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Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971393


Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the most common malignant tumors worldwide, and most of the patients are diagnosed at the advanced stage. Most of the treating options are comprehensive treatment, in which immunotherapy plays more and more important role. Melanoma antigen-associated gene-A (MAGE-A) family is a kind of cancer testis antigens. Except in germ cells of testis and trophoblast cells of placenta, MAGE-A family is highly expressed in cancerous tissues and participates in a variety of biological processes, such as cancer cell proliferation, differentiation and metastasis. In addition, cancer testis antigen also possesses good immunogenicity, which can induce humoral and cellular immune responses, is a good target for immunotherapy, and has good application value in the diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of GC. A variety of targeted therapeutic drugs based on MAGE-A are in phase I or II clinical trials, it has good safety and potential clinical application value. With the continuous progress of clinical trials and basic research on MAGE-A targets in GC, it is expected to provide a theoretical basis for clinical transformation and immunotherapy of MAGE-A in the future.

Male , Humans , Stomach Neoplasms/therapy , Antigens, Neoplasm/genetics , Melanoma , Immunotherapy , Prognosis
Rev. argent. cir ; 114(2): 172-176, jun. 2022. graf
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1387601


RESUMEN La nutrición enteral es parte importante del soporte vital avanzado en el paciente crítico, y ha demostrado ser más fisiológica, económica y con resultados superiores a la nutrición parenteral. La yeyunostomía para alimentación enteral está indicada cuando no es posible la alimentación por vía oral y está contraindicada la utilización de una sonda nasogástrica o nasoyeyunal de alimentación. Es una vía de alimentación con escasa morbilidad, aunque no está exenta de complicaciones, y algunas de ellas pueden ser graves. Comunicamos un caso de necrosis intestinal vinculado a la alimentación enteral por yeyunostomía en un paciente sometido a una gastrectomía oncológica.

ABSTRACT Enteral nutrition is an important component of advanced life support in the critically ill patient, and has demonstrated to be more physiologic, cheaper and with better results than parenteral nutrition. Jejunostomy for enteral nutrition is indicated when the oral route is impossible and the use of a nasogastric or nasojejunal feeding tube is contraindicated. Although the rate of complications associated with enteral nutrition through jejunostomy is low, they may occur and be serious. We report a case of bowel necrosis associated with a jejunostomy performed for enteral nutrition in a patient who underwent oncologic gastrectomy.

Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Stomach Neoplasms/therapy , Jejunostomy/adverse effects , Enteral Nutrition/adverse effects , Intestines/pathology , Peritonitis/surgery , Adenocarcinoma , Gastrectomy , Laparotomy , Necrosis/diagnosis
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939560


Gastric cancer (GC) has a good prognosis, if detected at an early stage. The intestinal subtype of GC follows a stepwise progression to carcinoma, which is treatable with early detection and intervention using high-quality endoscopy. Premalignant lesions and gastric epithelial polyps are commonly encountered in clinical practice. Surveillance of patients with premalignant gastric lesions may aid in early diagnosis of GC, and thus improve chances of survival. An expert professional workgroup was formed to summarise the current evidence and provide recommendations on the management of patients with gastric premalignant lesions in Singapore. Twenty-five recommendations were made to address screening and surveillance, strategies for detection and management of gastric premalignant lesions, management of gastric epithelial polyps, and pathological reporting of gastric premalignant lesions.

Humans , Adenomatous Polyps , Endoscopy , Precancerous Conditions/therapy , Singapore , Stomach Neoplasms/therapy
Chinese Journal of Surgery ; (12): 478-485, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935629


Objectives: To analyze the current development status of gastric cancer (GC) randomized controlled trials (RCT) between 2000 and 2019, and to review the basic characteristics of published RCT. Methods: was searched for phase 3 or 4 RCT conducted between January 2000 and December 2019 with the keyword "gastric cancer", and the development trend of different types of RCT during different time periods was described. Basic features of registered RCT such as intervention, study area, single-center or multicenter, sample size, and funding were presented. PubMed and Scopus databases were searched to judge the publication status of studies completed until June 2016. The adequacy of the report was estimated by the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) checklist. Design flaws were evaluated by Cochrane tool and/or whether a systematic literature review was cited. The data was analyzed by χ2 test or Fisher exact test. Results: There were 262 RCT including in the present study. The number of GC-RCT registered on had been on the rise from 1 case in 2000 to 30 cases in 2015. The proportion of RCT associated with targeted therapy or immunotherapy increased from 0 during 2000-2004 to 37.1% (36/97) during 2015-2019. The RCT registered in Asia was 191 cases, while that in non-Asia region was 71 cases. The proportion of multi-center RCT from non-Asia was higher than that from Asia (70.4% (50/71) vs. 50.3% (96/191), χ²=8.527, P=0.003). The proportion of RCT published was 59.1% (81/137). Among the published RCT, 65 (80.2%) studies were reported adequately, but 63 (77.8%) studies had avoidable design limitations. Conclusions: Targeted therapy and immunotherapy have become research hotspots in the treatment of GC. At present, there are inadequate multicenter RCT in Asia, and the publication rate of RCT is low. A considerable number of published RCT are reported inadequately and have avoidable design flaws.

Humans , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Stomach Neoplasms/therapy
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942970


Peritoneal metastasis of gastrointestinal cancer is an independent factor that seriously affects the prognosis of patients. The "seed-soil" theory is considered to be the main theory to explain peritoneal metastasis. Because of the small size of peritoneal metastatic nodules at the initial stage, early diagnosis is particularly difficult, therefore, the risk assessment of peritoneal metastasis is very important. Recently, the diagnosis methods have gradually developed from clinicopathological factors to cytology and molecular level. In addition, the integrated assessment of multiple groups including radiomics further enriches the accurate diagnosis of peritoneal metastasis. Peritoneal metastasis is a big challenge in the treatment of gastrointestinal cancer which may also lead to refractory malignant ascites, intestinal obstruction, cachexia and other related complications. At present, the treatment is based on systemic chemotherapy. The combination of surgery, intraperitoneal chemotherapy and HIPEC is an effective treatment for peritoneal metastasis of gastrointestinal cancer. How to enrich peritoneal metastasis patients with potential benefits, how to determine the timing of conversion surgery, how to further optimize the existing treatment plan, especially how to formulate treatment plan for patients after conversion surgery, call for improved study design and prospective randomized controlled trials. The goal of continuous efforts is to effectively prolong the survival of gastrointestinal cancer trials patients with peritoneal metastasis.

Humans , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols , Combined Modality Therapy , Gastrointestinal Neoplasms/drug therapy , Hyperthermia, Induced , Peritoneal Neoplasms/drug therapy , Peritoneum , Prospective Studies , Stomach Neoplasms/therapy
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942968


Peritoneal metastasis is the most common distant metastasis of gastric cancer. As an end-stage event of gastric cancer, patients with peritoneal metastasis often have lost the chance of radical resection, and even after palliative surgical resection, the long-term outcomes are still not satisfactory. In recent years, with the application and promotion of laparoscopic technology, neoadjuvant intraperitoneal and systemic chemotherapy, hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy and cytoreductive surgery, through perioperative comprehensive treatment strategies by multidisciplinary team, the quality of life and survival of patients with peritoneal metastasis have been significantly improved. Some patients with gastric cancer peritoneal metastasis diagnosed by laparoscopy even get the opportunity to have radical cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy after neoadjuvant intraperitoneal and systemic chemotherapy. Taking into account the progress in the treatment of gastric cancer peritoneal metastasis in recent years, this article intends to combine current clinical evidence and to discuss the key issues in the course of clinical diagnosis and treatment of gastric cancer peritoneal implantation and metastasis, including the imaging diagnosis of peritoneal metastasis, laparoscopic examination, evaluation of peritoneal metastasis and comprehensive treatment plan.

Humans , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols , Combined Modality Therapy , Cytoreduction Surgical Procedures , Hyperthermia, Induced , Peritoneal Neoplasms/therapy , Peritoneum , Quality of Life , Stomach Neoplasms/therapy
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942876


Objective: To investigate the effectiveness, safety, and prognosis of neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (nCRT) for Siewert type II and III adenocarcinomas of the esophagogastric junction (AEG). Methods: This study is a prospective randomized controlled clinical study (NCT01962246). AEG patients who were treated at the Third Department of Surgery of the Fourth Hospital of Hebei Medical University from February 2012 to June 2016 were included. All of the enrolled patients were diagnosed with type II or III locally advanced AEG gastric cancer (T2-4N0-3M0 or T1N1-3M0) by gastroscopy and CT before operation; the longitudinal axis of the lesion was ≤ 8 cm; no anti-tumor treatment was previously given and no contraindications of chemotherapy and surgery were found. Case exclusion criteria: serious diseases accompanied by liver and kidney, cardiovascular system and other vital organs; allergy to capecitabine or oxaliplatin drugs or excipients; receiving any form of chemotherapy or other research drugs; pregnant or lactating women; patients with diseases resulting in difficulty to take capecitabine or with concurrent tumors. Based on sample size estimation, a total of 150 AEG patients were enrolled. Using the random number table method, the enrolled patients were divided into the nCRT group and the direct operation group with 75 cases in each group. The nCRT group received XELOX chemotherapy (capecitabine+ oxaliplatin) before surgery and concurrent radiotherapy (45 Gy, 25 times, 1.8 Gy/d, 5 times/week). Clinical efficacy of the nCRT group was evaluated by the solid tumor efficacy evaluation standard (RECIST1.1) and the tumor volume reduction rate was measured on CT. After completing the preoperative examination in the direct operation group, and 8-10 weeks after the end of nCRT in the nCRT group, surgery was performed. Laparoscopic exploration was initially performed. According to the Japanese "Regulations for the Treatment of Gastric Cancer", a transabdominal radical total gastrectomy combined with perigastric lymph node dissection was performed. The primary outcome was the 3-year overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival rate (DFS); the secondary outcomes were R0 resection rate, the toxicity of chemotherapy, and surgical complications. The follow-up ended on December 31, 2019. The postoperative recurrence, metastasis and survival time of the two groups were collected. Results: After excluding patients with incomplete clinical data, patients or family members requesting to withdraw informed consent, and those failing to follow the treatment plan, 63 cases in the nCRT group and 69 cases in the direct operation group were finally enrolled in the study. There were no statistically significant differences in baseline characteristics of the two groups (all P>0.05). Sixty-three patients in the nCRT group were evaluated by RECIST1.1 after treatment, the image based effective rate was 42.9% (27/63), and the stable disease rate was 98.4% (62/63); the tumor volume before and after nCRT measured on CT was (58.8±24.4) cm(3) and (46.6±25.7) cm(3), respectively, the effective rate of tumor volume reduction measured by CT was 47.6% (30/63). Incidences of neutrophilopenia [65.1% (41/63) vs. 40.6% (28/69), χ(2)=7.923, P=0.005], nausea [81.0% (51/63) vs. 56.5% (39/69), χ(2)=9.060, P=0.003] and fatigue [74.6% (47/63) vs. 42.0% (29/69), χ(2)=14.306, P=0.001] in the nCRT group were significantly higher than those in the direct surgery group. Radiation gastritis/esophagitis and radiation pneumonia were unique adverse reactions in the nCRT group, with incidences of 52.4% (33/63) and 15.9%(10/63), respectively. The classification of tumor regression of 63 patients in nCRT group presented as 11 cases of grade 0 (17.5%), 20 cases of grade 1 (31.7%), 28 cases of grade 2 (44.4%), and 5 cases of grade 3 (7.9%). Eleven (17.5%) patients achieved pathologic complete response. Sixty-one (96.8%) patients in the nCRT group underwent R0 resection, which was higher than 87.0% (60/69) in the direct surgery group (χ(2)=4.199, P=0.040). The mean number of harvested lymph nodes in the specimens in the nCRT group and the direct operation group was 27.6±12.4 and 26.8±14.6, respectively, and the difference was not statistically significant (t=-0.015, P=0.976). The pathological lymph node metastasis rate and lymph node ratio in the two groups were 44.4% (28/63) vs. 76.8% (53/69), and 4.0% (70/1 739) vs. 21.9% (404/1 847), respectively with statistically significant differences (χ(2)=14.552, P<0.001, and χ(2)=248.736, P<0.001, respectively). During a median follow-up of 52 (27-77) months, the 3-year DFS rate in the nCRT group and the direct surgery group was 52.4% and 39.1% (P=0.049), and the 3-year OS rate was 63.4% and 52.2% (P=0.019), respectively. According to whether the tumor volume reduction rate measured by CT was ≥ 12.5%, 63 patients in the nCRT group were divided into the effective group (n=30) and the ineffective group (n=33). The 3-year DFS rate of these two subgracps was 56.6% and 45.5%, respectively without significant difference (P=0.098). The 3-year OS rate was 73.3% and 51.5%,respectively with significant difference (P=0.038). The 3-year DFS rate of patients with the tumor regression grades 0, 1, 2 and 3 was 81.8%, 70.0%, 44.4%, and 20.0%, repectively (P=0.024); the 3-year OS rate was 81.8%, 75.0%, 48.1% and 40.0%, repectively (P=0.048). Conclusion: nCRT improves treatment efficacy of Siewert type II and III AEG patients, and the long-term prognosis is good.

Humans , Adenocarcinoma/therapy , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use , Capecitabine/administration & dosage , Chemoradiotherapy, Adjuvant , Esophagogastric Junction/surgery , Gastrectomy , Lymph Node Excision , Neoadjuvant Therapy , Neoplasm Staging , Oxaliplatin/administration & dosage , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , Stomach Neoplasms/therapy
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942874


Enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) has deeply influenced the clinical practice of surgery, anesthesia and nursing since its inception in 1997. The successful implementation of perioperative ERAS in gastric cancer depends on continually boosting the awareness and acceptance of ERAS among medical staff, carrying out multidisciplinary collaboration, improving patients' compliance and combining key items to the clinical pathways. Future efforts should be made to explore the most appropriate implementation strategy of perioperative ERAS in gastric cancer.

Humans , Critical Pathways , Enhanced Recovery After Surgery , Perioperative Care , Postoperative Complications/prevention & control , Stomach Neoplasms/therapy
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942873


Perioperative treatment is critical to improve the outcomes of patients with advanced gastric cancer. There are three therapeutic modes of perioperative treatment for resectable gastric cancer: neoadjuvant chemotherapy+ D1/D2 surgery+ adjuvant chemotherapy, D0/D1 surgery+ adjuvant radiochemotherapy, and D2 surgery+ adjuvant chemotherapy. Over the decades, a large number of clinical studies had been conducted to optimize the perioperative treatment mode of gastric cancer, including the postoperative radiotherapy and chemotherapy, and perioperative chemotherapy, and to explore the feasibility of preoperative radiochemotherapy, targeted therapy, and immunotherapy in advanced gastric cancer. After nearly 20 years of development and exploration, although the perioperative treatment mode for advanced gastric cancer has become standardized, there are still some core issues that need to be solved urgently, including the selection of population for perioperative treatment, the limitation of efficaly evaluation criteria, insufficient emphasis on laparoscopic exploration before neoadjuvant treatment, and lack of exploration in esophagogastric junction cancer. We should fully integrate the current clinical research data into clinical practice, adopt a multidisciplinary diagnosis and treatment mode, and follow the principles of standardized diagnosis and treatment based on a multi-dimensional analysis of patient characteristics, and formulate the most reasonable treatment strategy to ultimately benefit patients.

Humans , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/administration & dosage , Chemoradiotherapy, Adjuvant , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant , Combined Modality Therapy , Esophagogastric Junction , Gastrectomy , Lymph Node Excision , Neoadjuvant Therapy , Perioperative Care , Stomach Neoplasms/therapy
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942871


Local advanced gastric cancer (LAGC) accounts for a large proportion of annual newly diagnosed gastric cancer patients in China. There is a general consensus for D2 radical gastrectomy followed by postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy for LAGC patients, and this therapeutic strategy has been confirmed by a series of clinical trials to obviously improve the patients' prognosis; however, the recurrence rate is still high (about 50%-80% in advanced stage), which makes it difficult to further improve the long-term survival. Perioperative therapy, especially whether preoperative neoadjuvant therapy (NAT) can improve the efficacy of patients with LAGC, has been paid more and more attention. NAT is mainly defined as a preoperative chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy, aiming at increasing curative resection rate by downstaging tumor, eliminating micrometastases, and autologously testing of anti-cancer drug sensitivity etc. However, there are still some controversy whether LAGC patients could gain survival benefit from NAT and also lack of general consensus for this issue. In this paper, the author reviews and analyzes the current situation of perioperative therapies for LAGC patients, especially emphasize the results of neoadjuvant chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy reported by various high-level clinical studies. The preliminary effect of perioperative chemotherapy combined with molecular targeted or immunotherapy has also aroused great interest and attention. While we continue to carry out NAT and look forward to more new high-level evidence trials on NAT, we must emphasize again that R0 gastrectomy remains the most important therapeutic modality for the patients with LAGC.

Humans , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use , Chemoradiotherapy , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant , Combined Modality Therapy , Gastrectomy/methods , Lymph Node Excision , Neoadjuvant Therapy , Neoplasm Staging , Perioperative Care/trends , Stomach Neoplasms/therapy
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942859


Gastric cancer is a common type of malignant tumors, but its clinical prognosis remains unsatisfactory. Up to 2020, a growing number of high-quality clinical researches has provided reliable evidence for clinical practice. Evidences from surgery, perioperative treatment and immunotherapy, such as changes in surgical methods, improvement of perioperative chemotherapy and combination of immune and chemotherapy strategy, provided the possibility to improve the clinical efficacy of gastric cancer. In our clinical practice, gastrointestinal surgeons need to integrate the current research progression and develop individualized strategy for different patients, which is expected to further improve the prognosis and quality of life for patients with gastric cancer.

Humans , Biomedical Research/trends , Combined Modality Therapy , Gastrectomy , Prognosis , Quality of Life , Stomach Neoplasms/therapy
Rev. cir. (Impr.) ; 72(3): 245-249, jun. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1115550


Resumen Introducción: Los tumores neuroendocrinos (TNE), son tumores compuestos por células productoras de péptidos y aminas. Los TNE gástricos, representan el 1% de todas las neoplasias, sin embargo su incidencia ha ido en aumento. Son generalmente asintomáticos y no funcionantes. El tratamiento es generalmente la resección local. Caso Clínico: paciente de 48 años con sospecha de cáncer gástrico; su estudio demuestra un TNE gástrico bien diferenciado tipo 1. Se realiza etapificación y se define en comité oncológico la vigilancia endoscópica. El hallazgo de un TNE, en el estudio de cáncer gástrico, es un hallazgo poco frecuente. Debido al aumento progresivo en la realización de endoscopías digestivas altas, secundario a la alta prevalencia de cáncer gástrico en nuestro país, se espera que aumenten hallazgos como un TNE. Es por esto que realizamos una revisión de la literatura y planteamos algunas conclusiones al respecto.

Introduction: Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are composed of cells that produce peptides and amines. Gastric NETs represent 1% of all neoplasms; however their incidence has been increasing. They are usually asymptomatic and non-functioning. The treatment is usually local resection. Case Report: We present the case of a 48-year-old patient who was suspected of gastric cancer; her study shows a well-differentiated type 1 gastric NET. Staging is performed and endoscopic surveillance is defined in the oncology board. The finding of a NET, in the study of gastric cancer, is a rare finding. Due to the progressive increase in the performance of upper gastrointestinal endoscopies, secondary to the high prevalence of gastric cancer in our country, it is expected to increase findings as a NET. That is why we conducted a review of the literature and made some conclusions about it.

Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Neuroendocrine Tumors/diagnosis , Neuroendocrine Tumors/etiology , Neuroendocrine Tumors/therapy , Stomach Neoplasms/diagnosis , Stomach Neoplasms/physiopathology , Stomach Neoplasms/therapy , Incidence , Medical Oncology/methods , Neoplasm Staging
São Paulo; s.n; 2020. 33 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, Inca | ID: biblio-1178933


Introdução: A quimioterapia perioperatória e cirurgia são o padrão de tratamento para pacientes com câncer gastroesofágico avançado, entretanto, seu impacto entre aqueles tratados com cirurgia radical carece de avaliação mais detalhada. Apresentamos os resultados desta abordagem de tratamento multimodal em uma coorte de pacientes com câncer gástrico tratados com linfadenectomia D2. Objetivo: identificar fatores prognósticos associados à melhora da sobrevida e resposta patológica associados ao tratamento neoadjuvante. Pacientes e métodos. Este estudo de coorte retrospectivo envolveu pacientes tratados com quimioterapia perioperatória e ressecção em um único centro oncológico no Brasil entre 2006 e 2016. Indivíduos com tumores do coto gástrico, tumores de esôfago ou tratados com quimioterapia intra-peritoneal foram excluídos. A análise de sobrevivência com intenção de tratar foi realizada para todos os indivíduos que iniciaram a quimioterapia neoadjuvante, e os fatores prognósticos foram determinados entre aqueles que tiveram ressecção R0. Resultados. Este estudo incluiu 239 pacientes, dos quais 198 tiveram ressecção R0. A média de idade foi de 59,9 anos e a maioria apresentava doença em estágio clínico IIB ou III (88%). Entre os 239 pacientes que iniciaram quimioterapia neoadjuvante, 207 (86,6%) completaram todos os ciclos de tratamento neoadjuvante, e a ressecção cirúrgica foi realizada em 225 indivíduos (94,1%). As taxas gerais de morbidade e mortalidade em 60 dias foram de 35,6% e 4,4%, respectivamente. Para toda a coorte, a sobrevida mediana foi de 78 meses e a taxa de sobrevida em 5 anos foi de 55,3%. Os fatores associados à pior sobrevida foram estágio ypT3­4, ypN, estágio, ressecção estendida e sem quimioterapia adjuvante. Conclusões. A quimioterapia perioperatória resultou em resultados muito bons para pacientes tratados com cirurgia radical, e o downstaging após a quimioterapia mostrou ser um determinante principal do prognóstico

Background. Perioperative chemotherapy and surgery are the standard of care in advanced gastroesophageal cancer patients, but its impact among those treated with radical surgery still needs further assessment. We present the results of this multimodality treatment approach in a gastric cancer patients cohort treated with D2 lymphadenectomy. We aimed to identify prognostic factors associated with improved survival. Patients and Methods. This retrospective cohort study enrolled patients treated with perioperative chemotherapy and resection in a single cancer center in Brazil between 2006 and 2016. Subjects presenting tumors of the gastric stump, esophageal tumors, or treated with intraperitoneal chemotherapy were excluded. Intention-to-treat survival analysis was performed for all subjects who started neoadjuvant chemotherapy, and prognostic factors were determined among those who had R0 resection. Results. This study included 239 patients, of whom 198 had R0 resection. The mean age was 59.9 years, and most had clinical stage IIB or III disease (88%). Among the 239 patients who started neoadjuvant chemotherapy, 207 (86.6%) completed all neoadjuvant treatment cycles, and surgical resection was performed in 225 subjects (94.1%). Overall 60-day morbidity and mortality rates were 35.6% and 4.4%, respectively. For the entire cohort, median survival was 78 months and the 5-year survival rate was 55.3%. Factors associated with worse survival were ypT3­4 stage, ypN stage, extended resection, and no adjuvant chemotherapy. Conclusions. Perioperative chemotherapy resulted in very good outcomes for patients treated with radical surgery, and downstaging after chemotherapy was shown to be a major determinant of prognosis

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Prognosis , Stomach Neoplasms/therapy , Survival , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant/adverse effects
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 23(6): 451-461, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089312


ABSTRACT Background: Papiliotrema laurentii is one of several non-neoformans cryptococci that have rarely been associated with human infection, since it was previously considered saprophyte and thought to be non-pathogenic to humans. Nevertheless, increasing number of reports of human infection have emerged in recent years, mostly in oncologic patients. Aim: To report a case of a female patient with pyloric obstructive cancer with a catheter-related Papiliotrema laurentii blood stream infection and systematically review the available evidence on P. laurentii infection in humans. Methods: Retrieval of studies was based on Medical Subject Headings and Health Sciences Descriptors, which were combined using Boolean operators. Searches were run on the electronic databases Scopus, Web of Science, MEDLINE (PubMed), BIREME (Biblioteca Regional de Medicina), LILACS (Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature), Cochrane Library for Systematic Reviews and There was no language or date of publication restrictions. The reference lists of the studies retrieved were searched manually. Results: The search strategy retrieved 1703 references. In the final analysis, 31 references were included, with the description of 35 cases. Every patient but one had a previous co-morbidity - 48.4 % of patients had a neoplasm. Amphotericin B was the most used treatment and only a single case of resistance to it was reported. Most patients were cured of the infection. Conclusion: P. laurentii infection in humans is usually associated to neoplasia and multiple co-morbidities, and amphotericin B seems to be a reliable agent for treatment.

Humans , Female , Aged , Stomach Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Catheter-Related Infections/diagnostic imaging , Stomach Neoplasms/microbiology , Stomach Neoplasms/therapy , Biopsy , Vancomycin/therapeutic use , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Fluconazole/therapeutic use , Amphotericin B/therapeutic use , Bacteremia/microbiology , Cryptococcus/isolation & purification , Catheter-Related Infections/etiology , Catheter-Related Infections/microbiology , Catheter-Related Infections/drug therapy , Piperacillin, Tazobactam Drug Combination/therapeutic use , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
Ciênc. Saúde Colet. (Impr.) ; 24(5): 1597-1607, Mai. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001783


Abstract Gastric cancer (GC) is a public health issue with high incidence and mortality in Colombia due to tardy diagnosis and barriers to access to curative treatment; this leaves palliative care (PC) as the only option. Our aim is to describe the access barriers to PC perceived by adults with GC, caregivers and physician in Santander, Colombia. A qualitative study was carried out with the analysis of the grounded theory (Strauss and Corbin), through semi-structured interviews, after sampling for convenience we found that the access barriers were: administrative, economic, cultural, knowledge, communication, institutional and geographical; strategies to overcome barriers: screening programs, governmental surveillance, and investment in health. In conclusion, access to PC requires remove barriers to timely and integral access and strengthen health and education policies to facilitate procedures and services that ensure the attention required by the adult with GC.

Resumo O câncer gástrico (CG) é um problema de saúde pública com alta incidência e mortalidade na Colômbia, devido ao seu diagnóstico tardio e às barreiras ao tratamento curativo, o que deixa os cuidados paliativos (CP) como única opção terapêutica. O objetivo é descrever as barreiras aos cuidados de CP percebidos pelo adulto com CG, cuidador e médico assistente em Santander, Colômbia. Um estudo qualitativo foi realizado com a análise da teoria fundamentada (Strauss e Corbin), por meio de entrevistas semiestruturadas, após amostragem por conveniência, constatou-se que as barreiras de acesso foram; administrativo, econômico, cultural, conhecimento, comunicação, institucional e geográfico; as estratégias para superá-los: programas de triagem, vigilância governamental e investimento em saúde. Em conclusão, o acesso à PC deve ser melhorado, eliminando barreiras ao acesso oportuno e abrangente e fortalecendo as políticas de saúde e educação, com a participação ativa do Estado e da comunidade para garantir a assistência à saúde.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Palliative Care/statistics & numerical data , Stomach Neoplasms/therapy , Caregivers/statistics & numerical data , Health Services Accessibility/statistics & numerical data , Physicians/statistics & numerical data , Interviews as Topic , Colombia
ABCD arq. bras. cir. dig ; 32(2): e1435, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001040


ABSTRACT Background: Conversion therapy in gastric cancer (GC) is defined as the use of chemotherapy/radiotherapy followed by surgical resection with curative intent of a tumor that was prior considered unresectable or oncologically incurable. Aim: To evaluate the results of conversion therapy in the treatment of GC. Methods: Retrospective analysis of all GC surgeries between 2009 and 2018. Patients who received any therapy before surgery were further identified to define the conversion group. Results: Out of 1003 surgeries performed for GC, 113 cases underwent neoadjuvant treatment and 16 (1.6%) were considered as conversion therapy. The main indication for treatment was: T4b lesions (n=10), lymph node metastasis (n=4), peritoneal carcinomatosis and hepatic metastasis in one case each. The diagnosis was made by imaging in 14 cases (75%) and during surgical procedure in four (25%). The most commonly used chemotherapy regimens were XP and mFLOX. Major surgical complications occurred in four cases (25%) and one (6.3%) died. After an average follow-up of 20 months, 11 patients (68.7%) had recurrence and nine (56.3%) died. Prolonged recurrence-free survival over 40 months occurred in two cases. Conclusion: Conversion therapy may offer the possibility of prolonged survival for a group of GC patients initially considered beyond therapeutic possibility.

RESUMO Racional : A terapia de conversão no câncer gástrico (CG) é definida como o uso de quimio/radioterapia seguida de ressecção cirúrgica com intenção curativa de um tumor que era considerado irressecável ou oncologicamente incurável. Objetivo : Avaliar os resultados da terapia de conversão no tratamento do CG. Métodos : Análise retrospectiva de todas as operações de CG entre 2009 e 2018. Os pacientes que receberam alguma terapia antes da operação foram também identificados para definir o grupo de conversão. Resultados : Entre 1003 operações realizadas para o CG, 113 foram submetidos ao tratamento neoadjuvante e 16 (1,6%) considerados como terapia de conversão. As principais indicações para o tratamento foram: lesões T4b (n=10), metástase linfonodal (n=4), carcinomatose peritoneal e metástase hepática em 1 caso cada. O diagnóstico foi feito por exame de imagem em 14 casos (75%) e durante o procedimento cirúrgico em 4 casos (25%). Os esquemas quimioterápicos mais utilizados foram XP e mFLOX. Complicações cirúrgicas maiores ocorreram em 4 casos (25%) e 1 (6,3%) foi a óbito. Após seguimento médio de 20 meses, 11 pacientes (68,7%) apresentaram recidiva e 9 (56,3%) morreram. Sobrevida livre de recidiva prolongada acima de 40 meses ocorreu em dois casos. Conclusão : A terapia de conversão pode oferecer possibilidade de sobrevida prolongada para um grupo de pacientes com CG considerados inicialmente fora das possibilidades terapêuticas.

Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Stomach Neoplasms/therapy , Carcinoma/therapy , Adenocarcinoma/therapy , Palliative Care , Stomach Neoplasms/mortality , Time Factors , Carcinoma/mortality , Adenocarcinoma/mortality , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Sex Distribution , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local
Rev. bras. cancerol ; 65(4)20191216.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1049118


Introdução: A interdisciplinaridade é vista como uma alternativa que, somada ao desenvolvimento tecnológico, possa a contribuir para a melhoria do cuidado em saúde, mas cuja construção é cercada de desafios. O Grupo de Estudos e Tratamento do Câncer Gástrico e Esofágico de um hospital referência em tratamento de câncer, composto por equipe multiprofissional, foi criado no sentido de promover interação entre a equipe e a melhoria no atendimento ao paciente, mas ainda precisa avançar no sentido da interdisciplinaridade. Objetivo: Conhecer e analisar os desafios à intervenção interdisciplinar no olhar dos profissionais que integram a equipe. Método: Pesquisa qualitativa, cuja coleta de dados se deu por entrevista com profissionais das categorias inseridas no grupo e análise com base na hermenêutica-dialética. Resultados: O entendimento acerca do propósito do grupo e das temáticas integralidade e interdisciplinaridade, incluindo-se a percepção sobre a rede de cuidados ao paciente. Foram apresentados desafios objetivos e subjetivos, vinculados, respectivamente, à gestão e à relação entre a equipe e entre os profissionais e os pacientes, para os quais é fundamental destinar o cuidado. Foram ainda apresentados avanços e resultados positivos e a necessidade de se direcionar o olhar também à equipe e ao seu cuidado. Conclusão: Verifica-se a importância de levar os profissionais à reflexão acerca de sua intervenção, individual e coletiva, tendo em vista as possibilidades que estão ao alcance da equipe e de outras que poderiam ser alvo de pleitos e lutas para a efetiva implementação do Sistema Único de Saúde, como também valorizar as potencialidades e os ganhos já conquistados.

Introduction: The interdisciplinarity is seen as an alternative that, added to the technological development, could contribute to the improvement of healthcare, but whose construction faces challenges. The Gastric and Esophageal Cancer Study and Treatment Group of a referral cancer treatment hospital formed by a multi-professional team, was created to promote interaction between the team and the improvement of patient care; nevertheless, still needs to move towards interdisciplinarity. Objective: To know and analyze the challenges of interdisciplinary intervention through the vision of the professionals who belong to the team. Method: Qualitative approach, with data collected through interviews with professionals of the group's categories and analysis based on hermeneutic-dialectic. Results: One of the results was the understanding about the purpose of the group and the concepts of integrality and interdisciplinarity, including the perception about the patient care network. Other result was the presentation of objective and subjective challenges and their relation, respectively, to the management and relationship between the team, and between professionals and patients, for whom care is provided. In addition, it were presented positive results and progress, and the necessity to focus the attention to the team and its own care. Conclusion: It was verified the importance to encourage the professionals to think about their own individual and collective intervention, bearing in mind the possibilities that are within the scope of the team and others that could be the object of pledges and struggles for the effective implementation of National Health System and to value the potentialities and conquests already achieved.

Introducción: La interdisciplinariedad se considera una alternativa que, sumada al desarrollo tecnológico, puede contribuir a la mejora de la atención médica, pero cuya construcción está rodeada de desafíos El Grupo de Estudio y Tratamiento del Cáncer Gástrico y Esofágico de un hospital de referencia para el tratamiento del cáncer, compuesto por un equipo multiprofesional, fue creado para promover la interacción del equipo y mejorar la atención al paciente, pero aún necesita avanzar hacia la interdisciplinariedad. Objetivo: Conocer y analizar los desafíos de la intervención interdisciplinaria a los ojos de los profesionales que forman parte del equipo. Método: Investigación cualitativa, cuya recopilación de datos se realizó mediante entrevista con profesionales de las categorías incluidas en el grupo y el análisis basado en la dialéctica hermenéutica. Resultados: La comprensión sobre el propósito del grupo y los temas de integralidad e interdisciplinariedad, incluida la percepción sobre la red de atención al paciente. Se presentaron desafíos objetivos y subjetivos, vinculados, respectivamente, al manejo y la relación entre el equipo y entre profesionales y pacientes, para lo cual la atención es esencial. También se presentaron avances y resultados positivos, así como la necesidad de dirigir la mirada hacia el equipo y su cuidado. Conclusión: Existe la importancia de que los profesionales líderes reflexionen sobre su intervención individual y colectiva, considerando las posibilidades que están al alcance del equipo y otros que podrían ser el objetivo de reclamos y luchas para la implementación efectiva del Sistema Único de Salud, además de valorar el potencial y los logros ya alcanzados.

Humans , Patient Care Team , Stomach Neoplasms/therapy , Esophageal Neoplasms/therapy , Integrality in Health , Interdisciplinary Placement , Brazil , Cancer Care Facilities , Qualitative Research , Hermeneutics
Medwave ; 19(8): e7692, 2019.
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1021438


OBJETIVO Describir las características clínicas, los patrones de tratamiento y los costos asociados en pacientes con cáncer gástrico localmente avanzado o metastásico en Argentina, en los sectores público y privado. MÉTODOS Una cohorte histórica de pacientes que recibieron tratamiento de quimioterapia de primera línea (análogo de platino y/o una fluoropirimidina) y fueron seguidos durante al menos tres meses después de la última administración de un agente citotóxico de primera línea fueron elegibles. Se extrajeron los datos a través de un cuestionario estructurado a partir de los registros médicos de cuatro hospitales argentinos. Las estimaciones de los costos de tratamiento también se calcularon utilizando los costos unitarios de los hospitales participantes. RESULTADOS Entre los 101 pacientes, más de tres cuartas partes (79,2%) eran hombres, 41,6% fueron diagnosticados con enfermedad metastásica en estadio IV, la edad media fue de 57,7 años y el 27,7% tenían antecedentes de tabaquismo. Antes del diagnóstico de cáncer gástrico metastásico, el 42,4% de los pacientes habían recibido gastrectomía total. El 97% de los pacientes recibió una terapia doble o triplete, de los cuales el tratamiento más frecuente fue la epirubicina en combinación con oxaliplatino y capecitabina (38%), seguida de capecitabina + oxaliplatino (29%). Alrededor del 36% de los pacientes respondieron al tratamiento de primera línea (respuesta completa y parcial). Del 76,2% de los pacientes que siguieron un tratamiento de segunda línea, al 37,7% todavía se les administró un análogo de platino y/o fluoropirimidina. Durante el período de seguimiento, el 50% de los pacientes progresó y el 32,8% tenía enfermedad estable. La terapia de apoyo consistió principalmente en visitas ambulatorias después de la última línea de quimioterapia (16,8%), radioterapia paliativa (16,8%) y cirugía (30,7%). Se observaron diferencias significativas entre los costos de los hospitales públicos y privado. CONCLUSIONES Comprender los patrones de tratamiento en pacientes con cáncer gástrico localmente avanzado o metastásico puede ayudar a abordar las necesidades médicas no satisfechas para un mejor manejo del paciente y la mejora de sus resultados clínicos en Argentina.

AIM To assess patient and disease characteristics, treatment patterns and associated costs in patients with locally advanced or metastatic gastric cancer in Argentina, in the public and private sectors. METHODS A historic cohort of patients who had received first-line chemotherapy treatment (platinum analog and/or a fluoropyrimidine) and were followed-up for at least three months after the last administration of a first-line cytotoxic agent were eligible. Case-report forms were prepared based on medical records from four Argentinian hospitals. Estimates of treatment costs were also calculated using the unit costs of the participating hospitals. RESULTS Of 101 patients, more than three quarters (79.2%) were male, 41.6% were diagnosed with metastatic stage IV disease (mean age, 57.7years), and 27.7 % had a smoking history. Before locally advanced or metastatic gastric cancer diagnosis, 42.4% of the patients had received total gastrectomy. Ninety-seven percent of the patients received a doublet or triplet therapy, of which epirubicin in combination with oxaliplatin and capecitabine was the most common treatment (38%), followed by capecitabine plus oxaliplatin (29%). Around 36% of the patients responded to first-line treatment (complete and partial response). Out of the 76.2% of the patients who followed a second-line treatment, 37.7% were still administered a platinum analog and/or fluoropyrimidine. During the reported follow-up period, 50% of the patients progressed, and 32.8% had stable disease. The best supportive care consisted mostly of outpatient visits after last-line therapy (16.8%), palliative radiotherapy (16.8%), and surgery (30.7%). We observed significant differences between public and private hospital costs. CONCLUSIONS Understanding treatment patterns in patients with locally advanced or metastatic gastric cancer may help address unmet medical needs for better patient management and improvement of their clinical outcome in Argentina.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Stomach Neoplasms/epidemiology , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/administration & dosage , Gastrectomy/methods , Argentina , Stomach Neoplasms/pathology , Stomach Neoplasms/therapy , Retrospective Studies , Cohort Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Hospital Costs/statistics & numerical data , Neoplasm Metastasis , Neoplasm Staging
ABCD arq. bras. cir. dig ; 32(4): e1464, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1054598


ABSTRACT Background: The treatment of advanced gastric cancer with curative intent is essentially surgical and chemoradiotherapy is indicated as neo or adjuvant to control the disease and prolong survival. Aim: To assess the survival of patients undergoing subtotal or total gastrectomy with D2 lymphadenectomy followed by adjuvant chemoradiotherapy. Methods: Were retrospectively analyzed 87 gastrectomized patients with advanced gastric adenocarcinoma, considered stages IB to IIIC and submitted to adjuvant chemoradiotherapy (protocol INT 0116). Tumors of the esophagogastric junction, with peritoneal implants, distant metastases, and those that had a compromised surgical margin or early death after surgery were excluded. They were separated according to the extention of the gastrectomy and analyzed for tumor site and histopathology, lymph node invasion, staging, morbidity and survival. Results: The total number of patients who successfully completed the adjuvant treatment was 45 (51.7%). Those who started treatment and discontinued due to toxicity, tumor-related worsening, or loss of follow-up were 10 (11.5%) and reported as incomplete adjuvant. The number of patients who refused or did not start adjuvant treatment was 33 (48.3%). Subtotal gastrectomy was indicated in 60 (68.9%) and total in 27 (31.1%) and this had a shorter survival. The mean resected lymph nodes was 30.8. Staging and number of lymph nodes affected were predictors of worse survival and the more advanced the tumor. Patients undergoing adjuvant therapy with complete chemoradiotherapy showed a longer survival when compared to those who did it incompletely or underwent exclusive surgery. On the other hand, comparing the T4b (IIIB + IIIC) staging patients who had complete adjuvance with those who underwent the exclusive operation or who did not complete the adjuvant, there was a significant difference in survival. Conclusion: Adjuvant chemoradiotherapy presents survival gain for T4b patients undergoing surgical treatment with curative intent.

RESUMO Racional: O tratamento do câncer gástrico avançado com intenção curativa é essencialmente cirúrgico e a quimiorradioterapia está indicada como neo ou adjuvância para controlar a doença e prolongar a sobrevida. Objetivos: Avaliar a sobrevida dos doentes submetidos à gastrectomia subtotal ou total com linfadenectomia D2 seguidos de quimiorradioterapia adjuvante. Métodos: Foram analisados retrospectivamente 87 gastrectomizados portadores de adenocarcinoma gástrico avançado considerandos estádios IB até IIIC e submetidos à quimiorradioterapia adjuvante (protocolo INT 0116). Foram excluídos os tumores da transição esofagogástrica, com implantes peritoneais, metástases à distância e os que após a operação apresentaram margem cirúrgica comprometida ou óbito precoce. Foram separados quanto à extensão da gastrectomia e analisados em relação ao local e histopatologia do tumor, invasão linfonodal, estadiamento, morbidade e sobrevida. Resultados: O número de doentes que conseguiu completar o esquema adjuvante na sua totalidade foi de 45 (51,7%). Os que iniciaram o tratamento e interromperam por toxicidade, piora relacionada ao tumor, ou perda de seguimento foram 10 (11,5%) e relacionados como adjuvância incompleta. O número de doentes que recusou ou não iniciou o tratamento adjuvante foi de 33 (48,3%). A gastrectomia subtotal foi indicada em 60 (68,9%) e a total em 27 (31,1%) e esta apresentou menor sobrevida. A média de linfonodos ressecados foi de 30,8. O estadiamento e o número de linfonodos acometidos foram preditores de pior sobrevida e quanto mais avançado foi o tumor. Os pacientes submetidos à terapia adjuvante com quimiorradioterapia completa mostraram sobrevida maior quando comparados àqueles que a fizeram de forma incompleta ou submetidos à operação exclusiva. Por outro lado, comparando-se os doentes estádios T4b (IIIB + IIIC) que tiveram adjuvância completa com os submetidos à operação exclusiva ou que não completaram a adjuvância, houve significativa diferença na sobrevida. Conclusão - A quimiorradioterapia adjuvante apresenta ganho de sobrevida para doentes em estádio T4b submetidos ao tratamento cirúrgico com intenção curativa.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Stomach Neoplasms/therapy , Chemoradiotherapy, Adjuvant , Gastrectomy/methods , Retrospective Studies , Disease-Free Survival , Lymph Node Excision , Neoplasm Staging
Rev. méd. Chile ; 146(10): 1205-1209, dic. 2018. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-978757


Gastric squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is a rare type of cancer. We report three patients with the tumor. A 65 years old male presenting with weight los and heartburn. An upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed an ulcerated tumor whose biopsy disclosed a gastric epidermoid carcinoma. The patient was operated and chemotherapy was attempted, but he died five months later. A 39 years old male with an antral tumor corresponding to an epidermoid carcinoma. He was operated and received chemotherapy and radiotherapy and died one year later. A 79 years old female with a distal antral tumor corresponding to a undifferentiated epidermoid carcinoma. She received palliative therapy and died two months later.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Stomach Neoplasms/pathology , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/pathology , Stomach Neoplasms/therapy , Biopsy , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/therapy , Fatal Outcome