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1.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 118(1): 88-94, jan. 2022. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360110

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento: A fibrilação atrial é um problema de saúde pública associado com um risco cinco vezes maior de acidente vascular cerebral e mortalidade. A análise de custos é importante para a introdução de novas terapias, e deve ser reconsiderada em situações especiais, tais como a pandemia do coronavírus em 2020. Objetivo: Avaliar os custos (em um período de um ano) relacionados à terapia anticoagulante e a qualidade de vida de pacientes com fibrilação atrial tratados em um hospital público universitário. Métodos: Os custos do paciente foram aqueles relacionados à anticoagulação e calculados pela média de custos mensais da varfarina ou de anticoagulantes orais diretos (DOACs). As despesas não médicas, como alimentação e transporte, foram calculadas a partir de dados obtidos de questionários. O questionário brasileiro SF-6D foi usado para medir a qualidade de vida. Valores p<0,05 foram considerados estatisticamente significativos. Resultados: A população do estudo consistiu em 90 pacientes, 45 em cada braço (varfarina vs. DOACs). Os custos foram 20% mais altos no grupo dos DOACs (US$55 532,62 vs. US$46 385,88), e principalmente relacionados ao preço dos medicamentos (US$23 497,16 vs. US$1903,27). Os custos hospitalares foram mais altos no grupo da varfarina (US$31 088,41 vs $24 604,74), e relacionados às visitas ao ambulatório. Ainda, as despesas não médicas foram duas vezes maiores no grupo varfarina ($13 394,20 vs $7 430,72). A equivalência de preço entre os dois medicamentos seria alcançada por uma redução de 39% no preço dos DOACs. Não foram observadas diferenças quanto à qualidade de vida. Conclusões: Os custos totais foram mais altos no grupo de pacientes tratados com DOACs que no grupo da varfarina. No entanto, uma redução de cerca de 40% no preço dos DOACs tornaria viável a incorporação desses medicamentos no sistema de saúde público brasileiro.


Abstract Background: Atrial fibrillation is a public health problem associated with a fivefold increased risk of stroke or death. Analyzing costs is important when introducing new therapies and must be reconsidered in special situations, such as the novel coronavirus pandemic of 2020. Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the costs related to anticoagulant therapy in a one-year period, and the quality of life of atrial fibrillation patients treated in a public university hospital. Methods: Patient costs were those related to the anticoagulation and calculated by the average monthly costs of warfarin or direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs). Patient non-medical costs (eg., food and transportation) were calculated from data obtained by questionnaires. The Brazilian SF-6D was used to measure the quality of life. P-values < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: The study population consisted of 90 patients, 45 in each arm (warfarin vs direct oral anticoagulants). Costs were 20% higher in the DOAC group ($55,532.62 vs $46,385.88), and mainly related to drug price ($23,497.16 vs $1,903.27). Hospital costs were higher in the warfarin group ($31,088.41 vs $24,604.74) and related to outpatient visits. Additionally, non-medical costs were almost twice higher in the warfarin group ($13,394.20 vs $7,430.72). Equivalence of price between the two drugs could be achieved by a 39% reduction in the price of DOACs. There were no significant group differences regarding quality of life. Conclusions: Total costs were higher in the group of patients taking DOACs than those taking warfarin. However, a nearly 40% reduction in the price of DOACs could make it feasible to incorporate these drugs into the Brazilian public health system.


Subject(s)
Humans , Atrial Fibrillation/complications , Stroke/prevention & control , Stroke/drug therapy , COVID-19 , Quality of Life , Administration, Oral , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Anticoagulants
2.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 81(4): 581-587, ago. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1346510

ABSTRACT

Resumen El accidente cerebrovascular (ACV) es una urgencia tiempo dependiente, ya que las conductas de mayor impacto pronóstico dependen del tiempo trascurrido. El objetivo de este trabajo fue analizar nuestros tiempos puerta aguja (TPA), comienzo aguja (TCA) y el efecto que tiene sobre estos el sistema preaviso y la elección adecuada del centro asistencial. Se realizó un estudio observacional con datos obtenidos de histo rias clínicas de pacientes internados en la unidad de ACV. Analizamos el número de tratamientos trombolíticos endovenosos, entre agosto 2015 y diciembre 2019. Comparamos TPA según utilización de pre-aviso, llegada directa por sus propios medios vs. en ambulancia sin pre-aviso, y TCA según llegada directa al centro con unidad de ACV vs. llegada a otro centro para posterior derivación. De 265 pacientes en ventana terapéutica, se realizó tratamiento en 143. Llegaron 137 pacientes derivados de otro centro, 70 recibieron tratamiento trombolítico. El TPA con sistema preaviso y sin preaviso fue 41 ± 23 (media ± DE) y 81 ± 43 minutos, respectivamente (p = 0.001). El TPA con llegada directa por sus propios medios 79 ± 43 y en ambulancia sin preaviso 84 ± 44 minutos (p = 0.7) a unidad de ACV. El TCA en llegada directa a unidad de ACV fue 159 ± 59 y a otro centro para su derivación 199 ± 44 minutos (p = 0.001). La utilización de un sistema de preaviso y la elección directa de un centro con unidad de ACV son medidas clave para reducir los tiempos de tratamiento.


Abstract Acute ischemic stroke (AIS) is a time-dependent emergency, since the greatest impact depends on the time elapsed to treatment. The objective of this work was to analyze door to needle (DTN) and start treatment (STT) times and the effect of pre-notification system (PNS) and the appropriate choice of the healthcare center on these variables. An observational study with data obtained from records of patients admitted to the Stroke Unit (SU) was conducted between August 2015 to December 2019. We analyzed the number of intravenous thrombolytic treatments (IVT), DTN and STT and compared them according to PNS use, direct arrival at the center with SU or arrival at another center for subsequent referral. An overall of 472 patients were hospitalized during the studied period and the treatment was performed in 143 out of 265 patients. One hundred thirty-seven patients arrived from another center, 70 received IVT. Average DNT with PNS and without PNS were 41 ± 23 and 81 ± 44 minutes, respectively (p = 0.001). STT on direct arrival to SU was 159 ± 59 minutes and to another center for referral was 199 ± 44 (p = 0.001). The use of a PNS and the direct choice of a center where IVT is performed significantly improve treatment


Subject(s)
Humans , Brain Ischemia , Stroke/drug therapy , Thrombolytic Therapy , Fibrinolytic Agents/therapeutic use
3.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 81(1): 6-10, mar. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1287234

ABSTRACT

Resumen La fibrinólisis intravenosa con activador del plasminógeno tisular recombinante (rTPA) y la utilización de unidades cerradas, demostraron disminuir sustancialmente la morbimortalidad en pacientes con accidente cerebrovascular isquémico (ACVi). Sin embargo, los datos publicados en Argentina son escasos. Describimos la experiencia en la utilización de fibrinólisis en pacientes con ACVi agudo antes y después de la implementación de una unidad cerebrovascular (UCV) en un Centro Integral de Neurología Vascular de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires durante 17 años. Se realizó un análisis retrospectivo de pacientes consecutivos tratados con rTPA entre enero 2003 y diciembre 2019. Se evaluaron tiempos de tratamiento, de internación, complicaciones post tratamiento y discapacidad a 3 meses. Para su análisis se evaluaron los períodos pre y post apertura de la UCV, período 1 (P1 de 2003-2011) y P2 (2012 -2019). Se realizó fibrinolisis intravenosa en 182 pacientes. La apertura de UCV resultó en aumento del porcentaje de fibrinólisis sobre el total de los ACVi ingresados (4% en P1 vs. 10% en P2, p < 0.001), acortamiento del tiempo puerta-aguja (75 minutos en P1 vs. 53 minutos en P2, p < 0.00001) y mayor proporción de pacientes tratados dentro de los 60 minutos del ingreso hospitalario (36% en P1 vs. 76% en P2, p < 0.00001). Además, hubo reducción de la mediana de internación de 9 días en P1 a 5 días en P2 (p < 0.00001). En conclusión, la UCV parece optimizar la utilización de fibrinólisis en el ACVi agudo, aumentando el porcentaje de pacientes tratados, reduciendo el tiempo puerta-aguja y disminuyendo el de internación.


Abstract Intravenous fibrinolysis with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rTPA) and use of stroke units improve morbidity and mortality in patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS). However, data published in Argentina are scarce. We describe the experience in the use of fibrinolysis in patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) before and after the implementation of a stroke unit in a Comprehensive Stroke Center in Buenos Aires during the last 17 years. Retrospective analysis of consecutive patients treated with rTPA between January 2003 and December 2019. Treatment times, hospitalization time, post-treatment complications and disability at 3 months were evaluated. For the analysis, the pre and post opening periods of the stroke unit were evaluated, Period 1 (P1, from 2003 to 2011) and Period 2 (P2, from 2012 to 2019). Intravenous fibrinolysis was performed in 182 patients. Opening of the stroke unit resulted in an increase in the percentage of fibrinolysis over the total number of admitted strokes (4% in P1 vs. 10% in P2, p < 0.001), shortening of the door-to-needle time (75 minutes in P1 vs. 53 minutes in P2, p < 0.00001) and higher proportion of patients treated within 60 minutes of hospital admission (36% in P1 vs. 76% in P2, p < 0.00001). In addition, there was a reduction in the median hospital stay from 9 days in P1 to 5 days in P2 (p < 0.00001). In conclusion, stroke units seem to optimize the use of fibrinolysis in acute stroke, increasing the percentage of patients treated, reducing door-to-needle time, and reducing hospitalization time.


Subject(s)
Humans , Brain Ischemia/drug therapy , Stroke/drug therapy , Argentina , Thrombolytic Therapy , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Tissue Plasminogen Activator/therapeutic use , Fibrinolysis , Fibrinolytic Agents/therapeutic use
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922771

ABSTRACT

The current study was designed to explore the brain protection mechanism of Xinglou Chengqi Decoction (XCD) based on gut microbiota analysis and network pharmacology. A transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model of mice was established, followed by behavioral evaluation, TTC and TUNEL staining. Additionally, to investigate the effects of gut microbiota on neurological function after stroke, C57BL/6 mice were treated with anti-biotic cocktails 14 days prior to ischemic stroke (IS) to deplete the gut microbiota. High-throughput 16S rDNA gene sequencing, metabonomics technique, and flow multifactor technology were used to analyze bacterial communities, SCFAs and inflammatory cytokines respectively. Finally, as a supplement, network pharmacology and molecular docking were applied to fully explore the multicomponent-multitarget-multichannel mechanism of XCD in treating IS, implicated in ADME screening, target identification, network analysis, functional annotation, and pathway enrichment analysis. We found that XCD effectively improved neurological function, relieved cerebral infarction and decreased the neuronal apoptosis. Moreover, XCD promoted the release of anti-inflammatory factor like IL-10, while down-regulating pro-inflammatory factors such as TNF-α, IL-17A, and IL-22. Furthermore, XCD significantly increased the levels of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), especially butyric acid. The mechanism might be related to the regulation of SCFAs-producing bacteria like Verrucomicrobia and Akkermansia, and bacteria that regulate inflammation like Paraprevotella, Roseburia, Streptophyta and Enterococcu. Finally, in the network pharmacological analysis, 51 active compounds in XCD and 44 intersection targets of IS and XCD were selected. As a validation, components in XCD docked well with key targets. It was obviously that biological processes were mainly involved in the regulation of apoptotic process, inflammatory response, response to fatty acid, and regulation of establishment of endothelial barrier in GO enrichment. XCD can improve neurological function in experimental stroke mice, partly due to the regulation of gut microbiota. Besises, XCD has the characteristic of "multi-component, multi-target and multi-channel" in the treatment of IS revealed by network pharmacology and molecular docking.


Subject(s)
Animals , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Molecular Docking Simulation , Stroke/drug therapy
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922107

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To evaluate the efficacy and safety of Yangyin Yiqi Huoxue Granule (, YYHG) in the treatment of ischemic stroke (IS) patients with qi-yin deficiency and blood stasis syndrome (QYDBSS), and to explore its effective dosage.@*METHODS@#The total of 288 patients were randomly assigned to the YYHG high-dose, YYHG low-dose, positive control (administered Xiaoshuantong Granule, XSTG, ), or placebo control (administered inert granule) groups (72 cases per group) by software-drived competitive block randomization. The trial was conducted for a 28-day period, with a 180-day follow-up period. The primary outcome was the comprehensive curative evaluation, and secondary outcomes were the National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score, Barthel activities of daily living (ADL) index score, the quality of life index (QLI) score, and the Chinese medicine syndrome (CMS) score. All analyses were done on an intention-to-treat basis. The clinical safety was also assessed.@*RESULTS@#The total of 288 participants were recruited between June 1, 2008 and September 30, 2009, and 287 patients received intervention; the treatment groups were well balanced at baseline. The comprehensive cure rates of YYHG high-dose, low-dose, positive and placebo control groups were 63.38%, 31.94%, 36.11% and 6.14%, respectively; there was a statistical difference between the two groups (P<0.01), while the high-dose YYHG treatment group was significantly higher than the other 3 groups (P<0.01). The improvement of NIHSS, ADL, QLI and CMS scores of the YYHG high-dose and low-dose groups was significantly better than that of the positive control group and the placebo control group (P<0.05). In terms of improving the classification of the NIHSS scale and the assessment of the ADL scale, the YYHG high-dose group was significantly better than the other three groups (P<0.05), and the YYHG low-dose group was better than the placebo control group (P<0.01). At the same time, except for the QLI score, the high-dose group was better than the low-dose group (P<0.05). In terms of safety, adverse reactions after YYHG treatment were generally mild (3.78%), and no serious adverse reactions have been reported.@*CONCLUSION@#YYHG is safe and effective in the treatment of IS patients with QYDBSS.


Subject(s)
Activities of Daily Living , Brain Ischemia/drug therapy , Humans , Ischemic Stroke , Qi , Quality of Life , Stroke/drug therapy , Yin Deficiency
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921772

ABSTRACT

When ischemia or hemorrhagic stroke occurs, astrocytes are activated by a variety of endogenous regulatory factors to become reactive astrocytes. Subsequently, reactive astrocytes proliferate, differentiate, and migrate around the lesion to form glial scar with the participation of microglia, neuron-glial antigen 2(NG2) glial cells, and extracellular matrix. The role of glial scars at different stages of stroke injury is different. At the middle and late stages of the injury, the secreted chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan and chondroitin sulfate are the main blockers of axon regeneration and nerve function recovery. Targeted regulation of glial scars is an important pathway for neurological rehabilitation after stroke. Chinese medicine has been verified to be effective in stroke rehabilitation in clinical practice, possibly because it has the functions of promoting blood resupply, anti-inflammation, anti-oxidative stress, inhibiting cell proliferation and differentiation, and benign intervention in glial scars. This study reviewed the pathological process and signaling mechanisms of glial scarring after stroke, as well as the intervention of traditional Chinese medicine upon glial scar, aiming to provide theoretical reference and research evidence for developing Chinese medicine against stroke in view of targeting glial scarring.


Subject(s)
Astrocytes , Axons/pathology , Cicatrix/pathology , Gliosis/pathology , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Nerve Regeneration , Stroke/drug therapy
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921768

ABSTRACT

This study systematically reviewed the existing research on Danhong Injection in the treatment of stroke with blood stasis syndrome. The methods of evidence-based medicine, epidemiology, clinical medicine, evidence-based pharmacy, drug economics, mathematical statistics, and health technology assessment(HTA) were employed to qualitatively and quantitatively evaluate the "6+1" dimensions(safety, effectiveness, economy, innovation, suitability, accessibility, and characteristics of traditional Chinese medicine) of Danhong Injection through questionnaire survey, public information, real world data, and secondary evaluation of literature. With the weights given by experts, the multi-criteria decision analysis(MCDA) model was employed to measure each dimension and highlight the clinical value of Danhong Injection. Multi-source safety evidence showed that Danhong Injection had been fully monitored and studied. The severity of adverse reactions was mostly moderate or mild, and the prognosis was good. So it was rated as grade A for safety. Compared with Ligustrazine Injection, Fufang Danshen Injection and conventional treatment of western medicine, Danhong Injection had obvious advantages in clinical response rate and NIHSS score improvement in the treatment of stroke with blood stasis syndrome. So it was rated as grade A for effectiveness. Compared with Ligustrazine Injection and Yinxing Damo Injection, Danhong Injection had a cost-effectiveness advantage in the treatment of stroke with blood stasis syndrome, and the economic results were good. According to the existing evidence, the Danhong Injection was rated as grade B for economy. Danhong Injection had won a number of national patents, which was rated as grade A for its good innovation in guaranteeing supply measures, scalability of production capacity, and production process. It had good suitability for clinicians, nurses, pharmacists, and patients using the drug, and met the needs of clinical medication, so it was rated as grade B for suitability. Danhong Injection is rich in medicinal materials, stable in price, and sustainable. However, its availability needed to be further improved due to the limitation of prescription use, so it was rated as grade B for accessibility. Danhong Injection can promote blood circulation, resolve blood stasis, warm vessels, and smooth collaterals. It had accumulated more than 30 000 pieces of empirical evidence for human use in the real world. It had prominent characteristics of traditional Chinese medicine and was rated as grade B. CSC v2.0 was used for calculation, and the clinical value of Danhong Injection was comprehensively evaluated as class A, which could be directly translated into relevant policy results of basic clinical medication management according to the Guidelines for the Management Clinical Comprehensive Evaluation of Drugs(trial version 2021).


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Humans , Injections , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Stroke/drug therapy
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921720

ABSTRACT

The present study aimed to systematically evaluate the efficacy and safety of Ginkgo biloba extract 50(GBE50) in the treatment of ischemic stroke. The databases including CNKI, Wanfang, VIP, SinoMed, PubMed, EMbase, and Cochrane Library were searched for randomized controlled trial(RCT) of GBE50 for the treatment of ischemic stroke reported between database inception and May 2020. The methodological quality of the included RCTs was evaluated via the Cochrane risk of bias tool. The RevMan 5.4 was used for Meta-analysis. Sixteen RCTs were included, involving 1 615 patients with acute ischemic stroke. Most of the included RCTs reported the methods of random sequence generation, but only two performed the concealment of random sequence. All RCTs failed in blinding. Two RCTs reported the information of cases lost to follow-up and drop-outs. Since the number was small, the baselines of groups remained balanced. All RCTs reported key outcomes of ischemic stroke, which made selective reporting bias in a low risk. Meta-analysis results revealed that GBE50 combined with routine therapies could effectively lower the score of the National Institutes of Health stroke scale(NIHSS) and restore cognitive function and daily activity in ischemic stroke patients. Compared with routine therapies, the combination is advantageous in treating patients with ischemic stroke. However, high-quality multicenter RCTs with large sample sizes are still required for verification.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia/drug therapy , Ginkgo biloba , Humans , Ischemic Stroke , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Plant Extracts , Stroke/drug therapy
9.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2666-2674, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921171

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) is an effective way for treating acute ischemic stroke (AIS). However, its effects have not been established among AIS patients with unclear stroke symptoms or with stroke onset for >4.5 h.@*METHODS@#We searched PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and Google Scholar databases for randomized controlled trials that compared IVT (IVT group) and placebo or usual care (control group [CG]) in AIS patients with disease onset for >4.5 h. The outcomes of interest included the favorable functional outcome (defined as modified Rankin Scale [mRS] scores 0-1) at 90 days, the functional independence (defined as mRS scores 0-2) at 90 days, proportion of patients with symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage (sICH) and death at 90 days. We assessed the risk of bias using the Cochrane tool. Pre-specified subgroup analyses were performed by age (≤70 years or >70 years), National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS, ≤10 or >10) and time window (4.5-9.0 h or >9.0 h).@*RESULTS@#Four trials involving 848 patients were eligible. The risk of bias of included trials was low. Patients in the IVT group were more likely to achieve favorable functional outcomes (45.8% vs. 36.7%; OR 1.48, 95% CI 1.12-1.96) and functional independence (63.8% vs. 55.7%; OR 1.43, 95% CI 1.08-1.90) at 90 days, but had higher risk of sICH (3.0% vs. 0.5%; OR 5.28, 95% CI 1.35-20.68) at 90 days than those in the CG. No significant difference in death at 90 days was found between the two groups (7.0% vs. 4.1%; OR 1.80; 95% CI 0.97-3.34).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Use of IVT in patients with extended time window may improve their functional outcomes at 90 days, although IVT may induce increased risk of sICH. Care of these patients should well balance the potential benefits and harms of IVT.


Subject(s)
Administration, Intravenous , Aged , Brain Ischemia/drug therapy , Fibrinolytic Agents/therapeutic use , Humans , Ischemic Stroke , Stroke/drug therapy , Thrombolytic Therapy , Treatment Outcome
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888089

ABSTRACT

To systematically evaluate the efficiency and safety of Tanreqing Injection in the treatment of stroke-associated pneumonia(SAP). Seven domestic and foreign databases(CNKI, Wanfang, VIP, CBM, PubMed, Cochrane Library, EMbase) were retrieved from the establishment to July 2020. According to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, randomized controlled trial of the effect of Tanreqing Injection in the treatment of SAP was selected. NoteExpress software was used to screen out literatures. RevMan 5.4 software was used for data analysis. GRADE system was used to evaluate the evidence quality of the outcome indicators. A total of 1 755 cases in 21 studies were retrieved, including 879 cases in experimental group and 876 cases in control group. In general, the quality of stu-dies received was not high. According to Meta-analysis,(1) in terms of shortening the length of hospital stay, Tanreqing Injection combined with conventional western medicine was better than conventional western medicine(MD=-4.04, 95%CI[-4.43,-3.65], P<0.000 01);(2) in terms of increasing effective rate, Tanreqing Injection combined with conventional western medicine was better than conventional western medicine(RR=1.22, 95%CI[1.17, 1.27], P<0.000 01);(3) in terms of reducing inflammation indicators, Tanreqing Injection combined with conventional western medicine was better than conventional western medicine(MD_(CRP)=-10.75, 95%CI[-15.61,-5.88], P<0.000 01; MD_(WBC count)=-1.62, 95%CI[-2.55,-0.69], P=0.000 6; MD_(PCT)=-0.58, 95%CI[-0.89,-0.26], P=0.000 3];(4) in terms of improving symptoms and signs, Tanreqing Injection combined with conventional wes-tern medicine was better than conventional western medicine(MD_(cough)=-2.73, 95%CI[-4.93,-0.53], P=0.02; MD_(antipyretic)=-1.07, 95%CI[-1.17,-0.98), P<0.000 01];(5) in terms of decreasing the NIHSS scores, Tanreqing Injection combined with conventional western medicine was better than conventional western medicine(MD=-3.02, 95%CI[-4.91,-1.13], P=0.002);(6) in terms of adverse reactions, there was no statistically significant difference between Tanreqing Injection combined with conventio-nal western medicine compared with conventional western medicine treatment(RR=1.19, 95%CI[0.61,2.29], P=0.61). GRADE system showed that the evidence levels of above outcome indicators were low and extremely low. The results proved that Tanreqing Injection combined with conventional western medicine had a good advantage in the treatment of SAP, with better observation indicators better than western medicine conventional treatment, and no increase in the incidence of adverse reactions. However, this study had certain limitations. The overall quality of the included studies was low, which affected the reliability of the results. Therefore, the conclusions of this study shall be used cautiously.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Humans , Pneumonia/drug therapy , Reproducibility of Results , Stroke/drug therapy
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888040

ABSTRACT

To explore the potential effective components and mechanism of Zhishe Tongluo Capsules in the treatment of ischemic stroke via network pharmacology, molecular docking and cellular experiment. The chemical constituents of Zhishe Tongluo Capsules were found by TCMSP, BATMAN-TCM and literatures. The constituents-target network was predicted by BATMAN-TCM database. Key words such as cerebral stroke, ischemic stroke and cerebral ischemic stroke were used to search ischemic stroke related targets, and then Venny Map was constructed based on the targets of traditional Chinese medicine and the targets of ischemic stroke. The overlapping targets were imported into STRING database to establish the interaction network. Furthermore, the core targets were screened out by Cytoscape software. Go and KEGG enrichment analysis were performed through DVIAD database. The results showed a total of 193 potential chemical constituents, 985 drug targets and 6 035 disease targets. There were 631 potential targets, 44 core targets and 55 potential active components for treating ischemic stroke through Venny mapping. GO enrichment analysis mainly involved response to hypoxia and positive regulation of ERK1/ERK2. KEGG pathway enrichment analysis mainly involved cholinergic synapse, cAMP signaling pathway, and calcium signaling pathway. Molecular docking data revealed that TP53, EGFR, IL6, INS, TNF and SRC had a good capability to bind with their corresponding active components. To ensure the protective effect Zhishe Tongluo Capsules on the inflammation reaction, an in vitro model of lipopolysaccharide(LPS)-induced RAW264.7 cells was built. The contents of IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α in the supernatant were significantly decreased by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA). The findings suggested that Zhishe Tongluo Capsules could prevent the injury of ischemic stroke by inhibiting the inflammation.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia/drug therapy , Capsules , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Humans , Ischemic Stroke , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Molecular Docking Simulation , Stroke/drug therapy
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888035

ABSTRACT

There have been many clinical trials, systematic reviews/Meta-analysis proving that Xingnaojing Injection has a good clinical efficacy in treatment of cerebral ischaemic stroke, but with fewer comprehensive descriptions. In this study, an overview of systematic reviews/Meta-analysis of Xingnaojing Injection in treating cerebral ischaemic stroke was performed to provide current situation of evidences and basis for clinical practice. CNKI, Wanfang, VIP, CBM, EMbase, PubMed, Cochrane Library, Web of Science were retrieved through computers. A total of 6 literatures were included in this study. By AMSTAR-2 checklist and GRADE, the quality of included systematic reviews and the efficacy of Xingnaojing Injection were evaluated. The results of AMSTAR-2 checklist showed an extremely low quality for all of the 6 systematic reviews. According to the results of GRADE evaluation, among 55 outcomes, there were 2 outcomes with a medium quality, 4 outcomes with a low quality and 49 outcomes with an extremely low quality. The 6 systematic reviews reached a consistent conclusion that Xingnaojing Injection was effective in the treatment of cerebral ischaemic stroke. This therapy could improve the total efficacy, neurological deficit scores, hemodynamic and hemodynamic parameters. However, the methodolo-gical quality of all literatures was extremely low. The evidence levels of outcomes were between extremely low to medium. The effectiveness of Xingnaojing Injection in the treatment of cerebral ischaemic stroke still needs to be further verified by more high-quality studies. In the future, relevant clinical studies and systematic reviews/Meta-analysis shall be carried out in a strict accordance with relevant regulations.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Humans , Ischemic Stroke , Stroke/drug therapy , Systematic Reviews as Topic
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888032

ABSTRACT

To systematically search and sort out the clinical randomized controlled trial(RCT) on the prevention and treatment of acute cerebral infarction with traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) by using the method of evidence map, and to understand the evidence distribution of related studies. CNKI, Wanfang, VIP, CBM, PubMed, EMbase, Cochrane Library and Web of Science were retrieved from January 2016 to September 2020, and literatures related to the prevention and treatment of acute cerebral infarction with traditional Chinese medicine were included. Text description combined with table and bubble chart were used to analyze the distribution characteristics of evidence. A total of 1 102 clinical articles in recent five years were retrieved. The annual trend of clinical study publication, study size, TCM therapy category and main scheme, and study literature quality were analyzed. We find that TCM treatment of acute cerebral infarction has become a hot topic of clinical research, the number of literature showed a trend of increased year by year, various means of intervention of TCM in the treatment of the advantages of increasingly highlight. Follow-up clinical research should highlight the characteristics of TCM: in the analysis of outcome indicators; increase the neuropsychological patients after stroke and cognitive ability, and the theory of combined treatment of TCM disease when thoughts; At the same time, the quality of clinical research needs to be improved. At present, there is still a lack of unified standards for the production of evidence map. This study is the first to explore the application of evidence map to summarize and display the clinical research status of TCM treatment of acute cerebral infarction, and combine it with the setting of priority areas of TCM clinical research, so as to provide a reference basis for determining the priority topic selection of TCM treatment optimization research.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia , Cerebral Infarction/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Stroke/drug therapy
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878903

ABSTRACT

Ischemic stroke is the leading cause of death and disability in adults in China. Recent studies have shown that neutrophil extracellular traps play a crucial role in occurrence and development of ischemic stroke. This paper reviewed the literatures on NETs since the discovery of NETs more than a decade ago, and summarized the composition of NETs, the effects of NETs on stroke, the intervention targets of NETs, and the effects of traditional Chinese medicine on NETs. NETs are an important cause of brain injury after stroke. Platelets, peptidylarginine deiminase 4, reactive oxygen species and histones are the targets to regulate NET formation in stroke. There are few researches on traditional Chinese medicine targeting NETs for stroke. Studies on the intervention of traditional Chinese medicine mainly target on neutrophils, which are the main components of NETs, and platelets, which induce the formation of NETs. The paper provided a comprehensive overview of current studies of NETs in ischemic stroke, so as to provide new ideas for the treatment and drug development of ischemic stroke.


Subject(s)
Adult , Brain Ischemia/drug therapy , China , Extracellular Traps , Humans , Ischemic Stroke , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Stroke/drug therapy
16.
Clinics ; 76: e2728, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1278925

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the safety and efficacy of combined tirofiban-ozagrel therapy for treating progressive stroke patients out of thrombolytic therapy time window. METHODS: This prospective, double-blind, randomized controlled study included 337 patients who had experienced an acute ischemic stroke between November 2017 and December 2018. All patients were randomized into three groups: 1) the tirofiban/ozagrel group (n=113), 2) the tirofiban group (n=110), and 3) the ozagrel group (n=114). The platelet aggregation (PAG), thrombin time (TT), prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), and fibrinogen (FIB) levels in the patients from these groups were evaluated before starting treatment and then, at 24h, 7 days, and 14 days after treatment. The National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores were evaluated before treatment and then, 24h, 1 week, 2 weeks, and 4 weeks after treatment. The Barthel Index (BI) score was used to measure safety, and the modified Rankin scale (mRS) was used to evaluate disability following 3 months of treatment. The risk factors affecting clinical outcomes were analyzed using logistic multivariate regression. RESULTS: The mean NIHSS score for all the patients was 13.17±3.13 before treatment, and no significant difference between the basic clinical parameters of the three patient groups was found. Following treatment, both PAG and FIB were significantly reduced compared with the baseline (p<0.05). The levels of PAG and FIB in the tirofiban/ozagrel group were significantly lower than those in the tirofiban and ozagrel groups at 24h and 7 days after treatment (p<0.05). The NIHSS score decreased significantly in all treatment groups (p<0.05). The tirofiban/ozagrel NIHSS scores were significantly lower than that of the tirofiban and ozagrel groups at 24h, 1 week, and 2 weeks post initiation (p<0.05 for all). There were no significant differences in the BI and mRS scores or the intracranial hemorrhage rates; further, age, sex, Trial of ORG 10172 in acute stroke treatment (TOAST) type, baseline NIHSS and 24-h NIHSS scores, baseline thrombus-related factors, and treatment methods were shown to not be independent risk factors for clinical outcomes. CONCLUSION: The combination of tirofiban and ozagrel, as well as monotherapy with either tirofiban or ozagrel, transiently improves the neural function of patients and reduces platelet aggregation and fibrinogen formation in the first 4 weeks following a stroke event; additionally, none of these treatments increased the risk for hemorrhage in these progressive stroke patients over a 3-month period.


Subject(s)
Humans , Brain Ischemia/drug therapy , Stroke/drug therapy , Thrombolytic Therapy , Cerebral Infarction/drug therapy , Double-Blind Method , Prospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Tirofiban/therapeutic use , Methacrylates
17.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(5): e10000, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153552

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to explore the effect of intravenous thrombolysis with alteplase on clinical efficacy, inflammatory factors, and neurological function in patients with acute cerebral infarction. A total of 120 patients with acute cerebral infarction were divided into two groups by the random number table method, with 60 patients in each group: observation group (intravenous thrombolysis with alteplase) and control group (intravenous thrombolysis with batroxobin). The clinical efficacy after a 14-day treatment was observed. Serum C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), CD62p, GMP-140, and neuron-specific enolase (NSE) were measured. Scores of National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS), Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) were determined. The total effective rate in the observation group was 81.67%, which was higher than the 61.67% in the control group (P<0.05). The improvement of inflammatory factors (CRP, TNF-α, IL-6, CD62p, GMP-140, and NSE), NIHSS, MMSE, and MoCA in the observation group was superior to that in the control group (all P<0.05). The modified Rankin scale at three months after hospital discharge in the observation group was lower than that in the control group (P<0.01). Intravenous thrombolysis with alteplase for acute cerebral infarction can enhance the clinical efficacy, alleviate inflammatory response and brain injury, and improve cognitive function, which is worthy of further clinical application and study.


Subject(s)
Humans , Brain Ischemia/drug therapy , Stroke/drug therapy , Thrombolytic Therapy , Cerebral Infarction/drug therapy , Treatment Outcome , Tissue Plasminogen Activator , Fibrinolytic Agents/therapeutic use
18.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 78(11): 681-686, Nov. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142356

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Low-dose alteplase (LrtPA) has been shown not to be inferior to the standard-dose (SrtPA) with respect to death/disability. Objective: We aim to evaluate the percentage of patients treated with LrtPA at our center after the ENCHANTED trial and the factors associated with the use of this dosage. Methods: Prospective study in consecutive patients with an acute stroke admitted between June 2016 and November 2018. Results: 160 patients were treated with intravenous thrombolysis, 50% female; mean age 65.4±18.5 years. Of these, 48 patients (30%) received LrtPA. In univariate analysis, LrtPA was associated with patient's age (p=0.000), previous modified Rankin scale scores (mRS) (p<0.000), hypertension (p=0.076), diabetes mellitus (p=0.021), hypercholesterolemia (p=0.19), smoking (p=0.06), atrial fibrillation (p=0.10), history of coronary artery disease (p=0.06), previous treatment with antiplatelet agents (p<0.000), admission International Normalized Ratio-INR (p=0.18), platelet count (p=0.045), leukoaraiosis on neuroimaging (p<0.003), contraindications for thrombolytic treatment (p=0.000) and endovascular treatment (p=0.027). Previous relevant bleedings were determinants for treatment with LrtPA. Final diagnosis on discharge of stroke mimic was significant (p=0.02) for treatment with SrtPA. In multivariate analysis, mRS (OR: 2.21; 95%CI 1.37‒14.19), previous antiplatelet therapy (OR: 11.41; 95%CI 3.98‒32.70), contraindications for thrombolysis (OR: 56.10; 95%CI 8.81‒357.80), leukoaraiosis (OR: 4.41; 95%CI 1.37‒14.10) and diagnosis of SM (OR: 0.22; 95%CI 0.10‒0.40) remained independently associated. Conclusions: Following the ENCHANTED trial, LrtPA was restricted to 30% of our patients. The criteria that clinicians apply are based mostly on clinical variables that may increase the risk of brain or systemic hemorrhage or exclude the patient from treatment with lytic drugs.


RESUMEN Introducción: Dosis reducidas de trombolitico (LrtPA) podrían no ser inferiores en muerte/discapacidad. Objetivo: Evaluar el porcentaje de pacientes tratados con LrtPA en nuestro centro después del ensayo ENCHANTED, y los factores asociados con el uso de esta dosis. Métodos: Estudio prospectivo de pacientes consecutivos con infarto cerebral ingresados ​entre junio de 2016 y noviembre de 2018. Resultados: 160 pacientes fueron tratados con trombólisis intravenosa, 50% mujeres; edad media 65,4±18,5 años. 48 casos (30%) recibieron LrtPA. En el análisis univariado, LrtPA se asoció con la edad del paciente (p=0,000), escala de Rankin modificadas (mRS) (p<0,000), hipertensión arterial (p=0,076), diabetes mellitus (p=0,021), hipercolesterolemia (p=0,19), tabaquismo (p=0,06), fibrilación auricular (p=0,10), antecedentes de enfermedad coronaria (p=0,06), tratamiento previo con antiplaquetarios (p<0,000), International Normalized Ratio-INR (p=0,18), recuento de plaquetario (p=0,045), leucoaraiosis en neuroimagen (p<0,003), contraindicaciones para el tratamiento trombolítico (p=0,000) y tratamiento endovascular (p=0,027). Las hemorragias previas relevantes fueron determinantes para el tratamiento con LrtPA. El diagnóstico al alta de imitador de accidente cerebrovascular fue significativo (p=0,02) para el tratamiento con dosis estándar. El análisis multivariado demostró que mRS (OR: 2,21; IC95% 1,37‒14,19), tratamiento antiplaquetario previo (OR: 11,41; IC95% 3,98‒32,7), contraindicaciones para trombólisis (OR: 56,1; IC95% 8,81‒357,8), leucoaraiosis (OR: 4,41; IC95% 1,37‒14,1) y un diagnóstico de imitador de accidente cerebrovascular (OR: 0,22; IC95% 0,1‒0,40) fueron asociados con la dosis recibida. Conclusiones: LrtPA está restringido al 30% de nuestros pacientes. Los criterios para tomar esta decisión se basan en variables que podrían aumentar el riesgo de hemorragia cerebral/sistémica o excluir al paciente del tratamiento con fármacos líticos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Brain Ischemia/drug therapy , Stroke/drug therapy , Plasminogen Activators/adverse effects , Thrombolytic Therapy/adverse effects , Prospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Fibrinolytic Agents/adverse effects
19.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 78(8): 461-467, Aug. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131748

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Statin therapy has become one of the most important advances in stroke secondary prevention. Objective: To provide evidence from real-world data for evaluating detailed associations between secondary prevention of stroke and statin use in Brazil. Methods: We conducted a prospective cohort study including consecutive patients diagnosed with an ischemic stroke. Subjects were classified into non-statin, simvastatin 20 mg, simvastatin 40 mg, and high-potency statin groups. We also registered the onset of statin therapy, previous use of statins, the adherence to medication, and if there was discontinuation of the therapy. After two years, the functional outcome, stroke recurrence, major cardiovascular events, and mortality were assessed. Results: Among the 513 patients included in our cohort, there were 96 (18.7%) patients without statins, 169 (32.9%) with simvastatin 20 mg, 202 (39.3%) with simvastatin 40 mg, and 46 (9.0%) with high-potency statins. Patients without statins were at increased risk of stroke recurrence and worse functional outcomes. Concerning etiology, evidence of beneficial use of statins was observed in cases of large-artery atherosclerosis, small-vessel occlusion, and stroke of undetermined cause. Those who presented poor adherence to statins or discontinuation of the treatment had worse prognosis after stroke whereas the early onset of statins use was associated with better outcomes. Patients with simvastatin 40 mg and high-potency statins presented the best functional recovery throughout the follow-up. Conclusions: Statins play an important role in the treatment of ischemic stroke, preventing stroke recurrence and cardiovascular events, and improving functional performance.


RESUMO Introdução: A terapia com estatinas tornou-se um dos avanços mais importantes na prevenção secundária do acidente vascular cerebral (AVC). Objetivo: Fornecer evidências de dados do mundo real para avaliar associações detalhadas entre a prevenção secundária do AVC e o uso de estatinas no Brasil. Métodos: Realizamos um estudo de coorte prospectivo, incluindo pacientes consecutivos com diagnóstico de AVC isquêmico. Os indivíduos foram classificados em grupos sem estatinas, sinvastatina 20 mg, sinvastatina 40 mg e estatina de alta potência. Também registramos o início da terapêutica com estatinas, o uso prévio de estatinas, a adesão à medicação e se houve descontinuação da terapia. Após dois anos, foram avaliados o resultado funcional, a recorrência do AVC, os principais eventos cardiovasculares e a mortalidade. Resultados: Entre os 513 pacientes incluídos em nossa coorte, havia 96 (18,7%) pacientes sem estatinas, 169 (32,9%) com sinvastatina 20 mg, 202 (39,3%) com sinvastatina 40 mg e 46 (9,0%) com estatinas de alta potência. Pacientes sem estatinas apresentaram maior risco de recorrência de AVC e piores resultados funcionais. Em relação à etiologia, foram observadas evidências do benefício das estatinas nos casos de aterosclerose de grandes artérias, oclusão de pequenos vasos e AVC de causa indeterminada. Aqueles com baixa adesão às estatinas ou que interromperam o uso tiveram pior prognóstico após o AVC, enquanto o início precoce do uso de estatinas foi associado a melhores resultados. Pacientes com sinvastatina 40 mg e estatinas de alta potência apresentaram melhor recuperação funcional ao longo do período de acompanhamento. Conclusões: As estatinas desempenham um importante papel no tratamento do AVC isquêmico, prevenindo sua recorrência e eventos cardiovasculares e melhorando o desempenho funcional.


Subject(s)
Humans , Brain Ischemia/prevention & control , Brain Ischemia/drug therapy , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Stroke/prevention & control , Stroke/drug therapy , Brazil , Prospective Studies
20.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 78(3): 158-162, Mar. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1098072

ABSTRACT

Abstract Ischemic stroke is a common cause of death. The role of statins in the secondary prevention of the chronic ischemic stroke phase has been established. However, evidence regarding their efficacy in this phase is limited and contradictory. Objective: To evaluate the association between statin use and mortality risk during the acute phase of ischemic stroke in patients admitted to an intensive care unit. Methods: This was an observational and prospective study of ischemic stroke patients aged ≥18, admitted to an intensive care unit. Medications used during the first 7 days after the ictus, as well as medications used previously, were recorded. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality during the first 7 days. Results: We screened 212 patients and included 97 patients with ischemic stroke in the study period. The mortality rate among patients who used statins during the acute IS phase [14% (9/63)] was significantly lower than that among patients who did not use statins [41% (14/34); p=0.007]. This was confirmed in logistical regression with an 0.19 Odds Ratio - OR [p=0.018; 95% confidence interval - 95%CI 0.05-0.75]. Patients who died were older, had a higher incidence of acute myocardial infarction, higher scores on the NIHSS and lower systolic blood pressure. Statins and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors were used more frequently among survivors. These associations persisted even after adjustment for confounding variables. Conclusion: Statins and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors use during hospitalization were independently associated to a lower rate of all-cause mortality in the first 7 days of intensive care unit admission.


Resumo O acidente vascular cerebral (AVC) isquêmico é uma causa comum de morte. O papel das estatinas na prevenção secundária da fase crônica do AVC isquêmico foi estabelecido. No entanto, as evidências sobre a sua eficácia na fase aguda do AVC isquêmico são limitadas e contraditórias. Objetivo: Avaliar a associação entre o uso de estatinas e o risco de mortalidade durante a fase aguda do AVC isquêmico em pacientes internados em uma unidade de terapia intensiva. Métodos: Estudo observacional e prospectivo de pacientes com AVC isquêmico com idade ≥18 anos, internados em uma unidade de terapia intensiva. Os medicamentos utilizados durante os primeiros 7 dias após o ictus, bem como os medicamentos utilizados anteriormente, foram registrados. O desfecho primário foi mortalidade por todas as causas durante os primeiros 7 dias. Resultados: Foram selecionados 212 pacientes e incluídos 97 pacientes com AVC isquêmico no período do estudo. A taxa de mortalidade entre os pacientes que usaram estatinas durante a fase aguda do AVC [14% (9/63)] foi significativamente menor do que a dos pacientes que não usaram estatinas [41% (14/34); p=0,007]. Isso foi confirmado na regressão logística com Odds Ratio - OR 0,19 [p=0,018; intervalo de confiança de 95% - IC95% 0,05-0,75]. Os pacientes que morreram eram mais velhos, apresentavam maior incidência de infarto agudo do miocárdio, escores mais altos na National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) e menor pressão arterial sistólica. Estatinas e inibidores da enzima conversora de angiotensina foram utilizados com maior frequência entre os sobreviventes. Essas associações persistiram mesmo após o ajuste para variáveis de confundimento. Conclusão: O uso de estatinas e inibidores da enzima conversora de angiotensina durante a hospitalização foram associados de forma independente à uma menor taxa de mortalidade por todas as causas nos primeiros 7 dias de internação na unidade de terapia intensiva.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Prospective Studies , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Stroke/mortality , Stroke/drug therapy , Brain Ischemia/mortality , Brain Ischemia/drug therapy , Hospitalization , Intensive Care Units
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