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1.
Con-ciencia (La Paz) ; 9(2): [1-17], nov. 2021. ilus.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1348985

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: el incremento en el consumo de recursos naturales para el alivio de diferentes enfermedades ha llevado a varios países a diseñar mecanismos de control, que garanticen mediante métodos físico-químicos la calidad del material vegetal que se utilizará como materia prima para las preparaciones farmacéuticas y/o como medicina tradicional. La falsificación, la mala calidad o la adulteración en estos productos constituyen una grave amenaza a la seguridad del consumidor. El estudio de los parámetros de calidad de una especie vegetal nos permite reconocer su identidad, su pureza, así como el contenido de principios activos, que garanticen su calidad, eficacia y seguridad. U. urens L. (Urticáceas) es una especie ampliamente distribuida en América del Sur, en Bolivia se encuentra en diferentes tipos de terreno, en el Cantón Chama de la provincia Ingavi es ampliamente utilizada por sus pobladores principalmente en el tratamiento de enfermedades inflamatorias e urinarias. OBJETIVO: estudiar los parámetros de calidad de la especie vegetal U. urens L. recolectada en el Cantón Chama de la provincia Ingavi del Departamento de La Paz. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS: se realizó el análisis de las características organolépticas, para el análisis micrográfico se utilizó el material vegetal seco reducido a polvo, el análisis físico químico se realizó por métodos oficiales AOAC. Se obtuvieron cuatro tipos de extractos, extracto etéreo, diclorometánico, etanólico y acuoso, en ellos se determinó la composición cualitativa de grupos mayoritarios de moléculas mediante la técnica Screening Fitoquímico y se elaboró el perfil cromatográfico de la especie vegetal. RESULTADOS: el estudio reveló la presencia de pelos urticantes unicelulares y pluricelulares, los parámetros fisicoquímicos concuerdan con los valores referencia encontrados en las principales farmacopeas. El screening fitoquímico cualitativo reveló la presencia mayoritaria de taninos, alcaloides, compuestos reductores, esteroles, flavonoides y cumarinas. Adicionalmente, el perfil cromatográfico reveló la presencia de diferentes manchas en fases móviles asociadas principalmente con flavonoides. CONCLUSIONES: el estudio de los parámetros de calidad de Urtica urens L aporta con información para su identificación y establece la presencia de determinados compuestos que serían los responsables de la actividad farmacológica atribuida por su uso tradicional.(AU)


INTRODUCTION: the increase in the consumption of natural resources for the relief of different diseases has led several countries to design control mechanisms that guarantee through physical-chemical methods the quality of the plant material that will be used as raw material for pharmaceutical preparations and / or as traditional medicine. Counterfeiting, poor quality, or adulteration in these products pose a serious threat to consumer safety. The study of the quality parameters of a plant species allows us to recognize its identity, its purity, as well as the content of active principles, which guarantee its quality, efficacy and safety. U. urens L. (Urticaceae) is a widely distributed species in South America, in Bolivia it is found in different types of terrain, in the Canton Chama of the Ingavi province it is widely used by its inhabitants mainly in the treatment of inflammatory and urinary diseases. OBJECTIVE: to study the quality parameters of the plant species U. urens L. collected in the Canton Chama of the Ingavi province of the Department of La Paz. MATERIALS AND METHODS: the analysis of the organoleptic characteristics was carried out, for the micrographic analysis the dry plant material reduced to powder was used, the physical-chemical analysis was carried out by official AOAC methods. Four types of extracts were obtained, ethereal, dichloromethane, ethanolic and aqueous extract, in which the qualitative composition of major groups of molecules was determined by the phytochemical screening technique and the chromatographic profile of the plant species was elaborated. RESULTS: the study revealed the presence of unicellular and multicellular stinging hairs, the physicochemical parameters agree with the reference values found in the main pharmacopoeias. The qualitative phytochemical screening revealed the majority presence of tannins, alkaloids, reducing compounds, sterols, flavonoids and coumarins. Additionally, the chromatographic profile revealed the presence of different spots in mobile phases mainly associated with flavonoids. CONCLUSIONS: The study of the quality parameters of Urtica urens L provides information for its identification and establishes the presence of certain compounds that would be responsible for the pharmacological activity attributed to its traditional use.(AU)


Subject(s)
Sterols , Urtica urens , Alkaloids
2.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 18(4): 347-358, jul. 2019. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1008172

ABSTRACT

Manilkara zapota (Sapotaceae), commonly known as Sapodilla, is widely known for its delicious fruit. Various parts of this plant are also used in folk medicine to treat a number of conditions including fever, pain, diarrhoea, dysentery, haemorrhage and ulcers. Scientific studies have demonstrated analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, cytotoxic, antimicrobial, antidiarrheal, anti-hypercholesteremic, antihyperglycemic and hepatoprotective activities in several parts of the plant. Phytochemical studies have revealed the presence of phenolic compounds including protocatechuic acid quercitrin, myricitrin, catechin, gallic acid, vanillic acid, caffeic acid, syringic acid, coumaric acid, ferulic acid, etc. as main constituents of the plant. Several fatty acids, carotenoids, triterpenes, sterols, hydrocarbons and phenylethanoid compounds have also been isolated from M. zapota. The present review is a comprehensive description focused on pharmacological activities and phytochemical constituents of M. zapota.


Manilkara zapota (Sapotaceae), comúnmente conocida como Sapodilla, es ampliamente conocida por su delicioso fruto. Variadas partes de esta planta se usan en medicina popular para tratar una serie de afecciones, como fiebre, dolor, diarrea, disentería, hemorragia y úlceras. Estudios científicos han demostrado actividad analgésica, antiinflamatoria, antioxidante, citotóxica, antimicrobiana, antidiarreica, antihipercolesterolémica, antihiperglucémica y hepatoprotectora en diferentes partes de la planta. Los estudios fitoquímicos han revelado la presencia de compuestos fenólicos que incluyen ácido protocatechúico, quercitrina, miricitrina, catequina, ácido galico, ácido vanílico, ácido cafeico, ácido sirínico, ácido cumárico, ácido fúnico y ácido ferúlico como componentes principales de la planta. Varios ácidos grasos, carotenoides, triterpenos, esteroles, hidrocarburos y compuestos feniletanoides también han sido aislados de M. zapota. La presente revisión es una descripción exhaustiva centrada en las actividades farmacológicas y los constituyentes fitoquímicos de M. zapota.


Subject(s)
Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Manilkara/chemistry , Phenols/isolation & purification , Phenols/pharmacology , Saponins/isolation & purification , Saponins/pharmacology , Sterols/isolation & purification , Sterols/pharmacology , Triterpenes/isolation & purification , Triterpenes/pharmacology , Carotenoids/isolation & purification , Carotenoids/pharmacology , Sapotaceae/chemistry , Phenolic Compounds/analysis , Medicine, Traditional
3.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 40: 1-9, July. 2019. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1053195

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Microalgae are aquatic chlorophyll-containing organisms comprising unicellular microscopic forms, and their biomasses are potential sources of bioactive compounds, biofuels and food-based products. However, the neuroprotective effects of microalgal biomass have not been fully explored. In this study, biomass from two Chlorella species was characterized, and their antioxidant, anticholinesterase and anti-amyloidogenic activities were investigated. RESULTS: GC­MS analysis of the extracts revealed the presence of some phenols, sterols, steroids, fatty acids and terpenes. Ethanol extract of Chlorella sorokiniana (14.21 mg GAE/g) and dichloromethane extract of Chlorella minutissima (20.65 mg QE/g) had the highest total phenol and flavonoid contents, respectively. All the extracts scavenged 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, 2,2-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate) and hydroxyl radicals. The highest metal chelating activity of the extracts was observed in the ethanol extracts of C. minutissima (102.60 µg/mL) and C. sorokiniana (107.84 µg/mL). Furthermore, the cholinesterase inhibitory activities of the extracts showed that ethanol extract of C. sorokiniana (13.34 µg/mL) exhibited the highest acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity, while dichloromethane extract of C. minutissima (11.78 µg/mL) showed the highest butyrylcholinesterase inhibitory activity. Incubation of the ß-amyloid protein increased the aggregation of amyloid fibrils after 96 h. However, ethanol extract of C. sorokiniana and C. minutissima inhibited further aggregation of Aß1­42 and caused disaggregation of matured protein fibrils compared to the control. This study reveals the modulatory effects of C. sorokiniana and C. minutissima extracts on some mediators of Alzheimer's disease and provides insights into their potential benefits as functional food, nutraceutics or therapeutic agent for the management of this neurodegenerative disease.


Subject(s)
Chlorella/chemistry , Cholinesterase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Amyloid beta-Peptides/antagonists & inhibitors , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Phenols/analysis , Steroids/analysis , Sterols/analysis , Terpenes/analysis , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Cholinesterase Inhibitors/chemistry , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , Neuroprotective Agents , Biomass , Ethanol , Fatty Acids/analysis , Microalgae , Alzheimer Disease/prevention & control , Amyloid/drug effects , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Antioxidants/chemistry
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776892

ABSTRACT

Antifungal drug resistance is a significant clinical problem, and antifungal agents that can evade resistance are urgently needed. In infective niches, resistant organisms often co-existed with sensitive ones, or a subpopulation of antibiotic-susceptible organisms may evolve into resistant ones during antibiotic treatment and eventually dominate the whole population. In this study, we established a co-culture assay in which an azole-resistant Candida albicans strain was mixed with a susceptible strain labeled with green fluorescent protein to mimic in vivo conditions and screen for antifungal drugs. Fluconazole was used as a positive control to verify the validity of this co-culture assay. Five natural molecules exhibited antifungal activity against both susceptible and resistant C. albicans. Two of these compounds, retigeric acid B (RAB) and riccardin D (RD), preferentially inhibited C. albicans strains in which the efflux pump MDR1 was activated. This selectivity was attributed to greater intracellular accumulation of the drugs in the resistant strains. Changes in sterol and lipid compositions were observed in the resistant strains compared to the susceptible strain, and might increase cell permeability to RAB and RD. In addition, RAB and RD interfered with the sterol pathway, further aggregating the decrease in ergosterol in the sterol synthesis pathway in the MDR1-activated strains. Our findings here provide an alternative for combating resistant pathogenic fungi.


Subject(s)
ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters , Genetics , Metabolism , Antifungal Agents , Chemistry , Metabolism , Pharmacology , Azoles , Pharmacology , Biosynthetic Pathways , Genetics , Candida albicans , Chemistry , Metabolism , Cell Membrane , Chemistry , Metabolism , Coculture Techniques , Drug Resistance, Fungal , Ergosterol , Metabolism , Fungal Proteins , Genetics , Metabolism , Lipids , Chemistry , Molecular Structure , Permeability , Phenyl Ethers , Chemistry , Metabolism , Pharmacology , Sterols , Chemistry , Metabolism , Stilbenes , Chemistry , Metabolism , Pharmacology , Triterpenes , Chemistry , Metabolism , Pharmacology
5.
Int. j. morphol ; 36(2): 447-453, jun. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-954135

ABSTRACT

Although Momordica charantia (MC) has preventive effects on tissue injuries, antioxidant capacity and protective effect of MC pulp and peel (MCP) on valproic acid (VPA)-testicular damage have never been reported. Fresh MCPs were aqueous extracted and determined for antioxidant capacity and momordicine I level by HPLC. Male rats were divided into 5 groups (control, VPA (500 mg/kgBW), MCP20/40/ or 80 mg/kgBW+VPA). In 30 experimental days, animals were pretreated with different doses of MCPs for 20 days before VPA injection for 10 consecutive days. Sperm concentration, testosterone hormone, and testicular histology of all groups were investigated. Expressions of testicular tyrosine phosphorylated and steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) proteins were examined by Western blot. Results showed that MCP contains TPC (39.24±0.65 ug/mg garlic acid), antioxidant capacities (FRAP=33.08±0.21 ug/ mg ascorbic acid equivalent, IC50 of DPPH=389.8±3.20 ug/ml), and momordicine I (404.9 mg/g MCP). Sperm concentration in MCP80+VPA group was increased as compared to VPA group. Testosterone level in MCP treated groups was significantly increased. MCP protected testicular damage and could prevent the decrease of StAR and a 50-kDa phosphorylated protein expression in VPAtreated testis. In conclusion, MCP has antioxidant activities and can prevent male reproductive toxicity in VPA-induced rats.


A pesar que la Momordica charantia (MC) tiene efectos preventivos sobre las lesiones en los tejidos, capacidad antioxidante y un efecto protector de la pulpa y la cáscara de MC (CMC) sobre el ácido valproico (AVP), aún no se ha informado efectos sobre el daño testicular. Las CMC frescas fueron extraídas de forma acuosa y se determinó la capacidad antioxidante y el nivel de Momordicina I por HPLC. Las ratas machos se dividieron en 5 grupos: control, AVP (500 mg/kg de peso corporal), CMC20 / 40 / u 80 mg/kg de peso corporal + AVP . En 30 días experimentales, los animales fueron pretratados con diferentes dosis de CMC durante 20 días antes de la inyección de AVP durante 10 días consecutivos. Se investigó la concentración de espermatozoides, la hormona testosterona y la histología testicular de todos los grupos. Las expresiones de proteínas reguladoras agudas (StAR) fosforiladas con tirosina y esteroidogénicas testiculares se examinaron mediante inmunotransferencia de tipo Western. Los resultados mostraron que CMC contiene TPC (39.24 ± 0.65 ug / mg de ácido de ajo), capacidades antioxidantes (FRAP = 33.08 ± 0.21 ug / mg de ácido ascórbico equivalente, IC50 de DPPH = 389.8 ± 3.20 ug / ml) y momordicina I (404.9 mg) / g CMC). La concentración de esperma en el grupo MCP80 + AVP aumentó en comparación con el grupo AVP. El nivel de testosterona en los grupos tratados con CMC aumentó significativamente. La CMC protegió el daño testicular y pudo prevenir la disminución de StAR y una expresión de proteína fosforilada de 50 kDa en los testículos tratados con AVP. En conclusión, la CMC tiene efectos antioxidantes y puede prevenir la toxicidad reproductiva en ratas machos inducidas por VPA.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Testis/drug effects , Plant Extracts/administration & dosage , Momordica charantia , Antioxidants/administration & dosage , Organ Size , Phenols/analysis , Spermatozoa/drug effects , Sterols/analysis , Testis/pathology , Testosterone/analysis , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Blotting, Western , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Valproic Acid/toxicity , Rats, Wistar , Protective Agents , Anticonvulsants/toxicity
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773591

ABSTRACT

Two previously undescribed steroidal compounds, 16, 23-epoxy-22, 26-epimino-cholest-22(N), 23, 25(26)-trien-3β-ol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-D-galactopyranoside (1) and 26-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-5α-furost-20(22)-en-3β, 26-diol (2), together with 7 known ones including 26-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-5, 20(22)-dien-furost-3β, 26-diol (3), (25R)-5-en-spirost-3β-ol-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-[α-L-rhmanopyranosyl-(1→2)]-β-D-galactopyranoside (4), funkioside D (5), aspidistrin (6), tigogenin-3-O-β-D-lucotrioside (7), desglucolanatigonin II (8), and degalactotigonin (9), were isolated from Solanum lyratum Thunb. Their cytotoxic activities were tested in two cancer cell lines by MTT method. One of the steroidal glycosides (6) showed significant cytotoxic activity against gastric cancer SGC7901 and liver cancer BEL-7402 cells.


Subject(s)
Alkaloids , Chemistry , Toxicity , Antineoplastic Agents , Chemistry , Toxicity , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Survival , Glycosides , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Toxicity , Humans , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , Molecular Structure , Phytosterols , Chemistry , Toxicity , Plant Extracts , Chemistry , Toxicity , Plants, Medicinal , Chemistry , Solanum , Chemistry , Sterols , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Toxicity
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812380

ABSTRACT

Two previously undescribed steroidal compounds, 16, 23-epoxy-22, 26-epimino-cholest-22(N), 23, 25(26)-trien-3β-ol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-D-galactopyranoside (1) and 26-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-5α-furost-20(22)-en-3β, 26-diol (2), together with 7 known ones including 26-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-5, 20(22)-dien-furost-3β, 26-diol (3), (25R)-5-en-spirost-3β-ol-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-[α-L-rhmanopyranosyl-(1→2)]-β-D-galactopyranoside (4), funkioside D (5), aspidistrin (6), tigogenin-3-O-β-D-lucotrioside (7), desglucolanatigonin II (8), and degalactotigonin (9), were isolated from Solanum lyratum Thunb. Their cytotoxic activities were tested in two cancer cell lines by MTT method. One of the steroidal glycosides (6) showed significant cytotoxic activity against gastric cancer SGC7901 and liver cancer BEL-7402 cells.


Subject(s)
Alkaloids , Chemistry , Toxicity , Antineoplastic Agents , Chemistry , Toxicity , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Survival , Glycosides , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Toxicity , Humans , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , Molecular Structure , Phytosterols , Chemistry , Toxicity , Plant Extracts , Chemistry , Toxicity , Plants, Medicinal , Chemistry , Solanum , Chemistry , Sterols , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Toxicity
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-34972

ABSTRACT

Sitosterolemia is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by increased plant sterol levels, xanthomas, and accelerated atherosclerosis. Although it was originally reported in patients with normolipemic xanthomas, severe hypercholesterolemia have been reported in patients with sitosterolemia, especially in children. Sitosterolemia is caused by increased intestinal absorption and decreased biliary excretion of sterols resulting from biallelic mutations in either ABCG5 or ABCG8, which encode the sterol efflux transporter ABCG5 and ABCG8. Patients with sitosterolemia show extreme phenotypic heterogeneity, ranging from almost asymptomatic individuals to those with severe hypercholesterolemia leading to accelerated atherosclerosis and premature cardiac death. Hematologic manifestations include hemolytic anemia with stomatocytosis, macrothrombocytopenia, splenomegaly, and abnormal bleeding. The mainstay of therapy includes dietary restriction of both cholesterol and plant sterols and the sterol absorption inhibitor, ezetimibe. Foods rich in plant sterols include vegetable oils, wheat germs, nuts, seeds, avocado, shortening, margarine and chocolate. Hypercholesterolemia in patients with sitosterolemia is dramatically responsive to low cholesterol diet and bile acid sequestrants. Plant sterol assay should be performed in patients with normocholesterolemic xanthomas, hypercholesterolemia with unexpectedly good response to dietary modifications or to cholesterol absorption inhibitors, or hypercholesterolemia with poor response to statins, or those with unexplained hemolytic anemia and macrothrombocytopenia. Because prognosis can be improved by proper management, it is important to find these patients out and diagnose correctly. This review article aimed to summarize recent publications on sitosterolemia, and to suggest clinical indications for plant sterol assay.


Subject(s)
Absorption , Anemia, Hemolytic , Atherosclerosis , Bile , Cacao , Child , Cholesterol , Death , Diagnosis , Diet , Feeding Behavior , Hemorrhage , Humans , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors , Hypercholesterolemia , Intestinal Absorption , Margarine , Nuts , Persea , Phytosterols , Plant Oils , Plants , Population Characteristics , Prognosis , Splenomegaly , Sterols , Triticum , Xanthomatosis
9.
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo ; 57(6): 473-479, Nov.-Dec. 2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-770112

ABSTRACT

Fasciolosis is a widespread parasitosis of farm live-stock in many developing countries. For this reason, it is necessary to search for new substances against parasitic diseases caused by flukes. Indeed, a wide variety of terrestrial plants have been subjected to chemical and pharmacological screening in order to discover their potential for human medicinal use. The molluscicidal and larvicidal activities of Atriplex inflata were tested on Galba truncatula and Fasciola hepatica larval stages infecting this snail in Tunisia. Phytochemical tests were conducted on extracts in order to establish a meaningful relationship with molluscicidal and larvicidal activities. The molluscicidal activity was evaluated by subjecting snails to sample aqueous solutions. Accordingly, hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol and methanol-water (8:2, v-v) were used as extraction solvents. As a result, hexane and ethyl acetate extracts showed potent activity, according to the World Health Organization, giving LC50 = 7.59 mg/L and 6.69 mg/L for hexane extracts of leaves and fruits, respectively. Ethyl acetate extracts gave LC50 = 5.90 mg/L and 7.32 mg/L for leaves and fruits, successively. Molluscicidal activities of powders were less potent on snails, but active according to the World Health Organization. Hexane and ethyl acetate extracts from leaves and fruits gave potent larvicidal activities with a delay rate exceeding 45.50% (45.50- 98.92%). Phytochemical tests showed that these activities may be attributed to the presence of triterpenoids and/or sterols.


Fasciolose é uma parasitose generalizada que ocorre em animais de fazendas em muitos países em desenvolvimento. Por esta razão, é necessária a busca de novas substâncias contra as doenças parasitárias causadas por vermes. De fato, uma grande variedade de plantas terrestres foi objeto de testes farmacológicos e químicos a fim de descobrir o seu potencial para utilização em terapêutica humana. As atividades moluscicida e larvicida de Atriplex inflata foram testadas contra estágios larvários de Galba truncatula e Fasciola hepatica infectando este caracol na Tunísia. Testes fitoquímicos foram realizados com extratos a fim de estabelecer uma relação significativa com as atividades moluscicida e larvicida. A atividade moluscicida foi avaliada submetendo os caracóis a soluções aquosas. Conforme o caso, hexano, acetato de etilo, metanol e metanol-água (8:2, v-v) foram utilizados como solventes de extração. Como resultado, hexano e extratos de acetato apresentaram atividades potentes de acordo com a Organização Mundial de Saúde, resultando em LC50 = 7,59 mg/L e 6,69 mg/L para extratos de hexano de folhas e frutos, respectivamente. Extratos de acetato de etilo resultaram em LC50 = 5,90 mg/L e 7,32 mg/L para as folhas e frutos sucessivamente. Atividades moluscicidas das substâncias sob a forma de pó foram menos potentes em caracóis, mas ativas de acordo com a Organização Mundial de Saúde. Hexano e extratos de acetato de folhas e frutos apresentaram atividade larvicida potente, com uma taxa de atraso superior a 45,50% (45,50-98,92%). Testes fitoquímicos mostraram que estas atividades podem ser atribuídas à presença de triterpenóides e/ou esteróis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Atriplex/chemistry , Fasciola hepatica/drug effects , Pest Control/methods , Plant Components, Aerial/chemistry , Snails/drug effects , Snails/parasitology , Fruit/chemistry , Larva/drug effects , Molluscacides/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Sterols/analysis , Sterols/pharmacology
10.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2015 Mar; 53(3): 170-176
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-158410

ABSTRACT

In order to better understand the biochemical interactions and to identify new biomarkers for plant resistance against insects, we proposed a suitable lipophilic profiling method for insects and their host plants. The critical components of GC-MS based analysis are: sample amount, extraction, derivatization, temperature gradient, run time, and identification of peaks. For lipophilic metabolite profiling of maize and sorghum, and their insect pest, spotted stem borer larvae, we recommend 100 mg sample weight for seeds and insect samples (whole insect body), and 200 mg for seedlings. Maize and sorghum seeds required less time for fat extraction in comparison to their seedlings and the pest fed on these seedlings. GC-MS was standardized for better separation and intensity of peaks using different temperature gradients in the range of 180-300 C. A total of 48 lipophilic compounds encompassing various classes based on their functional groups such as fatty acids, fatty alcohols, hydrocarbons, sterols and terpenoids, vitamin derivative, etc. were separated in the seedlings (30), seeds (14), and the pest (26) in the retention time range of 3.22 to 29.41 min. This method could be useful to study nutritional aspects of different field crops in relation to various stresses apart from the analysis of lipophilic compounds for better understanding of insect-plant interactions.


Subject(s)
Animals , Fats/analysis , Fats/isolation & purification , Fatty Acids/analysis , Fatty Acids/isolation & purification , Fatty Alcohols/analysis , Fatty Alcohols/isolation & purification , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry/instrumentation , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry/isolation & purification , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry/standards , Lipids/analysis , Lipids/isolation & purification , Moths/chemistry , Moths/growth & development , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Seedlings/chemistry , Seeds/chemistry , Sorghum/chemistry , Sterols/analysis , Sterols/isolation & purification , Terpenes/analysis , Terpenes/isolation & purification , Zea mays/chemistry
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-304817

ABSTRACT

The acute and chronic respiratory tract inflammation models were made to investigate the effect and mechanism of sterol extracts from Begonia Sinensis Rhizome (BSR). The first model of acute lung injury was made with Kunming mice by inhaling cigarette smoke, then the mice were treated with different concentrations of BSR sterol extracts. Lung tissue morphology was detected by HE staining, TNF-alpha/MPO were detected by Elisa, and cPLA2 protein were, detected by Western blotting respectively. Results showed that in model group, lung sheet became real, alveolar space shrank or disappeared, alveolar septum was thickened, plenty of inflammatory cells were infiltrated, capillary blood vessels were congestive and the expression of TNF-α, MPO, cPLA2 increased; after administration, a small amount of inflammatory cells were infiltrated, alveolar septum became obvious, capillary congestion status was significantly relieved and the expression of TNF-α, MPO, cPLA2 decreased (P < 0.05). The second model of chronic respiratory tract inflammation in BALB/c mice with bronchial asthma was induced by OVA, then the mice were treated with different concentrations of BSR sterol extracts. Lung tissue morphology was detected by HE staining, indexes such as IL-4, IL-5, IL-13 were detected by Elisa, and the cPLA2 protein expression was detected by Western blotting respectively. Results showed that in model group, a lot of inflammatory cells around lung vessels and bronchi exuded, bronchial goblet cells proliferated and the expression of IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, cPLA2 increased; after administration, inflammatory and goblet cell hyperplasia reduced, the expression of IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, cPLA2 also decreased (P < 0.05). The above results showed BSR sterol extracts could resist against respiratory inflammation by inhibiting cPLA2 in a dose-dependent manner.


Subject(s)
Animals , Asthma , Drug Therapy , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology , Begoniaceae , Chemistry , Cytokines , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology , Disease Models, Animal , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Female , Humans , Interleukin-13 , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology , Interleukin-4 , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology , Interleukin-5 , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology , Lung , Allergy and Immunology , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Rhizome , Chemistry , Sterols
12.
Biol. Res ; 47: 1-14, 2014. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950719

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In recent years, the desire to adopt a healthy diet has drawn attention to legume seeds and food products derived from them. Mash bean is an important legume crop used in Pakistan however a systematic mapping of the chemical composition of mash bean seeds is lacking. Therefore seeds of four mash bean (Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper, family Leguminoseae) cultivars (NARC-Mash-1, NARC-Mash-2, NARC-Mash-3, NARC-Mash-97) commonly consumed in Pakistan have been analyzed for their chemical composition, antioxidant potential and biological activities like inhibition of formation of advanced glycation end products (AGE) activity and tyrosinase inhibition activity. RESULTS: The investigated cultivars varied in terms of biochemical composition to various extents. Mineral composition indicated potassium and zinc in highest and lowest amounts respectively, in all cultivars. The amino acid profile in protein of these cultivars suggested cysteine is present in lowest quantity in all cultivars while fatty acid distribution pattern indicated unsaturated fatty acids as major fatty acids in all cultivars. All cultivars were found to be rich source of tocopherols and sterols. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) fingerprints of seed flour and extracts indicated major functional groups such as polysaccharides, lipids, amides, amines and amino acids. Results indicated that all investigated cultivars possessed appreciable antioxidant potential. CONCLUSIONS: All cultivars are rich source of protein and possess sufficient content of dietary fiber, a balanced amino acid profile, low saturated fatty acids and antioxidant capacity that rationalizes many traditional uses of seeds of this crop besides its nutritional importance. The collected data will be useful for academic and corporate researchers, nutritionists and clinical dieticians as well as consumers. If proper attention is paid, it may become an important export commodity and may fetch considerable foreign exchange for Pakistan.


Subject(s)
Seeds/chemistry , Crops, Agricultural/chemistry , Fabaceae/chemistry , Pakistan , Phenols/analysis , Riboflavin/analysis , Seeds/metabolism , Sterols/analysis , Tannins/analysis , Thiamine/analysis , Trace Elements/analysis , Flavonoids/analysis , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Free Radical Scavengers , Monophenol Monooxygenase/antagonists & inhibitors , Glycation End Products, Advanced/metabolism , Crops, Agricultural/metabolism , Reducing Agents/metabolism , Cysteine/analysis , Tocopherols/analysis , Fabaceae/metabolism , Niacin/analysis , Antioxidants/metabolism , Nutritive Value
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-287567

ABSTRACT

Seven terpenoids and three sterols were isolated from the methanol extracts of the aerial parts of Ricinus communis by chromatography methods and their structures were identified by spectra analysis as ficusic acid( 1), phytol(2), callyspinol(3) , lupeol(4), 30-norlupan-3beta-ol-20-one(5) , lup-20(29)-en-3beta,15alpha-diol(6) , acetylaleuritolic acid( 7), stigmast4-en-3-one(8) , stig-mast-4-en-6beta-ol-3-one(9) , and stigmast4-en-3,6-dione(10). Compounds 1-3 and 5-10 were obtained from this species for the first time and 5 and 6 showed significant inhibitive activity and good selectivity against 11beta-HSD of mouse and human in vitro. [Key words] Ricinus communis; terpenoids; sterols; 11beta-HSD


Subject(s)
11-beta-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 1 , 11-beta-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 2 , Animals , Diabetes Mellitus , Drug Therapy , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , Mice , Ricinus , Chemistry , Sterols , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Terpenes , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses
14.
Rio de Janeiro; s.n; 2013. xvi,132 p. ilus, tab, graf, mapas.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-750994

ABSTRACT

Os tripanossomatídeos não sintetizam o colesterol e sim esteróis com o esqueleto ergostano, porém um percentual significativo de colesterol exógeno é encontrado em todas as espécies de Leishmania, sugerindo um papel biológico para esta molécula. Esta tese tem como objetivo estudar a importância do uso de colesterol para Leishmania spp. em várias situações, avaliando o potencial deste sistema como um possível alvo farmacológico. A atividade dos inibidores de biossíntese de ergosterol associado com inibidores de transporte de colesterol derivado de LDL, foi avaliada em promastigotas e amastigotas intracelulares. A associação entre LBqT01 e cetoconazol, miconazol ou terbinafina mostrou sinergia. A associação entre a imipramina ou progesterona e cetoconazol ou terbinafina indicaram um efeito aditivo. O cetoconazol e miconazol demonstraram uma diminuição de até duas vezes o valor de IC50 nas formas amastigotas, quando combinado com os inibidores de transporte de colesterol. Foi observado também alteração da biossíntese de ergosterol após tratamento dos parasitos com os inibidores de transporte de colesterol, demonstrado por CG/MS. A combinação de LBqT01 e cetoconazol mostrou ser mais ativa in vivo do que cada fármaco individualmente. Estudamos também o mecanismo de resistência desses inibidores, avaliando a modulação de enzimas da via de biossíntese de esteróis e a utilização de colesterol exógeno pelos parasitos. Promastigotas de Leishmania amazonensis, Leishmania braziliensis e Leishmania guyanensis foram cultivadas com concentrações crescentes de sinvastatina, terbinafina e miconazol. Estes inibidores mostraram um índice de resistência de 2,5 - 8 vezes. A resistência cruzada também foi avaliada, com estes inibidores e fármacos de referência (miltefosina, anfotericina B e antimônio trivalente)...


The trypanosomes do not synthesize cholesterol sterols but with ergostane skeleton, buta significant percentage of exogenous cholesterol is found in all species of Leishmania,suggesting a biological role for this molecule. This work aims to study the importanceof use cholesterol to Leishmania spp. in several cases, evaluating the potential of thesystem as a possible drug target. The activity of the inhibitors of ergosterol biosynthesisinhibitors associated with transport of LDL cholesterol derivative was evaluated inintracellular amastigotes and promastigotes. The association between LBqT01 andketoconazole, miconazole or terbinafine showed synergy. The association betweenimipramine or progesterone, and ketoconazole, or terbinafine indicated an additiveeffect. The ketoconazole and miconazole showed a reduction of up to twice the IC50value in amastigotes when combined with the inhibitors of cholesterol transport. Changeof ergosterol biosynthesis of parasites after treatment with inhibitors of cholesteroltransport as demonstrated by GC/MS was also observed. The combination of LBqT01and ketoconazole was more active in vivo than either drug individually. We also studiedthe mechanism of resistance of these inhibitors by evaluating the modulation ofenzymes of the sterol biosynthesis pathway and use of exogenous cholesterol byparasites. Promastigotes of Leishmania amazonensis, Leishmania braziliensis andLeishmania guyanensis were cultured with increasing concentrations of simvastatin,terbinafine and miconazole. These inhibitors showed resistance index from 2.5 to 8times. Cross-resistance was evaluated with these inhibitors and reference drugs(miltefosine, amphotericin B and trivalent antimony)...


Subject(s)
Ergosterol/antagonists & inhibitors , Ergosterol/biosynthesis , Sterols/biosynthesis , Leishmania , Leishmaniasis/drug therapy
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-819646

ABSTRACT

The control of Leishmania infection relies primarily on chemotherapy till date. Resistance to pentavalent antimonials, which have been the recommended drugs to treat cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis, is now widespread in Indian subcontinents. New drug formulations like amphotericin B, its lipid formulations, and miltefosine have shown great efficacy to treat leishmaniasis but their high cost and therapeutic complications limit their usefulness. In addition, irregular and inappropriate uses of these second line drugs in endemic regions like state of Bihar, India threaten resistance development in the parasite. In context to the limited drug options and unavailability of either preventive or prophylactic candidates, there is a pressing need to develop true antileishmanial drugs to reduce the disease burden of this debilitating endemic disease. Notwithstanding significant progress of leishmanial research during last few decades, identification and characterization of novel drugs and drug targets are far from satisfactory. This review will initially describe current drug regimens and later will provide an overview on few important biochemical and enzymatic machineries that could be utilized as putative drug targets for generation of true antileishmanial drugs.


Subject(s)
Aminoquinolines , Therapeutic Uses , Amphotericin B , Therapeutic Uses , Antigens, Protozoan , Allergy and Immunology , Antimony Sodium Gluconate , Therapeutic Uses , Antiprotozoal Agents , Therapeutic Uses , Caspase Inhibitors , Cyclin-Dependent Kinases , Drug Discovery , Enzyme Inhibitors , Therapeutic Uses , Folic Acid Antagonists , Therapeutic Uses , Humans , Leishmaniasis , Drug Therapy , Macrophages , Allergy and Immunology , Microbodies , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinases , Metabolism , Paromomycin , Therapeutic Uses , Pentamidine , Therapeutic Uses , Phosphorylcholine , Therapeutic Uses , Polyamines , Metabolism , Protease Inhibitors , Therapeutic Uses , Sterols , Sulfhydryl Compounds , Metabolism , Topoisomerase Inhibitors , Therapeutic Uses
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-356040

ABSTRACT

To study chemical constituents of Eupatorium lindleyanum. Ethyl acetate extractive fractions were separated with silica gel and Sephadex LH-20 by column chromatography, and their structures were identified on the basis of spectroscopic analysis and chemical evidence. Sixteen compounds were separated and identified as scopoletin (1), 6, 7-dimethylesculetin (2), nepetin (3), eupatrin (4), luteolin (5), isoquerecitrin (6), jaceosidin (7), quceritin (8), kaempferol (9), rutin (10), cirsiliol (11), taraxasterylacetate (12), pseudotaraxasteryl acetate (13), pseudotaraxasterol (14), butanoic acid (15) and n-hexadecanoic acid (16). Of them, compounds 1-6 and 11, 13 and 15 were separated from this plant for the first time.


Subject(s)
Acetates , Chemistry , Butyric Acid , Chemistry , Eupatorium , Chemistry , Flavones , Chemistry , Flavonoids , Chemistry , Kaempferols , Chemistry , Luteolin , Chemistry , Palmitic Acid , Chemistry , Quercetin , Chemistry , Rutin , Chemistry , Scopoletin , Chemistry , Sterols , Chemistry , Triterpenes , Chemistry , Umbelliferones , Chemistry
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-356037

ABSTRACT

To investigate chemical constituents contained in cytotoxic petroleum ether extractive fractions from ethanol extracts of Cirsium setosum. The constituents were separated and purified by a combination of various chromatographic methods including silica gel, Sephadex LH-20, and preparative HPLC. Structures of the isolates were elucidated by spectroscopic methods including 1D, 2D NMR and MS methods. The compound structures were also determined by reference to literature. Twelve compounds were separated from the petroleum ether fraction of ethanolic extract and elucidated as lupenyl acetate (1), lupeol (2), lupenone (3), beta-amyrin (4), psi-taraxasterol (5), psi-taraxasteryl acetate (6), taraxasteryl acetate (7), marsformoxide B (8), alpha-amyrenone (9), beta-amyrenone (10), taraxasterone (11) and psi-taraxasterone (12). Of them, compounds 3, 5, 7-12 were separated from this genus for the first time.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Cirsium , Chemistry , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Oleanolic Acid , Chemistry , Pentacyclic Triterpenes , Chemistry , Sterols , Chemistry , Triterpenes , Chemistry
18.
Journal of Medicinal Plants. 2011; 10 (37): 41-47
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-123920

ABSTRACT

Salvia limbata is an aromatic herbaceous plant and grows widely in Iran Turkey and Afghanistan. In the previous study, six flavones together with rosmarinic acid were isolated from the ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of S. limbata. In this report, we focused on the isolation and identification of the glycosylated sterols and the main accumulated amino acid of the species S. limbata, which has not been previously reported. Aerial parts of the plant were dried, cut into small pieces and extracted with ethyl acetate and methanol by percolation at room temperature. The separation process was carried out using several chromatographic methods. Structural elucidation was based on NMR data, in comparison with those reported in the literature. The isolated compounds [Figure 1] from the ethyl acetate and MeOH extracts of S. limbata were identified as beta-sitosterol [1], stigmasterol [2], daucosterol [3], stigmasterol 3- O-glucoside [4] and tryptophan [5] by comparison of their NMR spectral data with those reported in the literature S. limbata can accumulate the tryptophan as a major free amino acid together with sterols and their glucosides. Therefore, consumption of S. limbata [as a herbal tea or other preparations], which contains the essential amino acid tryptophan, might be useful for dietary deficiency of tryptophan


Subject(s)
Plant Extracts , Sterols , Phytotherapy , Tryptophan , Stigmasterol , Sitosterols
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-293213

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the chemical constituents of Nauclea latifolia, which is an African folk medicine and collected from Guinea.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>The chemical constituents were isolated by silica gel and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatographies, and structurally elucidated by spectral evidence together with physiochemical properties.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>Twelve compounds including 8 triterpenes and 4 sterols were isolated from the roots of N. latifolia, and their structures were defined as 24-en-cycloartenone (1), ursolic aldehyde (2), quinovic acid (3), rotundic acid (4), 3beta,19alpha,23,24-tetrahydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid (5), pyrocincholic acid 3beta-O-beta-D-fucopyranoside (6), quinovic acid 3beta-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (7), quinovic acid-3b-O-D-glucopyranosyl-(28-->1)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl ester (8), beta-sitosterol (9), stigmastan-3,6-dione (10), stigmast-4-en-6beta-ol-3-one (11) and daucosterol (12) .</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>All compounds except for 4,9, andl2 are isolated from this plant for the fist time, while compounds 2, 6, 10, and 11 are isolated from the genus Nauclea for the first time.</p>


Subject(s)
Chromatography , Methods , Guinea , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Methods , Plant Extracts , Chemistry , Plant Roots , Chemistry , Metabolism , Plants, Medicinal , Chemistry , Rubiaceae , Chemistry , Metabolism , Sterols , Chemistry , Triterpenes , Chemistry
20.
Vitae (Medellín) ; 17(2): 209-224, mayo-ago. 2010.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-557518

ABSTRACT

El extracto crudo y la fracción orgánica de la esponja marina Cliona delitrix, recolectada en San Andrés Islas (Caribe Colombiano), muestra actividad antifouling en ensayos de campo. La fracción orgánica es separada por cromatografía en columna logrando obtener fracciones enriquecidas en glicéridos, glicolípidos, fosfolípidos, ácidos grasos libres, ésteres metílicos y monohidroxiesteroles. Cada una de las fracciones es identificada de manera preliminar por TLC y técnicas de dereplicación (RMN). Los ácidos grasos obtenidos de la hidrólisis de cada una de las fracciones de glicéridos, glicolípidos y fosfolípidos son transformados en sus correspondientes ésteres metílicos, los cuales son analizados por CGAREM; luego se convierten en sus derivados pirrolidínicos y también se analizan por CG-EM. El estudio cuidadoso de los EM, tanto del éster metílico como de las pirrolidina, y los valores de ECL permiten identificar 89 ácidos grasos diferentes. Entre éstos se destacan: el ácido 7,10,12,14-icosatetraenoico, que se reporta por primera vez, y los ácidos 5,9-hexacosadienoico y hexadecanoico, por ser los más abundantes en todas las fracciones. Adicionalmente se identifican, mediante análisis de CG-EM y H-RMN, 19 monohidroxiesteroles. Se destacan el colestanol y el clionasterol, por ser los más abundantes, y también es de notar la presencia de estanoles (cerca del 30%) que no se habían informado antes para este género.


In a field test for antifouling activity the raw extract and the organic fraction obtained from the marine sponge Cliona delitrix, collected at the San Andrés Islas (Colombia, Caribbean Sea), showed activity. The organic fraction was separated by column chromatography to obtain enriched fractions of glycerides, glycolipids, phospholipids, free fatty acids, fatty acids methyl esters (FAMEs) and monohydroxysterols identified by TLC and dereplication techniques (NMR). The glyceride, glycolipid, and phospholipid fractions were hydrolyzed, and the fatty acids methyl esters obtained, together with the initial fatty acids fraction were converted into their methyl esters and analyzed by HRGC-MS. In order to locate unsaturations and alkyl branches in fatty acids, their methyl esters derivates were transformed to the corresponding pyrrolidides and subsequently analyzed by HRGC-MS. The identification of the fatty acids was carried out using their ECL value as methyl esters, and particularly the study of their pyrrolidide spectra was used to locate unsaturations and alkyl branch positions. The analysis allowed the identification of 89 fatty acids. The main acids include the new 7,10,12,14-icosatetraenoic acid, as well as 5,9-hexacosadienoic acid and hexadecanoic acid. Additionally, 19 monohydroxysterols were identified by HRGC-MS and NMR H. Cholestanol and clionasterol were the most abundant compounds and the stanols presence (near to 30%) was not previously reported for this genus.


Subject(s)
Fatty Acids , Lipids , Sterols
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