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1.
Con-ciencia (La Paz) ; 9(2): 1-18, nov. 2021. ilus.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1354459

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: la papa es el tubérculo más importante producido a nivel mundial como producto alimenticio. Una de las formas ancestrales de conservación de la papa en los países andinos es la obtención de un producto llamado chuño, obtenido a partir de las denominadas papas amargas. Existen pocos datos respecto a la composición química y nutricional del chuño y sobre los cambios producidos en el almidón durante su elaboración en el proceso de congelado-secado en condiciones específicas de temperatura y exposición a rayos ultravioleta. OBJETIVO: el objetivo del trabajo fue realizar una revisión bibliográfica respecto a cambios producidos en la relación de amilosa y amilopectina, la composición de almidón aislado de papa y la modificación de las características de este almidón en el proceso de elaboración de chuño. METODOLOGÍA: La revisión bibliográfica se ha realizado con la recopilación de tres fuentes referenciales de estudios realizados sobre el chuño y su proceso de elaboración, artículos sobre la estructura del almidón de papa y otros tubérculos del mismo género, artículos de otros productos alimenticios del Altiplano boliviano y peruano, y finalmente la influencia de los cambios de la estructura del almidón en el incremento de la formación de almidón retrogradado. RESULTADOS: la revisión bibliográfica realizada, señala que el proceso de elaboración de chuño eleva el porcentaje de amilosa en el contenido total de almidón, lo cual está relacionado a procesos de exposición a radiación UV y a cambios de temperaturas muy drásticos, que van entre -13,5 ºC y 16 ºC. Este proceso llevaría a la activación de enzimas, como amilasas, para la catálisis de reacciones de ruptura de enlaces como principal ruta del proceso; sin embargo, se podrían evaluar otras causas. CONCLUSIONES: el mayor porcentaje de amilosa permitiría la obtención de altos porcentajes de almidón retrogradado.


INTRODUCTION: the potato is the most important tuber produced worldwide as a food product. One of the ancestral ways of preserving pootatoes in the Andean countries is a product called chuño (traditional Andean freeze and sun-dried potato), obtained from the so-called bitter potatoes. There are few data regarding the chemical and nutritional composition of chuño and the changes produced in the starch during its preparation in the freeze-drying process under specific conditions of temperature and exposure to ultraviolet rays. OBJECTIVE: the objective of this article was to do a bibliographic review regarding changes produced in the amylose and amylopectin ratio, the composition of isolated potato starch and the modification of the characteristics of this starch in the process of making chuño. METHODOLOGY: the literature review methodology has the compilation of three reference sources of studies carried out on chuño and its production process, articles about the structure of potato starch and other tubers, research on other food products from the Bolivian and Peruvian of Altiplano and finally the influence of the changes in starch structure in relation to the increasing of retrograde starch formation. RESULTS: the results show that the process of making chuño increases the percentage of amylose in the total starch content, which is related to the processes of exposure to UV radiation and very drastic temperature changes, ranging between -13, 5 ºC and 16 ºC. This process would lead to the activation of enzymes, such as amylases, for the catalysis of bond breaking reactions as the main route of the process; however, other causes could be evaluated. CONCLUSIONS: the higher percentage of amylose would allow the obtaining of high percentages of retrograded starch.


Subject(s)
Starch , Enzymes , Amylases , Amylose , Plant Tubers , Food
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(1): 1-10, Feb. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153324

ABSTRACT

Abstract Starch samples from eight legumes cultivars instar of one variety of Vigna unguiculata L. (Cowpea), one variety of Vigna subterrenea V. (Bambara groundnut) and six varieties of Phaseolus vulgaris L. (Common bean), grown in Cameroon were isolated, and their physicochemical and pasting properties were evaluated. The objectives of the study were to investigate the starch properties and processing characteristics of different bean varieties, and to establish the basic foundation of improving the functionality of beans and their starch grown in the region. The result revealed significant differences amongst the properties of the starches. The swelling power of the legume starch isolates put them in the category of highly restricted-swelling starch. This characteristic is desirable for the manufacture of value-added products such as noodles and composite blends with cereals. The pasting properties were determined using a rapid visco analyzer, and various legumes bean starches exhibited different pasting profiles. The high breakdown viscosity (BV) was founded for Cowpea and Bambara groundnut and confirmed their low. ability to resist heat and shear stress when compared to Common bean varieties studies. The factors which influence the pasting characteristics resulting to decrease in peak viscosity (PV), trough viscosity (TV) and final viscosity (FV) of starch are attributed to the interaction of starch with the protein, fat, etc. which depended to their variety.


Resumo Foram isoladas amostras de amido de oito cultivares de leguminosas ínstar de uma variedade de Vigna unguiculata L. (feijão caupi), uma variedade de Vigna subterrenea V. (amendoim Bambara) e seis variedades de Phaseolus vulgaris L. (feijão comum), cultivadas nos Camarões, e suas propriedades físico-químicas e de pasta foram avaliadas. Os objetivos do estudo foram investigar as propriedades do amido e as características de processamento de diferentes variedades de feijão e estabelecer as bases básicas para melhorar a funcionalidade do feijão e do amido cultivado na região. O resultado revelou diferenças significativas entre as propriedades dos amidos. O poder de inchamento dos isolados de amido de leguminosas os coloca na categoria de amido com inchamento altamente restrito. Esta característica é desejável para o fabrico de produtos de valor acrescentado, tais como macarrão e misturas compósitas com cereais. As propriedades de pasta foram determinadas usando um analisador rápido de visco, e vários amidos de feijão leguminosos exibiram diferentes perfis de pasta. A alta BV foi fundada para o amendoim Cowpea e Bambara e confirmou sua baixa. capacidade de resistir ao calor e tensão de cisalhamento quando comparado com estudos de variedades de feijão. Os fatores que influenciam as características colantes resultantes da diminuição do pico de viscosidade (PV), da viscosidade mínima (TV) e da viscosidade final (FV) do amido são atribuídos à interação do amido com a proteína, gordura, etc., que dependem da sua variedade.


Subject(s)
Amylose , Fabaceae , Starch , Viscosity , Cameroon
3.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1415-1424, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878643

ABSTRACT

Coupling sugar is a kind of new sweetener which can substitute sucrose. It has a good application prospect in food, medicine and other fields because of its good coloration, water retention and anti caries. The purpose of this study was to find cheap and easily available donor and acceptor, and to optimize the preparation process of coupling sugar by using β-cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase from Bacilluscirculans 251. Using sucrose as acceptor, the factors of preparing coupling sugar was optimized, including enzyme dosage, starch types, temperature, pH, ratio of starch/sucrose, and cooperation of isoamylase and β-CGTase. When 105 g/L potato starch and 95 g/L sucrose was used as substrates, the yield of coupling sugar reached 88.4%, which was catalyzed by 13.5 U/g immobilized β-CGTase and 45.0 U/g isoamylase under the conditions of pH 5.5 and 40 °C for 21 h. In this study, isoamylase and β-CGTase were used to prepare coupling sugar innovatively. This method had obvious advantages in yield and cost, which laid both theoretical and experimental foundation for the industrial enzymatic preparation of coupling sugars.


Subject(s)
Glucosyltransferases , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Isoamylase , Starch
4.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2845-2855, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887847

ABSTRACT

Production of biofuels such as ethanol from non-grain crops may contribute to alleviating the global energy crisis and reducing the potential threat to food security. Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) is a commercial crop with high biomass yield. Breeding of starch-rich tobacco plants may provide alternative raw materials for the production of fuel ethanol. We cloned the small subunit gene NtSSU of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (NtAGPase), which controls starch biosynthesis in tobacco, and constructed a plant expression vector pCAMBIA1303-NtSSU. The NtSSU gene was overexpressed in tobacco upon Agrobacterium-mediated leaf disc transformation. Phenotypic analysis showed that overexpression of NtSSU gene promoted the accumulation of starch in tobacco leaves, and the content of starch in tobacco leaves increased from 17.5% to 41.7%. The growth rate and biomass yield of the transgenic tobacco with NtSSU gene were also significantly increased. The results revealed that overexpression of NtSSU gene could effectively redirect more photosynthesis carbon flux into starch biosynthesis pathway, which led to an increased biomass yield but did not generate negative effects on other agronomic traits. Therefore, NtSSU gene can be used as an excellent target gene in plant breeding to enrich starch accumulation in vegetative organs to develop new germplasm dedicated to fuel ethanol production.


Subject(s)
Biomass , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Plant Breeding , Plant Leaves/genetics , Plants, Genetically Modified/metabolism , Starch , Tobacco/metabolism
5.
Rev. Inst. Adolfo Lutz ; 80(Único): e37286, dez. 2021. tab
Article in Portuguese | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP, CONASS, SESSP-ACVSES, SESSP-IALPROD, SES-SP, SESSP-IALACERVO | ID: biblio-1367726

ABSTRACT

Com o crescimento diário do número de consumidores em nível mundial, a indústria alimentícia se caracteriza como um ramo em ascensão contínua. Como consequência, a sociedade procura obter informações nutricionais dos produtos consumidos por meio dos rótulos. O iogurte, objeto do presente estudo, é tido pela sociedade de consumo como um alimento rico em nutrientes, que promove benefícios ao organismo e, por isso, apresenta-se como vantajoso à saúde. No entanto, torna-se fundamental analisar a veracidade nos rótulos desses produtos quanto à presença de amido. Tal análise pode ser efetivada por meio de um exame laboratorial chamado de teste de iodo, também conhecido como teste Lugol. Com isso, o presente estudo objetivou analisar a veracidade da rotulagem quanto à presença de amido, baseando a pesquisa em um teste laboratorial em iogurtes nacionais comercializados no sul de Santa Catarina. Sendo assim, os resultados das 28 amostras deste estudo demonstraram alguma inconformidade. Observou-se que 85,7% apresentavam amido declarado como espessante na rotulagem, porém o teste foi positivado para 89,3% dos iogurtes. Diante disso, são de suma importância as análises na veracidade das rotulagens, visto que, corriqueiramente, o consumidor é lesado ao que diz respeito às informações contidas nos rótulos de produtos alimentícios. (AU)


With the daily growth of the number of consumers worldwide, the food industry is characterized as a branch in continuous growth. As a result, society seeks to obtain nutritional information on the products consumed through the labels. Yogurt, the object of this study, is considered by the consumer society as a food rich in nutrients, which promotes benefits to the body and, therefore, presents itself as advantageous to health. Such an analysis can be carried out through a laboratory test called iodine test, also known as Lugol test. Whithin this context, the present study aims to analyze the veracity of the labeling regarding the presence of starch by testing national yogurts commercialized in the south of Santa Catarina. Thus, the results of this study showed that samples were not in conformity. It was observed that 85.7% had starch declared as a thickener on the label, but the test was positive for 89.3% of yogurts. Therefore, it is of utmost importance to analyze the veracity of the labeling, once routinely, the consumer is harmed when it comes to the information contained in the labels of food products. (AU)


Subject(s)
Starch/analysis , Yogurt/analysis , Food Labeling
6.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 64: e21200568, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1278450

ABSTRACT

Abstract Sweet potato (SP) starchy roots have a broad range of colors, high-quality nutritional composition including bioactive substances (anthocyanins and β-carotene), vitamins, minerals, dietary fiber and starch. Several studies report the versatility of this root crop as part of the human diet and its possible health benefits. In this review the SP chemical composition, nutritional properties and its potential use in food processing for developing nutritious and healthy products are explored. Due to the adaptation of sweet potatoes to several agricultural managing conditions, accepting low technology /low cost with reasonable performance, it has called attention as a strong candidate of accessible functional food market.


Subject(s)
Starch , Ipomoea batatas , Plant Tubers , Flour , Phytochemicals
7.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 64: e21200512, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153288

ABSTRACT

HIGHLIGHTS Chips from orange-fleshed sweet potato have a good acceptability. Drying process showed retention of carotenoids total content. Chips from drying or frying process showed high resistant starch content.


Abstract There is currently a great demand for industrialized products with functional properties, together with the increase in consumption of roots and sweet potato products. Sweet potatoes have a high content of resistant starch, while only the orange-fleshed roots also have a high content of carotenoids. Due to these, this work aimed to produce orange-fleshed sweet potato chips, by two processes: drying oven and immersion frying. The chips were evaluated for the content of resistant starch and carotenoids in nature and chips sweet potatoes, and evaluations of the physical attributes and sensory analysis of the chips. The drying process retained a greater content of total carotenoids. Fried chips can be considered high resistant starch content, even with a decrease in the content after this processing; they also showed more intense coloring and pleasant texture. There was a statistical difference between the varieties only regarding the content of carotenoids and resistant starch. Thereby, it can be concluded that the chips of both processing have good technological and functional qualities, and that the frying process presented best hardness which led to greater acceptability and purchase intention.


Subject(s)
Humans , Starch/analysis , Solanum tuberosum , Carotenoids/analysis , Ipomoea batatas , Taste/physiology , Consumer Behavior , Food Handling
8.
Rev. chil. nutr ; 47(3): 359-365, jun. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1126132

ABSTRACT

Fish and fish products are an outstanding source of essential protein and micronutrients. In cured meats, such as pâté, the technological characteristics are fundamental to the final quality of the product. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of the addition of manioc starch, water and inulin on moisture, water holding capacity (WHC) and texture profile in pâtés using the underutilized marine fish bicuda (barracuda, Sphyraenatome) with total fat replacement by inulin. A Rotational Central Composite Design (RCCD) was used with the independent variables inulin, manioc starch, and water. Water, inulin, and manioc starch significantly influenced (p<0.05) the moisture content of pâtés, WHC, and texture, hardness, gumminess, and chewiness parameters. The technological action of inulin as a substitute for fat used in the formulations (3% to 6%) was underestimated. The percentages used were below perecentages of at least 20% of fat reported in the literature.Current legislation does not recommend WHR values and hardness parameters, only values for humidity. There is a need for revision of legislation to meet the characteristics of the identity pattern and quality of fish pâté.


El pescado y los productos pesqueros son una fuente excepcional de proteínas esenciales y micronutrientes. En embutidos (carne curada) como el paté, las características tecnológicas son fundamentales para la calidad final del producto. El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo evaluar el efecto de la adición de almidón de mandioca, agua e inulina sobre la humedad, la capacidad de retención de agua (WHC) y el perfil de la textura en patés fabricados con peces marinos subutilizados (barracuda, Sphyraena tome) con reemplazo total de grasa por inulina. Se utilizó un diseño compuesto central rotatorio (RCCD) con las variables independientes inulina, almidón de mandioca y agua. El agua, la inulina y el almidón de mandioca influyeron significativamente (p<0.05) en el contenido de humedad de los patés, WHC, y los parámetros de textura, dureza, gomosidad y masticabilidad. Se subestimó la acción tecnológica de la inulina como sustituto de la grasa en los contenidos utilizados en las formulaciones (3% a 6%). Los porcentajes utilizados estaban por debajo de lo que informa la literatura de al menos un 20% de grasa. La legislación actual no recomienda valores de WHR y parámetros de dureza, solo valores de humedad. Es necesario revisar la legislación para cumplir con las características del patrón de identidad y la calidad del paté de pescado.


Subject(s)
Animals , Starch , Seafood , Fish Products , Food Additives , Perciformes , Manihot , Hardness , Humidity
9.
Rev. chil. nutr ; 47(2): 238-246, abr. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1115494

ABSTRACT

Oryza sativa L. rice has large amounts of proteins and minerals, besides presenting several pigmented varieties. Red rice is distinguishable due to its great nutritional value compared to the regular white variety. Its red pericarp pigmentation is due to the bioactive compounds that are responsible for its health benefits. The objective of this study was to evaluate the physical-chemical characterization, antioxidant, antihyperglycemic and antihypertensive capacity of flours of three different red rice cultures (Rubi, Virgínia and Pequeno). All samples presented specific levels of carbohydrates for cereals with low fat content and excellent levels of protein and resistant starch. In addition, the samples had a high antioxidant, antihyperglycemic and antihypertensive capacity. Antihyperglycemic capacities were measured as percent inhibition for amylase (56.7-76.5%) and glycosidase (81.0-76.6%), respectively, and antihypertensive capacity as the percentage inhibition of the angiotensin converting enzyme (38.4-34.7%). In addition, Pequeno flour presented the best results for antioxidant and antihyperglycemic capacity in comparison to the two flours tested. Thus, all red rice flours can be a source of functional compounds when added to food.


El arroz integral (Oryza sativa L.) posee importantes cantidades de proteínas, vitaminas, minerales y fitoquímicos. El arroz rojo se destaca por su gran valor nutricional. La pigmentación roja del pericarpio está asociado al contenido de compuestos bioactivos, que están directamente relacionados a los beneficios de salud humana. Teniendo en cuenta lo antes expuesto se propuso evaluar las caracteristicas físico-químicas, capacidad antioxidante, anti-hiperglucémica y antihipertensiva de las harinas de tres diferentes cultivos de arroz rojo (Rubí, Virginia y Pequeño). Todas las muestras presentaron niveles específicos de carbohidratos para cereales con bajo contenido de grasa y altos contenidos de proteína y almidón resistente. Además, las muestras presentaron una alta capacidad antioxidante, anti-hiperglucémica y antihipertensiva. La capacidad anti-hiperglicémica se midió en porcentaje de inhibidores de α-amilasa (56.7-76.5%) y α-glucosidasa (81.0-76.6%), respectivamente; y capacidad antihipertensiva como el porcentaje de inhibición de la enzima convertidora de la angiotensina (38.4-34.7%). El cultivar Pequeño presentó mayor capacidad antioxidante y anti-hiperglucémica en comparación a los demás cultivares. Así, todas las harinas de arroz rojo pueden ser vehículos de compuestos funcionales en los alimentos.


Subject(s)
Oryza/chemistry , Hypoglycemic Agents/chemistry , Antihypertensive Agents/chemistry , Antioxidants/chemistry , Phenols/analysis , Starch , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors , Edible Grain , Proanthocyanidins/analysis , Glucosidases/antagonists & inhibitors , Amylases/antagonists & inhibitors
10.
Semina cienc. biol. saude ; 41(1): 107-116, jan./jun.2020. Tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1224595

ABSTRACT

A dieta hipercalórica é considerada fator de risco para o desenvolvimento de doenças cardiovasculares, sendo notado que os hábitos ocidentais possuem uma grande influência no desenvolvimento dessas enfermidades. A biomassa e a farinha de banana verde são alimentos que contém amido resistente; este constitui um tipo de carboidrato não digerível categorizado como prebiótico, com papel de regulação da glicemia. O principal objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito modulador dos alimentos supracitados em ratos Wistar alimentados com dieta de cafeteria. Foi possível observar uma grande diferença na composição centesimal e de amido resistente entre os dois prebióticos, sendo explicada pelo método de fabricação de cada um. Os grupos de intervenção contendo amido resistente proveniente da biomassa/farinha de banana verde demonstraram, no geral, um melhor perfil glicêmico, menor peso corporal e menor gordura corporal. O consumo alimentar com composição similar à dieta de cafeteria corriqueiramente pode levar a danos cardiometabólicos a longo prazo, contribuindo para o desenvolvimento de doenças crônicas. Observou-se também que as matrizes alimentares que contém amido resistente auxiliam no controle do ganho de peso corporal, prevenindo o acúmulo de tecido adiposo e intervindo no manejo dos níveis glicêmicos. Em suma, destaca-se que a implementação dos produtos da banana verde na alimentação pode ser de grande valia, considerando os efeitos positivos de seus componentes bioativos, ação prebiótica e a relação custo benefício desta matriz alimentar; porém, mais estudos científicos são necessários para confirmar as demais hipóteses que surgem com o tema (AU)


The hypercaloric diet is considered a risk factor for the development of cardiovascular diseases, and it is noted that western habits have a great influence on the development of these diseases. Biomass and green banana flour are foods containing resistant starch; this is a type of non-digestible carbohydrate categorized as prebiotic, with the role of glycemia regulation. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the modulating effect of the aforementioned foods on Wistar rats fed with a cafeteria diet. It was possible to observe a great difference in the centesimal composition and resistant starch content between the two prebiotics, being explained by the manufacturing method of each one. Intervention groups containing resistant starch from biomass/green banana flour showed a better glycemic profile, lower body weight and lower body fat. Food consumption with composition similar to the cafeteria diet can lead to long-term cardiometabolic damage, contributing to the development of chronic diseases. It was also observed that food matrices containing resistant starch help to control body weight gain, preventing the accumulation of adipose tissue and intervening in the management of glycemic levels. In summary, the implementation of green banana products in food can be of great value, considering the positive effects of its bioactive components, prebiotic action and the cost-benefit ratio of this food matrix, but more scientific studies are needed to confirm the other hypotheses that arise with the theme (AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Starch , Blood Glucose , Biomass , Diet , Prebiotics , Rats, Wistar , Food/adverse effects
11.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63: e20190024, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132186

ABSTRACT

Abstract Pigments produced by submerged fermentation of three filamentous fungi isolated from Brazilian caves, namely Aspergillus keveii, Penicillium flavigenum, and Epicoccum nigrum, were submitted to spray drying in presence of the adjuvants maltodextrin, modified starch or gum arabic. Yellow fine powders with low moisture content and water activity, and high color retention (> 70%) were successfully generated with a high product recovery ratio (> 50%), independently of the adjuvant used. The dried products have enhanced stability and potential to might be used as a natural colorant in food and pharmaceutical applications.


Subject(s)
Animals , Pigments, Biological/biosynthesis , Starch/biosynthesis , Fungi/metabolism , Gum Arabic , Maltose/biosynthesis , Aspergillus , Brazil , Caves/microbiology , Fungi/classification , Maltose/analogs & derivatives , Models, Theoretical
12.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63: e20170521, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132203

ABSTRACT

Abstract Amylases are enzymes involved in starch hydrolysis, generating the most diverse products, such as maltose, glucose and dextrins. This work aimed the study of the production of amylolytic enzymes via solid-state fermentation (SSF) using "crueira", an essentially starchy cassava residue, as substrate-support and Bacillus sp. as microorganism. For the implementation of the experimental part, a Central Composite Design (CCD) with three variables (initial moisture, pH and temperature) was made. Each test was examined at 24, 48 and 72 hours by the method of starch dextrinizing activity. The optimum production conditions were 60% initial moisture, pH 6 and 37 °C. The maximum yield was 437.76 U/g in 72 hours of fermentation. The optimum temperature of enzyme performance was 65 °C. The pH optimum range was 4 to 6. The Co2 +, Ca2 + and K+ ions positively influenced the activity of enzymes and the Fe2+ ion had no effect on enzymatic activity. On the other hand, the ions Hg2+, Zn2+, Cu2+, Mn2+ and Mg2+ adversely influenced enzymatic activity. Therefore, producing amylases from Bacillus sp. and using crueira as a substrate is possible.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bacillus/enzymology , Manihot/metabolism , Amylases/biosynthesis , Starch/metabolism , Analysis of Variance , Fermentation
13.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(3): 1015-1026, May-June 2019. tab, ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1011301

ABSTRACT

O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar a conversão alimentar, a digestibilidade do amido, o comportamento ingestivo e o escore de sobras da dieta e de fezes de novilhos confinados, suplementados com doses do complexo enzimático (0; 2,5; 5,0 e 7,5g animal-1 dia-1) e alimentados com dieta constituída por 85% de grão de milho e 15% de núcleo proteico, vitamínico e mineral, na base seca, isenta de forragem. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos ao acaso contendo quatro tratamentos e quatro repetições. Trinta e dois novilhos inteiros, ½ sangue Angus Nelore, com idade média de 12 meses e peso vivo médio inicial de 422kg, foram confinados por um período de 77 dias. Cada grama de inclusão de complexo enzimático melhorou a conversão alimentar em 0,1652%, reduziu a matéria seca das fezes em 0,4648% e o tempo de ingestão de água em 0,0068 horas dia-1. A máxima digestibilidade do amido foi alcançada na dose de 5,08g animal-1 dia-1. A inclusão progressiva do complexo enzimático à dieta de alta densidade energética promoveu melhoria na conversão alimentar, redução na matéria seca das fezes e diminuição do tempo de ingestão de água. A dose de 5g animal-1 dia-1 do complexo enzimático aumentou a digestibilidade do amido.(AU)


The objective was to evaluate the feed conversion, starch digestibility, ingestive behavior, diet leftover score and feces score of steers supplemented with doses of enzyme complex (0; 2.5; 5.0 and 7 .5g animal -1 day -1 ) fed with roughage-free diet composed of a mixture of 85% whole corn grain and 15% protein-mineral-vitamin mix, on a dry matter basis. A completely randomized block design was adopted, consisting of four treatments and four replicates. Thirty-two ½ Angus ½ Nellore crossbred steers at an average age of 12 months, with an average initial weight of 422kg, were kept in a feedlot for 77 days. Each gram of enzyme complex inclusion improved feed conversion in 0.1652%, decreased feces dry matter in 0,4648% and time of water intake in 0.0068 hours day -1 . The maximum starch digestibility was reached in the dose of 5,08g animal -1 day -1 . The gradual inclusion of enzyme complex promoted improvement in feed conversion, reduction in the dry matter of feces and redution in the time of water intake. The enzyme complex dose of 5.0g animal -1 day -1 increased the starch digestibility.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Starch/metabolism , Diet/veterinary , Digestion , Enzymes/administration & dosage , Starch and Fecula
14.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 39: 8-14, may. 2019. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1051568

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Bioremoval of phenolic compounds using fungi and bacteria has been studied extensively; nevertheless, trinitrophenol bioremediation using modified Oscillatoria cyanobacteria has been barely studied in the literature. RESULTS: Among the effective parameters of bioremediation, algal concentration (3.18 g·L−1 ), trinitrophenol concentration (1301 mg·L−1 ), and reaction time (3.75 d) were screened by statistical analysis. Oscillatoria cyanobacteria were modified by starch/nZVI and starch/graphene oxide in a bubble column bioreactor, and their bioremoval efficiency was investigated. Modifiers, namely, starch/zero-valent iron and starch/GO, increased trinitrophenol bioremoval efficiency by more than 10% and 12%, respectively, as compared to the use of Oscillatoria cyanobacteria alone. Conclusions: It was found that starch/nano zero-valent iron and starch/GO could be applied to improve the removal rate of phenolic compounds from the aqueous solution.


Subject(s)
Picrates/metabolism , Oscillatoria/metabolism , Picrates/analysis , Starch , Biodegradation, Environmental , Bioreactors , Phenolic Compounds/analysis , Metal Nanoparticles , Waste Water , Graphite , Iron
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773730

ABSTRACT

The non-starch polysaccharides,mainly composed of glucomannans,are the major bioactive compounds in Dendrobium catenatum. In order to evaluate the quality of the medicinal materials and guide the production and processing,a quantification method of non-starch polysaccharides was established by stems of D. catenatum C15 strain collected from the pear epiphytic cultivation. The non-starch polysaccharides were obtained by " water extraction,α-amylase pretreatment,and alcohol precipitation once" method. The contents of starches,non-starch polysaccharides and monosaccharides were analyzed. In addition,the system suitability was tested. Compared with method of the Chinese Pharmacopoeia( 2015 edition),the contents of total polysaccharides,glucose,and mannose were decreased by 20. 9%,58. 8% and 1. 6% respectively. The method effectively digested starch and retained non-starch polysaccharides,and the analysis result was accurate and repeatable. Therefore,it is suitable for the content measurement of non-starch polysaccharides of D. catenatum. Furthermore,it could be an alternative method for quality control of D. catenatum and a reference in the determination of non-starch polysaccharides in other starch-containing medicinal materials.


Subject(s)
Dendrobium , Chemistry , Monosaccharides , Phytochemicals , Polysaccharides , Starch
16.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 121-132, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771394

ABSTRACT

Isomalto-oligosaccharides (IMO) have good physiochemical properties and excellent physiological functions to make it widely used in food, medicine, feed, cosmetics and other industries. However, the procedures for industrial production of IMO are complicated. Therefore, it is necessary to develop an economical and easy-to-operate method. The genes encoding for β-amylase and α-transglucosidase were fused and co-displayed on the yeast cell surface of Yarrowia lipolytica which can convert liquefied starch to IMO in one step. The highest IMO purity of 75.3% was obtained using the displayed fusion-enzyme at 50 °C. This method showed potential application in IMO production.


Subject(s)
Oligosaccharides , Starch , Yarrowia , beta-Amylase
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763496

ABSTRACT

Obesity is a substantial public health challenge across the globe. The use of resistant starch has been proposed as a probable management strategy for complications of obesity. We investigated the effects of resistant starch intake on lipid profiles, glucose metabolism, antioxidant status, lipid peroxidation marker, blood pressure, and anthropometric variables in subjects with overweight or obesity. In this 12-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 2 × 2 crossover trial, 21 Participants (mean age, 35 ± 7.0 years; body mass index, 32.4 ± 3.5 kg/m²) were given 13.5 g Hi-Maize 260 or placebo daily for 4 weeks, separated by a 4-week washout period. Changes in total antioxidant status (p = 0.04) and serum concentrations of insulin in 52.4% participants with insulin levels above 16 µIU/mL at the baseline (p = 0.04) were significantly different in the three phases. In addition, the mean of serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol after the intervention was significantly higher than after baseline value (p = 0.04). We found no significant differences in serum concentrations of total cholesterol, triacylglycerol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, fasting blood sugar, insulin, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance, quantitative insulin sensitivity check index, superoxide dismutase activity, malondialdehyde, blood pressure, and anthropometric variables in the three phases of baseline, after intervention with resistant starch and after placebo. Resistant starch consumption improved serum insulin concentrations, lipid profiles, and antioxidant status in subjects with overweight or obesity. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01992783


Subject(s)
Adult , Blood Glucose , Blood Pressure , Body Mass Index , Cholesterol , Dietary Fiber , Fasting , Glucose , Humans , Insulin , Insulin Resistance , Lipid Metabolism , Lipid Peroxidation , Lipoproteins , Malondialdehyde , Metabolism , Obesity , Overweight , Oxidative Stress , Public Health , Starch , Superoxide Dismutase , Triglycerides
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761939

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to investigate the cognition-enhancing effect of Panax ginseng. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted to address the cognition-enhancing effects of Panax ginseng. A total of 90 Korean volunteers with mild cognitive impairment participated in this study. All subjects were allocated randomly into ‘Ginseng’ group or ‘Placebo’ group. All subjects were administered 3g of Panax ginseng powder or starch (placebo) for 6 months. The Korean version of the Mini-Mental Status Examination (K-MMSE), Korean version of Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (K-IADL), and Seoul Neuropsychological Screening Battery (SNSB) were used to assess the changes in cognitive function at the end of the 6 month study period. The subjects of the ‘Ginseng’ group improved significantly on the Rey Complex Figure Test (RCFT) immediate recall (P = 0.0405 and P = 0.0342 in per-protocol (PP) and intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis, respectively) and on the RCFT 20-min delayed recall (P = 0.0396 and P = 0.0355 in PP and ITT analysis, respectively) compared with ‘placebo’ group throughout the 6 months of Panax ginseng administration. There were no serious adverse events. These results suggest that Panax ginseng has a cognition-enhancing effect.


Subject(s)
Activities of Daily Living , Cognition , Mass Screening , Memory, Short-Term , Cognitive Dysfunction , Panax , Seoul , Starch , Volunteers
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785368

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hydroxyethyl starch (HES), a class of synthetic colloid solutions, has been widely used to treat perioperative hypovolemia. The use of HES, however, is associated with the risk of allergic reactions.CASE: An 83-year-old man was scheduled to undergo an open reduction and internal fixation of a pertrochanteric fracture under spinal anesthesia. He had no history of allergy. Five minutes after HES administration, hypotension, agitation, and skin rash were developed. HES infusion was terminated due to a suspected anaphylactic reaction. The vital signs recovered following administration of phenylephrine, dexamethasone, and hydrocortisone. Serum tryptase and total immunoglobulin E levels were elevated in plasma samples collected following the commencement of the allergic reaction during surgery.CONCLUSIONS: In the present report, the risk of anaphylactic reaction with HES and the laboratory tests needed to support the diagnosis are highlighted.


Subject(s)
Aged, 80 and over , Anaphylaxis , Anesthesia , Anesthesia, Spinal , Colloids , Dexamethasone , Diagnosis , Dihydroergotamine , Exanthema , Humans , Hydrocortisone , Hypersensitivity , Hypotension , Hypovolemia , Immunoglobulin E , Immunoglobulins , Phenylephrine , Plasma , Starch , Tryptases , Vital Signs
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785917

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate the food intake behavior of cancer survivors based on main sources of energy intake from different food groups in comparison with healthy individuals.METHODS: Baseline survey data from the Health Examinee cohort, which recruited participants from 2014 to 2013 were applied. A total of 5,269 cancer survivors and 5,219 healthy subjects without comorbidities who were matched by age, sex, and enrollment center were included in the analysis. The proportion of energy intake for 17 food groups was devided into lower median and median or upper. OR and 95% CIs were determined to measure the difference of energy intake proportion in cancer survivors, five major types of cancer survivors versus healthy individuals.RESULTS: Generally, the proportion of calories intake from sugars and sweets, meat and poultry, oils and fats, and beverage was lower in cancer survivors than in healthy individuals (OR = 0.83 [95% CI = 0.79–0.88], 0.75 [95% CI = 0.71–0.80], 0.84 [95% CI = 0.80–0.89], and 0.93 [95% CI = 0.88–0.99], respectively) with more prominently shown in breast, colon, and thyroid cancer individuals. In contrast, cancer survivors tended to intake calories from potatoes and starches, legume, seeds and nuts, vegetables, mushrooms, fruits, and seasonings more than healthy individuals (OR = 1.09 [95% CI = 1.03–1.16], 1.13 [95% CI = 1.06–1.19], 1.15 [95% CI = 1.09–1.22], 1.07 [95% CI = 1.01–1.13], 1.07 [95% CI = 1.02–1.14], 1.15 [95% CI = 1.08–1.21], and 1.17 [95% CI = 1.10–1.23], respectively) which were more prominent in gastric and breast cancer survivors.CONCLUSIONS: The dietary behavior measured by main sources of energy intake in cancer survivors was different from healthy individuals in terms of several food groups. Although there are nutrition guidelines for cancer survivors, because of the differences between Western population and Asian people in terms of food culture, the guidelines for balanced nutritious behavior should be established among Asian cancer survivors.


Subject(s)
Agaricales , Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Beverages , Breast , Breast Neoplasms , Carbohydrates , Cohort Studies , Colon , Comorbidity , Eating , Energy Intake , Fabaceae , Fats , Fruit , Healthy Volunteers , Humans , Meat , Nutrition Policy , Nutritional Status , Nuts , Oils , Poultry , Seasons , Solanum tuberosum , Starch , Surveys and Questionnaires , Survivors , Thyroid Neoplasms , Vegetables
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