determine the microbial drug resistance profile in adults with urinary tract infection. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Descriptive, cross-sectional study. The population was 437 urine cultures and a sample of 176 positive with their antibiogram, carried out in the laboratory of the Hospital Básico de Sangolquí between january 2017 and april 2018. Inclusion criteria were: patients older than 15 years of age of both sexes, ambulatory and hospitalized, who presented positive urine cultures defined by a count greater than 100 000 Colony Forming Units. RESULTS. Of the 40,27% (176; 437) of positive urine cultures, the bacterium frequently isolated was Escherichia coli. 69,31% (122; 176), with resistance to ampicillin 77,97% (92; 118), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole 62,26% (66; 106), norfloxacin 37,50% (42; 112), ciprofloxacin 35,65% (41; 115), ampicillin / sulbactam 32,20% (38; 118) and with susceptibility to: fosfomycin, ceftriaxone, amikacin and nitrofurantoin. CONCLUSION. The microbial drug resistance profile was determined in adults with urinary tract infection; where Escherichia coli. was frequently isolated, with favorable susceptibility to nitrofurantoin and fosfomycin.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Urinary Tract , Urinary Tract Infections , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Staphylococcus , Bacteriuria , Ampicillin Resistance , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Escherichia coli
20.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(5): 325-330, oct. 2021. tab
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1292087

ABSTRACT

Introducción. Las infecciones con bacteriemias en pacientes quemados son causa frecuente de complicaciones y aumento de días de internación. El conocimiento de los microorganismos causales y la identificación de factores de riesgo asociados permiten disminuir las complicaciones infecciosas, la morbimortalidad y los costos en cuidados de la salud. Este trabajo evalúa el grado de asociación entre los factores de riesgo y los episodios de bacteriemias en pacientes quemados, e identifica los microorganismos aislados más frecuentemente en hemocultivos. Población y métodos. Estudio de casos y controles realizado en la Unidad de Cuidados Críticos de Quemados del Hospital de Pediatría S.A.M.I.C. "Prof. Dr. Juan P. Garrahan" entre el 1 de junio de 2014 y el 30 de septiembre de 2019 en pacientes que presentaron episodios de bacteriemia con hemocultivo positivo (casos) y los que presentaron hemocultivos negativos (controles). Resultados. Durante el período estudiado se identificaron 29 casos de bacteriemias. La mediana de días de internación al momento del episodio de bacteriemia fue de 23 días. El microorganismo más frecuentemente identificado fue Pseudomonas (7 casos). El único factor de riesgo con el que se pudo establecer asociación significativa fue la presencia de acceso venoso central con 7 días o más (OR 3,18; IC 95 %: 1,20-8,38). La mortalidad global fue del 9,1 %, en los casos fue del 13,8 %, y en los controles, del 3,4 %. Conclusiones. Los accesos venosos centrales con duración mayor a 7 días son un factor de riesgo independiente de bacteriemias en niños quemados críticos. No se pudo establecer una asociación estadísticamente significativa con otros factores de riesgos analizados. Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter y Staphylococcus coagulasa negativo fueron los microorganismos más frecuentemente identificados en las bacteriemias


Introduction. Infections due to bacteremia in burn patients are a common cause of complications and an extended length of stay. Knowing causative microorganisms and identifying associated risk factors allow to reduce infectious complications, morbidity, mortality, and health care expenditure. This study assesses the extent of the association between risk factors and bacteremia in burn patients and identifies the most common microorganisms found in blood cultures. Population and methods. Case-control study conducted at the Burn Intensive Care Unit of Hospital de Pediatría S.A.M.I.C. "Prof. Dr. Juan P. Garrahan" between June 1st, 2014 and September 30th, 2019 in patients with bacteremia events and a positive blood culture (cases) and patients with a negative blood culture (controls). Results. During the study period, 29 cases of bacteremia were identified. The median length of stay at the time of bacteremia was 23 days. The most commonly identified microorganism was Pseudomonas (7 cases). The only risk factor that showed a significant association was the presence of a central venous line for 7 days or more (OR: 3.18; 95 % confidence interval: 1.20- 8.38). The overall mortality rate was 9.1%; 13.8% for cases and 3.4% for controls. Conclusions. Central venous lines for more than 7 days are an independent risk factor for bacteremia in critically ill burn children. No statistically significant association was established with other studied risk factors. Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus were the most common microorganisms found in bacteremia


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Burns/complications , Bacteremia/etiology , Bacteremia/epidemiology , Staphylococcus , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Case-Control Studies , Indicators of Morbidity and Mortality , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Infections
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