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1.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 118(3): 634-645, mar. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364356

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento Embora se saiba que a fração de ejeção (FE) do ventrículo esquerdo (VE) medida por eletrocardiograma seja preservada em pacientes com acromegalia, não há informação suficiente sobre deformação longitudinal global e deformação do átrio esquerdo (SLG-VE e SAE). Objetivo O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar as funções do ventrículo esquerdo (VE) e do átrio esquerdo (AE) por ecocardiograma strain (ES) em pacientes com acromegalia. Métodos Este estudo incluiu 50 pacientes com acromegalia na forma ativa da doença e 50 controles saudáveis com idade, sexo e área de superfície corporal similares. Além dos ecocardiogramas de rotina, medições de SLG-VE e SAE foram realizadas com o ES. Resultados Os valores dos SAE e SLG-VE foram significativamente mais baixos em pacientes com acromegalia (p<0,05 para todos). Na análise bivariada, a pressão arterial sistólica, o pró-hormônio N-terminal do peptídeo natriurético cerebral, o fator de crescimento semelhante à insulina tipo 1, e detectou-se que os níveis de IMVE tinham correlação positiva com SAE e SLG-VE (p<0,05). O nível de IGF-1 tinha forte correlação com SAE e SLG-VE (p<0,001 e β=0,5 vs. p<0,001 e β=0,626, respectivamente); 48% dos pacientes com acromegalia têm SLG-VE reduzido (<20%). O índice de massa do ventrículo esquerdo (IMVE) determina independentemente a presença de SLG-VE reduzido, e cada 1g/m2 de aumento no nível de IMVE aumenta a probabilidade de redução de SLG-VE em 6%. Conclusão Embora a fração de ejeção de VE seja normal em pacientes com acromegalia, os valores de SAE e SLG-VE são significativamente mais baixos. Além do aumento em IMVE, outro achado do envolvimento cardíaco pode ser a redução de SAE e SLG-VE. Portanto, além do ecocardiograma de rotina, SAE e SLG-VE podem ser úteis para avaliar os sinais iniciais de envolvimento cardíaco antes da ocorrência de alterações cardíacas irreversíveis.


Abstract Background Although it is known that the left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (EF) measured by echocardiography is preserved in patients with acromegaly, there is not enough information about the LV and left atrial strain (LV-GLS and LAS). Objective This study aimed to evaluate the left ventricular (LV) and left atrial (LA) functions with strain echocardiography (SE) in patients with acromegaly. Methods This study included 50 acromegaly patients with active disease and 50 healthy controls with similar age, gender, and body surface area. In addition to routine echocardiography examinations, LV-GLS and LAS measurements were performed with SE. Results LAS and LV-GLS values were significantly lower in patients with acromegaly (p<0.05 for all). In bivariate analysis, systolic blood pressure, N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide, Insulin-like growth factor-1, LA diastolic diameter, and LVMI levels were found to be positively correlated with both LAS and LV-GLS (p <0.05). IGF-1 level was strongly correlated with LAS and LV-GLS (p<0.001 and β=0.5 vs. p<0.001 and β=0.626, respectively); 48% of patients with acromegaly have reduced LV-GLS (<20%). Left ventricular mass-index (LVMI) independently determines the presence of reduced LV-GLS and each 1g/m2increase in LVMI level increases the likelihood of reduced LV-GLS by 6%. Conclusion Although LV ejection fraction is normal in patients with acromegaly, LAS and LV-GLS values were significantly reduced. Apart from LVMI increase, another finding of cardiac involvement may be LAS and LV-GLS decrease. Therefore, in addition to routine echocardiography, LAS and LV-GLS may be useful to evaluate early signs of cardiac involvement before the occurrence of irreversible cardiac changes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Acromegaly/complications , Acromegaly/diagnostic imaging , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/etiology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/diagnostic imaging , Stroke Volume/physiology , Echocardiography , Ventricular Function, Left/physiology
2.
Arch. cardiol. Méx ; 90(4): 420-426, Oct.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1152816

ABSTRACT

Resumen Objetivos: Evaluar la prevalencia de DD de acuerdo con los criterios de las guías del 2009 y 2016, y su relación con la distensibilidad arterial sistémica (DAS) y la resistencia vascular periférica (RVP). Material y métodos: Se analizó a 306 pacientes ≥ 40 años de edad, con fracción de expulsión ≥ 50%. Se calcularon en todos DAS y RVP. Resultados: La prevalencia de DD fue de 32.7% y 22.9% según las guías de 2009 y 2016, respectivamente (p = < 0.0001). De acuerdo con las guías del 2009, los pacientes con DD presentaron una media de DAS menor que aquéllos con función normal (p = 0.0001), de modo similar a las guías del 2016 (p = 0.0007). La DD, según las guías de 2009 y 2016, mostró valores más altos de RVP que los normales (p = 0.005 y p = 0.018, respectivamente). Asimismo, la DD fue predictora, en el análisis univariado, de DAS < 0.60 ml.mm Hg-1 y RVP > 1,400 mmHg.min.l-1 según ambas guías. En el análisis multivariado, la DD, de acuerdo con las guías del 2009, persistió como predictor independiente de RVP > 1,400 mmHg.min.l-1. Conclusión: Las guías del 2016 reducen la prevalencia de DD. Ésta, tanto en las guías del 2009 como en las del 2106, fue predictor univariado de DAS < 0.60 ml.mmHg-1 y RVP > 1,400 mmHg.min.l-1. La DD, de acuerdo con las guías de 2009, resultó predictora independiente de RVP > 1,400 mmHg.min.l-1.


Abstract Objectives: To assess the prevalence of developmental disabilities (DD) according to the criteria of the 2009 and 2016 guidelines, and its association with systemic arterial compliance (DAS) and peripheral vascular resistance (RVP). Material and methods: 306 patients aged ≥ 40 years, with ejection fraction ≥ 50% were analyzed. It was estimated in all DAS and RVP. Results: The prevalence of DD was 32.7% and 22.9% according to the 2009 and 2016 guidelines, respectively (p ≤ 0.0001). Patients with DD according to the 2009 guideline had a lower average of DAS than those with normal function (p = 0.0001). Similar with the 2016 guide (p = 0.0007). The presence of DD according to the 2009 and 2016 guideline showed higher RVP values than normal values (p = 0.005 and p = 0.018, respectively). The DD according to both guidelines was a predictor, in the univariate analysis, of DAS < 0.60 ml.mmHg−1 and RVP > 1400 mmHg.min.l−1. The DD according to the 2009 guideline persisted as an independent predictor, in the multivariate analysis, of RVP > 1400 mmHg.min.l−1. Conclusion: The 2016 guide decreases the prevalence of DD. The DD, both from the 2009 and 2106 guidelines, were univariate predictors of DAS <0.60 ml.mmHg−1 and RVP > 1400 mmHg.min.l−1. The DD according to the 2009 guide, was an independent predictor of RVP > 1400 mmHg.min.l−1.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Vascular Resistance/physiology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/physiopathology , Diastole/physiology , Stroke Volume/physiology , Prevalence , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/epidemiology , Hemodynamics
3.
Arch. cardiol. Méx ; 90(4): 406-414, Oct.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1152814

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción y objetivos: La insuficiencia valvular mitral provoca el vaciado simultáneo hacia la aorta y la aurícula izquierda durante la sístole ventricular, lo que produce una disminución del volumen hacia la circulación sistémica. En este estudio se busca obtener un dato preciso del porcentaje de volumen expulsado en sentido anterógrado en pacientes con insuficiencia mitral. Métodos: Se aplica una fórmula ecocardiográfica de “corrección” de la fracción de expulsión del ventrículo izquierdo (FEVI) en 114 pacientes con insuficiencia mitral, con base en la medición de la fracción regurgitante. Resultados: La corrección de la FEVI demostró que el 44.7% de los casos (n = 51) debe reclasificarse en cuanto a la calidad de su función sistólica ventricular izquierda. De 79 sujetos con FEVI normal (≥ 50%) sólo se mantuvieron 32 en la misma categoría; en el grupo con FEVI moderadamente reducida (intervalo intermedio, 40-49.9%) se pasó de 6 a 23 casos y, en aquéllos con FEVI reducida (< 40%), el grupo aumentó de 29 a 59; el subgrupo de pacientes con FEVI < 30% se incrementó de 21 a 41 sujetos. Conclusiones: Puesto que en la mayoría de las guías de tratamiento la FEVI se usa para estratificar riesgos e indicaciones terapéuticas, los autores creen que la ponderación de la insuficiencia mitral puede incrementar la precisión del tratamiento y la posibilidad de incluir a pacientes que no están considerados en esos tratamientos en el momento actual.


Abstract Introduction and objectives: Mitral valve regurgitation causes simultaneous emptying to the aorta and left atrium during ventricular systole, generating a decrease in volume supply to the systemic circulation. In this study we seek to obtain an accurate data on the percentage of volume expelled in the anterograde direction in patients with mitral regurgitation. Methods: An echocardiographic formula for “correction” of the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was applied in 114 patients with mitral regurgitation, based on the measurement of the regurgitant fraction. Results: Correction of the LVEF showed that 44.7% of cases (n = 51) should be reclassified in terms of the quality of their left ventricular systolic function. Of 79 subjects with normal LVEF (≥ 50%) only 32 remained in the same category; in the group with moderately reduced LVEF (medium range, 40-49.9%) it went from 6 to 23 cases and, in those with reduced LVEF (< 40%), the group increased from 29 to 59; the subgroup of patients with LVEF < 30% increased from 21 to 41 subjects. Conclusions: Given that in most treatment guidelines LVEF is used to stratify risks and therapeutic indications, the authors believe that the weighting of mitral regurgitation can increase the accuracy of treatment, and the possibility of including patients who, at this current moment, are not considered for these therapies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Stroke Volume/physiology , Echocardiography , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/diagnostic imaging , Mitral Valve Insufficiency/physiopathology , Ventricular Function, Left/physiology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/physiopathology , Mitral Valve Insufficiency/diagnostic imaging
4.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 114(2): 209-218, Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1088870

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with increased mortality in heart failure (HF) patients. Objective: To evaluate whether the risk of AF patients can be precisely stratified by relation with cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) cut-offs for heart transplantation (HT) selection. Methods: Prospective evaluation of 274 consecutive HF patients with left ventricular ejection fraction ≤ 40%. The primary endpoint was a composite of cardiac death or urgent HT in 1-year follow-up. The primary endpoint was analysed by several CPET parameters for the highest area under the curve and for positive (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) in AF and sinus rhythm (SR) patients to detect if the current cut-offs for HT selection can precisely stratify the AF group. Statistical differences with a p-value <0.05 were considered significant. Results: There were 51 patients in the AF group and 223 in the SR group. The primary outcome was higher in the AF group (17.6% vs 8.1%, p = 0.038). The cut-off value of pVO2 for HT selection showed a PPV of 100% and an NPV of 95.5% for the primary outcome in the AF group, with a PPV of 38.5% and an NPV of 94.3% in the SR group. The cut-off value of VE/VCO2 slope showed lower values of PPV (33.3%) and similar NPV (92.3%) to pVO2 results in the AF group. Conclusion: Despite the fact that AF carries a worse prognosis for HF patients, the current cut-off of pVO2 for HT selection can precisely stratify this high-risk group.


Resumo Fundamento: A fibrilação atrial (FA) está associada ao aumento da mortalidade em pacientes com insuficiência cardíaca (IC). Objetivo: Avaliar se o risco de pacientes com FA pode ser estratificado com precisão em relação aos pontos de corte do teste de esforço cardiopulmonar (TECP) para seleção do transplante cardíaco (TC). Métodos: Avaliação prospectiva de 274 pacientes consecutivos com IC com fração de ejeção do ventrículo esquerdo ≤ 40%. O endpoint primário foi um composto de morte cardíaca ou TC urgente no seguimento de 1 ano. O endpoint primário foi analisado através de vários parâmetros do TECP para a maior área sob a curva e para o valor preditivo positivo (VPP) e negativo (VPN) em pacientes com FA e ritmo sinusal (RS) para detectar se os atuais pontos de corte para a seleção de TC podem estratificar com precisão o grupo com FA. Diferenças estatísticas com valor de p < 0,05 foram consideradas significativas. Resultados: Havia 51 pacientes no grupo de FA e 223 no grupo RS. O endpoint primário foi maior no grupo FA (17,6% vs. 8,1%, p = 0,038). O valor de corte de pVO2 para a seleção do TC mostrou um VPP de 100% e um VPN de 95,5% para o endpoint primário no grupo FA, com um VPP de 38,5% e um VPN de 94,3% no grupo RS. O valor de corte da inclinação VE/VCO2 apresentou valores mais baixos de VPP (33,3%) e valor semelhante de VPN (92,3%) aos resultados de pVO2 no grupo FA. Conclusões: Apesar do fato de a FA apresentar um pior prognóstico para os pacientes com IC, o atual ponto de corte de pVO2 para a seleção de TC pode estratificar com precisão esse grupo de alto risco.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Atrial Fibrillation/physiopathology , Atrial Fibrillation/mortality , Risk Assessment/standards , Exercise Test/standards , Heart Failure/physiopathology , Oxygen/metabolism , Oxygen Consumption/physiology , Prognosis , Reference Standards , Stroke Volume/physiology , Time Factors , Proportional Hazards Models , Multivariate Analysis , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Follow-Up Studies , Statistics, Nonparametric , Exercise Test/methods , Heart Failure/mortality
7.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 53(7): e9646, 2020. graf
Article in English | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1132528

ABSTRACT

Heart failure (HF) with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is a clinical syndrome in which patients have symptoms and signs of HF with normal or near-normal left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF ≥50%). Roughly half of all patients with HF worldwide have an LVEF ≥50% and nearly half have an LVEF <50%. Thanks to the increased scientific attention about the condition and improved characterization and diagnostic tools, the incidence of HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) dropped while that of HFpEF has increased by 45%. HFpEF has no single guideline for diagnosis or treatment, the patient population is heterogeneously and inconsistently described, and longitudinal studies are lacking. To better understand and overcome the disease, in this review, we updated the latest knowledge of HFpEF pathophysiology, introduced the existing promising diagnostic methods and treatments, and summarized its prognosis by reviewing the most recent cohort studies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Stroke Volume/physiology , Ventricular Function, Left/physiology , Heart Failure/diagnosis , Heart Failure/physiopathology , Heart Failure/therapy , Prognosis
8.
Arch. cardiol. Méx ; 89(4): 360-368, Oct.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1149094

ABSTRACT

Resumen La insuficiencia cardíaca (IC) es un problema de salud pública global con más de 37 millones de individuos afectados en el mundo. La insuficiencia cardíaca con fracción de expulsión preservada (ICFEp) representa una categoría cada vez más frecuente en la práctica clínica, constituye hasta el 60% de los casos y presenta diferencias importantes en el diagnóstico y tratamiento en comparación con la insuficiencia cardíaca y la fracción de expulsión reducida. Esta revisión de ICFEp expone la epidemiología, delimita los principales factores de riesgo y mecanismos fisiopatológicos, identifica las características clínicas/paraclínicas y los criterios diagnósticos, y finaliza con un llamado para realizar investigación en este país.


Abstract Heart failure is a global public health problem, with more than 37 million patients living with heart failure around the world. Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction is an increasingly common category (approximately 60% of the cases) and shows remarkable differences in diagnosis and treatment when compared with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. The current review covers epidemiology, risk factors, pathophysiologic mechanisms, clinical and paraclinical characteristics and diagnostic criteria of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction and concludes with a plea for original research in our country.


Subject(s)
Humans , Stroke Volume/physiology , Heart Failure/physiopathology , Public Health , Global Health , Risk Factors , Heart Failure/diagnosis , Heart Failure/epidemiology
9.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 113(4): 677-684, Oct. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038580

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is the most common heart disease of genetic origin in the world population, with a prevalence of at least 1/500. The association with systemic arterial hypertension (SAH) is not uncommon, as it affects approximately 25% of the world population. Most studies aim at the differential diagnosis between these diseases, but little is known about the magnitude of this association. Objective: To compare left ventricular global longitudinal strain (GLS) in HCM patients with and without associated SAH. Methods: Retrospective cross-sectional study that included 45 patients with HCM and preserved ejection fraction, with diagnosis confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging, including 14 hypertensive patients. Transthoracic echocardiography was performed, with emphasis on left ventricular myocardial strain analysis using GLS. In this study, p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Left ventricular strain was significantly lower in hypertensive individuals compared to normotensive individuals (-10.29 ± 2.46 vs. -12.35% ± 3.55%, p = 0.0303), indicating greater impairment of ventricular function in that group. Mean age was also significantly higher in hypertensive patients (56.1 ± 13.9 vs. 40.2 ± 12.7 years, p = 0.0001). Diastolic dysfunction was better characterized in hypertensive patients (p = 0.0242). Conclusion: Myocardial strain was significantly lower in the group of patients with HCM and SAH, suggesting greater impairment of ventricular function. This finding may be related to a worse prognosis with early evolution to heart failure. Prospective studies are required to confirm this hypothesis.


Resumo Fundamentos: A cardiomiopatia hipertrófica (CMH) é a doença cardíaca de origem genética mais frequente na população mundial, com prevalência de, pelo menos, 1/500. A associação com hipertensão arterial sistêmica (HAS) não é incomum, uma vez que esta acomete aproximadamente 25% da população mundial. A maioria dos estudos objetiva o diagnóstico diferencial entre essas doenças, mas pouco se sabe sobre a magnitude dessa associação. Objetivo: Comparar o strain longitudinal global (SLG) do ventrículo esquerdo em pacientes portadores de CMH com e sem HAS associada. Métodos: Estudo transversal retrospectivo que incluiu 45 pacientes portadores de CMH e fração de ejeção preservada, com diagnóstico confirmado por ressonância magnética, sendo 14 hipertensos. Realizada avaliação ecocardiográfica transtorácica com ênfase na análise da deformação miocárdica do ventrículo esquerdo por meio do SLG. Valores de p < 0,05 foram considerados estatisticamente significativos. Resultados: A deformação do ventrículo esquerdo foi significativamente menor nos hipertensos quando comparada aos normotensos (-10,29 ± 2,46 vs. -12,35% ± 3,55%, p = 0,0303), indicando maior comprometimento da função ventricular naquele grupo. A média de idade também foi significativamente maior nos hipertensos (56,1 ± 13,9 vs. 40,2 ± 12,7 anos, p = 0,0001). A disfunção diastólica foi melhor caracterizada nos pacientes hipertensos (p = 0,0242). Conclusão: A deformação miocárdica foi significativamente menor no grupo de pacientes com CMH e HAS, sugerindo maior comprometimento da função ventricular. Esse achado pode estar relacionado a um pior prognóstico com evolução precoce para insuficiência cardíaca. Estudos prospectivos são necessários para confirmar essa hipótese.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Cardiomyopathy, Hypertrophic/physiopathology , Ventricular Function, Left/physiology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/physiopathology , Hypertension/physiopathology , Prognosis , Reference Values , Stroke Volume/physiology , Cardiomyopathy, Hypertrophic/diagnostic imaging , Echocardiography , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/diagnostic imaging , Statistics, Nonparametric
10.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 113(4): 737-745, Oct. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038572

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Most cardiovascular abnormalities in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have been associated with myocardial damage directly caused by the virus. Some cases, however, may be associated with adverse effects from antiretroviral therapy (ART). New ventricular function assessment techniques are capable of detecting early changes in the cardiac function of HIV-infected patients using or not using ART. The usefulness of these techniques has been little employed in these patients. Objectives: To investigate the potential influence of antiretroviral therapy (ART) on the occurrence of subclinical left ventricular systolic dysfunction evaluated by myocardial strain rate analysis using two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography (2-D Echo) in treated HIV patients compared to untreated patients and healthy individuals. Methods: Sixty-eight HIV-infected patients with no cardiovascular symptoms, normal left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (> 0.55 on 2-D Echo) were divided into three groups: 11 patients not using antiretroviral therapy (NT), 24 using protease inhibitor (PI) and 33 using non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI). We also studied 30 normal non-HIV infected individuals (Ctrl). Demographic, clinical, biochemical and anthropometric data were collected. Preliminary transthoracic echocardiography included study of myocardial strain using two-dimensional speckle tracking. We studied strain and strain rate in the seventeen left ventricular (LV) myocardial segments in the longitudinal, circumferential and radial axes. Statistical analysis of the data was done with IBM SPSS - version 20 for Windows. Upon analysis of the data, namely the normality of independent variables in the different groups and the homogeneity of the variances between the groups, Kruskal-Wallis' non-parametric test was done, followed by Dunn's multiple comparison tests to test the significance of the differences between the values measured in the study groups. A significance level of 5% was adopted for decision-making on statistical tests. Results: The mean age of HIV patients was 40 ± 8.65 years and the mean age of controls was 50 ± 11.6 years (p < 0.001). Median LV global longitudinal strain (GLS) of NT patients (-17.70%), PI patients (-18.27%) and NNRTIs (-18.47%) were significantly lower than that of the Ctrl group (-20.77%; p = 0.001). There was no significant difference in mean SLG between treated patients (PI, NNRTI) and untreated (NT) patients. No significant differences were observed in mean circumferential and radial strain, nor on circumferential and radial strain rates between the NT, PI, NNRTI and Ctrl groups. Conclusion: The data suggest that HIV patients present, on myocardial strain measured by speckle tracking, signs of early LV systolic dysfunction that seem to be unrelated to the presence of ART. The prognostic significance of this condition in these patients deserves further studies.


Resumo Fundamento: A maior parte das alterações cardiovasculares dos pacientes infectados pelo vírus da imunodeficiência humana (HIV) tem sido associada ao dano miocárdico causado diretamente pelo vírus. Alguns casos, porém, podem estar associados a efeitos adversos da terapia antirretroviral (TARV). Novas técnicas de avaliação da função ventricular são capazes de detectar modificações precoces na função cardíaca do paciente infectado pelo HIV em uso ou não de TARV. A utilidade dessas técnicas tem sido pouco empregada nesses pacientes. Objetivos: Investigar possível influência da terapia antirretroviral (TARV) na ocorrência de disfunção sistólica ventricular esquerda subclínica avaliada pela análise da taxa de deformação miocárdica (strain) por meio do speckle tracking ao ecocardiograma bidimensional (E2D) em pacientes portadores do HIV tratados, comparados com pacientes não tratados e indivíduos saudáveis. Métodos: Sessenta e oito pacientes infectados pelo HIV assintomáticos do ponto de vista cardiovascular, com fração de ejeção do ventrículo esquerdo (VE) normal (>0,55 pelo E2D) foram divididos em três grupos: 11 pacientes sem tratamento antirretroviral (ST), 24 em uso de inibidor de protease (IP) e 33 em uso de inibidor de transcriptase reversa não nucleosídeo (ITRNN). Foram estudados também 30 indivíduos normais não infectados pelo HIV (Ctrl). Foram coletados dados demográficos, clínicos, bioquímicos e antropométricos. A ecocardiografia transtorácica foi realizada incluindo no estudo inicial o estudo da deformação miocárdica pela técnica bidimensional (speckle tracking). Estudamos o strain e a sua taxa de deformação (strain rate) nos dezessete segmentos miocárdicos do ventrículo esquerdo (VE) nos eixos longitudinal, circunferencial e radial. A análise estatística dos dados foi feita com o programa IBM SPSS - versão 20 para Windows. Depois de analisados os dados, nomeadamente a normalidade das variáveis independentes nos diferentes grupos e a homogeneidade das variâncias entre os grupos, decidiu-se utilizar o teste não paramétrico de Kruskal-Wallis seguido dos testes de comparações múltiplas pelo procedimento de Dunn, para testar a significância das diferenças entre os valores medidos nos grupos em estudo. Foi considerado o nível de significância de 5% para a tomada de decisão nos testes estatísticos realizados. Resultados: A média das idades dos pacientes com HIV foi de 40 ± 8,65 anos e a idade média dos controles foi de 50 ± 11,6 anos (p < 0,001). Os valores medianos do strain longitudinal global do VE (SLG) dos pacientes ST (-17.70%), dos pacientes IP (-18.27%) e ITRNN (-18.47%) foram significativamente menores do que o grupo Ctrl (-20,77%; p = 0,001). Não houve diferença significante nos valores médios do SLGentre os pacientes tratados (IP, ITRNN) e não tratados (ST). Não foram observadas diferenças significantes nos valores médios do strain circunferencial e radial, nem nas taxas de deformação circunferencial e radial entre os grupos ST, IP, ITRNN e Ctrl. Conclusão: Os dados sugerem que pacientes com HIV apresentam, à análise da deformação miocárdica ao speckle tracking, sinais de disfunção sistólica incipiente do VE que parece não ter relação com a presença de TARV. O significado prognóstico dessa alteração nesses pacientes merece estudos futuros.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , HIV Infections/physiopathology , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/physiopathology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/diagnostic imaging , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active/methods , Reference Values , Stroke Volume/physiology , Echocardiography/methods , Case-Control Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Reproducibility of Results , Statistics, Nonparametric
11.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 34(5): 535-541, Sept.-Oct. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042052

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is defined as an association between diabetes, hypertension, obesity and dyslipidemia and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Mitral annular calcification (MAC) is associated with several cardiovascular disorders, including coronary artery disease, atrial fibrillation (AF), heart failure, ischemic stroke and increased mortality. The CHA2DS2-VASc score is used to estimate thromboembolic risk in AF. However, the association among MAC, MetS and thromboembolic risk is unknown and was evaluated in the current study. Methods: The study group consisted of 94 patients with MAC and 86 patients with MetS. Patients were divided into two groups: those with and those without MAC. Results: Patients with MAC had a higher MetS rate (P<0.001). In patients with MAC, the CHA2DS2-VASc scores and the rate of cerebrovascular accident and AF were significantly higher compared to those without MAC (P<0.001, for both parameters). The results of the multivariate regression analysis showed that history of smoking, presence of MetS and high CHA2DS2-VASc scores were associated with the development of MAC. ROC curve analyses showed that CHA2DS2-VASc scores were significant predictors for MAC (C-statistic: 0.78; 95% CI: 0.706-0.855, P<0.001). Correlation analysis indicated that MAC was positively correlated with the presence of MetS and CHA2DS2-VASc score (P=0.001, r=0.264; P<0.001, r=0.490). Conclusion: We have shown that CHA2DS2-VASc score and presence of MetS rates were significantly higher in patients with MAC compared without MAC. Presence of MAC was correlated with CHA2DS2-VASc score, presence of MetS, AF and left atrial diameter and negatively correlated with left ventricular ejection fraction.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Thromboembolism/etiology , Calcinosis/complications , Heart Valve Diseases/complications , Mitral Valve/physiopathology , Atrial Fibrillation/physiopathology , Stroke Volume/physiology , Thromboembolism/physiopathology , Calcinosis/physiopathology , Echocardiography , Logistic Models , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Sensitivity and Specificity , Statistics, Nonparametric , Risk Assessment/methods , Metabolic Syndrome/complications , Metabolic Syndrome/physiopathology , Heart Valve Diseases/physiopathology
12.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 113(2): 188-194, Aug. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019397

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Left ventricular global longitudinal strain value (GLS) can predict functional capacity in patients with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) heart failure (HF) and to assess prognosis in reduced LVEF HF. Objetive: Correlate GLS with parameters of Cardiopulmonary Exercise Test (CPET) and to assess if they could predict systolic HF patients that are more appropriated to be referred to heart transplantation according to CPET criteria. Methods: Systolic HF patients with LVEF < 45%, NYHA functional class II and III, underwent prospectively CPET and echocardiography with strain analysis. LVEF and GLS were correlated with the following CPET variables: maxVO2, VE/VCO2 slope, heart rate reduction during the first minute of recovery (HRR) and time needed to reduce maxVO2 in 50% after physical exercise (T1/2VO2). ROC curve analysis of GLS to predict VO2 < 14 mL/kg/min and VE/VCO2 slope > 35 (heart transplantation's criteria) was performed. Results: Twenty six patients were selected (age, 47 ± 12 years, 58% men, mean LVEF = 28 ± 8%). LVEF correlated only with maxVO2 and T1/2VO2. GLS correlated to all CPET variables (maxVO2: r = 0.671, p = 0.001; VE/VCO2 slope: r = -0.513, p = 0.007; HRR: r = 0.466, p = 0.016, and T1/2VO2: r = -0.696, p = 0.001). GLS area under the ROC curve to predict heart transplantation's criteria was 0.88 (sensitivity 75%, specificity 83%) for a cut-off value of -5.7%, p = 0.03. Conclusion: GLS was significantly associated with all functional CPET parameters. It could classify HF patients according to the functional capacity and may stratify which patients have a poor prognosis and therefore to deserve more differentiated treatment, such as heart transplantation.


Resumo Fundamento: O strain longitudinal global (SLG) é capaz de predizer a capacidade funcional dos pacientes com insuficiência cardíaca (IC) e fração de ejeção do ventrículo esquerdo (FEVE) preservada, e avaliar o prognóstico na IC com FEVE reduzida. Objetivo: Correlacionar o SLG com parâmetros do teste de exercício cardiopulmonar (TECP), e avaliar se o SLG seria capaz de predizer quais pacientes com IC sistólica deveriam ser encaminhados ao transplante cardíaco de acordo com os critérios do TECP. Métodos: Os pacientes com IC sistólica com FEVE <45%, classe funcional NYHA II e III, submeteram-se prospectivamente ao TECP e à ecocardiografia com análise do strain. A FEVE e o SLG foram correlacionados com as seguintes variáveis do TECP: maxVO2, inclinação de VE/VCO2, redução da frequência cardíaca durante o primeiro minuto de recuperação (RFC), e tempo necessário para a redução do maxVO2 em 50% após o exercício físico (T1/2VO2). Foi realizada análise da curva ROC do SLG em predizer um VO2 < 14 mL/kg/min e uma inclinação de VE/VCO2 > 35 (critérios para transplante cardíaco). O nível de significância adotado na análise estatística foi de p < 0,05. Resultados: Vinte e seis pacientes foram selecionados para o estudo (idade, 47±12 anos, 58% homens, FEVE média LVEF = 28 ± 8%). A FEVE correlacionou-se somente com o maxVO2 e o T1/2VO2. O SLG correlacionou-se com todas as variáveis do TECP (maxVO2: r = 0,671; p = 0,001; inclinação de VE/VCO2: r = -0,513; p = 0,007; RFC: r = 0,466; p = 0,016; e T1/2VO2: r = -0,696, p = 0,001). A área sob a curva ROC para o SLG para predizer os critérios para transplante cardíaco foi de 0,88 (sensibilidade 75%, especificidade 83%) para um ponto de corte de -5,7%, p = 0,03. Conclusão: O SLG apresentou associação significativa com todos os parâmetros funcionais do TECP. O SLG foi capaz de classificar os pacientes com IC segundo capacidade funcional e possivelmente pode identificar quais pacientes têm um prognóstico ruim e, portanto, se beneficiariam de um tratamento diferenciado, tal como o transplante cardíaco.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Exercise/physiology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/physiopathology , Exercise Test/methods , Heart Failure, Systolic/physiopathology , Oxygen/metabolism , Oxygen Consumption/physiology , Prognosis , Reference Values , Stroke Volume/physiology , Time Factors , Echocardiography/methods , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , ROC Curve , Heart Transplantation , Statistics, Nonparametric , Risk Assessment , Heart Rate/physiology
13.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 113(2): 207-215, Aug. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019395

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Myocardial performance index (MPI), demonstrates both systolic and diastolic functions of the left ventricle. Presystolic wave (PSW) is frequently detected on Doppler examination of the left ventricular outflow tract and possible mechanism of PSW is impaired LV compliance and left ventricular stiffness. Objective: To investigate the relationship between PSW and MPI in type 2 diabetic patients. Method: A total of 129 type 2 diabetic patients were included in this study. Patients were divided into two groups according to the presence of PSW on Doppler echocardiography. There were 90 patients (38 male, mean age 57.77 ± 10.91 years) in the PSW-positive group and 39 patients (13 male; mean age: 55.31 ± 11.29 years) in the PSW-negative group. The p values of < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: MPI was higher in PSW- positive group (0.63 ± 0.17vs 0.52 ± 0.13, p < 0.001). In addition, subclinical left ventricle dysfunction (LVD) was higher in the PSW- positive group (p = 0.029). Univariate analysis showed that the presence of PSW associated with abnormal MPI (p = 0.031). Pearson correlation analysis showed that PSW velocity correlated with MPI (r: 0.286, p = 0.006). Conclusion: Presence of the PSW on Doppler examination was associated with subclinical LV dysfunction in patients with DM type 2. This easy-to-perform echocardiographic parameter may be related to subclinical LVD among patients with type 2 DM.


Resumo Fundamento: O índice de performance miocárdica (IPM) avalia as funções sistólica e diastólica do ventrículo esquerdo. A onda pressistólica (OPS) é geralmente detectada no exame Doppler da via de saída do ventrículo esquerdo e seus possíveis mecanismos são complacência prejudicada e rigidez do ventrículo esquerdo. Objetivo: Investigar a relação entre OPS e IPM em pacientes com diabetes tipo 2. Método: 129 pacientes com diabetes tipo 2 foram incluídos no estudo. Os sujeitos foram alocados em dois grupos, com base na presença de OPS no exame ecocardiográfico com Doppler. Foram incluídos 90 pacientes (38 homens, idade média 57,77 ± 10,91 anos) no grupo OPS-positiva e 39 pacientes (13 homens; idade média 55,31 ± 11,29 anos) no grupo OPS-negativa. Valor de p < 0,05 foi considerado para significância estatística. Resultados: O IPM foi mais alto no grupo OPS-positiva (0,63 ± 0,17 vs 0,52 ± 0,13, p < 0,001). Além disso, a disfunção ventricular esquerda subclínica (DVE) foi maior no grupo OPS-positiva (p = 0,029). Análise univariada mostrou associação de OPS com IPM anormal (p = 0,031), assim como o coeficiente de correlação de Pearson mostrou correlação entre velocidade de OPS e IPM (r: 0,286, p = 0,006). Conclusão: Presença de OPS na ecocardiografia com Doppler foi associada à DVE subclínica em pacientes com diabetes tipo 2. Esse exame ecocardiográfico de fácil execução pode ser relacionado à DVE subclínica entre pacientes com diabetes tipo 2.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Echocardiography, Doppler/methods , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/physiopathology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/diagnostic imaging , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/physiopathology , Reference Values , Stroke Volume/physiology , Body Mass Index , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Ventricular Function, Left/physiology , Statistics, Nonparametric , Heart/physiopathology , Heart/diagnostic imaging
14.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 112(6): 784-790, Jun. 2019. graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011208

ABSTRACT

Abstract In 2016, the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) recognized heart failure (HF) with ejection fraction between 40 and 49% as a new HF phenotype, HF with mid-range ejection fraction (HFmrEF), with the main purpose of encouraging studies on this new category. In 2018, the Brazilian Society of Cardiology adhered to this classification and introduced HFmrEF in Brazil. This paper presents a narrative review of what the literature has described about HFmrEF. The prevalence of patients with HFmrEF ranged from 13 to 24% of patients with HF. Analyzing the clinical characteristics, HFmrEF shows intermediate characteristics or is either similar to HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) or to HF with reduced fraction (HFrEF). Regarding the prognosis, HFmrEF's all-cause mortality is similar to HFpEF's and lower than HFrEF's. Studies that analyzed cardiac mortality concluded that there was no significant difference between HFmrEF and HFrEF, both of which were lower than HFpEF. Despite the significant increase of publications on HFmrEF, there is a great scarcity of prospective studies and clinical trials that allow delineating specific therapies for this new phenotype. To better treat HFmrEF patients, it is fundamental that cardiologists and internists understand the differences and similarities of this new phenotype.


Resumo Em 2016, a Sociedade Europeia de Cardiologia (ESC) reconheceu a insuficiência cardíaca (IC) com fração de ejeção do ventrículo esquerdo entre 40% e 49% como um novo fenótipo de IC, a IC com fração de ejeção intermediária (ICFEI), tendo como principal intuito, incentivar estudos sobre essa nova categoria. Em 2018, a Sociedade Brasileira de Cardiologia aderiu a essa classificação e introduziu a ICFEI no Brasil. O presente trabalho traz uma revisão narrativa sobre o que a literatura descreve até o momento sobre ICFEI. A prevalência de pacientes com ICFEI variou de 13-24% dos pacientes com IC. Quando avaliadas as características clínicas, a ICFEI apresenta um caráter intermediário ou se assemelha algumas vezes com a IC de fração de ejeção preservada (ICFEP) e outras com a IC de fração reduzida (ICFER). Quanto ao prognóstico, a ICFEI apresenta mortalidade por todas as causas semelhante a ICFEP e menor que a ICFER. Os estudos que analisaram a mortalidade por causa cardíaca concluíram que não houve diferença significativa entre ICFEI e ICFER, sendo ambas menores que a ICFEP. Apesar do considerável aumento de publicações sobre a ICFEI, ainda existe uma grande carência de estudos prospectivos e ensaios clínicos que possibilitem delinear terapias específicas para esse novo fenótipo. O conhecimento das particularidades da ICFEI por cardiologistas e internistas é fundamental para o melhor manejo desses pacientes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Stroke Volume/physiology , Heart Failure/diagnosis , Heart Failure/physiopathology , Heart Failure/drug therapy , Heart Failure/epidemiology , Prognosis , Prevalence , Hospitalization
15.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 65(5): 592-595, May 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012953

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY Hypertension may occur with left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction, and the consequence may be symptoms and signs of heart failure (HF). Hepatojugular reflux (HJR), described as a sign of regurgitation of the tricuspid valve, may reflect structural and functional changes of the LV in the hypertensive patient. The signal may be present in the presence of HF. Case: male, 49 years old with uncontrolled blood pressure. Physical examination showed jugular turgescence, HJR, and elevated blood pressure. Complementary exams showed signs of atrial and left ventricular overload in the electrocardiogram and, the echocardiogram showed left atrium volume increase, concentric LV hypertrophy and signs of grade I diastolic dysfunction. DISCUSSIO: The HJR present correlates with pulmonary artery pressure and probably reflect the increase in central blood volume.


RESUMO A hipertensão pode cursar com disfunção diastólica de ventrículo esquerdo (VE) e a consequência disso pode ser sintomas e sinais de insuficiência cárdica (IC). O refluxo hepatojugular (RHJ), descrito como sinal de regurgitação da valva tricúspide, pode refletir alterações estruturais e funcionais do VE no paciente hipertenso. O sinal pode estar presente na vigência de IC. Caso: homem, 49 anos compressão arterial não controlada. Ao exame físico apresentou turgência jugular, RHJ e pressão arterial elevada. Os exames complementares mostraram sinais de sobrecarga atrial e de ventrículo esquerdo no eletrocardiograma, e no ecocardiograma foi evidenciado aumento do volume do átrio esquerdo, hipertrofia concêntrica do VE e sinais de disfunção diastólica grau I. DISCUSSÃO: RHJ presente correlaciona-se com a pressão da artéria pulmonar e provavelmente reflete o aumento do volume sanguíneo central.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Stroke Volume/physiology , Tricuspid Valve Insufficiency/physiopathology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/physiopathology , Heart Failure/physiopathology , Jugular Veins/physiopathology , Tricuspid Valve Insufficiency , Echocardiography , Electrocardiography , Heart Failure/pathology , Hypertension/physiopathology , Jugular Veins/pathology , Middle Aged
16.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 112(4): 441-450, Apr. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001289

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Recent studies suggest that left atrial (LA) late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) can quantify the underlying tissue remodeling that harbors atrial fibrillation (AF). However, quantification of LA-LGE requires labor-intensive magnetic resonance imaging acquisition and postprocessing at experienced centers. LA intra-atrial dyssynchrony assessment is an emerging imaging technique that predicts AF recurrence after catheter ablation. We hypothesized that 1) LA intra-atrial dyssynchrony is associated with LA-LGE in patients with AF and 2) LA intra-atrial dyssynchrony is greater in patients with persistent AF than in those with paroxysmal AF. Method: We conducted a cross-sectional study comparing LA intra-atrial dyssynchrony and LA-LGE in 146 patients with a history of AF (60.0 ± 10.0 years, 30.1% nonparoxysmal AF) who underwent pre-AF ablation cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) in sinus rhythm. Using tissue-tracking CMR, we measured the LA longitudinal strain in two- and four-chamber views. We defined intra-atrial dyssynchrony as the standard deviation (SD) of the time to peak longitudinal strain (SD-TPS, in %) and the SD of the time to the peak pre-atrial contraction strain corrected by the cycle length (SD-TPSpreA, in %). We used the image intensity ratio (IIR) to quantify LA-LGE. Results: Intra-atrial dyssynchrony analysis took 5 ± 9 minutes per case. Multivariable analysis showed that LA intra-atrial dyssynchrony was independently associated with LA-LGE. In addition, LA intra-atrial dyssynchrony was significantly greater in patients with persistent AF than those with paroxysmal AF. In contrast, there was no significant difference in LA-LGE between patients with persistent and paroxysmal AF. LA intra-atrial dyssynchrony showed excellent reproducibility and its analysis was less time-consuming (5 ± 9 minutes) than the LA-LGE (60 ± 20 minutes). Conclusion: LA Intra-atrial dyssynchrony is a quick and reproducible index that is independently associated with LA-LGE to reflect the underlying tissue remodeling.


Resumo Fundamento: Estudos recentes sugerem que o realce tardio com gadolínio (RTG) no átrio esquerdo (AE) pode quantificar a remodelação tecidual subjacente que abriga a fibrilação atrial (FA). No entanto, a quantificação do RTG-AE requer um trabalho intenso de aquisição por ressonância magnética e pós-processamento em centros experientes. A avaliação da dessincronia intra-atrial no AE é uma técnica de imagem emergente que prediz a recorrência da FA após ablação por cateter. Nós levantamos as hipóteses de que 1) a dessincronia intra-atrial está associada ao RTG-AE em pacientes com FA e 2) a dessincronia intra-atrial é maior em pacientes com FA persistente do que naqueles com FA paroxística. Método: Realizamos um estudo transversal comparando a dessincronia intra-atrial no AE e o RTG-AE em 146 pacientes com história de FA (60,0 ± 10,0 anos, 30,1% com FA não paroxística) submetidos à ressonância magnética cardíaca (RMC) durante ritmo sinusal antes da ablação da FA. Com utilização de RMC com tissue tracking, medimos o strain longitudinal do AE em cortes de duas e quatro câmaras. Definimos a dessincronia intra-atrial como o desvio padrão (DP) do tempo até o pico do strain longitudinal (DP-TPS, em %) e o DP do tempo até o pico do strain antes da contração atrial corrigido pela duração do ciclo (DP-TPSpreA, em %). Utilizamos a razão da intensidade da imagem (RIM) para quantificar o RTG-AE. Resultados: A análise da dessincronia intra-atrial levou 9 ± 5 minutos por caso. A análise multivariada mostrou que a dessincronia intra-atrial no AE esteve independentemente associada ao RTG-AE. Além disso, a dessincronia intra-atrial no AE foi significativamente maior em pacientes com FA persistente do que naqueles com FA paroxística. Por outro lado, não houve diferença significativa no RTG-AE entre pacientes com FA persistente e paroxística. A dessincronia intra-atrial no AE mostrou excelente reprodutibilidade e sua análise foi menos demorada (5 ± 9 minutos) do que o RTG-AE (60 ± 20 minutos). Conclusão: A dessincronia intra-atrial no AE é um índice rápido, reprodutível e independentemente associado ao RTG-AE para indicar remodelação tecidual subjacente. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2019; 112(4):441-450)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Atrial Fibrillation/physiopathology , Atrial Fibrillation/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Atrial Remodeling/physiology , Atrial Fibrillation/therapy , Stroke Volume/physiology , Time Factors , Echocardiography/methods , Linear Models , Observer Variation , Cross-Sectional Studies , Reproducibility of Results , Catheter Ablation/methods , Electrocardiography/methods , Heart Atria/physiopathology , Heart Atria/diagnostic imaging
17.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 112(2): 121-128, Feb. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-983822

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Obesity is associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM), ischemic heart disease (IHD) and cardiovascular mortality. Several studies have demonstrated the diagnostic and prognostic value of single photon computed tomography-myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (SPECT-MPI) in the evaluation of patients with suspected IHD, including in obese population. Data on clinical risk factors and their association with abnormal myocardial perfusion in obese patients are scarce in the Brazilian population. Objective: To determine the factors associated with abnormal myocardial perfusion in obese individuals without known IHD. Methods: We studied obese patients without known IHD who were referred for evaluation through SPECT-MPI between January 2011 and December 2016. Clinical variables and results of SPECT-MPI were obtained systematically. The distribution of continuous variables was assessed using the Shapiro-Wilk and Shapiro-Francia tests. We used the unpaired Student t test to compare the means of continuous variables with normal distribution and the Chi Square test for binomial variables analysis. A p value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. The association of the clinical variables for the presence of factors associated with abnormal myocardial perfusion was determined by univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis, and respective odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results: The study sample consisted of 5,526 obese patients. Mean body mass index (BMI) of our patients was 33.9 ± 3.7 kg/m2, 31% had DM, and myocardial perfusion abnormalities was observed in 23% of the total sample. The factors associated with abnormal myocardial perfusion on multivariate analysis were: age (OR: 1.02, 95% CI 1.01-1.03, p < 0.001), DM (OR: 1.57, 95% CI 1.31-1.88, p < 0.001), typical angina before the test (OR: 2.45, 95% CI: 1.82-3.31, p < 0.001), need for pharmacologic stress test (OR: 1.61, 95% CI: 1.26-2.07, p < 0.001), less physical effort evaluated in metabolic equivalents (METs) during the exercise treadmill test (OR: 0.89, 95% CI: 0.85-0.94, p < 0.001) and a lower post-stress left ventricular ejection fraction after stress (LVEF; OR: 0.989, 95% CI: 0.984-0.994, p < 0.001). Conclusion: The factors associated with abnormal myocardial perfusion in obese patients without known IHD were age, DM, presence of typical angina, ventricular dysfunction, and inability to undergo physical stress as clinical variables, in addition to functional capacity during physical stress.


Resumo Fundamento: A obesidade associa-se a um risco aumentado de diabetes mellitus do tipo 2 (DM), doença cardíaca isquêmica (DCI) e mortalidade cardiovascular. Vários estudos demonstraram o valor diagnóstico e prognóstico da cintilografia de perfusão miocárdica com tomografia computadorizada por fóton único (CPM-SPECT) na avaliação de pacientes com suspeita de DCI, inclusive na população de obesos. Dados sobre fatores de risco clínicos, e sua associação com perfusão miocárdica anormal em obesos, são escassos na população brasileira. Objetivo: Determinar quais são os fatores associados à anormalidade de perfusão miocárdica em obesos sem DCI conhecida. Métodos: Estudamos pacientes obesos sem DCI conhecida que foram encaminhados para avaliação por CPM-SPECT entre janeiro de 2011 até dezembro de 2016. Variáveis clínicas e resultados da CPM-SPECT foram obtidos de forma sistematizada. A distribuição das variáveis contínuas foi avaliada utilizando-se os testes de Shapiro-Wilk e Shapiro-Francia. Utilizou-se o teste t de Student não pareado para comparar as médias das variáveis contínuas com distribuição normal, e o teste do Chi quadrado para análise das variáveis binomiais. Considerou-se o valor de p < 0,05 como estatisticamente significativo. A associação das variáveis clínicas para a presença de anormalidade de perfusão miocárdica foi determinada por análise de regressão logística univariada e multivariada, calculando-se e apresentando-se os respectivos odds ratios (OR) e intervalos de confiança (IC) de 95. Resultados: A amostra do estudo foi de 5.526 pacientes obesos. O índice de massa corporal médio dos nossos pacientes foi de 33,9 ± 3,7 kg/m2, 31% eram portadores de DM, e anormalidades de perfusão foram observadas em 23% do total da amostra. Os fatores associados à anormalidade de perfusão miocárdica, após análise multivariada, foram: idade (OR: 1,02, IC 95%: 1,01-1,03, p < 0,001), DM (OR: 1,57, IC 95%: 1,31-1,88, p < 0,001), presença de angina típica antes do exame (OR: 2,45, IC 95%: 1,82-3,31, p < 0,001), necessidade de utilização de protocolo com estresse farmacológico (OR: 1,61, IC 95%: 1,26-2,07, p < 0,001), menor esforço físico avaliado em equivalentes metabólicos durante o teste ergométrico (OR: 0,89, IC 95%: 0,85-0,94, p < 0,001) e menor fração de ejeção do ventrículo esquerdo após estresse (OR: 0,989, IC 95%: 0,984-0,994, p < 0,001). Conclusão: Os fatores associados à anormalidade de perfusão miocárdica em pacientes obesos sem DCI conhecida foram idade, DM, presença de angina típica, disfunção ventricular e incapacidade para o estresse físico como variáveis clínicas, além da capacidade funcional durante o estresse físico.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Myocardial Ischemia/physiopathology , Heart/physiology , Myocardium , Obesity/physiopathology , Reference Values , Stroke Volume/physiology , Body Mass Index , Logistic Models , Sex Factors , Predictive Value of Tests , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Ventricular Function, Left/physiology , Statistics, Nonparametric , Risk Assessment/methods , Myocardial Perfusion Imaging/methods , Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography Computed Tomography/methods , Heart/diagnostic imaging
18.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 34(1): 17-21, Jan.-Feb. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-985246

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To investigate the clinical significance of serum cystatin C (Cys-C) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) in coronary heart disease (CHD) patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Methods: One hundred and twenty-eight CHD patients were divided into drug treatment (56 cases) and PCI treatment (72 cases) groups, receiving conventional drug treatment and PCI plus conventional drug treatment, respectively. At admission time and 4 weeks after treatment, the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), left ventricular end diastolic diameter, and left ventricular end systolic diameter were measured. At admission time and 24h, 72h, 1 week, and 4 weeks after treatment, the serum levels of Cys-C and hs-CRP were determined. Results: After 4 weeks of treatment, LVEF in the PCI treatment group was significantly higher than that before treatment (P<0.01) and it was significantly higher than in the drug treatment group at the same time (P<0.01). Cys-C and hs-CRP level in the PCI treatment group were significantly higher than in the drug treatment group 72h and 1 week after treatment (P<0.05 or P<0.01), respectively, but they were significantly lower than in the drug treatment group 4 weeks after treatment (P<0.01). There were obvious interaction effects between grouping factor and time factor in Cys-C (F=3.62, P<0.05) and hs-CRP (F=17.85, P<0.01). Conclusion: Serum levels of Cys-C and hs-CRP are closely related to the heart function in CHD patients undergoing PCI, and they may be used for predicting the outcome of PCI.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Coronary Disease/surgery , Coronary Disease/blood , Cystatin C/blood , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/methods , Reference Values , Stroke Volume/physiology , Time Factors , Body Mass Index , Treatment Outcome , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/physiopathology , Coronary Disease/physiopathology , Coronary Disease/drug therapy
19.
ABC., imagem cardiovasc ; 32(1)jan.-mar. 2019. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-969892

ABSTRACT

Atualmente, a avaliação da função atrial esquerda é um método emergente que pode ter relação com o prognóstico dos pacientes. Classicamente, as medidas estáticas de diâmetro, área e volume são as mais usadas com esta finalidade. A técnica conhecida como speckle tracking é capaz de fornecer informações dinâmicas do átrio esquerdo ao longo do ciclo cardíaco, assim como detectar alterações na função atrial esquerda em fases subclínicas, antes de ocorrerem aumentos volumétricos ou disfunções diastólicas. Valores de normalidade para o speckle tracking estão sendo propostos, mas as diferenças metodológicas e de técnicas empregadas dificultam sua padronização. Esta revisão da literatura se propõe a discutir os avanços na análise da função atrial esquerda, em especial via speckle tracking


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Atrial Fibrillation , Echocardiography/methods , Atrial Function, Left/physiology , Cardiomyopathies/complications , Cardiomyopathies/diagnosis , Prognosis , Stroke Volume/physiology , Echocardiography, Doppler/methods , Risk Factors , Atrial Function/physiology , Stroke , Electrocardiography/methods , Heart Atria , Heart Failure , Myocardial Infarction
20.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 52(9): e8827, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019564

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the effects of tidal volume (TV) on the diagnostic value of pulse pressure variation (PPV) and the inferior vena cava dispensability index (IVC-DI) for volume responsiveness during mechanical ventilation. In patients undergoing elective surgery with mechanical ventilation, different TVs of 6, 9, and 12 mL/kg were given for two min. The left ventricular outflow tract velocity-time integral (VTI) was measured by transthoracic echocardiography. The IVC-DI was measured at sub-xyphoid transabdominal long axis. The PPV was measured via the radial artery and served as baseline. Index measurements were repeated after fluid challenge. VTI increased by more than 15% after fluid challenge, which was considered as volume responsive. Seventy-nine patients were enrolled, 38 of whom were considered positive volume responsive. Baseline data between the response group and the non-response group were similar. Receiver operating characteristic curve confirmed PPV accuracy in diagnosing an increase in volume responsiveness with increased TV. When TV was 12 mL/kg, the PPV area under the curve (AUC) was 0.93 and the threshold value was 15.5%. IVC-DI had the highest diagnostic accuracy at a TV of 9 mL/kg and an AUC of 0.79, with a threshold value of 15.3%. When TV increased to 12 mL/kg, the IVC-DI value decreased. When the TV was 9 and 12 mL/kg, PPV showed improved performance in diagnosing volume responsiveness than did IVC-DI. PPV diagnostic accuracy in mechanically ventilated patients was higher than IVC-DI. PPV accuracy in predicting volume responsiveness was increased by increasing TV.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Respiration, Artificial , Stroke Volume/physiology , Vena Cava, Inferior/physiology , Blood Pressure/physiology , Tidal Volume/physiology , Vena Cava, Inferior/diagnostic imaging , Echocardiography , ROC Curve
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