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1.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 42: e06808, 2022. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1360624

ABSTRACT

Causes of abortion, stillbirth, and perinatal mortality in horses were investigated in the Department of Veterinary Pathology of the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (SPV-UFRGS) from 2000 to 2015. In this period, 107 cases were analyzed using macroscopic, microscopic, and complementary tests. Of these, 77 were aborted fetuses, 16 were stillbirths, and 14 were perinatal deaths. Conclusive diagnosis was established in 42.8% of the fetuses analyzed, with 28.6% classified as infectious origin, 9.1% as non-infectious, and 5.1% as other. Bacterial infections, especially those related to Streptococcus spp. were the most frequently observed. In stillborn foals, diagnosis was established in 62.5% of cases, and 50% of these were related to non-infectious causes, such as dystocia and birth traumas. As for perinatal mortality, a conclusive diagnosis was reached in 78.57% of cases, and infectious causes associated with bacterial infections accounted for 64.1% of these diagnoses.(AU)


Causas de aborto, natimortalidade e mortalidade perinatal em equinos foram investigadas no Setor de Patologia Veterinária da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (SPV-UFRGS) durante o período de 2000 a 2015. Nesse período, foram analisados 107 casos através de exames macroscópico, microscópico e exames complementares, desses 77 correspondiam a fetos abortados, 16 natimortos e 14 mortes perinatais. Diagnóstico conclusivo foi estabelecido em 42,8% dos fetos analisados e classificados como origem infecciosa em 28,6% dos casos, não infecciosa com 9,1% e outros com 5,1% dos casos. As infecções bacterianas, em especial as relacionadas a Streptococcus spp. foram as mais frequentemente observadas. Em potros natimortos, diagnostico foi estabelecido em 62,5% dos casos, e destes, 50% foram relacionados a causas não infecciosas, como distocia e traumas durante o parto. Quanto a mortalidade perinatal, em 78,57% dos casos houve um diagnostico conclusivo, e as causas infecciosas associadas a infecções bacterianas corresponderam a 64,1% desses diagnósticos.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Abortion, Veterinary/etiology , Fetal Mortality , Perinatal Mortality , Fetal Death/etiology , Horses , Streptococcal Infections/veterinary , Streptococcus , Dystocia/veterinary , Fetal Diseases/veterinary
2.
Infectio ; 24(4): 255-258, oct.-dic. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1114878

ABSTRACT

Resumen El Streptococcus pseudoporcinus es un germen de la clasificación Beta hemolítico, con similitud a Streptococcus agalactiae, con baja incidencia en producción de infección pero principalmente aislado en tracto genitourinario de mujeres embarazadas y relacionado con complicaciones materno-fetales. Reportes en la literatura como infección fuera de este sitio son inusuales, por lo cual presentamos un caso de un hombre de 48 años con infección de tracto respiratorio bajo, compatible con colección neumónica y un derrame paraneumonico complicado, con requerimiento de manejo antibiótico y drenaje por toracostomia. Al realizar el estudio microbiológico se reportó aislamiento de un Streptococcus pseudoporcinus. No hay reportes previos en la literatura como causa de infección en este sitio anatómico.


Abstract Streptococcus pseudoporcinus in a germ of the Beta hemolytic group, similar to Streptococcus agalactiae, with low incidence in the production of infection, and isolated in most of cases from the genitourinary tract of pregnant women and related to maternal and fetal complications; the reports in the literature as infection outside this site are unusual. We describe a case of one 48-year-old man with a low respiratory tract infection with a pneumonic collection and a complicated parapneumonic effusion, requiring antibiotic management and thoracostomy drainage. Isolation of a Streptococcus pseudoporcinus. There is no report in the literatura as a cause of infection in this anatomical site.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Pneumonia , Respiratory Tract Infections , Streptococcus agalactiae , Respiratory System , Streptococcus , Pregnant Women , Infections
3.
Rev. méd. Minas Gerais ; 30(supl.5): S27-S31, 2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1223767

ABSTRACT

A epiglotite, conhecida recentemente como supraglotite, é uma infecção grave da epiglote e estruturas supraglóticas, com consequente obstrução da via aérea superior e risco iminente de morte. Trata-se de emergência médica, e a via aérea do paciente deve ser garantida o mais breve possível. Com o desenvolvimento e introdução da vacinação contra o Haemophilus influenzae tipo B (Hib), houve queda expressiva de sua incidência e mortalidade na faixa etária pediátrica, principalmente em crianças menores de cinco anos, porém, tal redução não foi tão significativa em adultos. A doença passou a ser mais comum em crianças acima de cinco anos e na faixa etária adulta, e agentes como Streptococcus e Staphylococcus tornaram-se os principais responsáveis. Embora rara, ela ainda não foi eliminada, fazendo-se necessário o seu rápido reconhecimento e tratamento, a fim de evitar mortalidade. (AU)


Epiglottitis, recently known as supraglottitis, is a severe infection of the epiglottis and supraglottic structures, leading to upper airway obstruction and imminent risk of death. It is considered a medical emergency and the patient's airway must be cleared as soon as possible. With the development and introduction of the vaccination against Haemophilus influenzae type B (Hib), there has been a significant decline in its incidence and mortality in the pediatric age range, especially in children younger than five years old, yet not so much in adults. The disease has become more common in children older than five years old and in adults, with Streptococcus and Staphylococcus being the main responsible pathogens. Although it is a rare condition, it has not yet been eradicated, making its fast recognition and treatment necessary to decrease the chance of mortality. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Young Adult , Haemophilus influenzae type b , Epiglottitis , Staphylococcus , Streptococcus , Incidence , Vaccination , Supraglottitis
4.
Braz. J. Vet. Res. Anim. Sci. (Online) ; 57(1): e160956, 2020. ilus, mapas, tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1122160

ABSTRACT

Antimicrobial resistance is a current and important issue to public health, and it is usually associated with the indiscriminate use of antimicrobials in animal production. This study aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial susceptibility profile in bacterial isolates from pigs with clinical respiratory signs in Brazil. One hundred sixty bacterial strains isolated from pigs from 51 pig farms in Brazil were studied. In vitro disk-diffusion method was employed using 14 antimicrobial agents: amoxicillin, penicillin, ceftiofur, ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, chlortetracycline, doxycycline, oxytetracycline, tetracycline, erythromycin, tilmicosin, florfenicol, lincomycin, and sulfadiazine/trimethoprim. The majority of isolates were resistant to at least one antimicrobial agent (98.75%; 158/160), while 31.25% (50/160) of the strains were multidrug resistant. Streptococcus suis and Bordetella bronchiseptica were the pathogens that showed higher resistance levels. Haemophilus parasuis showed high resistance levels to sulfadiazine/trimethoprim (9/18=50%). We observed that isolates from the midwestern and southern regions exhibited four times greater chance of being multidrug resistant than the isolates from the southeastern region studied. Overall, the results of the present study showed a great level of resistance to lincomycin, erythromycin, sulfadiazine/trimethoprim, and tetracycline among bacterial respiratory pathogens isolated from pigs in Brazil. The high levels of antimicrobial resistance in swine respiratory bacterial pathogens highlight the need for the proper use of antimicrobials in Brazilian pig farms.(AU)


A resistência antimicrobiana é uma questão atual e muito importante para a saúde pública, geralmente associada ao uso indiscriminado de antimicrobianos na produção animal. Diante disso, foi investigado o perfil de sensibilidade-antimicrobiana em isolados bacterianos de suínos com sinais clínicos respiratórios no Brasil. Foram estudadas 96 isolados provenientes de 51 granjas de suínos do Brasil. O método de disco-difusão foi empregado usando 14 antimicrobianos: amoxicilina, penicilina, ceftiofur, ciprofloxacina, enrofloxacina, clortetraciclina, doxiciclina, oxitetraciclina, tetraciclina, eritromicina, tilmicosina, florfenicol, lincomicina e sulfadiazina/trimetoprim. Streptococcus suis e Bordetella bronchiseptica foram os patógenos que apresentaram maiores níveis de resistência. Haemophilus parasuis apresentou altos níveis de resistência à sulfadiazina/trimetoprim (9/18=50%). Observou-se que isolados das regiões Centro-Oeste e Sul apresentaram quatro vezes mais chance de serem multirresistentes do que os isolados da região Sudeste. A maioria foi resistente a pelo menos um agente antimicrobiano (98,75%; 158/160) e 31,25% (50/160) das estirpes isoladas eram multirresistentes. No geral, os resultados do presente estudo mostraram grande nível de resistência à lincomicina, eritromicina, sulfadiazina/trimetoprim e tetraciclina entre patógenos respiratórios bacterianos isolados de suínos no Brasil. Os altos níveis de resistência antimicrobiana em patógenos bacterianos respiratórios em suínos reforçam a necessidade do uso criterioso de antimicrobianos na suinocultura brasileira.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Swine , Bordetella bronchiseptica , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Streptococcus , Brazil/epidemiology , Pasteurella multocida , Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae , Haemophilus parasuis , Disk Diffusion Antimicrobial Tests/veterinary
5.
Arq. Inst. Biol ; 87: e0092020, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1121090

ABSTRACT

Abortion and complications in reproduction are important causes of economic loss in horse breeding. Studies of its causal agents can help to identify the primary pathogens or other factors involved and define appropriate measures to reduce its occurrence. This research aimed to investigate the primary causes of equine abortion, stillbirth, and perinatal mortality in regions of Brazil. Tissue from aborted fetuses, stillbirths, neonates and foals submitted to the Biological Institute of São Paulo, Brazil, from January 2010 to July 2013 were processed for viral and bacterial isolation, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), histology, and immunohistochemistry. Bacterial infection was the primary detected cause of abortion, found in 16 of the 53 animals submitted for bacterial analysis followed by viruses analysis in 2 of 105 animals, and noninfectious causes (neonatal isoerythrolysis) in 2 of 105 animals. Fungi were found in a single sample of 53 tested. The most frequent bacteria recovered were Escherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, combined E. coli and Streptococcus spp., Staphylococcus spp., and Bacillus spp. The following agents were each observed in a single sample: Arcanobacterium pyogenes, Streptococcus spp., Corynebacterium spp., Actinobacillus spp., and Rhodococcus equi. The predominant identification of fecal and other opportunistic bacteria as opposed to pathogens commonly associated with equine abortion, such as Leptospira spp. and equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1), suggests the need of improving hygiene management of breeding mares to prevent bacterial infection that may cause fetal loss, stillbirth, and perinatal mortality.(AU)


Abortamento e complicações na reprodução são importantes causas de perda econômica na equideocultura. Estudos dos agentes causais podem ajudar a identificar patógenos ou outros fatores envolvidos e definir medidas apropriadas para reduzir sua ocorrência. Esta pesquisa investigou as causas primárias de aborto, natimortalidade e mortalidade perinatal em equinos de diversas regiões do Brasil. Tecidos de fetos abortados, natimortos e potros submetidos ao Instituto Biológico de São Paulo, Brasil, no período de janeiro de 2010 a julho de 2013, foram processados por meio de técnicas de isolamento viral e bacteriano, PCR, histologia e imuno-histoquímica. Infecção bacteriana foi a causa mais detectada, encontrada em 16 de 53 amostras submetidas à análise bacteriana, seguida de causa viral em 2 de 105 amostras, e causas não infecciosas (isoeritrólise neonatal) em 2 de 105 amostras. Fungo foi encontrado em uma única amostra de 53 testadas. As bactérias isoladas mais frequentemente foram Escherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, E. coli associada a Streptococcus spp., Staphylococcus spp. associado a Bacillus spp. Os seguintes agentes foram observados em uma única amostra cada: Arcanobacterium pyogenes, Streptococcus spp., Corynebacterium spp., Actinobacillus spp. e Rhodococcus equi. A identificação predominante de bactérias fecais e outras bactérias oportunistas, ao invés de outros patógenos comumente associados a quadros de abortamento equino, tais como Leptospira spp. e Herpesvírus equino tipo 1, sugere a necessidade de maior atenção no manejo higiênico das éguas em reprodução, a fim de prevenir infecções bacterianas que possam causar perda fetal, natimortalidade e mortalidade perinatal.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Bacterial Infections/complications , Abortion, Veterinary/etiology , Horses , Staphylococcus/isolation & purification , Streptococcus/isolation & purification , Bacterial Infections/diagnosis , Brazil , Virus Diseases/complications , Virus Diseases/diagnosis , Immunohistochemistry , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Cause of Death , Enterobacter aerogenes/isolation & purification , Abortion, Veterinary/mortality , Aborted Fetus , Escherichia coli/isolation & purification , Mycoses/complications , Mycoses/diagnosis
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811069

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Different characteristics of airway microbiome in asthmatics may lead to differential immune responses, which in turn cause eosinophilic or neutrophilic airway inflammation. However, the relationships among these factors have yet to be fully elucidated.METHODS: Microbes in induced sputum samples were subjected to sequence analysis of 16S rRNA. Airway inflammatory phenotypes were defined as neutrophils (>60%) and eosinophils (>3%), and inflammation endotypes were defined by levels of T helper (Th) 1 (interferon-γ), Th2 (interleukin [IL]-5 and IL-13), Th-17 (IL-17), and innate Th2 (IL-25, IL-33, and thymic stromal lymphopoietin) cytokines, inflammasomes (IL-1β), epithelial activation markers (granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and IL-8), and Inflammation (IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α) cytokines in sputum supernatants was assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.RESULTS: The numbers of operational taxonomic units were significantly higher in the mixed (n = 21) and neutrophilic (n = 23) inflammation groups than in the paucigranulocytic inflammation group (n = 19; p < 0.05). At the species level, Granulicatella adiacens, Streptococcus parasanguinis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Veillonella rogosae, Haemophilus parainfluenzae, and Neisseria perflava levels were significantly higher in the eosinophilic inflammation group (n = 20), whereas JYGU_s levels were significantly higher in the neutrophilic inflammation group compared to the other subtypes (P < 0.05). Additionally, IL-5 and IL-13 concentrations were correlated with the percentage of eosinophils (P < 0.05) and IL-13 levels were positively correlated with the read counts of Porphyromonas pasteri and V. rogosae (P < 0.05). IL-1β concentrations were correlated with the percentage of neutrophils (P < 0.05). had a tendency to be positively correlated with the read count of JYGU_s (P = 0.095), and was negatively correlated with that of S. pneumoniae (P < 0.05).CONCLUSIONS: Difference of microbial patterns in airways may induce distinctive endotypes of asthma, which is responsible for the neutrophilic or eosinophilic inflammation in asthma.


Subject(s)
Asthma , Colony-Stimulating Factors , Cytokines , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Eosinophils , Haemophilus parainfluenzae , Inflammasomes , Inflammation , Interleukin-13 , Interleukin-33 , Interleukin-5 , Microbiota , Necrosis , Neisseria , Neutrophils , Phenotype , Pneumonia , Porphyromonas , Sequence Analysis , Sputum , Streptococcus , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Veillonella
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-820819

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We investigated the characteristics of Streptococcus mutans in the national culture collection from Korea. Twenty-nine (dental plaque, n=27; endodontic infections, n=1; blood, n=1) isolates were included in this study.METHODS: Antimicrobial susceptibilities were tested using the disk diffusion test. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST), serotyping, and collagen-binding genes were used for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and direct sequencing. A collagen-binding (to assess the adhesion properties) assay was performed. S. mutans demonstrated high susceptibility to antimicrobial agents. Differences in collagen-binding abilities of the cnm-positive and -negative groups were compared using the Mann-Whitney U test (P<0.05).RESULTS: MLST analyses revealed 25 sequence types (STs), 17 of which (ST213-ST229) contained new alleles. The strains were classified into four serotypes with the c type encompassing 79.3% of all strains, while the e, f, and k types representing 6.9% each. Analysis of the cnm and cbm genes, which encode the two surface adhesin components of S. mutans, revealed three cnm-positive strains, each displaying greater adhesion ability than those of the cnm-negative strains.CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights the presence of a wide variety of S. mutans genotypes in Korea. These findings may provide useful information regarding the pathogenesis of infectious diseases, such as dental caries.


Subject(s)
Alleles , Anti-Infective Agents , Bacteremia , Communicable Diseases , Dental Caries , Diffusion , Genotype , Inflammation , Korea , Molecular Epidemiology , Multilocus Sequence Typing , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Serogroup , Serotyping , Streptococcus mutans , Streptococcus
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785338

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The roles of gut microbiota on the natural course of atopic dermatitis (AD) are not yet fully understood. We investigated whether the composition and function of gut microbiota and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) at 6 months of age could affect the natural course of AD up to 24 months in early childhood.METHODS: Fecal samples from 132 infants were analyzed using pyrosequencing, including 84 healthy controls, 22 transient AD and 26 persistent AD subjects from the Cohort for Childhood Origin of Asthma and Allergic Diseases (COCOA) birth cohort. The functional profile of the gut microbiome was analyzed by whole-metagenome sequencing. SCFAs were measured using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.RESULTS: Low levels of Streptococcus and high amounts of Akkermansia were evident in transient AD cases, and low Clostridium, Akkermansia and high Streptococcus were found in children with persistent AD. The relative abundance of Streptococcus positively correlated with scoring of AD (SCORAD) score, whereas that of Clostridium negatively correlated with SCORAD score. The persistent AD group showed decreased gut microbial functional genes related to oxidative phosphorylation compared with healthy controls. Butyrate and valerate levels were lower in transient AD infants compared with healthy and persistent AD infants.CONCLUSIONS: Compositions, functions and metabolites of the early gut microbiome are related to natural courses of AD in infants.


Subject(s)
Asthma , Butyrates , Child , Clostridium , Cohort Studies , Dermatitis, Atopic , Fatty Acids, Volatile , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Humans , Infant , Metabolomics , Metagenome , Oxidative Phosphorylation , Parturition , Streptococcus
10.
Odontol. vital ; (31): 23-30, jul.-dic. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1091424

ABSTRACT

Resumen Objetivo: Evaluar mediante cuantificación de halos de inhibición el efecto antibacteriano de la cáscara y pulpa del capulí (Prunus serotina capulí) y del mortiño (Vaccinium floribundum), sobre cepas de Streptococcus mutans (ATCC 35668) a las 24 y 48 horas, comparado con arándano deshidratado y gluconato de clorhexidina al 0,12%. Materiales y métodos: Estudio experimental transversal in vitro, 15 cajas petri fueron utilizadas para sembrar 20ml de cultivo de cepas de Streptococcus mutans. En cada caja fueron colocados discos de fieltro impregnados con 20 μl de las sustancias evaluadas; mortiño y capulí, en pulpa y en cáscara, arándano deshidratado y gluconato de clorhexidina al 0,12% como control, distribuidos a una distancia equidistante. El análisis del efecto antibacteriano se realizó midiendo la zona de inhibición en un tiempo de 24 y 48 horas de incubación, los datos obtenidos se analizaron estadísticamente en el programa SPSS 22 mediante las pruebas paramétricas y de Kruskal Wallis. Resultados: No existió diferencia estadística significativa entre las variables analizadas, capulí y mortiño tanto en cáscara como en pulpa y clorhexidina empleada como control, en los dos períodos evaluados (p= > 0,05). Conclusiones: Los frutos rojos analizados tienen un efecto antibacteriano a las 24 y 48 horas, lo cual guarda relación con su capacidad antioxidante.


Abstract Objective: To evaluate by quantification of halos of inhibition, the antibacterial effect of the shell and pulp of capulí, (Prunus serotina capuli) and mortiño (Vaccinium floribundum), on strains of Streptococcus mutans (ATCC 35668) at 24 and 48 hours, compared with dehydrated cranberry and chlorhexidine gluconate at 0,12%. Materials and methods: In vitro cross-sectional experimental study, 15 petri dishes were used to plant 20 ul of the evaluated substances were placed in each box, mortiño, and capuli, in pulp and in shell, dehydrated cranberry and 0,12% chlorhexidine gluconate as control, distributed at an equidistant distance. The analysis of the antibacterial effect was performed by measuring the zone of inhibition in a time of 24 and 48 hours of incubation, the dataobtained were statistically analyzed in the SPSS 22 program by parametric and Kruskal Wallis tests. Results: There was no significant statistical difference between the analyzed variables, capuli and mortiño, both in skin and pulp and chlorhexidine used as control, in the two evaluated periods of time (p=>0,05). Conclusions: The red fruits analyzed have an antibacterial effect 24 and 48 hours, which is related to its antioxidant capacity.


Subject(s)
Streptococcus/drug effects , Chlorhexidine/therapeutic use , Blueberry Plants/immunology , Dental Caries , Prunus avium/immunology
11.
Rev. Soc. Cardiol. Estado de Säo Paulo ; 29(3 Supl): 297-301, jul.-set. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1023096

ABSTRACT

A endocardite infecciosa (EI) corresponde a uma infecção microbiana do endocárdio com presença de coágulo de plaquetas e fibrina em seu interior. Quando é de origem periodontal, a Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (Aa) é a bactéria mais relacionada com a ocorrência dessa doença. Foi avaliada a presença de Aa em gengivites e periodontites de pacientes hospitalizados e sua associação na predisposição à EI. Métodos: Realizou-se a sondagem periodontal em 15 pacientes de um hospital de Itajaí, SC com gengivites e periodontites, entre 18 a 75 anos de idade, de ambos os sexos, considerados em risco de EI. Usou-se um dente de cada paciente como amostra, coletado em cones de papel esterilizado, transferência em recipientes e processamento no laboratório. As amostras foram homogeneizadas e alíquotas de 0,1 ml foram semeadas em duplicata em placas de ágar sangue, incubadas por cinco dias em microaerofilia a 37 O C. Depois da visualização das colônias bacterianas características, foram realizadas provas bioquímicas e reação de catalase. O diagnóstico de EI foi realizado seguindo os critérios de Duke modificado. Conclusão: Não houve incidência de pacientes com risco de EI relacionada com presença da Aa nos participantes avaliados


Objective: Infective endocarditis (IE) corresponds to a microbial infection of the endocardium with the presence of platelet and fibrin clotting in its interior. When it is of periodontal origin, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (Aa) is the bacterium most often related to the occurrence of this disease. The presence of Aa in the gingivitis and periodontitis of hospitalized patients and its association with predisposition to IE were evaluated. Methods: Periodontal probing was performed in 15 patients with gingivitis and periodontitis, aged 18 and 75 years, of both genders, and considered at risk for IE at a hospital in Itajaí ­ SC. One tooth of each patient was used for the sample, which was collected in cones of sterilized paper, transferred in containers, and processed in the laboratory. The samples were homogenized and aliquots of 0.1 ml were seeded in duplicate in blood agar plates, incubated for five days in microaerophylia at 37ºC. Following visualization of characteristic bacterial colonies, biochemical and catalase reaction tests were conducted. The diagnosis of IE was performed following the modified Duke criteria. Conclusion: There was no incidence of patients at risk of IE related to the presence of Aa in the participants evaluated


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans , Endocarditis , Infections , Periodontal Diseases , Periodontitis/diagnosis , Streptococcus , Bacteria , Sex Factors , Epidemiology, Experimental , Age Factors , Gingivitis/diagnosis , Microbiology
12.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(2): 393-403, mar.-abr. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1011257

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of isolation of agents causing subclinical mastitis in a herd and to estimate production losses associated with SCC> 200,000cells/mL. Three 7-day interval microbiological cultures were performed in all lactating animals from the same farm that was evaluated from June to July. To evaluate the negative and positive isolation frequencies between the lactation phases, a Chi-square test was performed. Simple linear regressions were performed to evaluate the lactation curve of animals grouped by pathogens isolated from negative cows in the microbiological culture and with SCC <200,000cells/mL. To estimate the production losses between the groups, regression coefficients were used. Results found in this experiment were: Culture-negative cows with SCC ≥ 200,000cells/mL, cows testing positive in milk culture, with SCC <200,000cells/mL and cows testing positive in milk culture, with SCC ≥ 200,000cells/mL. Milk production was -3.5; -0.5 and -4.27kg, respectively, when compared to culture-negative cows with SCC <200,000cells/mL. Cows infected with yeast cells, Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS), Staphylococcus aureus and environmental streptococci produced -3.42; -0.5; -0.168 and -2.5kg of milk when compared to culture-negative cows with SCC <200,000cells/mL. SCC indicates an inflammatory reaction in the mammary gland and it is directly associated with milk production losses and with presence of microorganisms in the mammary gland.(AU)


O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a frequência de isolamento de agentes causadores de mastite subclínica em um rebanho e estimar as perdas de produção associadas com CCS>200.000 cél./mL. Três cultivos microbiológicos intervalados por sete dias foram realizados em todos os animais em lactação da propriedade avaliada, no período de junho a julho. Para avaliar as frequências de isolamento negativo e positivo entre as fases da lactação, foi realizado um teste de qui-quadrado. Foram realizadas regressões lineares simples para avaliar a curva de lactação dos animais agrupados por patógenos isolados em relação a vacas negativas na cultura microbiológica e com CCS < 200.000 cél./mL. Os coeficientes das regressões foram utilizados para estimar as perdas de produção entre os grupos. Vacas com resultado negativo na microbiologia, mas com CCS ≥ 200.000 cél./mL, positivas na microbiologia com CCS < 200.000 cél./mL e positivas com CCS ≥ 200.000 cél./mL, produziram por dia, respectivamente, -3,5; -0,5 e -4,27kg de leite em relação às vacas negativas com CCS < 200.000 cél./mL. Vacas infectadas com células leveduriformes, Staphylococcus coagulase negativa, Staphylococcus aureus e Streptococcus ambientais produziram, respectivamente, -3,42; -0,5; -0,168 e -2,5kg de leite, comparadas a vacas negativas com CCS < 200.000 cél./mL. A CCS, indicativa de reação inflamatória, encontra-se diretamente associada às perdas de produção de leite, assim como a presença do microrganismo na glândula mamária.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Cattle , Staphylococcal Infections/veterinary , Milk , Mastitis, Bovine/microbiology , Staphylococcus/isolation & purification , Streptococcus/isolation & purification , Chi-Square Distribution
13.
J. appl. oral sci ; 27: e20180256, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1012514

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective The rDNA-based method is unable to distinguish between alive and dead cells. Alternatively, bacterial viability can be assessed by molecular methods based on ribosomal RNA (rRNA). Therefore, this study aimed to detect viable streptococci in root canal samples using rRNA-based reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), compared to an rDNA-based PCR assay. Methodology Microbiological root canal samples were obtained from 32 teeth with primary endodontic infections before (S1) and after chemomechanical preparation (S2), and after removal of intracanal medication (S3). RNA and DNA were extracted, and complementary DNA (cDNA) was synthesized from RNA using RT reaction. cDNA and genomic DNA were subjected to PCR with primers complementary to the 16S rRNA sequences of Streptococcus spp. McNemar's test was used to compare the detection rate of both assays (P<0.05). Results Streptococci were detected in 28.12% (9/32) and 37.5% (12/32) of S1 samples using rRNA- and rDNA-based PCR assays, respectively. In contrast, they were detected in only 6.25% (2/32) of S2 samples using rRNA-based RT-PCR, compared to 15.62% (5/32) using rDNA-based PCR. Finally, in S3 samples, streptococci were not detected by rRNA, whereas rDNA-based PCR still detected the bacteria in 12.5% (4/32) of the samples. The total number of PCR-positive reactions in the rDNA-based PCR was higher than in the rRNA-based assay (P<0.05). Conclusions The rRNA-based RT-PCR showed a lower detection rate of streptococci when compared to the rDNA-based PCR, suggesting that the latter may have detected dead cells of streptococci in root canal samples.


Subject(s)
Humans , Streptococcus/isolation & purification , DNA, Ribosomal/isolation & purification , RNA, Ribosomal/isolation & purification , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Dental Pulp Cavity/microbiology , Root Canal Therapy/methods , Streptococcus/genetics , DNA, Bacterial/isolation & purification , DNA, Bacterial/genetics , DNA, Ribosomal/genetics , RNA, Bacterial/isolation & purification , RNA, Bacterial/genetics , RNA, Ribosomal/genetics , Reproducibility of Results
14.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 33: e010, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-989483

ABSTRACT

Abstract This in situ study aimed to evaluate the antibacterial and anti-demineralization effects of an experimental orthodontic adhesive containing triazine and niobium phosphate bioglass (TAT) around brackets bonded to enamel surfaces. Sixteen volunteers were selected to use intra-oral devices with six metallic brackets bonded to enamel blocks. The experimental orthodontic adhesives were composed by 75% BisGMA and 25% TEGDMA containing 0% TAT and 20% TAT. Transbond XT adhesive (TXT) was used as a control group. Ten volunteers, mean age of 29 years, were included in the study. The six blocks of each volunteer were detached from the appliance after 7 and 14 days to evaluate mineral loss and bacterial growth including total bacteria, total Streptococci, Streptococci mutans, and Lactobacilli. Statistical analysis was performed using GLM model - univariate analysis of variance for microhardness and 2-way ANOVA for bacterial growth (p<0.05). The 20% TAT adhesive caused no difference between distances from bracket and the sound zone at 10-µm deep after 7 and 14 days. After 14 days, higher mineral loss was shown around brackets at 10- to 30-µm deep for TXT and 0% TAT adhesives compared to 20% TAT. S. mutans growth was inhibited by 20% TAT adhesive at 14 days. Adhesive with 20% TAT showed lower S. mutans and total Streptococci growth than 0% TAT and TXT adhesives. The findings of this study show that the adhesive incorporated by triazine and niobium phosphate bioglass had an anti-demineralization effect while inhibiting S. mutans and total Streptococci growth. The use of this product may inhibit mineral loss of enamel, preventing the formation of white spot lesions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Oxides/pharmacology , Phosphates/pharmacology , Streptococcus/drug effects , Tooth Demineralization/prevention & control , Dental Cements/pharmacology , Lactobacillus/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Niobium/pharmacology , Ceramics/pharmacology , Ceramics/chemistry , Double-Blind Method , Dental Cements/chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry
15.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 1103-1107, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762048

ABSTRACT

The incidence of vaccine-type Streptococcus pneumoniae carriage and disease have declined in vaccinated children as well as in unvaccinated children and adults. However, diseases caused by non-vaccine type (NVT) S. pneumoniae are increasing. In this study, we report an invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) caused by NVT multidrug-resistant (MDR) S. pneumoniae transmitted from a vaccinated infant to an unvaccinated healthy woman, and the clinical characteristics of this serotype. A 29-year-old previously healthy woman visited our hospital with fever and headache. She had been breastfeeding her baby for 8 months. She was diagnosed with brain abscess and sinusitis caused by S. pneumoniae. Although the patient had no previous exposure to antibiotics, antibiotic susceptibility test identified the pathogen as MDR. The patient's family members were examined using nasopharyngeal swabs for bacterial culture. The serotype of S. pneumoniae identified from the blood, abscess, and sputum of the patient was 15B/C. After investing the patient's family members, we found that the serotype from nasopharyngeal specimen of her baby was the same. We described an invasive MDR pneumococcal disease in an immunocompetent young adult in the community. IPD likely spread to the patient by close contact with her baby, who harbored S. pneumoniae of NVT. The spread of NVT S. pneumoniae in the post-vaccine era has increased in the community, and resistance pattern for S. pneumoniae of 15B/C changed compared to the pre-pneumococcal conjugate vaccine era. The spread of MDR pathogens causing IPD among family members should be monitored.


Subject(s)
Abscess , Adult , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Brain Abscess , Breast Feeding , Child , Epidural Abscess , Female , Fever , Headache , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Pneumonia , Serogroup , Sinusitis , Sputum , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Streptococcus , Vaccination , Young Adult
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760469

ABSTRACT

Streptococcus pneumoniae causes many people to suffer from pneumonia, septicemia, and other diseases worldwide. To identify the difference in susceptibility of and treatment efficacy against S. pneumoniae in three ICR mouse stocks (Korl: ICR, A:ICR, and B:ICR) with different origins, mice were infected with 2 × 106, 2×107, and 2×108 CFU of S. pneumoniae D39 intratracheally. The survival of mice was observed until three weeks after the infection. The three stocks of mice showed no significant survival rate difference at 2 × 106 and 2 × 107 CFU. However, the lung and spleen weight in the A:ICR stock was significantly different from that in the other two stocks, whereas the liver weight in B:ICR stock was significantly lower than that in the other two stocks. Interestingly, no significant CFU difference in the organs was observed between the ICR stocks. The level of interferon gamma inducible protein 10 in Korl:ICR was significantly lower than that in the other two stocks. The level of granulocyte colony stimulating factor in B:ICR was significantly lower than in the other two stocks. However, tumor-necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6 levels showed no significant difference between the ICR stocks. In the vancomycin efficacy test after the S. pneumoniae infection, both the single-dose and double-dose vancomycin-treated groups showed a significantly better survival rate than the control group. There was no significant survival difference between the three stocks. These data showed that Korl:ICR, A:ICR, and B:ICR have no susceptibility difference to the S. pneumoniae D39 serotype 2.


Subject(s)
Animals , Colony-Stimulating Factors , Granulocytes , Interferons , Interleukin-6 , Liver , Lung , Mice , Mice, Inbred ICR , Pneumonia , Sepsis , Serogroup , Spleen , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Streptococcus , Survival Rate , Treatment Outcome , Vancomycin , Virulence
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764041

ABSTRACT

Streptococcus mutans is one of the important bacteria that forms dental biofilm and cause dental caries. Virulence genes in S. mutans can be classified into the genes involved in bacterial adhesion, extracellular polysaccharide formation, biofilm formation, sugar uptake and metabolism, acid tolerance, and regulation. The genes involved in bacterial adhesion are gbps (gbpA, gbpB, and gbpC) and spaP. The gbp genes encode glucan-binding protein (GBP) A, GBP B, and GBP C. The spaP gene encodes cell surface antigen, SpaP. The genes involved in extracellular polysaccharide formation are gtfs (gtfB, gtfC, and gtfD) and ftf, which encode glycosyltransferase (GTF) B, GTF C, and GTF D and fructosyltransferase, respectively. The genes involved in biofilm formation are smu630, relA, and comDE. The smu630 gene is important for biofilm formation. The relA and comDE genes contribute to quorum-sensing and biofilm formation. The genes involved in sugar uptake and metabolism are eno, ldh, and relA. The eno gene encodes bacterial enolase, which catalyzes the formation of phosphoenolpyruvate. The ldh gene encodes lactic acid dehydrogenase. The relA gene contributes to the regulation of the glucose phosphotransferase system. The genes related to acid tolerance are atpD, aguD, brpA, and relA. The atpD gene encodes F1F0-ATPase, a proton pump that discharges H⁺ from within the bacterium to the outside. The aguD gene encodes agmatine deiminase system and produces alkali to overcome acid stress. The genes involved in regulation are vicR, brpA, and relA.


Subject(s)
Agmatine , Alkalies , Antigens, Surface , Bacteria , Bacterial Adhesion , Biofilms , Dental Caries , Glucose , Lactic Acid , Metabolism , Oxidoreductases , Phosphoenolpyruvate , Phosphopyruvate Hydratase , Proton Pumps , Streptococcus mutans , Streptococcus , Virulence
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741987

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Biofilm formation is critical to dental caries initiation and development. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of nicotine exposure on Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) biofilm formation concomitantly with the inhibitory effects of sodium chloride (NaCl), potassium chloride (KCl) and potassium iodide (KI) salts. This study examined bacterial growth with varying concentrations of NaCl, KCl, and KI salts and nicotine levels consistent with primary levels of nicotine exposure. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A preliminary screening experiment was performed to investigate the appropriate concentrations of NaCl, KCl, and KI to use with nicotine. With the data, a S. mutans biofilm growth assay was conducted using nicotine (0–32 mg/mL) in Tryptic Soy broth supplemented with 1% sucrose with and without 0.45 M of NaCl, 0.23 M of KCl, and 0.113 M of KI. The biofilm was stained with crystal violet dye and the absorbance measured to determine biofilm formation. RESULTS: The presence of 0.45 M of NaCl, 0.23 M of KCl, and 0.113 M of KI significantly inhibited (p < 0.05) nicotine-induced S. mutans biofilm formation by 52%, 79.7%, and 64.1%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The results provide additional evidence regarding the biofilm-enhancing effects of nicotine and demonstrate the inhibitory influence of these salts in reducing the nicotine-induced biofilm formation. A short-term exposure to these salts may inhibit S. mutans biofilm formation.


Subject(s)
Biofilms , Dental Caries , Gentian Violet , Mass Screening , Nicotine , Potassium Chloride , Potassium Iodide , Salts , Sodium Chloride , Streptococcus mutans , Streptococcus , Sucrose
19.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741875

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We investigated the distribution and antimicrobial resistance of pneumococcal isolates from hospitalized children at Asan Medical Center for recent 4 years, and aimed to recommend proper choice of empirical antibiotics for pneumococcal infection. METHODS: From March 2014 to May 2018, children admitted to Asan Medical Center Childrens' Hospital with pneumococcal infection were subjected for evaluation of minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) for β-lactams and macrolide antibiotics. Patient's age, underlying disease, gender were retrospectively collected. Using Monte Carlo simulation model and MIC from our study, we predicted the rate of treatment success with amoxicillin treatment. RESULTS: Sixty-three isolates were analyzed including 20.6% (n=13) of invasive isolates, and 79.4% (n=50) of non-invasive isolates; median age were 3.3 years old, and 87.3% of the pneumococcal infections occurred to children with underlying disease. Overall susceptibility rate was 49.2%, 68.2%, and 74.6% for amoxicillin, parenteral penicillin, and cefotaxime respectively. 23.8% and 9.5% of the isolates showed high resistance for amoxicillin, and cefotaxime. Only 4.8% (n=3) were susceptible to erythromycin. Monte Carlo simulation model revealed the likelihood of treatment success was 46.0% at the dosage of 90 mg/kg/day of amoxicillin. CONCLUSIONS: Recent pneumococcal isolates from pediatric patients with underlying disease revealed high resistance for amoxicillin and cefotaxime, and high resistance for erythromycin. Prudent choice of antibiotics based on the local data of resistance cannot be emphasized enough, especially in high risk patients with underlying disease, and timely vaccination should be implemented for prevention of the spread of resistant strains.


Subject(s)
Amoxicillin , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Cefotaxime , Child , Child, Hospitalized , Erythromycin , Humans , Penicillins , Pneumococcal Infections , Retrospective Studies , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Streptococcus , Vaccination
20.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786527

ABSTRACT

Streptococcus dysgalactiae has two main subspecies: S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis (SDSE) and S. dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae (SDSD). SDSE often colonizes and causes infections in humans; however, SDSD is an animal pathogen which often causes pyogenic infection in domestic animals. We present a case of meningitis with SDSD and herpes simplex virus in a 22-day-old newborn baby who had no exposure to animals.


Subject(s)
Animals , Animals, Domestic , Bacteria , Colon , Herpes Simplex , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Meningitis , Simplexvirus , Streptococcal Infections , Streptococcus
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