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1.
Braz. J. Vet. Res. Anim. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e178109, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1347979

ABSTRACT

Bovine mastitis is the most important disease of dairy herds worldwide. Its main etiologic agents are bacteria, including Streptococcus agalactiae. The importance of this agent in bovine mastitis is because it is highly contagious and has a high impact on the occurrence of clinical mastitis cases and in the increase of the bulk milk somatic cell counts. The dry cow therapy and the treatment of the clinical mastitis cases stand out among the measures to control intramammary infections in cows. However, these strategies require knowledge about the antimicrobial susceptibility of the causal microorganisms. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial susceptibility of 89 S. agalactiae strains isolated from bovine mastitis between the years 2004 and 2008 in dairy herds from Campo das Vertentes region, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The disc diffusion technique was used and the antimicrobials currently used in mastitis therapy were tested. The isolates tested showed 100% susceptibility to chloramphenicol, ceftiofur, cefotaxime, enrofloxacin, and cefquinome. High frequencies of susceptibility (>95%) were also observed for the beta-lactams (penicillin G, ampicillin, and oxacillin), cephalosporins (cephalotin, ceftiofur, cefotaxime, cefoperazone, and cefquinome), florfenicol, gentamicin, lincomycin, nitrofurantoin, and sulfamethoprim. The strains showed high frequencies of resistance to neomycin (15.74%), and tetracycline (21.35%). Multidrug resistance was detected in 2.25% of the tested isolates. The results pointed to variations in the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of the studied strains and the importance of the use of the susceptibility tests to determine the correct antimicrobial to be applied in the treatment of bovine mastitis caused by S. agalactiae. The high frequencies of resistance observed to some antimicrobials, such as neomycin and tetracycline, commonly used in the treatment of mastitis and other pathologies, highlighted the need for more judicious use of antimicrobials on dairy farms.(AU)


A mastite é a principal doença de bovinos leiteiros em todo o mundo e tem como principais agentes as bactérias, entre as quais Streptococcus agalactiae. Esse agente se destaca por ser altamente contagioso e pelos reflexos que causa na incidência de casos clínicos e no incremento da contagem de células somáticas do leite do tanque. Para o controle desta enfermidade, destacam-se a terapia de vacas secas e o tratamento de casos clínicos, medidas que requerem o conhecimento do perfil de sensibilidade dos agentes causais aos antimicrobianos. Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar os perfis de suscetibilidade a antimicrobianos em 89 amostras de S. agalactiae isoladas de casos de mastite bovina em rebanhos da região de Campo das Vertentes, Minas Gerais, no período de 2004 a 2008. A técnica de difusão em discos foi utilizada e os antimicrobianos correntemente empregados na terapia da mastite foram testados. Os testes de suscetibilidade antimicrobiana apontaram 100% de susceptibilidade para cloranfenicol, ceftiofur, cefotaxima, enrofloxacina e cefquimona. Níveis elevados de susceptibilidade (>95%) foram observados para os betalactâmicos, florfenicol, gentamicina, lincomicina, nitrofurantoína e sulfametoprim. Altas frequências de resistência foram observadas para neomicina (15,74%) e tetraciclina (21,35%). Dois isolados multirresistentes (2,25%) foram encontrados. Os resultados apontaram variações nos perfis se suscetibilidade aos antimicrobianos na população analisada, indicando a importância do uso do antibiograma para a escolha mais criteriosa dos antibacterianos a serem utilizados para o tratamento da mastite bovina causada por S. agalactiae. As altas frequências de resistência detectadas para alguns dos antimicrobianos comumente utilizados para o tratamento de mastite e outras patologias, tais como a neomicina e a tetraciclina, salientam a necessidade de monitoramento permanente do perfil de suscetibilidade aos antimicrobianos e do uso mais criterioso dos mesmos nos rebanhos leiteiros.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Streptococcus agalactiae/isolation & purification , Cattle/microbiology , Mastitis, Bovine , Anti-Infective Agents
2.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 18: eAO4920, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056062

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate the prevalence of group B Streptococci in pregnant women of a corporate health program, as well as the epidemiological correlations. Methods This retrospective study used medical records of patients who participated of the prenatal care program at a private hospital in the city of São Paulo (SP), Brazil, from 2015 to 2016. Those who abandoned the program or had incomplete data in their medical records were excluded. Quantitative variables were described by means, standard deviations, median, minimal and maximal values. Parity and socioeconomic status were described by absolute frequency and percentages. We used logistic regression models in the software (SPSS) to analyze correlations of variables according to vaginal-rectal culture, considering a 95%CI and p-values. Variables were age, number of pregnancies, weight gain in pregnancy and gestational age at delivery. Results A total of 347 medical records were included, and after applying the exclusion criteria, 287 medical records composed the final sample. Patients' age ranged between 17 and 44 years. Mean age was 30.6 years, 67 patients had positive result for group B Streptococcus (prevalence of 23.3%; 95%CI: 18.7-28.5). Conclusion Considering the high prevalence of group B Streptococcus in our service, the antibiotic prophylaxis strategy based on rectovaginal culture screening approach seems to be cost-effective.


RESUMO Objetivo Identificar a prevalência de estreptococo do grupo B entre gestantes que frequentaram um programa de saúde corporativa, bem como as correlações com a colonização positiva. Métodos Estudo retrospectivo dos prontuários do pré-natal de um hospital privado em São Paulo, no período de 2015 a 2016. Foram excluídas as mulheres que abandonaram o programa ou apresentavam dados incompletos nos prontuários. As variáveis quantitativas foram descritas por média, desvios padrão, mediana, valores mínimos e máximos. A paridade e a condição socioeconômica foram descritos por frequência absoluta e percentagens. Utilizamos modelos de regressão logística no programa (SPSS) para analisar as correlações de variáveis de acordo com a cultura retovaginal, considerando IC95% e valores de p. As variáveis foram idade, número de gestações, peso ganho na gestação e idade gestacional no parto. Resultados Foram incluídos 347 prontuários e, após a aplicação dos critérios de exclusão, 287 prontuários compuseram a amostra final. A idade dos pacientes variou entre 17 e 44 anos. A média de idade foi de 30,6 anos, e 67 pacientes tiveram resultado positivo para o estreptococo do grupo B (prevalência de 23,3%; IC95%: 18,7-28,5). Conclusão Considerando a alta prevalência de estreptococos do grupo B em nosso serviço, existem evidências de que a estratégia de antibiótico profilaxia baseada na cultura retovaginal é custo-efetiva.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/microbiology , Rectum/microbiology , Streptococcal Infections/microbiology , Streptococcus agalactiae/isolation & purification , Vagina/microbiology , Parity , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Prenatal Care , Socioeconomic Factors , Streptococcal Infections/diagnosis , Streptococcal Infections/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Maternal Age
3.
An. bras. dermatol ; 94(3): 363-364, May-June 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011113

ABSTRACT

Abstract: The authors report the case of a 62-year-old man with a history of total left hip arthroplasty nine years previously presenting with a large infiltrated plaque on the posterior area of the left thigh with three months of evolution without systemic symptoms or elevated inflammatory markers. Computed tomography of the left lower limb revealed a 12-centimeter linear extension of the lesion to the posterior part of the left proximal femur. Prosthesis joint infection, although rare, is a surgical complication to be taken into account, even if the surgery was performed many years before.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Suppuration/diagnosis , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip/adverse effects , Hip Prosthesis/adverse effects , Streptococcus agalactiae/isolation & purification , Suppuration/microbiology , Thigh , Biopsy , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Femur
4.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 116(6): 769-772, dic. 2018. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-973695

ABSTRACT

La sepsis es la principal causa de mortalidad neonatal. La forma precoz, habitualmente, está relacionada con la colonización recto-vaginal u otros factores de riesgo materno. En la forma tardía, es difícil establecer su origen; por lo general, es nosocomial o de la comunidad. El Streptococcus agalactiae (Streptococcus beta-hemolítico del grupo B) es el germen implicado con más frecuencia en la sepsis neonatal en países desarrollados. La forma tardía, generalmente, se presenta con septicemia y meningitis, y, en ocasiones, pueden detectarse infecciones osteoarticulares o de piel y tejidos blandos. El síndrome celulitis-adenitis en la región cervical, forma poco frecuente de presentación, es causado por Staphylococcus aureus y, ocasionalmente, por Streptococcus agalactiae. Se reportan 2 casos de sepsis neonatal tardía con clínica de celulitis-adenitis cervical causados por Streptococcus beta-hemolítico del grupo B, con una evolución satisfactoria con terapia antibiótica de amplio espectro.


Septicemia is the main cause of neonatal mortality. The early-onset neonatal sepsis is usually related to maternal factor risks including recto-vaginal colonization. In the late-onset neonatal septicemia it is more difficult to establish the etiology because the majority of the cases are nosocomial or community related. The Streptococcus agalactiae (beta-hemolytic Streptococcus) is the most frequent germ associated with neonatal sepsis in developed countries. The late-onset form usually occurs with septic symptoms and meningitis and, in a few cases, with osteoarticular, skin and soft tissue infection. Adenitis-cellulitis syndrome is rarely seen, and its main cause is Staphylococcus aureus, followed by Streptococcus agalactiae. We report two cases of group B Streptococcus late-onset neonatal septicemia, both of them with adenitis-cellulitis syndrome. Patients recovered uneventfully after an adequate antibiotic therapy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Infant , Streptococcal Infections/diagnosis , Cellulitis/diagnosis , Neonatal Sepsis/diagnosis , Lymphadenitis/diagnosis , Streptococcal Infections/microbiology , Streptococcal Infections/drug therapy , Streptococcus agalactiae/isolation & purification , Syndrome , Cellulitis/microbiology , Cellulitis/drug therapy , Neonatal Sepsis/microbiology , Neonatal Sepsis/drug therapy , Lymphadenitis/microbiology , Lymphadenitis/drug therapy , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage
6.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 22(6): 449-454, Nov.-Dec. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-984022

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Group B Streptococcus is a causative agent of invasive neonatal infections. Maternal colonization by Streptococcus agalactiae is a necessary condition for vertical transmission, with efficient screening of pregnant women playing an essential role in the prevention of neonatal infections. In this study, we aimed to compare the performance of conventional polymerase chain reaction and real-time PCR assays as screening methods for S. agalactiae in pregnant women against the microbiological culture method considered as the gold-standard. A total of 130 samples from pregnant women were analyzed for sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value. Statistical analysis was performed using the SPSS software, version 20.0. The verified colonization rate was 3.8% with the gold-standard, 17.7% with conventional PCR assay, and 29.2% with the real-time PCR test. The trials with conventional PCR and real-time PCR had a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 85.6% and 73.6%, respectively. The real-time PCR assay had a better performance compared to the gold-standard and a greater detection rate of colonization by S. agalactiae compared to conventional PCR assay. With its quick results, it would be suitable for using in routine screenings, contributing to the optimization of preventive approaches to neonatal S. agalactiae infection.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Streptococcal Infections/diagnosis , Streptococcus agalactiae/isolation & purification , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/microbiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , Streptococcal Infections/prevention & control , Streptococcus agalactiae/genetics , DNA, Bacterial/genetics , Mass Screening , Predictive Value of Tests , Sensitivity and Specificity
7.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 35(4): 424-430, ago. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-978054

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción La infección por Streptococcus agalactiae (β-hemolítico del grupo B (SGB) continúa siendo una de las principales causas de sepsis precoz en países desarrollados a pesar de la implementación de profilaxis efectiva. Objetivos Describir la incidencia, características clínicas y mortalidad de sepsis precoz por SGB en recién nacidos del Centro Hospitalario Pereira Rossell (CHPR), y analizar las fallas de adherencia a las estrategias de prevención. Métodos Estudio retrospectivo de descripción de casos entre los años 2007 a 2015 identificados a partir de la base de datos del laboratorio de bacteriología. Resultados Se identificaron 15 casos de sepsis neonatal precoz a SGB con una incidencia en el período de estudio de 0,23‰. La quimioprofilaxis intraparto no fue realizada en caso alguno. Todos los recién nacidos se presentaron sintomáticos en las primeras 15 h de vida. La dificultad respiratoria fue el signo más frecuente (80%). En un caso se aisló SGB de líquido cefalorraquídeo. La mortalidad fue de 20%. Todas las muertes ocurrieron en las primeras 24 h de vida, siendo dos tercios prematuros. Conclusión La incidencia de sepsis precoz por SGB en el CHPR fue similar a la incidencia en centros donde se realiza quimioprofilaxis. Una mejor adherencia a las estrategias de prevención podría disminuir la incidencia.


Background: Group B Streptococcus (GBS) disease remains the leading cause of early-onset sepsis (EOS) in developed countries despite effective prophylaxis strategies. Aims: To describe the incidence, clinical features and mortality of GBS EOS in infants born at Centro Hospitalario Pereira Rossell (CHPR) and analyse failure of adherence to prevention strategies. Methods: Retrospective review of EOS cases between 2007 and 2015 collected from the bacteriology laboratory database. Results: Fifteen cases of GBS EOS were identified, with an incidence of 0.23% during the study period. Intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis (IAP) was not administered in any of the cases. All infants were symptomatic within the first 15 hours of life, mainly due to respiratory signs (80%). In one case, GBS was isolated from spinal fluid. Mortality rate was 20%. All deaths occurred in the first 24 hours of life, corresponding two thirds to preterm infants. Conclusion: The incidence of GBS EOS at CHPR was similar to other centers where IAP is implemented. Better adherence to prophylaxis strategies could reduce the incidence.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/mortality , Streptococcal Infections/mortality , Streptococcal Infections/prevention & control , Sepsis/mortality , Sepsis/prevention & control , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/statistics & numerical data , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/microbiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , Streptococcal Infections/microbiology , Streptococcal Infections/drug therapy , Streptococcus agalactiae/isolation & purification , Retrospective Studies , Sepsis/diagnosis , Sepsis/drug therapy , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Antibiotic Prophylaxis , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
8.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 48(3): 551-559, July-Sept. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889129

ABSTRACT

Abstract Streptococcus agalactiae is one of the most common pathogens leading to mastitis in dairy herds worldwide; consequently, the pathogen causes major economic losses for affected farmers. In this study, multilocus sequence typing (MLST), genotypic capsular typing by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and virulence gene detection were performed to address the molecular epidemiology of 59 bovine (mastitis) S. agalactiae isolates from 36 dairy farms located in the largest milk-producing mesoregions in Brazil (Minas Gerais, São Paulo, Paraná, and Pernambuco). We screened for the virulence genes bac, bca, bibA, cfb, hylB, fbsA, fbsB, PI-1, PI-2a, and PI-2b, which are associated with adhesion, invasion, tissue damage, and/or immune evasion. Furthermore, five capsular types were identified (Ia, Ib, II, III, and IV), and a few isolates were classified as non-typeable (NT). MLST revealed the following eight sequence types (STs): ST-61, ST-67, ST-103, ST-146, ST-226, ST-314, and ST-570, which were clustered in five clonal complexes (CC64, CC67, CC103, CC17, and CC314), and one singleton, ST-91. Among the virulence genes screened in this study, PI-2b, fbsB, cfb, and hylB appear to be the most important during mastitis development in cattle. Collectively, these results establish the molecular epidemiology of S. agalactiae isolated from cows in Brazilian herds. We believe that the data presented here provide a foundation for future research aimed at developing and implementing new preventative and treatment options for mastitis caused by S. agalactiae.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Cattle , Streptococcal Infections/veterinary , Streptococcus agalactiae/isolation & purification , Mastitis, Bovine/microbiology , Streptococcal Infections/microbiology , Streptococcal Infections/epidemiology , Streptococcus agalactiae/classification , Streptococcus agalactiae/genetics , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Bacterial Proteins/metabolism , Brazil/epidemiology , Molecular Epidemiology , Virulence Factors/genetics , Virulence Factors/metabolism , Multilocus Sequence Typing , Genotype , Mastitis, Bovine/epidemiology
10.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 50(2): 179-183, Mar.-Apr. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-842837

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Group B Streptococcus (GBS), a source of neonatal infection, colonizes the gastrointestinal and genitourinary tracts of pregnant women. Routine screening for maternal GBS in late pregnancy and consequent intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis have reduced the incidence of early-onset GBS neonatal infection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of PCR, compared to culture (gold standard), in GBS colonization screening of pregnant women, and to establish the prevalence of GBS colonization among this population. METHODS: Vaginal introitus and perianal samples were collected from 204 pregnant women, between the 35th and 37th weeks of pregnancy, at the Obstetrics and Gynecology Unit of the University of Caxias do Sul General Hospital between June 2008 and September 2009. All samples were cultured after enrichment in a selective medium and then assayed by culture and PCR methods. RESULTS: The culture and PCR methods yielded detection rates of vaginal/perianal GBS colonization of 22.5% and 26%, respectively (sensitivity 100%; specificity 95.6%; positive and negative predictive values 86.8% and 100%, respectively). A higher prevalence of GBS colonization was detected in the combined vaginal and perianal samples by both culture and PCR assay analyses. CONCLUSIONS: PCR is a faster and more efficient method for GBS screening, allowing for optimal identification of women who should receive intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis to prevent newborn infection.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Anal Canal/microbiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Streptococcal Infections/epidemiology , Vagina/microbiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/microbiology , Socioeconomic Factors , Streptococcal Infections/diagnosis , Streptococcus agalactiae/isolation & purification , Streptococcus agalactiae/genetics , Brazil/epidemiology , Carrier State/microbiology , Carrier State/epidemiology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Prevalence , Predictive Value of Tests , Sensitivity and Specificity
11.
Braz. j. vet. res. anim. sci ; 52(1): 57-62, abr. 2015. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-786779

ABSTRACT

Environmental changes affect fish homeostasis, turning them more susceptible to diseases. In Brazil, outbreaks of Streptococcus agalactiae infection have been reported in Nile tilapia when they are outside of their thermal comfort zone. This investigation evaluated mortality rate and which were the most infected organs at temperatures that naturally occurred in southern of Brazil. Forty Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) were infected with S. agalactiae and distributed in four groups (n=10) and each group was exposed to a different temperature: G1: 24°C, G2: 26°C, G3: 28°C, and G4: 32°C. Fish were monitored for 10 days. In this period, fish that presented irreversible clinical signs were sacrificed and samples of brain, liver, and kidney were collected for bacteriological and molecular analysis. Signs compatible with a streptococcal infection were observed in all groups. Highest mortality rates occurred at 24°C and 32°C. The brain was the most affected organ with the highest percentage of isolation of S. agalactiae by both methods of diagnosis. The results suggest that, as in mammals, temperatures that are further away from the comfort zone influence fish homeostasis, increasing susceptibility to bacterial infections.


Mudanças ambientais afetam a homeostase dos peixes, tornando-os mais suscetíveis a doenças. No Brasil, têm sido relatados surtos de infecção por Streptococcus agalactiae em tilápia do Nilo, principalmente quando se encontram fora da zona de conforto térmico. No presente trabalho, foi avaliada a taxa de mortalidade e determinado quais foram os órgãos mais afetados por essa bactéria em temperaturas que ocorrem naturalmente no Sul do Brasil. Quarenta tilápias-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) foram infectadas por Streptococcus agalactiae e distribuídas em quatro grupos (n = 10), cada um deles submetidos a diferentes temperaturas: G1: 24°C, G2: 26°C, G3: 28°C e G4: 32°C. Os peixes foram monitorados durante 10 dias. Os peixes com sinais clínicos irreversíveis foram sacrificados e coletadas amostras de cérebro, fígado e rins para análise bacteriológica e molecular. Foram observados sinais compatíveis com infecção estreptocócica em todos os grupos. A taxa de mortalidade mais elevada ocorreu nos grupos mantidos nas temperaturas de 24°C e 32°C. O cérebro foi o órgão mais afetado, com a maior percentagem de isolamento de S. agalactiae pelos dois métodos de diagnóstico. Os resultados sugerem que, tal como nos mamíferos, temperaturas que estão mais afastadas da zona de conforto afetam significativamente a homeostase dos peixes, aumentando a sua susceptibilidade para infecções bacterianas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cichlids , Mortality , Streptococcus agalactiae/pathogenicity , Heat Stress Disorders/veterinary , Homeostasis , Streptococcus agalactiae/isolation & purification , Heat Stress Disorders/pathology
12.
Rev. cuba. med. trop ; 66(3): 415-423, sep.-dic. 2014.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: lil-737010

ABSTRACT

Introducción: en Cuba se desconoce el peso de la colonización vaginal o rectal por Streptococcus agalactiae o estreptococo ß-hemolítico grupo B (SGB) como factor de riesgo para el desarrollo de sepsis neonatal precoz. Objetivo: determinar la prevalencia de colonización vaginal/rectal por SGB entre la población de gestantes del municipio Melena del Sur, Mayabeque. Métodos: se realizó un estudio observacional de corte transversal entre febrero-agosto 2011, en el que se incluyeron 120 gestantes (35-37 semanas). Se obtuvieron muestras vaginales y rectales que se cultivaron en caldo Todd Hewitt y medio Granada y se calculó la sensibilidad y especificidad de ambos medios de cultivo para la recuperación de SGB. Se hizo seguimiento de las embarazadas hasta el momento del parto para conocer acerca de la aparición de factores de riesgo para el desarrollo de sepsis neonatal, sobre la imposición de profilaxis antibiótica intraparto y si se produjeron casos de sepsis neonatal (tipo y evolución). Resultados: la especificidad lograda con el medio Granada para el aislamiento de SGB fue superior (94,57 %) pero la sensibilidad fue de solo 60,71 %; la combinación de su empleo y el caldo Todd Hewitt permitió la demostración de colonización por SGB en el 27,5 % de las gestantes. Se constató la administración de tratamiento profiláctico a las embarazas colonizadas en las que se presentaron factores de riesgo en el momento del parto y se produjeron solo cuatro casos de sepsis neonatales, lo que realza el valor de esta estrategia en la intercepción de la transmisión vertical.


Introduction: the impact of vaginal or rectal colonization by Streptococcus agalactiae or group B hemolytic streptococcus as risk factor for the development of early neonatal sepsis is still unknown in Cuba. Objective: to determine the prevalence of group B hemolytic streptococcus colonization of the vagina and the rectum among the pregnant women of the Melena del Sur municipality in Mayabeque province, Cuba. Methods: observational and cross-sectional study conducted from February to August 2011, which covered 120 pregnant women (35 to 37 weeks of gestation). Vaginal and rectal samples were taken to be cultured in ToodHewitt broth and grenade medium and the sensitivity and specificity of both culturing media were then calculated for recovery of Group B hemolytic streptococcus. The pregnant women were followed-up up to the delivery time so as to learn about the occurrence of risk factors for developing neonatal sepsis, the application of antibiotic prophylaxis intrapartum and the occurrence of cases of neonatal sepsis (type and progress). Results: the specificity of the grenade medium for Group B streptococcus was higher (94.57 %), but sensitivity was just 60.71 %. The combination of grenade medium plus Todd Hewitt broth allowed showing the Group B hemolytic streptococcus colonization in 27.5 % of pregnant women. It was then confirmed that prophylactic treatment was given to colonized pregnant women who presented with risk factors at the time of delivery and that there were just four neonatal sepsis cases, which stressed the value of this strategy in halting the vertical transmission.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Neonatal Sepsis/complications , Streptococcus agalactiae/isolation & purification , Candidiasis, Vulvovaginal/transmission , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Parturition/drug effects , Observational Study
13.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 45(3): 785-789, July-Sept. 2014. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-727003

ABSTRACT

Streptococcus agalactiae (GBS) is a major source of human perinatal diseases and bovine mastitis. Erythromycin (Ery) and tetracycline (Tet) are usually employed for preventing human and bovine infections although resistance to such agents has become common among GBS strains. Ery and Tet resistance genes are usually carried by conjugative transposons (CTns) belonging to the Tn916 family, but their presence and transferability among GBS strains have not been totally explored. Here we evaluated the presence of Tet resistance genes (tetM and tetO) and CTns among Ery-resistant (Ery-R) and Ery-susceptible (Ery-S) GBS strains isolated from human and bovine sources; and analyzed the ability for transferring resistance determinants between strains from both origins. Tet resistance and int-Tn genes were more common among Ery-R when compared to Ery-S isolates. Conjugative transfer of all resistance genes detected among the GBS strains included in this study (ermA, ermB, mef, tetM and tetO), in frequencies between 1.10-7 and 9.10-7, was possible from bovine donor strains to human recipient strain, but not the other way around. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of in vitro conjugation of Ery and Tet resistance genes among GBS strains recovered from different hosts.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Humans , Conjugation, Genetic , Gene Transfer Techniques , Streptococcus agalactiae/genetics , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , DNA Transposable Elements , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Erythromycin/pharmacology , Streptococcal Infections/microbiology , Streptococcal Infections/veterinary , Streptococcus agalactiae/drug effects , Streptococcus agalactiae/isolation & purification , Tetracycline/pharmacology
14.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 31(3): 305-308, jun. 2014. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-716982

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Streptococcus agalactiae (GBS) is the most common agent in early neonatal sepsis. Strategies incorporating universal screening for maternal colonization show the lowest rates of perinatal infection. A significant increase in resistance to erythromycin and clindamycin by GBS has been reported around the world. There are no published data regarding prevalence and antimicrobial resistance in southern regions of Chile. Surveillance of antimicrobial resistance is essential to define the drugs of choice and alternatives, in an institution that applies prevention protocols, as Clinica Alemana Temuco (CAT) does. Objectives: to determine the prevalence of carriage of GBS in vaginal-anal areas at end of pregnancy, in CAT, Araucanía Region, Chile. To determine the susceptibility to erythromycin and clindamycin of GBS strains isolated. Results: 1,181 pregnant women were included; 167 were positive for GBS (14.4% of colonization). Sixteen were resistant to erythromycin (9.5%); 15 of these strains were also clindamycin resistant. Twenty-three of 167 were resistant to clindamycin (13.7%). Conclusions: The prevalence rate of GBS colonization was lower than previously reported in other regions of Chile. Due to the high rates of resistance to clindamycin and erythromycin it is necessary to widen the study of susceptibility to other antimicrobials to have alternatives in allergy to penicillin (primarily cefazolin and vancomycin).


Introducción: Streptococcus agalactiae es el más frecuente causal de sepsis neonatal precoz. Las estrategias con pesquisa universal de colonización materna muestran las tasas más bajas de infección perinatal. Se ha reportado un significativo aumento de resistencia de S. agalactiae a eritromicina y clindamicina en el mundo. No existen datos publicados de prevalencia y susceptibilidad antimicrobiana en las regiones del sur de Chile. La vigilancia de resistencia es fundamental para definir los antimicrobianos de elección y alternativas para prevención del cuadro en instituciones que apliquen estrategias de prevención, como Clínica Alemana Temuco (CAT). Objetivos: Determinar la prevalencia de portación de S. agalactiae en la región vaginal-anal de mujeres embarazadas de tercer trimestre en CAT. Determinar la susceptibilidad a eritromicina y clindamicina de las cepas aisladas. Resultados: 1.181 embarazadas fueron incluidas. 167 resultaron S. agalactiae (+) (14,4% de colonización). Diez y seis eran resistentes a eritromicina (9,5%). Quince de ellas también lo eran a clindamicina. Veintitrés de 167, eran resistentes a clindamicina (13,7%). Conclusiones: La tasa de prevalencia de colonización (14%) fue más baja que lo reportado anteriormente en el centro del país. Debido a la alta tasa de resistencia a clindamicina y eritromicina se hace necesario aumentar el estudio de susceptibilidad a otros antimicrobianos alternativos en pacientes alérgicas a penicilina (principalmente cefazolina y vancomicina).


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Anal Canal/microbiology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Carrier State/virology , Clindamycin/pharmacology , Erythromycin/pharmacology , Streptococcus agalactiae/drug effects , Vagina/microbiology , Chile , Carrier State/epidemiology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Pregnancy Trimester, Third , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Streptococcus agalactiae/isolation & purification
15.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 30(6): 665-668, dic. 2013. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-701716

ABSTRACT

Streptococcus agalactiae is a rare cause of acute bacterial meningitis. We report the case of a middle age non-pregnant female patient, with no comorbitidies, who was hospitalized with acute meningitis. The pathogen was identified both in blood and CSF. She recovered uneventfully with ceftriaxone and dexamethasone. A CSF leak was suspected by previous history of unilateral watery rhinorrhea, that was demonstrated with a high resolution paranasal sinus CT and beta-2 transferrin analysis of the nasal fluid. Vulvovaginitis was also diagnosed after admission, but no cultures were obtained. Streptococcus agalactiae is an infrequent cause of bacterial meningitis that should promote the search of anatomical abnormalities or comorbidities in non-pregnant adults and beyond newborn period.


Streptococcus agalactiae es una causa infrecuente de meningitis bacteriana aguda. Comunicamos el caso de una mujer de edad media sin co-morbilidades que ingresó por un cuadro de meningitis producido por este patógeno, el que también fue identificado en hemocultivos. La paciente se trató con ceftriaxona y corticoesteroides i.v., recuperándose satisfactoriamente. Por el antecedente de una rinorrea acuosa unilateral, se sospechó una fístula de LCR, la que se demostró con una tomografía computada multicorte de senos paranasales y por una prueba de ß2 transferrina en fluido nasal. En forma concomitante se diagnosticó una vulvovaginitis sin estudio microbiológico. Streptococcus agalactiae es una causa infrecuente de meningitis bacteriana que si no se presenta asociada al embarazo o en neonatos, obliga a la búsqueda de anormalidades anatómicas o co-morbilidades.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Cerebrospinal Fluid Rhinorrhea/complications , Meningitis, Bacterial/microbiology , Streptococcal Infections/microbiology , Streptococcus agalactiae/isolation & purification , Acute Disease , Immunocompromised Host , Meningitis, Bacterial/cerebrospinal fluid , Streptococcal Infections/cerebrospinal fluid , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
17.
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 84(5): 513-521, oct. 2013. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-698672

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La sepsis y meningitis son importante causa de morbi-mortalidad neonatal. Objetivo: Identificar la prevalencia y riesgo de meningitis en neonatos con sepsis por Streptococcus del grupo B (SGB) y bacterias Gram negativas (BGN), además de comparar factores de riesgo, características clínicas y de laboratorio. Pacientes y Método: Estudio de corte transversal con 30 neonatos con SGB y 41 con BGN. Los datos fueron analizados en Stata® 11.0, empleando medidas de tendencia central y dispersión de acuerdo a su distribución para comparar diferencias. Las variables categóricas fueron comparadas con prueba de χ2 o Exacta de Fisher y las asociaciones mediante razones de prevalencia (RP) y odds ratio (OR) con su intervalo de confianza de 95 por ciento. Se empleó un nivel de probabilidad < 0,05 como criterio de significancia. Resultados: La prevalencia de meningitis entre neonatos con sepsis fue 16,9 por ciento (IC 95 por ciento: 7,5-26,3 por ciento). El 33,3 por ciento (10/30) de sepsis por SGB se asoció a meningitis, mientras 4,9 por ciento (2/40) a sepsis por BGN, hallándose una asociación entre sepsis y meningitis en neonatos con SGB (OR: 9,5; IC 95 por ciento: 1,7-94,3). El 80 por ciento (IC 95 por ciento: 44,4-97,5 por ciento) de casos de meningitis asociada a sepsis por SGB ocurrió en neonatos mayores de 72 h de vida. Conclusión: La meningitis fue más frecuente en neonatos con sepsis por SGB, principalmente en casos de sepsis tardía. La asociación entre sepsis por BGN y meningitis fue menos frecuente en sepsis temprana, y no se halló en sepsis tardía.


Introduction: Sepsis and meningitis are major causes of neonatal morbidity and mortality. Objective: To identify the prevalence and risk of meningitis in neonates with sepsis due to group B Streptococcus (GBS) and gram-negative bacteria (GNB), and to compare risk factors, clinical and laboratory characteristics. Patients and Method: Cross-sectional study of 30 infants with infections due to GBS and 41 due to BGN. Data were analyzed by Stata® 11.0, using measures of central tendency and dispersion, according to their distribution, to compare differences. Categorical variables were compared using χ2 test or Fisher's Exact Test and associations using prevalence ratios (PR) and odds ratio (OR) with 95 percent confidence interval. A level of probability of < 0.05 was used as a significance criterion. Results: The prevalence of meningitis among infants with sepsis was 16.9 percent (95 percent CI: 7.5-26.3 percent. 33.3 percent(10/30) of sepsis due to GBS was associated with meningitis, while 4.9 percent (2/40) was associated with GNB, finding a clear connection between sepsis and meningitis in neonates with GBS (OR: 9.5; CI 95 percent:1.7-94.3). 80 percent (CI 95 percent: 44,4-97,5 percent) of cases of meningitis associated with GBS sepsis occurred in infants older than 72 hours. Conclusion: Meningitis was more common in infants with GBS sepsis, mainly in cases of late-onset sepsis. The association between GNB sepsis and meningitis was less frequent in early sepsis, and was not found in late sepsis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Streptococcal Infections/epidemiology , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Meningitis, Bacterial/epidemiology , Sepsis/epidemiology , Gram-Negative Bacteria/isolation & purification , Colombia , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Sepsis/microbiology , Streptococcus agalactiae/isolation & purification
18.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 44(3): 869-872, July-Sept. 2013. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-699819

ABSTRACT

GBS serotypes III and V were the most prevalent in pregnant women and exhibited resistance to tetracycline, clindamycin and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim. Serotype III showed high sialic acid content and PFGE analysis discerned 33 heterogeneous profiles. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization could be relevant to control GBS infections unaffected by intra-partum chemoprophylaxis.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Serogroup , Streptococcal Infections/epidemiology , Streptococcus agalactiae/isolation & purification , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Brazil/epidemiology , Cluster Analysis , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field , Genotype , Molecular Typing , Prevalence , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/microbiology , Streptococcal Infections/microbiology , Streptococcus agalactiae/classification , Streptococcus agalactiae/drug effects
19.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 17(2): 131-136, Mar.-Apr. 2013. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-673189

ABSTRACT

Streptococcus agalactiae is a common agent of clinical and subclinical bovine mastitis and an important cause of human infections, mainly among pregnant women, neonates and nonpregnant adults with underlying diseases. The present study describes the genetic and phenotypic diversity among 392 S. agalactiae human and bovine strains isolated between 1980 and 2006 in Brazil. The most prevalent serotypes were Ia, II, III and V and all the strains were susceptible to penicillin, vancomycin and levofloxacin. Resistance to clindamycin, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, rifampicin and tetracycline was observed. Among the erythromycin resistant strains, mefA/E, ermA and, mainly, ermB gene were detected, and a shift of prevalence from the macrolide resistance phenotype to the macrolidelincosamide- streptogramin B resistance phenotype over the years was observed. The 23 macrolide-resistant strains showed 19 different pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profiles. Regarding macrolide resistance, a major concern in S. agalactiae epidemiology, the present study describes an increase in erythromycin resistance from the 80s to the 90s followed by a decrease in the 2000-2006 period. Also, the genetic heterogeneity described points out that erythromycin resistance in Brazil is rather due to horizontal gene transmission than to spreading of specific macrolide-resistant clones.


Subject(s)
Adult , Animals , Cattle , Child , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Genetic Variation , Streptococcus agalactiae/drug effects , Streptococcus agalactiae/genetics , Brazil , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/genetics , Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field , Genotype , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Phenotype , Serotyping , Streptococcus agalactiae/isolation & purification
20.
Rev. bras. plantas med ; 15(1): 98-103, 2013. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-669542

ABSTRACT

A espécie Cydonia oblonga Mill. (Rosaceae), Marmeleiro, é proveniente do Cáucaso e se difundiu pela Europa e países mediterrâneos, sendo introduzida no Brasil já em 1532. Algumas propriedades medicinais são atribuídas à C. oblonga determinando seu uso pela população. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se conhecer os diversos usos do marmeleiro em São João do Paraíso, assim como estudar a atividade antimicrobiana desta planta. O estudo etnobotânico foi realizado por meio de entrevistas aplicadas aos produtores do marmeleiro. Os ensaios de atividade antimicrobiana foram realizados por meio do método de difusão em placas, com discos embebidos nas concentrações de 100, 200 e 400 mg/mL do decocto do fruto e do extrato bruto das folhas de C. oblonga, testadas em seis bactérias. O estudo etnobotânico revelou que o marmelo utilizado no combate à diarréia, vômito e hipertensão, é também usado como cicatrizante e antisséptico. Quanto ao estudo antimicrobiano, somente o extrato bruto das folhas inibiu parcialmente o crescimento de Streptococcus agalactiae. Concluiu-se por meio deste trabalho que o decocto do marmelo é utilizado pela população na medicina tradicional e que extrato bruto das folhas afetou o crescimento de S. agalactiae.


The species Cydonia oblonga Mill., quince, originated from the Caucasus region, spreading over Europe and Mediterranean countries, and was introduced in Brazil already in 1532. Some medicinal properties are attributed to C. oblonga, determining its use by the population. In this context, the present study aimed to learn the several uses of quince in São João do Paraíso, as well as to study the antimicrobial activity of this plant. The ethnobotanical study was carried out by means of interviews applied to quince farmers. Antimicrobial activity assays were performed according to the diffusion method in dishes with disks embedded at the concentrations of 100, 200 and 400 mg/mL fruit decoction and crude extract from C. oblonga leaves, tested for six bacteria. The ethnobotanical study revealed that quince which has been used to treat diarrhea, vomit and hypertension is also used as healing and antiseptic. As to the antimicrobial study, only the crude extract from leaves partially inhibited the growth of Streptococcus agalactiae. This study led to the conclusion that quince decoction has been used by the population in traditional medicine and that the crude extract from leaves affected the growth of S. agalactiae.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Cydonia vulgaris/adverse effects , Cydonia vulgaris/therapeutic use , Ethnobotany/methods , Medicine, Traditional , Streptococcus agalactiae/isolation & purification
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