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Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927368


OBJECTIVE@#To compare the effect among ultrasound-guided electroacupuncture (EA) at suprahyoid muscle group, conventional acupuncture and conventional EA at suprahyoid muscle group on pharyngeal dysphagia after stroke, and to explore its biomechanical mechanism.@*METHODS@#A total of 120 patients with pharyngeal dysphagia after stroke were randomly divided into an observation group, a control-1 group and a control-2 group, 40 cases in each group. The patients in the observation group were treated with ultrasound-guided EA at suprahyoid muscle group; the patients in the control-1 group were treated with EA at Lianquan (CV 23), Wangu (GB 12) and Fengchi (GB 20), etc.; the patients in the control-2 group were treated with EA at suprahyoid muscle group according to anatomical location. The EA in the three groups were discontinuous wave, with frequency of 5 Hz and current intensity of 1 mA. The EA was given for 30 minutes, once a day, 6 times were taken as a course of treatment, and 4 courses of treatment were provided. The video floroscopic swallowing study (VFSS) was performed before and after treatment. The Rosenbek penetration-aspiration scale (PAS) score, the forward and upward movement distance of hyoid bone and thyroid cartilage, Ichiro Fujima ingestion-swallowing function score were recorded in the three groups, and the incidences of subcutaneous hematoma were recorded after treatment.@*RESULTS@#Compared before treatment, the PAS scores were reduced and the Ichiro Fujima ingestion-swallowing function scores were increased after treatment in the three groups (P<0.05); the PAS scores in the observation group were lower than those in the control-1 group and the control-2 group, and the Ichiro Fujima ingestion-swallowing function scores in the observation group were higher than those in the control-1 group and the control-2 group (P<0.05). After treatment, the forward and upward movement distance of hyoid bone and thyroid cartilage in the observation group and the control-2 group was increased (P<0.05), and the forward and upward movement distance of hyoid bone was increased in the control-1 group (P<0.05); the forward and upward movement distance of hyoid bone and thyroid cartilage in the observation group was longer than that in the control-1 group and the control-2 group (P<0.05). The incidence of subcutaneous hematoma in the observation group was 0% (0/40), which was lower than 20.0% (8/40) in the control-1 group and 47.5% (19/40) in the control-2 group (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Ultrasound-guided EA at suprahyoid muscle group could improve the swallowing function in patients with pharyngeal dysphagia after stroke by increasing the motion of hyoid laryngeal complex. Its effect and safety are better than conventional acupuncture and conventional EA at suprahyoid muscle group.

Deglutition Disorders/therapy , Electroacupuncture , Humans , Muscles , Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Ultrasonography, Interventional/adverse effects
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 79(11): 943-949, Nov. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350129


ABSTRACT Background: Among patients with acute ischemic stroke with a mismatch between deficit severity and infarct volume, thrombectomy performed within a 6-24 hours time window has efficacy and safety similar to treatment within 6 hours. However, whether magnetic resonance imaging with T2 diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is feasible remains to be validated. Objective: To investigate prognosis among stroke patients receiving endovascular treatment (EVT) within 6 hours and 6-24 hours using non-contrasted computed tomography (NCCT) and DWI. Methods: Overall, 209 anterior-circulation ischemic stroke patients with large-vessel occlusion who underwent EVT were divided into ≤ 6 hours and 6-24 hours groups. Patients presenting symptoms within 6 hours were treated if their NIHSS score was ≥ 7 and ASPECTS score was ≥ 5, whereas those with wake-up stroke (WUS) or presenting symptoms 6-24 hours after last seen well (WUS/late-presenting stroke, LPS) were managed if their NIHSS score was ≥ 7 and ASPECTS score was ≥ 5. Results: The percentages of patients undergoing intracranial stenting and intracranial ballooning without stenting significantly differed between two groups (p < 0.001). Grades 0, 1, 2a and 2b recanalization rates did not differ between the 6 hours and 6-24 hours groups (all p > 0.05). Grade 3 recanalization rate in the 6 hours group was significantly lower than in the 6-24 hours group (p = 0.043). The 3-month Rankin Scale score did not significantly differ between the two groups (p = 0.629). Conclusions: EVT is a safe and effective treatment for patients with WUS and LPS selected through NCCT and DWI-based simple imaging.

RESUMO Antecedentes: Entre pacientes com acidente vascular cerebral isquêmico (AVCI) agudo com divergência entre gravidade do déficit e volume do infarto, a trombectomia em 6 a 24 horas tem eficácia e segurança semelhantes ao tratamento em até 6 horas. Entretanto, a viabilidade da imagem ponderada em T2 com difusão (DWI) da ressonância magnética necessita validação. Objetivo: Investigar o prognóstico de pacientes com AVCI que recebem tratamento endovascular (EVT) em até 6 horas e de 6-24 horas usando tomografia computadorizada sem contraste (NCCT) e DWI. Métodos: Duzentos e nove pacientes com AVCI de circulação anterior submetidos a EVT foram divididos em ≤ 6 horas e 6-24 horas. Pacientes com sintomas até 6 horas foram tratados se NIHSS ≥ 7 e ASPECTS ≥ 5; aqueles com AVCI ao despertar (WUS) ou com sintomas entre 6-24 horas da última vez em que foram vistos bem (WUS/AVC de fase tardia, LPS) foram tratados se NIHSS ≥ 7 e ASPECTS ≥ 5. Resultados: As porcentagens de pacientes submetidos a implante de stent intracraniano e angioplastia intracraniana sem stent diferiram entre os dois grupos (p <0,001). As taxas de recanalização 0, 1, 2a e 2b não diferiram entre 6 horas e 6-24 horas (p> 0,05). A taxa de recanalização de grau 3 no grupo 6 horas foi menor do que 6-24 horas (p = 0,043). Pontuação na Escala Rankin (3 meses) não foi diferente (p = 0,629). Conclusões: EVT é um tratamento seguro e eficaz para pacientes com WUS e LPS selecionados por meio de imagens baseadas em NCCT e DWI.

Brain Ischemia , Brain Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Stroke/therapy , Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Endovascular Procedures , Ischemic Stroke , Treatment Outcome , Thrombectomy , Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 79(10): 859-863, Oct. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345320


Abstract Background: Patent foramen ovale (PFO) has been considered a potential mechanism of embolic stroke of undetermined origin. Objective: The aim of the present study was to identify the features of the right-to-left shunt (RLS) in patients with undetermined embolic ischemic stroke and compare them with those of patients with non-cardioembolic ischemic stroke. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted with 168 patients with stroke and RLS separated into the following two groups: the undetermined embolic stroke group (UES group) and non-cardioembolic stroke group (NCES group). All patients were assessed by transcranial Doppler to evaluate the presence and quantification of microembolic signals (MES) at rest and under Valsalva maneuver. Results: Of all patients evaluated in the current study, 96 were included in the UES group and 72 in the NCES group. In the UES group, 65 patients had RLS with ≥10 MES (67.7%), which was higher than that observed in the NCES group (51.4%, p=0.038). According to the moment of the cardiac cycle, 75 patients (78.1%) in the UES group had a positive test at rest compared to 42 (58.3%) in the NCES group (p=0.007). Conclusions: The current study demonstrated that almost 70% of patients with undetermined embolic stroke and PFO presented a large RLS and more than 75% had RLS at rest. These findings suggest that the size of the shunt should be taken into account when evaluating whether PFO could be a possible mechanism underlying cryptogenic stroke.

RESUMO Antecedentes: Uma das potenciais fontes embólicas no acidente vascular cerebral (AVC) de origem indeterminada é o forame oval patente (FOP). Objetivo: O objetivo do presente estudo foi identificar as características do shunt direita-esquerda em paciente com AVC de etiologia indeterminada, presumidamente embólica, e comparar tais características com pacientes apresentando AVC por outras causas não embólicas. Métodos: Trata-se de um estudo retrospectivo com 168 pacientes com AVC e forame oval patente, separados em dois grupos: AVC embólico de etiologia indeterminada e AVC por outras causas não embólicas. Todos os pacientes foram submetidos a Doppler transcraniano, para avaliar a presença de shunt direita-esquerda por meio do teste de embolia paradoxal. Além da quantificação de microbolhas, também foi avaliada a presença de shunt em repouso e sob manobra de Valsalva. Resultado: Do total, 96 pacientes foram incluídos no primeiro grupo (AVC indeterminado) e 72, no segundo grupo (AVC não embólico). No primeiro grupo, 65 pacientes exibiram shunt com passagem de mais de 10 microbolhas (67,5%), enquanto no segundo grupo isso aconteceu em 51,4% (p=0,038) dos casos. Além disso, 75 pacientes (78,1%) do primeiro grupo tiveram teste positivo ao repouso, comparados com 42 pacientes (58,3%) no segundo grupo (p=0,007). Conclusão: O presente estudo demonstrou que até 70% dos pacientes com AVC de etiologia indeterminada e forame oval apresentaram shunts maiores; em mais de 75%, houve passagem de microbolhas ao repouso. Esses achados sugerem que as características do shunt, como quantidade de microbolhas e passagem ao repouso, devem ser levadas em consideração na avaliação do FOP como possível mecanismo subjacente ao AVC.

Humans , Brain Ischemia/complications , Brain Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Stroke/etiology , Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Foramen Ovale, Patent/complications , Foramen Ovale, Patent/diagnostic imaging , Ischemic Stroke , Retrospective Studies , Ultrasonography, Doppler, Transcranial
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 67(1): 71-76, Jan. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1287788


SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: Myocardial speckle-tracking echocardiography can detect subtle abnormalities in the left atrial function. In this study, we aimed to investigate the relationship between left atrial myocardium and tissue function n assessed by two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography and the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score in patients with acute ischemic stroke. METHOD: The study was composed of 80 patients (45 men, 35 women, mean age: 67±15 years) with acute ischemic stroke. The patients were divided into two groups based on the calculated National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score (group 1, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score < 16; group 2, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score ≥ 16). Demographic, clinical, and laboratory data for all patients were collected. Cardiac functions were evaluated using two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography within 48 hours from admission to the neurology care unit. RESULTS: There were no significant differences between the patients' clinical parameters. Left ventricular ejection fraction was significantly higher in group 1 than in group 2 (59.2±5.6 to 51.4±6.3, p=0.024). Left atrial longitudinal strain was significantly higher in group 1 than in group 2 (34.48±9.73 to 26.27±7.41, p=0.019). There were no significant differences between other echocardiographic parameters. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that left atrial longitudinal strain is associated with stroke severity during admission in patients with acute ischemic stroke. Left atrial longitudinal strain is an indicator of left atrial myocardial function.

Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Brain Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Ischemic Stroke , Stroke Volume , Atrial Function, Left , Ventricular Function, Left , Middle Aged
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942309


OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the presentation of susceptibility vessel sign (SVS) in subacute stroke patients with large vessel occlusion.@*METHODS@#We collected consecutive stroke patients who were admitted to Peking University First Hospital from December 2017 to August 2019 retrospectively. Those who had intracranial large vessel occlusion and received sensitivity weighted imaging (SWI) within 3 to 14 days after stroke onset were included in our analysis. The diagnosis of large vessel occlusion was based on magnetic resonance angiography (MRA), CT angiography (CTA) or digital subtraction angiography (DSA). The demographic information, clinical characteristics and imaging results were obtained from medical record. The occurrence rates of SVS sign were compared between stroke patients with cardioembolism (CE) and large artery atherosclerosis (LAA). In the sensitivity analysis, we performed a subgroup analysis in those patients who received SWI within 7 to 14 days after stroke onset. We also compared the occurrence rate of SVS sign between the patients with and without atrial fibrillation.@*RESULTS@#A total of 51 patients, 19 females and 32 males, with an average age of (63.04±11.23) years were analyzed in this study. Compared with LAA group, the patients in CE group were older and more likely to have an atrial fibrillation (P < 0.05). There were no significant differences between the CE group and LAA group in gender, hypertension, diabetes, coronary heart disease, hyperlipidemia, smoking, or National Institute of Health stroke scale(NIHSS) score at admission. SVS sign was found in 30 patients. Of whom, 3 were in CE group and 27 in LAA group. The occurrence rate of SVS sign was higher in the LAA group than in the CE group significantly (65.9% vs. 30.0%, P=0.039). The subgroup analysis showed that, in the patients who received SWI examination within 7 to 14 days after stroke onset, the differences between the two groups were still statistically significant (0 vs. 72.7%, P=0.006). Another sensitivity analysis showed that, the rate of SVS in the patients with atrial fibrillation was significantly lower than those patients without atrial fibrillation (25% vs. 65.1%, P=0.043).@*CONCLUSION@#In subacute stroke patients, the occurrence rate of SVS sign in CE group was lower than that of LAA group. The significance of SVS sign in the differentiation of stroke subtype needs further validation.

Aged , Arteries , Atherosclerosis , Female , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Angiography , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Stroke/diagnostic imaging
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888240


Clinically, non-contrastive computed tomography (NCCT) is used to quickly diagnose the type and area of ​​stroke, and the Alberta stroke program early computer tomography score (ASPECTS) is used to guide the next treatment. However, in the early stage of acute ischemic stroke (AIS), it's difficult to distinguish the mild cerebral infarction on NCCT with the naked eye, and there is no obvious boundary between brain regions, which makes clinical ASPECTS difficult to conduct. The method based on machine learning and deep learning can help physicians quickly and accurately identify cerebral infarction areas, segment brain areas, and operate ASPECTS quantitative scoring, which is of great significance for improving the inconsistency in clinical ASPECTS. This article describes current challenges in the field of AIS ASPECTS, and then summarizes the application of computer-aided technology in ASPECTS from two aspects including machine learning and deep learning. Finally, this article summarizes and prospects the research direction of AIS-assisted assessment, and proposes that the computer-aided system based on multi-modal images is of great value to improve the comprehensiveness and accuracy of AIS assessment, which has the potential to open up a new research field for AIS-assisted assessment.

Alberta , Brain Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Ischemic Stroke , Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1254753


Recentes estudos indicaram que o forame oval patente (FOP) pode ser responsável pelo acidente vascular cerebral criptogênico (AVC) em pacientes jovens que apresentam condições anatômicas favoráveis a essa anomalia e que a oclusão transcateter reduz a incidência do acidente vascular cerebral quando comparada ao tratamento clínico. A injeção de soro agitado durante o estudo ecocardiográfico, associada à manobra de Valsalva, pode evidenciar shunt direita-esquerda com alta sensibilidade (89%) e especificidade (92%) quando se utiliza o ecocardiograma transesofágico. Avaliando as características clínicas de pacientes com acidente vascular cerebral e forame oval patente, o trial Risk of Paradoxical Embolism, conhecido pela sigla RoPE, (Risk of Paradoxical Embolism) estabeleceu um escore de risco para acidente vascular cerebral criptogênico e, por meio de um modelo de regressão multivariada, identificou seis variáveis: idade, presença de isquemia cortical, diabetes, hipertensão, AVC e acidente isquêmico transitório prévio. Os escores mais elevados foram observados em jovens com AVC e sem fatores de risco vascular e os escores mais baixos em idosos com fatores de risco vascular, de modo que o forame oval patente sugere ser acidental. Condições anatômicas do FOP predispõem à embolia sistêmica (separação do FOP > 2 mm; túnel do FOP > 10 mm; ângulo entre a veia cava inferior e o flap do FOP <10°; intensidade do shunt com manobra de Valsalva; presença de aneurisma do septo interatrial e rede de Chiari ou válvula de Eustáquio proeminente). O fechamento do FOP pode prevenir a embolia paradoxal, reduzindo a incidência de acidente vascular cerebral em pacientes considerados com de risco elevado. A relação entre Acidente Vascular Cerebral (AVC) criptogênico e a presença de Forame Oval Patente (FOP) tem despertado particular interesse, baseada em estudos recentes que demonstraram que a oclusão transcateter do FOP reduziu a incidência de AVC criptogênico, quando comparado ao tratamento medicamentoso.1 Trombos atravessando o forame oval podem ser observados em exames ecocardiográficos e em autópsias, confirmando esse mecanismo como responsável pela embolia paradoxal, ou seja, um trombo venoso passando para a circulação arterial por um shunt direita-esquerda. Entretanto, essa visualização ecocardiográfica é rara e existem poucos estudos publicados2,3 (Figura 1). Alguns estudos clínicos demonstram a propensão do FOP ser o responsável pela embolia paradoxal. Pacientes portadores de diabetes, hipertensão arterial sistêmica e doença arterial coronária têm baixa prevalência para o FOP ser o responsável pela embolia paradoxal. Por outro lado, história de trombose venosa profunda, embolia pulmonar, hipertensão pulmonar, viagens prolongadas, manobra de Valsalva precedendo o início de sintomas de AVC, enxaqueca e apneia do sono tem sido descrita como fatores de risco independentes para a associação entre FOP e eventos cerebrovasculares.4 Mesmo sendo pouco frequente a visualização de trombos em forame oval, a observação epidemiológica nos leva a acreditar que o FOP é o responsável por um número considerável de acidentes vasculares cerebrais.5 A prevalência de FOP em um estudo com autópsia em 965 corações normais é de 27%, com similar distribuição entre homens e mulheres. Essa prevalência declina com a idade, sendo de 34% em menores de 30 anos, 25% entre 30 e 80 anos e 20% em maiores de 80 anos.6 Em pacientes com AVC criptogênico, entretanto, a prevalência é particularmente elevada, chegando a 40% em pacientes com idade inferior a 55 anos.7 É importante ressaltar que a presença de FOP em pacientes com AVC criptogênico não é a única etiologia para o embolismo paradoxal. Outros mecanismos podem ser responsáveis, como fibrilação atrial não detectada, tumores cardíacos (mixoma e fibroeslastomas), presença de contraste ecocardiográfico espontâneo em átrio esquerdo, valvopatia mitral reumática, calcificação do anel valvar mitral, próteses cardíacas biológicas e mecânicas, estados de hipercoagulabilidade e ateroma de aorta ascendente.8 O estudo ecocardiográfico é parte da rotina na avaliação do FOP, principalmente o Ecocardiograma Transesofágico (ETE) com utilização de solução salina agitada (macrobolhas). Considera-se um shunt pequeno quando passam de três a dez bolhas, médio de dez a 30 bolhas e grande se mais de 30 bolhas contadas nos primeiros batimentos após a injeção.9 Além da detecção do shunt, o ETE avalia as características anatômicas do FOP, assim como o diagnóstico diferencial com a comunicação interatrial e com o shunt pulmonar.10,11 Trabalhos comparando o ETE utilizando macrobolhas com os achados de autópsia mostram sensibilidade de 89% e especificidade de 92%, sendo que a autópsia é considerada padrão-ouro.12(AU)

Humans , Adolescent , Aged , Stroke/complications , Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Foramen Ovale, Patent/etiology , Foramen Ovale, Patent/pathology , Echocardiography , Embolism, Paradoxical/complications
J. vasc. bras ; 20: e20210142, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356451


Abstract Background Neuroimaging is widely used for diagnosis and treatment of stroke. However, little is known about whether the radiation doses received by patients comply with international safety guidelines. Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the effective radiation dose received while in hospital for stroke and analyze its safety according to current guidelines. Methods This cross-sectional study included 109 patients who were hospitalized and diagnosed with ischemic stroke. The National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale was used to evaluate stroke severity, the Bamford clinical classification was used for topography, and the TOAST classification was used for etiology. The computed tomography dose index and size-specific dose estimates were used to calculate the effective radiation dose (ERD) received while in hospital. A Mann-Whitney test was used to compare the ERD received by thrombolysed and non-thrombolysed patients. Non-parametric statistics were used to analyze the data with a 95% confidence interval. Results During the study period, the median ERD received was 10.9 mSv. Length of stay was not associated with radiation exposure. No differences were demonstrated in ERD according to stroke etiology or Bamford clinical classification. Patients who had CT perfusion (only or in addition to CT or angiotomography) received the highest ERD (46.5 mSv) and the difference compared to those who did not (10.8 mSv) was statistically significant (p<0.001). No differences were found in the ERD between thrombolysed and non-thrombolysed patients. There was no correlation between ERD while in hospital and stroke severity. Conclusions According to the current national guidelines, the protocol for examining images at our stroke unit is safe in terms of the ERD received by the patient while in hospital. There was no difference in the ERD received by patients stratified by thrombolytic treatment or stroke severity.

Resumo Contexto A neuroimagem é amplamente utilizada para o diagnóstico e tratamento do acidente vascular cerebral (AVC). No entanto, pouco se sabe se a dose de radiação recebida nesses exames está de acordo com as diretrizes internacionais de segurança. Objetivos O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a dose de radiação efetiva (DRE) durante a hospitalização por AVC. Métodos Trata-se de estudo transversal com 109 pacientes hospitalizados com diagnóstico de AVC isquêmico. A gravidade do AVC foi avaliada pela National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, a topografia pela classificação clínica de Bamford e a etiologia pelo Trial of ORG 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment (TOAST). O índice de dose recebida no exame de tomografia computadorizada (TC) e as estimativas de dose específicas foram usados ​​para calcular a DRE recebida durante a hospitalização. O teste de Mann-Whitney foi utilizado para comparar a DRE recebida por pacientes trombolisados ​​e não trombolisados. Estatísticas não paramétricas foram utilizadas para analisar os dados. Resultados Durante o período do estudo, a DRE foi de 10,9 mSv. O tempo de internação não foi associado à exposição à radiação. Nenhuma diferença foi demonstrada na DRE de acordo com a etiologia e classificação clínica de Bamford. Os pacientes que fizeram perfusão (isolada, associada à TC ou angiotomografia) receberam a maior DRE (46,5 mSv) em comparação aos que não fizeram (10,8 mSv), sendo estatisticamente significativo (p <0,001). Não foram encontradas diferenças na DRE entre pacientes trombolisados e não trombolisados. Não houve correlação entre a DRE durante a hospitalização com a gravidade do AVC. Conclusões De acordo com as atuais diretrizes nacionais, o protocolo de exame de imagens na unidade de AVC é seguro em relação à DRE recebido pelo paciente durante a internação. Não houve diferença na DRE dos pacientes de acordo com o tratamento trombolítico e a gravidade do AVC.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/adverse effects , Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Radiation Exposure Control , Radiation Dosage , Radiation Protection , Cross-Sectional Studies , Radiation Exposure
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 54: e03012021, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1288095


Abstract Neurological manifestations add prognostic severity to the coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Here, we report a case of a pregnant patient with COVID-19 that progressed with neurological complications. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed cerebral ischemic insults associated with cortical laminar necrosis, in addition to an intraparenchymal brain hematoma. The mechanisms of vascular injury may have multifactorial origins and result in complex radiological presentations. Since stroke associated with pregnancy is one of the main causes of long-term disability in women, accurate identification of cerebrovascular events may potentially reduce sequelae.

Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Stroke/etiology , Stroke/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19 , Prognosis , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , SARS-CoV-2
Med. infant ; 27(2): 92-100, Diciembre 2020. Tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS, UNISALUD | ID: biblio-1147907


Introducción: La incidencia de ACV (Accidente Cerebrovascular) en niños es de 2-13/100.000 niños por año, siendo una de las 10 causas más frecuentes de muerte en la infancia. La misma varía entre 6-40% dependiendo de las series publicadas y de los subtipos de ACV. Existen diferencias importantes entre el ACV en niños y adultos, ya que las características neurológicas y de la hemostasia son muy distintas en cada grupo. En niños deben ser investigados múltiples factores de riesgo que a menudo se superponen entre sí. Materiales y métodos: Trabajo descriptivo retrospectivo por revisión de historias clínicas, de una población de niños con diagnóstico de ACV ingresados en UCIP en un período de 10 años. Resultados: Se confirmó el diagnóstico de ACV en un total de 84 pacientes. El 70,24% de la población correspondía a ACVH (Accidente Cerebrovascular Hemorrágico) y un 29,76% ACVI (Accidente Cerebrovascular Isquémico). El 60,71 % eran masculinos. La mediana del tiempo entre el inicio de los síntomas y el ingreso a UCIP, en ambos grupos fue de 1 día con rango entre 1-17 días para los ACVH y 1-9 para los ACVI. Se evaluaron variables clínicas, de diagnóstico y de tratamiento según ambos tipos de ACV. Conclusión: El ACV requiere de un abordaje multidisciplinario. La realización de neuro-imágenes es un pilar fundamental para el diagnóstico y no debe ser pospuesto. El monitoreo y tratamiento está enfocado en minimizar el daño en el parénquima cerebral circundante (AU)

Introduction: The incidence of stroke in children is 2-13/100,000 children a year, being one of the 10 most common causes of death in childhood. Mortality varies between 6 and 40% depending on the series reported and according to the different subtypes of stroke. There are important differences between childhood and adult stroke, as the neurological features and characteristics of hemostasis vary greatly. In children, multiple risk factors that often overlap should be investigated. Material and methods: A retrospective descriptive review of the clinical records of a series of patients with stroke admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) over a period of 10 years was conducted. Results: The diagnosis of stroke was confirmed in 84 patients; 70.24% had hemorrhagic and 29.76% ischemic stroke. Overall, 60.71% were boys. Median time between symptom onset and admission to the PICU was one day in both groups, ranging from 1-17 días for those with hemorrhagic and from 1-9 days for those with ischemic stroke. Clinical, diagnostic, and treatment variables were evaluated for both types of stroke. Conclusion: Stroke requires a multidisciplinary approach. Neuroimaging is essential for the diagnosis and should not be postponed. Monitoring and treatment is focused on minimizing damage to the surrounding brain parenchyma (AU)

Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Cerebral Hemorrhage , Brain Ischemia , Stroke/surgery , Stroke/classification , Stroke/diagnosis , Stroke/etiology , Stroke/epidemiology , Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Retrospective Studies
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 78(12): 757-761, Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142376


ABSTRACT Background: The rapid evaluation of non-contrast-enhanced computed tomography (NCCT) brain scans in patients with anterior stroke symptoms saves time and favors optimal and prompt treatment. e-ASPECTS is a tool that automatically calculates the Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (ASPECTS) values, leading to a more accurate and timely image evaluation. Objective: To determine the ability of e-ASPECTS in differentiating images with and without injury. Methods: One-hundred sixteen patients admitted to a stroke unit in a Brazilian tertiary hospital underwent a CT scan at admission and at least one control brain imaging (NCCT or magnetic resonance imaging - MRI) 24 hours after admission. ASPECTS evaluation was performed by three neuroradiologists, three neurologists, and three neurology residents, all blinded to the symptoms and the injury side. The scores were compared to the ground truth, and an ASPECTS score was provided by two independent non blinded evaluators. Sensitivity and specificity were analyzed, and receiver operating characteristic curves, Bland-Altman plots with mean error score, and Matthews correlation coefficients (MCCs) were obtained for ASPECTS scores, assuming values equal to 10 for images without injury and values other than 10 for images with ischemic injury. Results: e-ASPECTS demonstrated similar performance to that of neuroradiologists and neurologists, with an area under the curve of 0.78 and an MCC value of 0.48 in the dichotomous analysis. The sensitivity and specificity of e-ASPECTS were 75% and 73%, respectively. Conclusion: e-ASPECTS is a validated and reliable tool for determining early signs of ischemia in NCCT.

RESUMO Introdução: A avaliação rápida da tomografia de crânio sem contraste (TCSC) em pacientes com AVC de circulação anterior economiza tempo e permite um tratamento rápido e otimizado. O e-ASPECTS é um software que calcula automaticamente os valores do ASPECTS e permite uma avaliação da imagem mais precisa e ágil. Objetivo: Determinar a habilidade do e-ASPECTS em diferenciar imagens com e sem lesão. Métodos: Cento e dezesseis pacientes admitidos em uma unidade de AVC de um hospital terciário brasileiro foram submetidos a uma TCSC na admissão e pelo menos uma imagem de controle (TC ou Ressonância de Crânio) 24 horas após a admissão. A avaliação do ASPECTS foi realizada por três neurorradiologistas, três neurologistas e três residentes em neurologia, todos cegados para os sintomas e para o lado da lesão. Os valores foram comparados ao ground truth (GT) e uma pontuação ASPECTS foi obtida por dois avaliadores independentes não cegos. Análise da sensibilidade e especificidade, características das curvas ROC, gráficos de Bland-Altman com média de escore de erro e coeficientes de correlação de Matthews (CCM) foram realizados para os valores de ASPECTS, assumindo valores iguais a 10 como imagens sem lesões e valores diferentes de 10 como imagens com alguma lesão isquêmica. Resultados: o e-ASPECTS demonstrou uma performance similar aos neurorradiologistas e neurologistas, com uma área sob a curva de 0,78 e um valor de CCM de 0,48 na análise dicotômica. Sensibilidade e especificidade do e-ASPECTS foram, respectivamente, 75 e 73%. Conclusão: O e-ASPECTS é uma ferramenta confiável e validada para determinar sinais precoces de isquemia nas TCSC.

Humans , Brain Ischemia/therapy , Brain Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Stroke/therapy , Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Specialization , Brazil , Alberta
ABC., imagem cardiovasc ; 33(4): eabc101, 20200000.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1146298


Fundamento: O acidente vascular encefálico (AVE) é prevalente no mundo. Reconhecimento precoce da doença cardiovascular subclínica pode predizer um primeiro episódio de AVE isquêmico; o speckle tracking associado à ecocardiografia (STE) permite detecção precoce da disfunção miocárdica subclínica. Objetivo: Provar a associação entre deformação miocárdica avaliada pelo STE e primeiro episódio de AVE em indivíduos saudáveis. Método: Incluímos participantes entre 40-80 anos com primeiro episódio de AVE isquêmico sem cardiopatia conhecida, pareados por sexo, idade e hipertensão com grupo controle saudável na proporção 1:2. STE avaliou strain longitudinal (SL) do ventrículo esquerdo (VE), e ecocardiografia tradicional foi realizada. Análises univariada e multivariada avaliaram as relações do AVE com fatores de risco cardiovasculares e parâmetros derivados da ecocardiografia. Resultado: 29 casos e 62 controles foram incluídos. Média etária foi 60 ± 12 anos; 54% eram homens. Tabagismo foi mais prevalente em casos do que em controles (34% vs. 9%; p=0.001). Nenhum outro fator de risco evidenciou diferença estatística. Casos tiveram menor deformação miocárdica comparados aos controles (SL -16.7 ± 3.4% vs. -19.2 ± 2.8%; p < 0.001). Não houve diferença em relação aos parâmetros ecocardiográficos tradicionais. Após ajuste para tabagismo e hiperlipidemia, SL manteve-se independentemente associado com AVE (OR=1.3; 95% CI, 1.1 ­ 1.6; p=0.005). A área abaixo à curva ROC para AVE aumentou significativamente após adicionar SL ao tabagismo (0.65 para 0.78, respectivamente; p=0.009). Conclusão: SL tem independente associação com o primeiro episódio de AVE isquêmico em adultos de média idade com corações geralmente normais. SL pode ser potencial marcador de risco nesta população

Background: Stroke is prevalent worldwide, and early recognition of subclinical cardiovascular (CV) disease could predict a first ischemic stroke (IS) episode. Speckle-tracking echocardiography (STE) allows the detection of early subclinical myocardial dysfunction. Aim: To examine the association between myocardial deformation, evaluated by STE, and first episode of IS in a sample of otherwise healthy patients. Methods: We included individuals between 40­80 years old, with a first incidence of IS, with no known CV disease, matched to healthy controls by sex, age, and hypertension at a 1:2 ratio. STE was used to assess LV global longitudinal strain (GLS), and traditional echocardiography was performed. Univariate and multivariable analyses were performed to assess the relationship among stroke, CV risk factors, and echocardiographyderived parameters. Results: A total of 29 cases and 62 controls were included. The mean age of the patients was 60 ± 12 y/o, and 54% were males. Smoking was more prevalent in cases compared to controls (34% vs. 9%; p = 0.001), and there were no significant differences in the other examined risk factors. Cases had less myocardial deformation compared to controls (GLS: -16.7% ± 3.4% vs. -19.2 ± 2.8%; p < 0.001), and there was no

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Hypoxia, Brain/diagnostic imaging , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/diagnostic imaging , Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Risk Factors , Longitudinal Studies
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 66(10): 1437-1443, Oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136138


SUMMARY INTRODUCTION: The present study aimed to determine independent predictors of left atrial thrombus (LAT) in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients without atrial fibrillation (AF) using transesophageal echocardiography (TEE). METHODS: In this single-center, retrospective study, we enrolled 149 consecutive AIS patients. All of the patients underwent a TEE examination to detect LAT within 10 days following admission. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to assess independent predictors of LAT. RESULTS: Among all cases, 14 patients (9.3%) had a diagnosis of LAT based on the TEE examination. In a multivariate analysis, elevated mean platelet volume (MPV), low left-ventricle ejection fraction (EF), creatinine, and reduced left-atrium appendix (LAA) peak emptying velocity were independent predictors of LAT. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve analysis for MPV was 0.70 (95%CI: 0.57-0.83; p = 0.011). With the optimal cut-off value of 9.45, MPV had a sensitivity of 71.4% and a specificity of 63% to predict LAT. CONCLUSION: AIS patients with low ventricle EF and elevated MPV should undergo further TEE examination to verify the possibility of a cardio-embolic source. In addition, this research may provide novel information with respect to the applicability of MPV to predict LAT in such patients without AF.

RESUMO INTRODUÇÃO: O presente estudo teve como objetivo determinar indicadores independentes do trombo auricular esquerdo (LAT) em doentes com acidente vascular cerebral isquêmico agudo (AIS) sem fibrilação auricular (AF) utilizando ecocardiografia transesofágica (TEE). MÉTODOS: Neste único centro, estudo retrospectivo, inscrevemos 149 pacientes consecutivos com AIS. Todos os pacientes foram submetidos a exame de TEE para detectar LAT no prazo de dez dias após a admissão. A análise de regressão logística multivariada foi realizada para avaliar preditores independentes do final. RESULTADO: Entre todos os casos, 14 pacientes (9,3%) tiveram um diagnóstico de exame tardio no TEE. Numa análise multivariada, volume médio de plaquetas (VMP) elevado, fração de ejeção do ventrículo esquerdo baixo (EF), creatinina e uma velocidade de pico de esvaziamento do átrio esquerdo reduzida (LAA) foram indicadores independentes da LAT. A área sob a análise da curva característica de operação do receptor para VMP foi de 0,70 (95% IC: 0, 57-0, 83; p=0,011). Com o valor-limite ideal de 9,45, o VMP teve uma sensibilidade de 71,4% e uma especificidade de 63% para prever mais tarde. CONCLUSÃO: Os doentes AIS com EF ventricular baixa e VMP elevado devem ser submetidos a um exame de TEE adicional para determinar a possibilidade de origem cardioembólica. Além disso, esta investigação pode fornecer novas informações sobre a aplicabilidade do VMP para prever tardiamente os doentes sem AF.

Humans , Atrial Fibrillation/complications , Atrial Fibrillation/diagnostic imaging , Thrombosis/etiology , Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging , Brain Ischemia/complications , Brain Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Atrial Appendage , Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 80(5): 442-446, ago. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1287196


Resumen Aproximadamente uno de cada 10 pacientes que sufre un accidente cerebrovascular isquémico (ACVi) padece cáncer concomitantemente. Nuestro objetivo fue evaluar características clínicoradiológicas del ACVi en pacientes con cáncer y compararlas con otros sin cáncer. Fue un estudio caso-control retrospectivo que incluyó pacientes con ACVi entre julio 2013 y septiembre 2018. Los casos tenían diagnóstico de cáncer y ACVi, y los controles solamente ACVi. Se comparó edad, sexo, factores de riesgo vascular, patrones radiológicos de lesiones, etiología y evolución clínica entre ambos grupos. Hubo 57 casos, 61% (n = 35) eran varones. La edad media fue 75 ± 11 años, sin diferencias en prevalencia de factores de riesgo vascular. En los casos hubo más pacientes con antecedentes de trombosis venosa profunda y/o tromboembolismo pulmonar (8% vs. 1%, p = 0.01). En 52 se conocía la presencia del cáncer antes del ACVi. El 91% se trató de tumores sólidos (n = 52) y en 54% el tumor no presentaba metástasis. El puntaje NIHSS promedio fue 3.8 ± 4 en los casos, y 9 ± 7 en los controles (p = 0.01). Las lesiones de pequeña arteria fueron menos frecuentes en los casos (2% vs. 26%, p = 0.001). Las lesiones de aspecto embólico fueron más comunes entre los casos (82% vs. 35%, p = 0.001). Aquellos con cáncer tuvieron menor NIHSS, menor frecuencia de lesiones de pequeña arteria, y mayor frecuencia de lesiones de aspecto embólico. La recurrencia a 90 días fue 3 veces mayor y la mortalidad 6 veces mayor en pacientes con cáncer (10% vs. 3%, y 18% vs. 3%. p = 0.08 y 0.001 respectivamente).

Abstract One in 10 patients with ischemic stroke has comorbid cancer. Our goal was to compare stroke patients with cancer against those without cancer in terms of clinical and radiological features, and the underlying mechanism. We conducted a retrospective case-control study in patients admitted with ischemic stroke between July 2013 and September 2018. Cases had a concomitant diagnosis of cancer and acute ischemic stroke, controls only of ischemic stroke. Age, gender, vascular risk factors (VRF), pattern of ischemic lesion in neuroimaging, etiology and clinical outcome were compared between groups. Fifty-seven cases were identified, 61% were male (n = 35), and mean age was 75 ± 11. Fiftytwo had known oncologic disease at the onset of stroke. Most of them had solid tumors (91%, n = 52), and 54% (n = 31) had a non-metastatic tumor at the time of stroke. Prevalence of common VRF between groups was not significantly different. Previous deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary thromboembolism were more frequent in the cancer cohort (8% vs. 1%, p = 0.01). The average NIHSS was 3.8 ± 4 in the cancer group and 9±7 in the control group (p = 0.01). Small artery disease as the etiology of stroke was significantly less common in the cancer group (2% vs. 26%, p = 0.001). Regarding neuroimaging, the embolic pattern was more frequent in patients with cancer (82% vs. 35%, p = 0.001). In these patients recurrence and mortality at 90 days was three and six times higher (10% vs. 3%, and 18% vs. 3%. p = 0.08 and 0.001, respectively).

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Brain Ischemia/epidemiology , Stroke/epidemiology , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Case-Control Studies , Retrospective Studies , Stroke/etiology , Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Neoplasms/complications
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UY-BNMED | ID: biblio-1291282


Se presenta el caso de un paciente con antecedente de adenocarcinoma de próstata y diagnóstico de ACV isquémico con transformación hemorrágica. La gammagrafía ósea con Tc-99m MDP complementada con SPECT e imágenes de fusión con TC cerebral simple, realizada a los 15 días, muestra hipercaptación en la región temporal izquierda, correspondiente al ACV en etapa subaguda.

We present the case of a patient with a history of prostate adenocarcinoma with a diagnosis of ischemic stroke with hemorrhagic transformation. Bone scintigraphy with Tc-99m MDP supplemented with SPECT and fusion images with simple cerebral CT, performed at 15 days, shows uptake in the left temporal region, corresponding to stroke in subacute stage

Apresentamos o caso de um paciente com história de adenocarcinoma de próstata com diagnóstico de acidente vascular cerebral isquêmico com transformação hemorrágica. A cintilografia óssea com Tc-99m MDP suplementada com SPECT e imagens de fusão com TC cerebral simple, realizadas aos 15 dias, mostra captação na região temporal esquerda, correspondente ao ACV na fase subaguda

Humans , Male , Aged, 80 and over , Technetium Tc 99m Medronate , Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Radionuclide Imaging , Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon