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1.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 81: e0018, 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365732

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: To evaluate the quality of life of children with strabismus and understand their consequences in the functional and psychosocial aspects of the childhood. Methods: A semi-structured interview adapted of Adult Strabismus-20 questionnaire was conducted with parents or the legal responsible person of children aged between 3 and 13 years old attended at the public health care. A likert-scale of five points was used to measure the impact of strabismus in childhood, from psychosocial and functional aspects. Results: 97 children were included in the study. 61,4% of the children had esotropia (ET), while 35.9% had exotropia (XT). In each group, the magnitude of deviation was classified in smaller (<) or equal/greater (≥) then 30 prismatic diopters. When analyzing the functional and the psychosocial scores of the groups separated by the type of strabismus and magnitude of deviation, the average score of the group with esotropia and the patients with larger deviations were worse. The correlation value between the psychosocial and functional scores was 200.656 (p <0.01). Conclusion: Strabismus in childhood is associated with many negative effects. These consequences should be considered when deciding for surgical treatment on early ages. The strabismus treatment may change positively how these children perceive themselves, resulting in benefits on quality of life from both the functional and psychosocial perspectives.


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar a qualidade de vida de crianças com estrabismo e entender suas consequências em aspectos funcionais e psicossociais da infância. Métodos: Uma entrevista semiestruturada adaptada do questionário Adult Strabismus-20 foi realizada com os pais ou responsáveis legais das crianças entre 3 e 13 anos atendidas na rede pública de saúde. Uma escala do tipo Likert de cinco pontos foi usada para mensurar o impacto do estrabismo na infância, do ponto de vista funcional e psicossocial. Resultados: Foram incluídas no estudo 97 crianças, sendo 61,4% com esotropia e 35,9% com exotropia. Em cada grupo, a magnitude do desvio foi classificada em menor ou maior que 30 dioptrias prismáticas. Quando analisados os escores funcionais e psicossociais de cada grupo separados por tipo e magnitude do desvio, a média do escore do grupo com esotropia e dos pacientes com maior desvio foi pior. O valor de correlação entre os escores funcionais e psicossociais foi de 0,656 (p<0,01). Conclusão: Estrabismo na infância está associado a muitos efeitos negativos. As consequências devem ser levadas em consideração quando da decisão por tratamento cirúrgico em idades precoces. O tratamento do estrabismo pode alterar de forma positiva a percepção que a criança tem de si mesma, resultando em benefícios na qualidade de vida, tanto em aspectos funcionais quanto psicossociais.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Quality of Life , Strabismus/psychology , Parents/psychology , Psychometrics , Surveys and Questionnaires , Interview , Sickness Impact Profile
2.
Rev. cuba. oftalmol ; 34(3): e1084, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1352024

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Determinar los resultados de la cirugía mínimamente invasiva en pacientes con estrabismos horizontales. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, longitudinal y prospectivo de una serie de 19 pacientes (16 ojos derechos, 17 izquierdos) atendidos en el Servicio de Oftalmología Pediátrica del Instituto Cubano de Oftalmología "Ramón Pando Ferrer", en el periodo comprendido entre junio de 2018 y julio de 2019, a quienes se les realizó cirugía mínimamente invasiva de estrabismo y fueron seguidos por 6 meses. Se evaluaron las variables: tipo de desviación, agudeza visual, signos posoperatorios, ángulo de desviación pre- y posquirúrgico, éxito quirúrgico, fusión, estereopsis y complicaciones. Resultados: El 73,7 por ciento de los pacientes presentaba esotropías; la media de agudeza visual pre- y posoperatoria entre los dos ojos fue muy similar; el signo posoperatorio más frecuente fue la hiperemia conjuntival ligera (75 por ciento ojos derechos y 64,5 por ciento ojos izquierdos) a las 24 horas. Se encontraron diferencias estadísticas (p < 0,001) en el ángulo de desviación horizontal en dioptrías prismáticas, pre- y poscirugía, con el 84,2 por ciento de éxito quirúrgico. El 78,6 y el 80 por ciento de los pacientes con esotropía y exotropías alcanzaron fusión, pero solo lograron estereopsis el 28,5 y el 60 por ciento de ellos respectivamente. La frecuencia de complicaciones ocurrió en el 15,8 por ciento de los pacientes. Conclusiones: Se alcanzaron buenos resultados motores, así como aceptables en los sensoriales en pacientes operados de estrabismos horizontales por cirugía mínimamente invasiva(AU)


Objective: Determine the results of minimally invasive surgery in patients with horizontal strabismus. Methods: A prospective longitudinal descriptive study was conducted of a series of 19 patients (16 right eyes, 17 left eyes) attending the Pediatric Ophthalmology Service at Ramón Pando Ferrer Cuban Institute of Ophthalmology from June 2018 to July 2019. These patients underwent minimally invasive strabismus surgery and were followed up for six months. The variables considered were deviation type, visual acuity, postoperative signs, pre- and postoperative angle of deviation, surgical success, fusion, stereopsis and complications. Results: Of the patients studied, 73.7 percent presented esotropias; mean pre- and postoperative visual acuity was very similar in the two eyes; the most common postoperative sign was slight conjunctival hyperemia (75 percent right eyes and 64.5 percent left eyes) at 24 hours. Statistical differences (p < 0.001) were found in the horizontal angle of deviation in pre- and postoperative prism diopters, with 84.2 percent surgical success. 78.6 percent and 80 percent of the patients with esotropia and exotropia achieved fusion, but only 28.5 and 60 percent of them, respectively, achieved stereopsis. Complications occurred in 15.8 percent of the patients. Conclusions: Good motor results were obtained, as well as acceptable sensory results in patients undergoing minimally invasive horizontal strabismus surgery(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Esotropia/etiology , Strabismus/etiology , Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures/methods , Depth Perception , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Prospective Studies , Longitudinal Studies
3.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 80(5): e0032, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1341153

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Apresenta-se uma série de 13 casos de pacientes com estrabismo sensorial de grande ângulo submetidos à técnica cirúrgica de autotransplante da musculatura ocular extrínseca. Foi realizada a técnica de recuo-ressecção dos músculos retos horizontais, e o retalho retirado do músculo ressecado foi suturado ao músculo enfraquecido como expansor autólogo. Foram avaliadas seis exotropias e sete esotropias, com desvios médios de 75 (70-90) dioptrias prismáticas (DP). Houve melhora significativa dos desvios no pós-operatório, sendo a média pós-operatória de 10,07 dioptrias prismáticas (ortotropia a 35DP). Somente um dos casos evoluiu com inversão do desvio após procedimento cirúrgico.


ABSTRACT We report 13 cases of large angle sensory strabismus treated with autologous graft of extraocular muscle. Recession-resection procedure of the horizontal rectus muscles was performed, and the flap from the resected muscle was sutured to the weakened muscle as an autologous expander. Six cases of exotropia and seven of esotropia, with mean prism diopter deviation of 75 (range of 70-90). There was significant improvement in the postoperative deviation, and mean prism diopter of 10.07 (range of no deviation to 35). Only one patient progressed with inverted misalignment after the surgical procedure.


Subject(s)
Humans , Strabismus/surgery , Oculomotor Muscles/transplantation , Ophthalmologic Surgical Procedures/methods , Transplantation, Autologous , Amblyopia , Free Tissue Flaps
4.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 79(5): 302-308, set.-out. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1137988

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: Study aimed to determine compliance of patients with strabismic amblyopia undergoing occlusion treatment, followed from January 1 st, 2011 to January 1 st, 2017 at an Ophthalmology Reference Center, and identify risk factors for poor compliance. Methods: Retrospective, consecutive cohort study. Compliance reported at each visit was related to visual acuity, family history, changes in occlusion schedules and in patients' care team during treatment. The patients were divided into two groups according to the compliance: poor compliance group and compliance group (subdivided in full compliance subgroup and partial compliance subgroup). Results: Age at treatment beginning vary from 3.7 to 13.7 years, esotropia was the most frequent deviation and the occlusion was realized from 5 to 7 hours a day. Of 220 patients, compliance was achieved by 193 (87.7%), 114 (51.8%) in full compliance subgroup and 79 (35.9%) in partial compliance subgroup, and 27 do not achieved compliance (12.3%). Poor compliance was significantly related to a history of epilepsy, higher rate of suspension of treatment due to inefficacy, higher evasion rate, lower recurrence, and lower rate of maintenance of prophylactic occlusion after treatment. Good compliance was related to family history of strabismus, higher recurrence rate, and higher maintenance of prophylactic occlusion after treatment. No relations were found between poor compliance and changes in occlusion schedules or in patients' care team during treatment. Conclusion: Compliance with occlusion treatment of strabismic ambliopia was similar to other studies that included refractive and strabismic amblyopia and not related to changes in occlusion schedules or in patients' care team during treatment. Family history of strabismus was a protective factor.


Resumo Objetivo: Determinar a adesão de pacientes com ambliopia estrabísmica submetidos a tratamento oclusivo, acompanhados em Centro de Referência em Oftalmologia do Centro-Oeste do Brasil, e identificar fatores de risco para baixa adesão. Métodos: Estudo de coorte retrospectivo e consecutivo. A adesão relatada em cada visita foi relacionada à acuidade visual, história familiar, mudanças no tempo de oclusão e na equipe de atendimento ao paciente durante o tratamento. Os pacientes foram divididos em dois grupos de acordo com a adesão: grupo de não-adesão e grupo adesão (subdividido em subgrupo adesão total e subgrupo adesão parcial). Resultados: A idade ao início do tratamento variou de 3,7 a 13,7 anos, o desvio mais frequente foi a esotropia, o tempo médio de oclusão foi de 5 a 7 horas por dia. Dos 220 pacientes, 193 (87,7%) obtiveram adesão, 114 (51,8%) no subgrupo de adesão total e 79 (35,9%) no subgrupo de adesão parcial, e 27 não aderiram (12,3%). A não-adesão foi relacionada à história de epilepsia, maior taxa de suspensão do tratamento devido à ineficácia, maior taxa de evasão, menor recorrência e menor taxa de manutenção da oclusão profilática pós tratamento. A boa adesão foi relacionada à história familiar de estrabismo, maior taxa de recorrência e maior manutenção da oclusão profilática pós tratamento. Não houve relação entre não-adesão e mudanças nos horários de oclusão ou na equipe de atendimento durante o tratamento. Conclusão: A adesão ao tratamento oclusivo da ambliopia estrabísmica foi semelhante aos estudos que incluíram ambliopia refracional e estrabísmica e não se correlacionou a mudanças no tempo de oclusão ou na equipe de atendimento. A história familiar de estrabismo foi um fator de proteção.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Vision Disorders/therapy , Vision, Binocular , Amblyopia/therapy , Strabismus/therapy , Treatment Adherence and Compliance , Retrospective Studies , Cohort Studies
5.
Rev. cuba. oftalmol ; 33(3): e894, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1139093

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN La exploración oculomotora incluye una extensa batería de exámenes que fundamentalmente en los niños y en los adultos poco cooperadores se hace compleja y difícil por su poca cooperación, el agotamiento y el entretenimiento frecuente. Esto se ha visto modificado con el surgimiento de la videoculografía, lo que permite el estudio de los movimientos oculares en tiempo real. Con esta revisión bibliográfica se pretende reflejar su utilidad, así como las ventajas y los inconvenientes de esta tecnología, para lo cual se realizó una búsqueda en diferentes publicaciones y textos de la especialidad desde hace 14 años. Concluimos que la videoculografía ha revolucionado la exploración del paciente estrábico y permite un examen preciso y rápido, lo que facilita el desarrollo de numerosas investigaciones y constituye una técnica con gran futuro(AU)


ABSTRACT Oculomotor exploration comprises a large set of tests, the performance of which may be difficult with children and unhelpful adults, because they are not cooperative, become tired and get distracted. But such a situation has changed with the emergence of videoculography, which makes it possible to observe eye movements in real time. The purpose of the present bibliographic review was to gain insight into the usefulness, advantages and drawbacks of this technology, to achieve which a search was conducted in various publications and texts about the specialty since 14 years ago. We conclude that videoculography has revolutionized strabismus exploration, enabling accurate and fast examination and facilitating the development of numerous studies, all of which makes it a very promising technique(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Technology , Strabismus/therapy , Eye Movements , Review Literature as Topic
6.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 83(5): 424-426, Sept.-Oct. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131622

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Congenital cranial dysinnervation disorders are a group of complex strabismus syndromes that present as congenital and non-progressive ophthalmoplegia. The genetic defects are associated with aberrant axonal targeting onto the motoneurons, development of motoneurons, and axonal targeting onto the extraocular muscles. We describe here the surgical management of a 16-year-old boy who presented with complex strabismus secondary to hypoplasia of the third cranial nerve and aberrant innervation of the upper ipsilateral eyelid.


RESUMO Os distúrbios de inervação craniana congênita en­globam um grupo de síndromes associadas a estrabismos complexos, que se apresentam como oftalmoplegia congênita e não progressiva e são frequentemente herdadas. Os defeitos dos genes estão associados a erros no desenvolvimento ou direcionamento axonal dos motoneurônios, e erros no direcionamento axonal para os músculos extraoculares. Este caso descreve o caso de um menino que apresenta estrabismo complexo secundário à hipoplasia do terceiro nervo craniano e inervação aberrante da pálpebra superior ipsilateral, bem como o resultado após a correção cirúrgica.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Ophthalmoplegia , Strabismus , Cranial Nerves , Strabismus/surgery , Strabismus/etiology , Cranial Nerves/pathology , Oculomotor Muscles/surgery , Oculomotor Nerve
7.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 83(3): 180-184, May-June 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131592

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: To report the outcomes of bupivacaine injection for the treatment of comitant horizontal strabismus and evaluate clinical effectiveness and associated radiological changes. Methods: This prospective observational clinical study was conducted on 10 patients with comitant horizontal strabismus of up to 40 prism diopters. Ophthalmologic examinations and three-dimensional orbital magnetic resonance imaging were performed pre and post-injection (at first, third, and 12th months). A 4.5 ml of 0.5% bupivacaine was injected into the extraocular muscle under topical anesthesia using an electromyography in all patients. Results: The mean follow-up time at post bupivacaine injection and mean deviation at primary position were was 17 ± 2 months and 21.3 prism diopters, respectively. The mean changes in ocular alignment, enlargement of the cross-sectional area in the injected muscle, and volumetric enlargement were 7.7 PD, 12%, and 17% at the first year post-injection, respectively. No severe or persistent complication was observed. Ptosis and mydriasis were noted post-injection due to the anesthetic effects of bupivacaine but disappeared within 2 h post-injection. Conclusions: Bupivacaine injection improved eye alignment in small-angle horizontal comitant strabismus, effectively diagnosed with orbital magnetic resonance imaging to evaluate volumetric changes of the extraocular muscles. Further clinical studies with larger numbers of patients should be performed to define optimal dosages, concentration, and application method and dose-response relationship.


RESUMO Objetivo: Relatar resultados da injeção de bupivacaína para o tratamento do estrabismo comitante horizontal e avaliar sua eficácia clínica e as alterações radiológicas associadas. Métodos: Este estudo clínico observacional prospectivo foi realizado em 10 pacientes com estrabismo comitante horizontal de até 40 dioptrias de prisma. Exames oftalmológicos e ressonância magnética orbital tridimensional foram realizados pré e pós-injeção (no primeiro, terceiro e 12º mês). A 4,5 mL de bupivacaína a 0,5% foi injetado no músculo extraocular sob anestesia tópica usando eletromiografia em todos os pacientes. Resultados: O tempo médio de acompanhamento pós-injeção de bupivacaína e o desvio médio na posição primária foram de 17 ± 2 meses e 21,3 dioptrias de prisma, respectivamente. As alterações médias no alinhamento ocular, aumento da área da secção transversal no músculo injetado e aumento volumátrico foram de 7,7 PD, 12% e 17% no primeiro ano pós-injeção, respectivamente. Nenhuma complicação grave ou persistente foi observada. Ptose e midríase foram observadas após a injeção devido ao efeito anestésico da bupivacaína, mas desapareceram dentro de duas horas após a injeção. Conclusões: A injeção de bupivacaína melhorou o alinhamento dos olhos no estrabismo comitante horizontal de pequeno ângulo, efetivamente diagnosticado com ressonância magnética orbital para avaliar as alterações volumétricas dos músculos extraoculares. Outros estudos clínicos, com maior número de pacientes devem ser realizados para definir dosagens, concentração, método de aplicação e a relação dose-resposta.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bupivacaine , Strabismus , Ophthalmologic Surgical Procedures , Radiography , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Oculomotor Muscles
9.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 83(1): 43-47, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1088951

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of anterior chamber depth and axial length on clinical performance of the Spot Vision Screener in detecting amblyopia risk factors in children aged 3-10 years. Methods: A total of 300 eyes from 150 patients aged 3-10 years were prospectively tested with Spot Vision Screener (firmware version 3.0.02.32, software version 3.0.04.06) and a standard autorefractometer (Nidek ARK-1). The anterior chamber depth and axial length were measured with an optical biometer (Nidek AL-Scan). The sensitivity and specificity values for detecting significant refractive errors using the referral criteria of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus were determined. Pearson's correlation analysis was employed to evaluate the relationship between the Spot Vision results and the anterior chamber depth and axial length. Results: Compared with the standard autorefractometer results, the Spot Vision Screener's sensitivity and specificity was 59% and 94%, respectively. The differences between the cycloplegic autorefractometer and the Spot Vision Screener spherical equivalents were negatively correlated with anterior chamber depth (r=-0.48; p<0.001) and axial length (r=-0.45; p<0.001). Conclusion: The Spot Vision Screener has moderate sensitivity and high specificity, using the criteria of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. The anterior chamber depth and axial length affect the Spot Vision results.


RESUMO Objetivo: O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito da profundidade da câmara anterior e do comprimento axial sobre o desempenho clínico do Spot Vision Screener, na deteção de fatores de risco para a ambliopia em crianças de 3 a 10 anos de idade. Métodos: Um total de 300 olhos de 150 pacientes de 3-10 anos de idade foram prospectivamente testados com o Spot Vision Screener (firmware: 3.0.02.32, software: 3.0.04.06) e com autorefratómetro padrão (Nidek ARK-1). Todas as medições de profundidade e comprimento axial da câmara anterior dos pacientes foram realizadas através de Nidek AL Scan. A sensibilidade e especificidade para a deteção de erros refrativos significativos foram determinadas de acordo com os critérios de referência da Associação Americana de Oftalmologia e Estrabismo Pediátricos. A análise da Correlação de Pearson foi utilizada para avaliar a correlação entre os resultados do Spot Vision e a profundidade ou comprimento axial da câmara anterior dos pacientes. Resultados: Em comparação com os resultados do autorefratómetro padrão, a sensibilidade do Spot foi de 59% e a especificidade de 94%. As diferenças entre os equivalentes esféricos do autorefratómetro cicloplégico e o Spot Vision Screener foram correlacionados negativamente com a profundidade (r=-0,48; p<0,001) e o comprimento axial (r=-0,45; p<0,001) da câmara anterior dos casos. Conclusão: O Spot Vision Screener possui uma sensibilidade moderada e uma especificidade elevada utilizando os critérios da Associação Americana de Oftalmologia Pediátrica e Estrabismo; a profundidade da câmara anterior e o comprimento axial dos pacientes afetam os resultados do Spot Vision.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Child , Vision Screening/instrumentation , Amblyopia/diagnosis , Refractive Errors/diagnosis , Amblyopia/etiology , Strabismus , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Sensitivity and Specificity , Retinoscopy , Axial Length, Eye , Anterior Chamber
10.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 18: eRC5041, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1090042

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The yellow fever is a systemic disease that was under control due to the effective campaigns against the vector and promotion of vaccines programs. However, since 1999, outbreaks appeared because of inefficient control of the vector, and led to the need of amplifying the immunization in large scale against the yellow fever virus, and consequently, raising the risk of adverse reactions to the vaccine. We report a case of previously healthy infant, who was referred to our care service, after 3 days with fever, chills, nausea and vomits, he received support therapy and was discharged from the hospital. After 24 hours of supportive measures, he was discharge. The patient returned to our service with general condition decline, strabismus, inability to control of cervical musculature and reduced force of the legs. The patient vaccine had received all vaccines from the calendar, and he was vaccinated for yellow fever 20 days before symptoms. During the hospitalization, liquor was collected, and ceftriaxone and aciclovir were administered. After negative cultures from the liquor, the antibiotics were suspended. The computed tomography of patient's brain showed no alterations. Research for antibodies against yellow fever was requested, being positive for IgM in the liquor, and confirming the neurotropic disease associated with the yellow fever vaccine. On the fifth day of hospitalization, the patient showed improvement on the strabismus, cervical tonus, and musculature force. On the tenth day of hospitalization, patient showed complete improvement, and his laboratory exams no alterations. Subsequently, patient was discharged. The vaccine against yellow fever is safe, efficient and highly recommended, however it is not completely free from serious adverse reactions, including death.


RESUMO A febre amarela é uma doença sistêmica que estava controlada graças às efetivas campanhas de combate ao vetor e aos programas de vacinação. Porém, desde 1999, os surtos reiniciaram-se, devido à ineficácia do controle do vetor, levando à necessidade da imunização em larga escala contra o vírus da febre amarela, gerando aumento do risco de ocorrência de reação adversa à vacina. O presente estudo se propôs a relatar o caso de um lactente previamente saudável, que procurou pronto atendimento, pois, há 3 dias, apresentava febre, calafrios, náusea e vômitos. Em 24 horas após medidas de suporte e alta, evoluiu com queda do estado geral, estrabismo, falta de controle da musculatura cervical e redução da força muscular de membros inferiores. O caderno vacinal encontrava-se completo, tendo recebido vacina contra febre amarela há 20 dias. Durante a internação, foi realizada coleta do liquor, e foram administrados ceftriaxona e aciclovir. Após cultura negativa do liquor, o antibiótico foi suspenso. A tomografia computadorizada de crânio não apresentou alterações. Solicitou-se pesquisa de anticorpos contra o vírus da febre amarela no liquor, sendo positiva para IgM e confirmando a doença neurotrópica associada à vacina da febre amarela. A partir do quinto dia de internação, o paciente evoluiu com melhora do estrabismo, do tônus cervical e da força muscular. No décimo dia de internação, apresentou melhora completa do quadro, sem alterações laboratoriais, recebendo alta. A vacina contra febre amarela é segura, eficaz e fortemente recomendada, porém não está completamente isenta de reações adversas graves, inclusive podendo levar a quadros fatais.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Infant , Yellow Fever Vaccine/adverse effects , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Immunoglobulin M/analysis , Strabismus/etiology , Muscle Weakness/etiology
11.
Acta Medica Philippina ; : 567-576, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-877353

ABSTRACT

@#Objectives. Refractive changes have been studied after muscle surgery in literature but most results are inconsistent. It has been postulated that changes in corneal tension after muscle surgery may cause a change in corneal curvature resulting in the change in refraction postoperatively. This study investigated changes in corneal topography and clinical refraction after horizontal rectus muscle surgery. Methods. Twenty-one eyes of 13 patients underwent horizontal rectus muscle surgery via limbal approach. Manifest refraction, cycloplegic refraction, and corneal topography were measured preoperatively, and postoperatively at day 1 and weeks 1, 2, 4 and 8. The proportion of subjects with at least 0.5 D change from preoperative measurements and the proportion of subjects that needed new prescription postoperative were also computed. Analysis of the results were done using the Friedman test to identify significant differences among measurements at different time periods with post-hoc analysis utilized to identify specific time periods with significant changes from preoperative measurements. Results. Mean corneal keratometry, horizontal, vertical, and oblique astigmatism, obtained topographically showed no significant difference from preoperative measurements. The statistically significant difference in corneal astigmatism in the recession group at day 1, week 4 and week 8 postoperatively was not confirmed when converted to power vectors in both vertical/horizontal (J0) and oblique (J45) astigmatism. Clinical refraction showed a transient myopic shift in spherical equivalent, statistically significant only on postoperative day 1 in the recession group. There was no statistically significant difference in clinical astigmatism. There was ≥ 0.5 D change in spherical equivalent in 60% in both study groups by the end of follow-up. The shift in J0 was more than 10% in the recession group. More than fifty percent (52.4%) needed new prescription for glasses. Conclusion. No statistically significant change in corneal topography and clinical refraction following horizontal rectus muscle surgery were found. Patients should still be refracted at least 2 weeks postoperatively to check if there is a need for change in prescription glasses to improve alignment and/or improve vision.


Subject(s)
Astigmatism , Oculomotor Muscles , Ophthalmologic Surgical Procedures , Vision Tests , Strabismus
12.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811323

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We used a questionnaire to explore perceptions and clinical practice patterns of Korean pediatric ophthalmologists in terms of amblyopia.METHODS: From September to November 2018, we conducted a web-based questionnaire survey of 99 specialists of the Korean Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus who operated ophthalmology clinics in Korea. We received 56 responses (56.57%) and retrospectively analyzed the data.RESULTS: The average specialist age was 44.0 ± 9.7 years. The mean age of treated amblyopia patients was 3 to 5 years (69.6%); the most common amblyopia was refractive anisometropic amblyopia (75.0%). On average, treatment commenced at 4 years of age (53.6%); child and parent co-operation most significantly influenced treatment success (46.4%). The preferred test was cycloplegic refraction (96.4%) and the preferred treatment occlusion therapy (100%) with glasses correction (98.2%). Occlusion therapy was most commonly performed for 2 hours/day (69.6%); the minimum age for eyeglasses prescription was 2.10 ± 1.18 years. Only three respondents (5.36%) prescribed contact lenses and only one (1.79%) performed refractive surgery.CONCLUSIONS: In Korea, amblyopia treatment is based on occlusion therapy and glasses correction. However, the time of treatment commencement, the duration of occlusion therapy, and the glasses used for correction varied. It is necessary to develop guidelines for amblyopia treatment; these should reflect current medical conditions.


Subject(s)
Amblyopia , Child , Contact Lenses , Eyeglasses , Glass , Humans , Korea , Ophthalmology , Parents , Practice Patterns, Physicians' , Prescriptions , Refractive Surgical Procedures , Retrospective Studies , Specialization , Strabismus , Surveys and Questionnaires
13.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811307

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We sought factors affecting amblyopia recurrence after successful treatment.METHODS: We included 117 patients with amblyopia. Patients were divided into recurrence and non-recurrence groups. We analyzed sex, age, amblyopia type, treatment duration, visual acuity, and binocular status.RESULTS: Of the 117 patients, 25 (21.4%) experienced recurrences. In that group, 60.0% of patients (compared to 14.1% of the no-recurrence group) exhibited high-frequency strabismus (p < 0.001). The recurrence group were younger than the no-recurrence group at both the beginning and end of treatment (p < 0.05). None of visual acuity at treatment commencement or end, stereoacuity, or suppression affected amblyopia recurrence.CONCLUSIONS: Recurrent amblyopia is frequent after initial successful treatment if the patient exhibits strabismus or is young.


Subject(s)
Amblyopia , Humans , Recurrence , Risk Factors , Strabismus , Telescopes , Visual Acuity
14.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 82(5): 417-421, Sept.-Oct. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019425

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: To evaluate three superior oblique surgical weakening procedures for correcting A-pattern strabismus: tenectomy, superior oblique hang-back recession, and that involving the use of superior oblique suture spacers. Methods: The inclusion criteria were A-pattern strabismus ≥10Δ and horizontal deviation ≥10Δ, with no other ocular abnormality and a follow-up period of ≥6 months. The 24 patients (mean age, 16.3 ± 8.1 years; mean postoperative follow-up, 9.63 ± 3.11 months) were randomly divided into three groups of 8 patients each. Sigmascan® Pro 5.0 software was used to measure the degree of torsion pre- and postoperatively. Results: Preoperatively, the mean angles of A-pattern deviation were 19.33Δ° ± 3.53Δ° (tenectomy group), 15.71Δ° ± 1.11Δ° (hang-back recession group), and 14.62Δ° ± 1.18Δ° (suture spacers group); these values did not differ significantly. At the final follow-up examination, the mean angles of A-pattern deviation were 4.67Δ° ± 0.67Δ° (tenectomy group), 6.29Δ° ± 1.48Δ° (hang-back recession group), and 4.38Δ° ± 1.03Δ° (suture spacers group), with no statistically significant difference in the correction in A-pattern strabismus among the three groups. Preoperatively, the mean torsional angles were +5.4° ± 3.9° (tenectomy group), +5.6° ± 4.9° (hang-back recession group), and +6.0° ± 3.3° (suture spacers group); these values did not differ significantly. At the final follow-up examination, the mean torsional angles were + 0.3° ± 5.6° (tenectomy group), +0.5° ± 4.6° (hang-back recession group), and +0.2° ± 5.2° (suture spacers group), with no statistically significant difference in the intorsion correction among the three groups. Conclusion: All three superior oblique weakening procedures were effective for correcting A-pattern strabismus and fundus intorsion.


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar três procedimentos de debilitamento dos músculos oblíquos superiores para a correção de estrabismo com padrão em A: tenectomia, sutura em rédea (hang-back recession) e o uso de espaçadores de sutura oblíqua superior. Métodos: Os critérios de inclusão foram estrabismo padrão em A ≥10Δ e desvio horizontal ≥10Δ, sem outras anormalidades oculares e tempo de acompanhamento ≥6 meses. Os 24 pacientes (média de idade de 16,3 ± 8,1 anos; média de seguimento pós-operatório de 9,63 ± 3,11 meses) foram divididos aleatoriamente em três grupos de 8 pacientes cada. O programa Sigmascan® Pro 5.0 foi utilizado para medir o grau de torção no pré e pós-operatório. Resultados: No pré-operatório, a média e o desvio padrão dos ângulos de padrão em A foram de 19,33Δ° ± 3,53Δ° (grupo da tenectomia), 15,71Δ° ± 1,11Δ° (grupo da sutura em rédea), 14,62Δ° ± 1,18Δ° (grupo de espaçadores de sutura); esses valores não diferiram significativamente. No exame pós-operatório, a média e o desvio padrão dos ângulos de desvio do padrão em A foram de 4,67Δ° ± 0,67Δ° (grupo da tenectomia), 6,29Δ° ± 1,48Δ° (grupo da sutura em rédea), 4,38Δ° ± 1,03Δ° (grupo de espaçadores de sutura), sem diferença estatisticamente significativa na correção do estrabismo padrão em A entre os três grupos. No pré-operatório, os ângulos médios de torção foram de +5,4o ± 3,9° (grupo de tenectomia), +5,6° ± 4,9° (grupo da su­tura em rédea), e +6,0° ± 3,3° (grupo de espaçadores de sutura), esses valores não diferiram significativamente. No pós-operatório, os ângulos médios de torção foram de +0,3° ± 5,6° (grupo da tenectomia), +0,5° ± 4,6° (grupo da sutura em rédea), e +0,2° ± 5,2° (grupo de espaçadores de sutura), sem diferença estatisticamente significativa na correção da intorção entre os três grupos. Conclusão: Os três procedimentos de debili­tamento dos músculos oblíquos superiores foram efetivos para a correção do estrabismo com padrão em A e da intorção ocular observada na fundoscopia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Ophthalmologic Surgical Procedures/methods , Strabismus/surgery , Oculomotor Muscles/surgery , Tendons/surgery , Visual Acuity , Strabismus/physiopathology , Prospective Studies , Preoperative Period , Fundus Oculi , Oculomotor Muscles/physiopathology
15.
Rev. cuba. oftalmol ; 32(3): e648, jul.-set. 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1099091

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN La deficiencia monocular de la elevación se define como la limitación de la elevación del ojo afectado desde cualquier posición de la mirada, con ducciones normales en todas las demás posiciones. La pseudoptosis se puede presentar en posición primaria de la mirada; sin embargo, el 25 por ciento de los casos puede mostrar una ptosis verdadera. Se presenta un paciente masculino de 11 años de edad con antecedentes de estrabismo hacia adentro desde que nació, quien llevó tratamiento con oclusiones y cristales desde el primer año de edad. Al examen oftalmológico presentaba una agudeza visual mejor corregida de 1,0/0,4; a 6 metros en el ojo derecho 30 ∆ b externa ~18 ∆ b superior y en el ojo izquierdo 30 ∆ b externa ~18 ∆ b inferior; a 33 centímetros en el ojo derecho 30 ∆ b externa ~25 ∆ b superior y en el ojo izquierdo 30 ∆ b externa ~25 ∆ b inferior y limitación de la elevación en todas las posiciones horizontales de la mirada en el ojo derecho. Se realizó la prueba de ducción forzada y se encontró una restricción del recto inferior derecho, por lo que se decidió retroinsertar este músculo y ambos rectos medios. Se indicó la corrección óptica y la rehabilitación con oclusiones que mejoró la visión a 1,0/0,7. La cirugía correctiva logró la ortotropía y la mejoría de la agudeza visual(AU)


ABSTRACT Monocular elevation deficiency is defined as a limitation in the elevation of the affected eye from any position of gaze with normal ductions in all other positions. Pseudoptosis may occur in the primary position of gaze, but 25 percent of the cases are true ptosis. A case is presented of a male 11-year-old patient with a history of inward strabismus since birth, treated with occlusions and lenses as of his first year of life. At ophthalmological examination, best corrected visual acuity was 1.0/0.4; at 6 meters in the right eye 30 ∆ b outer ~18 ∆ b upper, and in the left eye 30 ∆ b outer ~18 ∆ b lower; at 33 centimeters in the right eye 30 ∆ b outer ~25 ∆ b upper, and in the left eye 30 ∆ b outer ~25 ∆ b lower, and elevation limitation in all horizontal gaze positions of the right eye. The forced duction test revealed a restriction in the lower right rectus muscle. It was thus decided to insert back the right rectus muscle and both medial rectus muscles. Optical correction and rehabilitation with occlusions improved the patient's vision to 1.0/0.7. Corrective surgery achieved orthotropy and improved visual acuity(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child , Blepharoptosis/therapy , Amblyopia/rehabilitation , Esotropia/surgery , Strabismus/etiology
16.
Rev. cuba. oftalmol ; 32(3): e781, jul.-set. 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1099087

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN La cirugía con incisiones de pequeño tamaño comienza a ser una norma en la medicina actual, la cual ha ganado popularidad en muchos campos, entre ellos el de la Oftalmología. Una muestra de esto son las pequeñas incisiones para la facoemulsificación, la vitrectomía sin sutura 25 G y los pequeños dispositivos de drenaje de glaucoma. Algo similar ocurre con la cirugía de estrabismo mínimamente invasiva (minimally invasive strabismus surgery) al permitir alcanzar iguales resultados motores y sensoriales que con la técnica de abordaje de los músculos extraoculares a nivel del limbo. Esta revisión bibliográfica ofrece nuevos conocimientos teóricos sobre una técnica mínimamente invasiva para el abordaje del estrabismo, que originará mejores resultados estéticos y la satisfacción de los pacientes con esta afección, así como su rápida reincorporación a las distintas ocupaciones laborales, a las escuelas y a las tareas habituales(AU)


ABSTRACT Surgery based on small size incisions is gradually becoming standard practice in health care, gaining popularity in many specialties, among them ophthalmology. Evidence of this are the small incisions made for phacoemulsification, sutureless 25-G vitrectomy, and the small glaucoma drainage devices. Something similar occurs in minimally invasive strabismus surgery, where the same motor and sensory results are achieved as with limbal approach of the extraocular muscles. The present bibliographic review provides new theoretical information about a minimally invasive strabismus surgery technique leading to better esthetic results and greater satisfaction by patients suffering from this disorder, as well as their quick reincorporation to their work, school and regular daily activities(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Strabismus/surgery , Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures/methods , Reconstructive Surgical Procedures/methods , Review Literature as Topic
17.
Rev. cuba. oftalmol ; 32(3): e769, jul.-set. 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1099086

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN La caracterización de las poleas de los músculos extraoculares ha sido de gran trascendencia en la fisiopatología del equilibrio óculo-motor. El efecto mecánico de la polea funcional es cambiar el eje de acción del músculo de acuerdo con la orientación que el globo ocular presente. Los trastornos en la localización o estabilidad de las poleas pueden crear patrones de estrabismo incomitante. Es importante el conocimiento de estas anomalías porque los procedimientos quirúrgicos estándar no corrigen los desplazamientos de las poleas. Se realizó una búsqueda del tema de los últimos 10 años utilizando la plataforma de infomed(AU)


ABSTRACT Characterization of extraocular muscle pulleys has had great relevance in the physiopathology of ocular motor balance. The mechanical effect of the functional pulley is to change the axis of action of the muscle in keeping with the orientation of the eyeball. Pulley location or stability disorders may create incomitant strabismus patterns. It is important to be aware of these anomalies because standard surgical procedures do not correct pulley displacement. A search was conducted on the Infomed platform of papers published about the topic in the past ten years(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Exotropia/diagnostic imaging , Strabismus/etiology , Oculomotor Muscles/physiopathology , Case-Control Studies , Prospective Studies
18.
Rev. cuba. oftalmol ; 32(3): e758, jul.-set. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1099081

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Objetivo: Identificar las características clínicas y los criterios quirúrgicos en el síndrome de Brown. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo retrospectivo a 15 pacientes con el diagnóstico de síndrome de Brown, quienes acudieron a la Consulta de Visión Binocular del Hospital Infantil Sur "Dr. Antonio María Béguez César". Se incluyeron los niños con edades entre 2 a 7 años, con el diagnóstico definido de síndrome de Brown; se realizó exploración motora y sensorial completa y se evaluó el ojo afectado, el tipo de síndrome de Brown que tenía el paciente, las características clínicas y los criterios quirúrgicos tenidos en cuenta para resolver una conducta adecuada. Resultados: En la muestra estudiada el 66,5 por ciento de los pacientes tuvo afectado el ojo derecho con un síndrome de Brown leve; el 73 por ciento estuvo en ortotropía y el 73,3 por ciento no fue quirúrgico. Conclusión: Los pacientes con síndrome de Brown leve que permanecen en ortotropía, sin tortícolis y sin depresión en aducción, no requieren intervención quirúrgica(AU)


ABSTRACT Objective: Identify the clinical characteristics of and surgical criteria for Brown syndrome. Methods: A retrospective descriptive study was conducted of 15 patients diagnosed with Brown syndrome attending the binocular vision service at Dr. Antonio María Béguez César South University Children's Hospital. The sample included children aged 2-7 years with a definite diagnosis of Brown syndrome. Complete motor and sensory exploration was done, and evaluation was performed of the affected eye, Brown syndrome type, clinical characteristics and surgical criteria considered to select the appropriate management. Results: 66.5 percent of the study sample had their right eye affected by mild Brown syndrome, 73 percent were orthotropic, and 73.3 percent were not surgical cases. Conclusion: Patients with mild Brown syndrome who remained orthotropic, without torticollis or adduction depression, did not require surgical intervention(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Child , Strabismus/surgery , Strabismus/epidemiology , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Retrospective Studies
20.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 78(2): 112-116, mar.-abr. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1003565

ABSTRACT

Resumo Objetivo: Identificar a prevalência de alterações visuais em crianças de cinco anos em escolas públicas de Curitiba-PR. Métodos: As escolas foram selecionadas aleatoriamente dentro do município de Curitiba. As crianças com cinco anos completos em 2017 foram avaliadas com a tabela de Snellen, através de distância mínima correta para nitidez de imagem e teste de Hirschberg. Os pais responderam um questionário sobre uso de telas, sintomas oculares e histórico familiar da criança. Os resultados das avaliações foram analisados estatisticamente considerando nível de significância p≤0,05. Resultados: Em uma população de 459 crianças triadas, 219 (47,7%) pertenciam ao sexo feminino e 240 (52,3%) masculino, sendo que do total, 100 foram encaminhadas para avaliação oftalmológica especializada. A partir da triagem observou-se a prevalência de miopia de 10,7%, hipermetropia de 17,6% e estrabismo de 0,9%. Houve relação entre genitores com miopia e filhos míopes (p<0,05). Dentre as queixas oftalmológicas predominaram cefaleia (30,4%) e franzir de testa (10%). Conclusão: A prevalência de alterações visuais encontrada foi de 21,8%. A relação entre distúrbios visuais e o histórico familiar se mostrou estatisticamente significativa. Entretanto, apenas o tempo médio em frente à televisão apresentou influência, dentre os hábitos de vida, sobre as alterações da AV (p=0,028). Queixas oftalmológicas apesar de frequentes, não apresentaram correlação expressiva com a diminuição da acuidade visual.


Abstract Objective: To identify the incidence of visual impairment in 5-year-old children in public schools from Curitiba-PR. Methods: A selection of schools has been choosen randomly from Curitiba. The children, with completed 5 years at end of 2017 have been evaluated using Snellen table, trough minimum distance for image sharpness and Hirschberg test. Parents answered a questionnaire about the use of screens, ocular symptoms and family history of the child. Significance levels were defines as begin p≤0,05. Results: The results have shown that four hundred fifty-nine children were screened. Two hundred nineteen are female (47,7%) and two hundred fourty (52,3%), male. From all screened patients, one hundred were refered to specialized oftalmic evaluation. After trial completing, has been attained a prevalence value of 10,7% for myopia, 17,6% of hyperopia and 0,9% of strabismus. Strong correlation between parents and children has been undiscovered (p<0,05). From listed oftalmic complaints, headache (30,4%) and frown (10%) where most prevalent. Conclusion: It has been attained that the prevalence of visual acuity is 21,8%. The relation between visual acuity alteration and familiar history has been shown to be significant related. On the other side, the average time in front of television has been shown the only habit that has correlation with visual acuity reduction (p=0,028). Vision complaints, although very frequent, doesn't translate into increased probability of visual acuity alteration.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Visual Acuity , Vision Screening/methods , Strabismus/epidemiology , Eye Diseases/epidemiology , Hyperopia/epidemiology , Myopia/epidemiology , Parents , School Health Services , Schools , Students , Vision Tests , Strabismus/diagnosis , Prevalence , Surveys and Questionnaires , Eye Diseases/diagnosis , Hyperopia/diagnosis , Myopia/diagnosis
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