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1.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 81(4): 588-596, ago. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1346511

ABSTRACT

Abstract Up to 15% of all strokes affect young patients and the incidence of ischemic stroke in this population is rising. Nevertheless, there is limited information of cerebrovascular events in this population both in our country and in Latin America. The aim of our study was to evaluate the clinical characteristics and risk factors of young adults with stroke in Argentina. This is a prospective, multicenter study of stroke in young adults (18 - 55 years) in Argentina. Patients presenting with a cerebrovascular event within 180 days were included. Stroke subtypes were classified according to TOAST criteria. A total number of 311 patients were enrolled (men 53.9%, mean age: 43.3 years). Ischemic strokes occurred in 91.8% (brain infarcts 82.6%, transient ischemic attack 9.2%) and hemorrhagic strokes in 8.2%. The most frequent vascular risk factors (including ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes) were: hypertension 120 (41%), smoking 92 (31.4%), dyslipidemia 81 (27.6%) and, over weight/obesity: 74 (25.3%). Stroke subtypes were: large artery disease 12.3%, cardioembolism 7.5, small artery occlusion 11.5%, other defined etiology 27.1%, and undetermined etiology 41.6%. Our study demonstrates that vascular risk factors are very frequent in young adults with stroke. Our findings underline that urgent strategies are required for primary and secondary stroke prevention in this group of patients.


Resumen Aproximadamente un 15% de todos los ataques cerebrovasculares afectan a pacientes jóvenes y su incidencia estaría en aumento. Existe escasa información sobre el ataque cerebral en esta población tanto en nuestro país como en Latinoamérica. El objetivo de nuestro estudio fue evaluar las características clínicas y los factores de riesgo de los adultos jóvenes con ictus en Argentina. Realizamos un estudio prospectivo y multicéntrico en adultos jóvenes (18-55 años) en Argentina, que presentaron un evento cerebrovascular dentro de los 180 días previos. Los subtipos de ictus se clasificaron según los criterios de TOAST. Se incluyeron un total de 311 pacientes (hombres 53.9%, edad media: 43,3 años). Los ataques cerebrovasculares isquémicos ocurrieron en el 91.8% (infartos cerebrales 82.6%, ataque isquémico transitorio 9.2%) y los eventos hemorrágicos correspondieron al 8.2%. Los factores de riesgo vascular más frecuentes (incluyendo los eventos isquémicos y hemorrágicos) fueron: hipertensión 120 (41%), tabaquismo 92 (31.4%), dislipidemia 81 (27.6%) y sobrepeso/obesidad: 74 (25.3%). Los subtipos de ictus isquémicos fueron: arteriopatía de gran vaso 12.3%, cardioembolismo 7.5%, oclusión de pequeña arteria 11.5%, otra etiología definida 27.1% y etiología indeterminada 41.6%. Los factores de riesgo vascular son muy frecuentes en los adultos jóvenes con ictus. Nuestros hallazgos subrayan que se requieren estrategias urgentes para la prevención primaria y secundaria del ictus en este grupo particular de pacientes en nuestro país.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Young Adult , Brain Ischemia/etiology , Brain Ischemia/epidemiology , Ischemic Attack, Transient , Stroke/epidemiology , Hypertension/complications , Hypertension/epidemiology , Argentina/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Stroke/etiology
2.
Rev. inf. cient ; 100(4): e3484, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1289658

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: Las enfermedades cerebrovasculares agudas se consideran una epidemia vascular y un problema socio-sanitario de primer orden. Objetivo: Describir el comportamiento de la enfermedad cerebrovascular en pacientes de una zona rural perteneciente al Policlínico Comunitario "Juan Bruno Zayas"de Cifuentes, provincia Villa Clara, durante el año 2019. Método: Se realizó un estudio observacional de tipo descriptivo transversal. La muestra estuvo constituida por 32 pacientes que cumplieron los criterios de inclusión y exclusión. Se aplicó un cuestionario a pacientes y familiares cercanos, además, de la revisión de historias clínicas individuales y familiares con el propósito de identificar la etiopatogenia, mes en que ocurrió el evento cerebrovascular, factores de riesgo asociados, tipo de enfermedad cerebrovascular, variante, y forma de presentación clínica. Resultados: Predominó el grupo de edades de 60-69 años, sexo masculino y color de la piel negro. Los factores de riesgo más frecuentes fueron: hipertensión arterial sistémica, tabaquismo y dislipidemia. Marzo fue el mes donde hubo mayor número de casos diagnosticados como enfermedad cerebrovascular. Prevaleció el infarto cerebral como variante más frecuente. Conclusiones: La enfermedad cerebrovascular aguda siempre está asociada a los factores de riesgo clásicos. Existe predominio del ictus de origen isquémico sobre el hemorrágico. Más de la mitad de los pacientes tiene cifras elevadas de tensión arterial durante el evento cerebral. Se evidencia mayor frecuencia de casos durante los meses de menores temperaturas.


ABSTRACT Introduction: Acute cerebrovascular diseases are considered a vascular epidemic and a first-order social and health problem. Objective: To describe the behavior of cerebrovascular disease in patients who residing in a rural area associated to the Policlínico Comunitario "Juan Bruno Zayas" in Cifuentes, Villa Clara, period time 2019. Method: A cross-sectional, descriptive observational study was carried out. The sample selected envolved 32 patients who met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. A questionnaire was administered to patients and close relatives, and individual and family medical records were reviewed to identify the etiopathogenesis, month in which the cerebrovascular event occurred, associated risk factors, type of cerebrovascular disease, variant, and form of clinical presentation. Results: Group age 60 to 69 and male black patients, were predominant. Most common risk factors were: systemic arterial hypertension, smoking and dyslipidemia. March was the month with the highest number of cases diagnosed with cerebrovascular disease. Cerebral infarction prevailed as the most frequent variant. Conclusions: Acute cerebrovascular disease is always associated with classical risk factors. Ischemic stroke predominates over hemorrhagic stroke. More than half of patients have elevated blood pressure during the cerebral event. Arising cases were higher during the months with lower temperatures.


RESUMO Introdução: As doenças cerebrovasculares agudas são consideradas uma epidemia vascular e um problema sócio-sanitário de primeira ordem. Objetivo: descrever o comportamento da doença cerebrovascular em pacientes de uma área rural pertencente à Policlínico Comunitario "Juan Bruno Zayas", de Cifuentes, província de Villa Clara, durante o ano de 2019. Método: Foi realizado um estudo observacional descritivo transversal. A amostra foi composta por 32 pacientes que atenderam aos critérios de inclusão e exclusão. Foi aplicado questionário aos pacientes e familiares próximos, além da revisão dos prontuários individuais e familiares para identificação da etiopatogenia, mês em que ocorreu o evento cerebrovascular, fatores de risco associados, tipo de doença cerebrovascular, variante e forma de apresentação clínica. Resultados: Predominou a faixa etária de 60 a 69 anos, sexo masculino e cor da pele negra. Os fatores de risco mais frequentes foram: hipertensão arterial sistêmica, tabagismo e dislipidemia. Março foi o mês com maior número de casos diagnosticados como doença cerebrovascular. O infarto cerebral prevaleceu como a variante mais frequente. Conclusões: A doença cerebrovascular aguda está sempre associada a fatores de risco clássicos. Há predomínio do AVC de origem isquêmica sobre o hemorrágico. Mais da metade dos pacientes apresentam níveis elevados de pressão arterial durante o evento cerebral. Há maior frequência de casos nos meses de menor temperatura.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Stroke/etiology , Stroke/epidemiology , Hypertension/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Observational Study
3.
Rev. urug. cardiol ; 36(1): e36105, abr. 2021. ilus, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY, UY-BNMED | ID: biblio-1248118

ABSTRACT

Desde época temprana de la cirugía cardíaca (CC), la fibrilación auricular (FA) ha sido un acompañante frecuente del posoperatorio, y no es esperable su abatimiento en el futuro cercano. La interpretación de su significado clínico se ha modificado en los últimos años, tras conocerse su tendencia recurrente y su asociación con serias complicaciones inmediatas y a largo plazo. Esto deja entrever un nuevo desafío, dejando de ser un problema menor y de consideración puntual en el perioperatorio para constituir un tema de preocupación y seguimiento en el futuro alejado, aún con incertidumbres evolutivas y de manejo. La profilaxis efectiva de esta arritmia, una respuesta lógica al problema, es dificultosa por la multiplicidad de factores de riesgo y lo intrincado de su génesis, todavía no completamente dilucidada, sumadas a la edad creciente de los pacientes intervenidos, la complejidad mayor de los procedimientos, los posibles efectos colaterales de los fármacos empleados y la inexistencia de un algoritmo predictivo confiable que permita racionalizar las medidas preventivas. Además, muchas recomendaciones de las guías de práctica clínica actuales se basan en información obtenida en estudios realizados en la FA primaria, por lo que su adopción en el escenario de la CC ha sido menor a la deseable. Todos estos aspectos son objeto de análisis en esta revisión que finaliza con pautas de manejo práctico de la arritmia en el entorno perioperatorio.


Since an early age of heart surgery, atrial fibrillation has been a frequent companion of the postoperative period, and its decline is not to be expected in the near future. The interpretation of its clinical significance has changed in recent years, after knowing its recurrent trend and its association with serious immediate and long-term complications. This fact unveils a new challenge, as it is no longer a minor problem of consideration restricted to the perioperative period and has become a topic of concern and follow-up in the distant future, still with uncertainties as to its evolution and management. The effective prophylaxis of this arrhythmia, a logical response to the problem, has been difficult by the multiplicity of risk factors and the intricate of its genesis, not yet completely elucidated, added to the increasing age of the patients involved, the greater complexity of the procedures, the possible side effects of the drugs used and the absence of a reliable predictive algorithm that could allow to rationalize preventive measures. In addition, many recommendations from current clinical practice guidelines are based on information obtained from studies in primary atrial fibrillation, so their adoption in the heart surgery scenario has been less than desirable. All these aspects are analyzed in this review, which ends with directives for the practical management of the arrhythmia in the perioperative environment.


Desde os primeiros días da cirurgia cardíaca, a fibrilação atrial (FA) tem sido uma companheira frequente para o pós-operatório, e sua reduçao não é esperada em um futuro próximo. A interpretação de sua significância clínica mudou nos últimos anos, tendo conhecido sua tendência recorrente e sua associação com sérias complicações imediatas e de longo prazo. Este fato mostra um novo desafio, pois deixou de ser um pequeno problema e uma consideração oportuna no perioperatório para constituir um tema de preocupação e acompanhamento em um futuro distante, mesmo com incertezas quanto à sua evolução e gestão. A profilaxia efetiva dessa arritmia, uma resposta lógica ao problema, tem sido cercada pela multiplicidade de fatores de risco e pela intrincação de sua gênese ainda não completamente elucidada, juntamente com a idade crescente dos pacientes envolvidos, a maior complexidade dos procedimentos, os possíveis efeitos colaterais dos medicamentos utilizados e a ausência de um algoritmo preditivo confiável para racionalizar as medidas preventivas. Além disso, muitas recomendações das guias atuais de prática clínica são baseadas em informações obtidas em estudos conduzidos em FA primária, de modo que sua adoção no cenário da cirurgia cardíaca tem sido menos do que desejável. Todos esses aspectos são analisados nesta revisão, que termina com diretrizes práticas de gestão para arritmia no ambiente perioperatório.


Subject(s)
Humans , Atrial Fibrillation/etiology , Atrial Fibrillation/therapy , Atrial Fibrillation/epidemiology , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Postoperative Period , Atrial Fibrillation/complications , Incidence , Risk Factors , Case Management , Stroke/etiology
4.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 36(1): 25-31, Jan.-Feb. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155792

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: This study aimed to evaluate the effects of coronary collateral circulation (CCC) in patients who had undergone coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Methods: A total of 127 patients who had undergone CABG (2011-2013) were enrolled into this study and follow-up was obtained by phone contact. Patients were categorized into two groups according to preoperative CCC using the Rentrop method. Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), recurrent myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, heart failure (HF), and mortality rates were compared between groups. Clinical outcome was defined as combined end point including death, PCI, recurrent MI, stroke, and HF. Results: Sixty-two of 127 patients had poor CCC and 65 had good CCC. There were no differences in terms of PCI, recurrent MI, and HF between the groups. Stroke (seven of 62 [11.3%] and one of 65 [1.5%], P=0.026) and mortality (19 of 62 [30.6%] and 10 of 65 [15.4%], P=0.033) rates were significantly higher in poor CCC group than in good CCC group. In Kaplan-Meier analysis, survival time was not statistically different between the groups. Presence of poor CCC resulted in a significantly higher combined end point incidence (P=0.011). Conclusion: Stroke, mortality rates, and combined end point incidence were significantly higher in poor CCC patients than in the good CCC group.


Subject(s)
Humans , Coronary Artery Disease/surgery , Stroke/etiology , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , Coronary Artery Bypass , Treatment Outcome , Collateral Circulation , Coronary Circulation
5.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 116(2): 325-331, fev. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153019

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamentos A fibrilação atrial é a arritmia persistente mais comum e é o principal fator que leva ao tromboembolismo. Objetivo Investigar o valor do diâmetro do átrio esquerdo combinado com o escore CHA2DS2-VASc na predição da trombose atrial esquerda/trombose de apêndice atrial esquerdo na fibrilação atrial não valvar. Métodos Trata-se de estudo retrospectivo. 238 pacientes com fibrilação atrial não valvar foram selecionados e divididos em dois grupos: trombose e não trombose. Determinou-se o escore CHA2DS2-VASc. Valores de p<0,05 foram considerados estatisticamente significativos. Resultados A análise de regressão logística multivariada revelou que histórico de acidente vascular cerebral/ataque isquêmico transitório, doença vascular, escore CHA2DS2-VASc, DAE, DDFVE e FEVE foram fatores de risco independentes para trombose atrial esquerda/trombose de apêndice atrial esquerdo (p<0,05). A análise da curva ROC ( Receiver Operating Characteristic ) revelou que a área sob a curva para o escore CHA2DS2-VASc na predição de trombose atrial esquerda/trombose de apêndice atrial esquerdo foi de 0,593 quando o escore CHA2DS2-VASc foi ≥3 pontos, e a sensibilidade e especificidade foram 86,5% e 32,6%, respectivamente, enquanto a área sob a curva para o DAE na predição de trombose atrial esquerda/trombose de apêndice atrial esquerdo foi 0,786 quando o DAE foi ≥44,17 mm, e a sensibilidade e especificidade foram 89,6% e 60,9%, respectivamente. Entre os diferentes grupos CHA2DS2-VASc, a taxa de incidência de trombose atrial esquerda/trombose de apêndice atrial esquerdo em pacientes com DAE ≥44,17 mm foi maior do que em pacientes com DAE <44,17 mm (p <0,05). Conclusão O escore CHA2DS2-VASc e o DAE estão correlacionados com a trombose atrial esquerda/trombose de apêndice atrial esquerdo na fibrilação atrial não valvar. Para pacientes com escore CHA2DS2-VASc de 0 ou 1, quando o DAE é ≥44,17 mm, o risco de trombose atrial esquerda/trombose de apêndice atrial esquerdo permaneceu alto. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2020; [online].ahead print, PP.0-0)


Abstract Background Atrial fibrillation is the most common persistent arrhythmia, and is the main factor that leads to thromboembolism. Objective To investigate the value of left atrial diameter combined with CHA2DS2-VASc score in predicting left atrial/left atrial appendage thrombosis in non-valvular atrial fibrillation. Methods This is a retrospective study. 238 patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation were selected and divided into two groups: thrombosis and non-thrombosis. CHA2DS2-VASc score was determined. P<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that the history of stroke/transient ischemic attack, vascular disease, CHA2DS2-VASc score, left atrial diameter (LAD), left ventricular end-diastolic dimension (LVEDD) and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) were independent risk factors for left atrial/left atrial appendage thrombosis (p<0.05). Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis revealed that the area under the curve for the CHA2DS2-VASc score in predicting left atrial/left atrial appendage thrombosis was 0.593 when the CHA2DS2-VASc score was ≥3 points, and sensitivity and specificity were 86.5% and 32.6%, respectively, while the area under the curve for LAD in predicting left atrial/left atrial appendage thrombosis was 0.786 when LAD was ≥44.17 mm, and sensitivity and specificity were 89.6% and 60.9%, respectively. Among the different CHA2DS2-VASc groups, the incidence rate of left atrial/left atrial appendage thrombosis in patients with LAD ≥44.17 mm was higher than patients with LAD <44.17 mm (p<0.05). Conclusion CHA2DS2-VASc score and LAD are correlated with left atrial/left atrial appendage thrombosis in non-valvular atrial fibrillation. For patients with a CHA2DS2-VASc score of 0 or 1, when LAD is ≥44.17 mm, the risk for left atrial/left atrial appendage thrombosis remained high. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2020; [online].ahead print, PP.0-0)


Subject(s)
Humans , Atrial Fibrillation/complications , Atrial Fibrillation/diagnostic imaging , Thrombosis/etiology , Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging , Atrial Appendage/diagnostic imaging , Stroke/etiology , Stroke Volume , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Ventricular Function, Left , Risk Assessment
6.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 115(6): 1144-1151, dez. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1152951

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento O acidente vascular encefálico isquêmico (AVEi) e a doença arterial coronariana (DAC) coexistem frequentemente e compartilham fatores de risco para doença aterosclerótica. Segundo a American Heart Association , os subtipos de AVEi podem ser considerados equivalentes de risco para DAC, mas a evidência para o AVEi não-aterosclerótico não está bem definida. Além disso, o escore de cálcio coronário (CAC) é um marcador preciso para estimar o risco de DAC. Entretanto, a distribuição do CAC pelos subtipos de AVEi ainda não foi bem caracterizada. Objetivos Comparar o CAC entre os grupos de AVEi ateroscleróticos e não ateroscleróticos, e determinar quais covariáveis estão associadas a CAC alto no AVEi Métodos Em um estudo transversal, incluímos todos os pacientes com AVEi, com idades entre 45 a 70 anos no momento do acidente vascular, consecutivamente admitidos em um hospital de reabilitação entre agosto de 2014 e dezembro de 2016, sem DAC prevalente. Todos os pacientes passaram por tomografia computadorizada (TC), para medir o CAC. CAC≥100 foi considerado alto risco de DAC. O nível de significância foi p<0,05. Resultados Dos 244 pacientes estudados (média de idade de 58,4±6,8 anos; 49% do sexo feminino), 164 (67%) apresentavam etiologia não-aterosclerótica. As proporções de CAC≥100 foram semelhantes entre os grupos ateroscleróticos e não-ateroscleróticos (33% [n=26] x 29% [n=47]; p= 0,54). Entre todos os pacientes com AVEi, apenas os de idade ≥60 anos foram associados independentemente a CAC≥100 (RC 3,5; 95% IC 1,7-7,1), ajustado para hipertensão, dislipidemia, diabetes, sedentarismo, e histórico familiar de DAC. Conclusão O AVEi aterosclerótico não apresentou risco maior de DAC quando comparado ao AVEi não-aterosclerótico de acordo com o CAC. Apenas a faixa etária ≥60 anos - mas não a etiologia - foi associada independentemente a CAC≥100. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2020; 115(6):1144-1151)


Abstract Background Ischemic Stroke (IS) and Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) frequently coexist and share atherosclerotic disease risk factors. According to the American Heart Association, IS subtypes may be considered CAD risk equivalents, but the evidence for non-atherosclerotic IS is uncertain. Additionally, the Coronary Calcium Score (CCS) is an accurate marker to address CAD risk; however, CCS distribution between IS subtypes is not well characterized. Objectives To compare the CCS between atherosclerotic and non-atherosclerotic IS groups; and to determine which covariates were associated with high CCS in IS. Methods This cross-sectional design included all patients with IS, 45 to 70 years of age at the time of the stroke, consecutively admitted to a rehabilitation hospital between August 2014 and December 2016, without prevalent CAD. All patients underwent CT scanning for CCS measurement. CCS≥100 was considered a high risk for CAD, with a significance level of p<0.05. Results From the 244 studied patients (mean age 58.4±6.8 years; 49% female), 164 (67%) had non-atherosclerotic etiology. The proportions of CCS≥100 were similar between the atherosclerotic and the non-atherosclerotic groups (33% [n=26] x 29% [n=47]; p= 0.54). Among all IS patients, only age ≥60 years was independently associated with CCS≥100 (OR 3.5; 95%CI 1.7-7.1), accounting for hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes, sedentarism, and family history of CAD. Conclusion Atherosclerotic IS did not present a greater risk of CAD when compared to non-atherosclerotic IS according to CCS. Only age ≥60 years, but not etiology, was independently associated with CCS≥100.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Coronary Artery Disease/etiology , Coronary Artery Disease/epidemiology , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnostic imaging , Brain Ischemia/etiology , Brain Ischemia/epidemiology , Stroke/etiology , Stroke/epidemiology , Ischemic Stroke , Calcium , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Coronary Angiography , Middle Aged
7.
Med. infant ; 27(2): 92-100, Diciembre 2020. Tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS, UNISALUD | ID: biblio-1147907

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La incidencia de ACV (Accidente Cerebrovascular) en niños es de 2-13/100.000 niños por año, siendo una de las 10 causas más frecuentes de muerte en la infancia. La misma varía entre 6-40% dependiendo de las series publicadas y de los subtipos de ACV. Existen diferencias importantes entre el ACV en niños y adultos, ya que las características neurológicas y de la hemostasia son muy distintas en cada grupo. En niños deben ser investigados múltiples factores de riesgo que a menudo se superponen entre sí. Materiales y métodos: Trabajo descriptivo retrospectivo por revisión de historias clínicas, de una población de niños con diagnóstico de ACV ingresados en UCIP en un período de 10 años. Resultados: Se confirmó el diagnóstico de ACV en un total de 84 pacientes. El 70,24% de la población correspondía a ACVH (Accidente Cerebrovascular Hemorrágico) y un 29,76% ACVI (Accidente Cerebrovascular Isquémico). El 60,71 % eran masculinos. La mediana del tiempo entre el inicio de los síntomas y el ingreso a UCIP, en ambos grupos fue de 1 día con rango entre 1-17 días para los ACVH y 1-9 para los ACVI. Se evaluaron variables clínicas, de diagnóstico y de tratamiento según ambos tipos de ACV. Conclusión: El ACV requiere de un abordaje multidisciplinario. La realización de neuro-imágenes es un pilar fundamental para el diagnóstico y no debe ser pospuesto. El monitoreo y tratamiento está enfocado en minimizar el daño en el parénquima cerebral circundante (AU)


Introduction: The incidence of stroke in children is 2-13/100,000 children a year, being one of the 10 most common causes of death in childhood. Mortality varies between 6 and 40% depending on the series reported and according to the different subtypes of stroke. There are important differences between childhood and adult stroke, as the neurological features and characteristics of hemostasis vary greatly. In children, multiple risk factors that often overlap should be investigated. Material and methods: A retrospective descriptive review of the clinical records of a series of patients with stroke admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) over a period of 10 years was conducted. Results: The diagnosis of stroke was confirmed in 84 patients; 70.24% had hemorrhagic and 29.76% ischemic stroke. Overall, 60.71% were boys. Median time between symptom onset and admission to the PICU was one day in both groups, ranging from 1-17 días for those with hemorrhagic and from 1-9 days for those with ischemic stroke. Clinical, diagnostic, and treatment variables were evaluated for both types of stroke. Conclusion: Stroke requires a multidisciplinary approach. Neuroimaging is essential for the diagnosis and should not be postponed. Monitoring and treatment is focused on minimizing damage to the surrounding brain parenchyma (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Cerebral Hemorrhage , Brain Ischemia , Stroke/surgery , Stroke/classification , Stroke/diagnosis , Stroke/etiology , Stroke/epidemiology , Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Retrospective Studies
8.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 35(5): 797-814, Sept.-Oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1137348

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: There is currently much debate about which patients would benefit more after on- or off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). The aim of this meta-analysis and meta-regression is to investigate the effect of age on short-term clinical outcomes after these approaches. Methods: To identify potential studies, systematic searches were carried out in the Excerpta Medica dataBASE (EMBASE), PubMed, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL). The search strategy included the key concepts of "cardiopulmonary bypass" AND "coronary artery bypass grafting" AND "off pump" OR "on pump". This was followed by a meta-analysis and meta-regression investigating the effect of age on the incidences of stroke, myocardial infarction (MI), and mortality. Results: Thirty-seven studies including 15,324 participants were analysed. Overall, there was a significant odds reduction for patients receiving off-pump CABG suffering a stroke (odds ratio [OR] 0.770, 95% confidence intervals [CI] 0.594, 0.998, P=0.048); however, when patients were subdivided according to different age bands, this difference disappeared. There were also no significant differences in the odds of mortality (OR 0.876, 95% CI 0.703, 1.093, P=0.241) or MI (OR 0.937, 95% CI 0.795, 1.105, P=0.439). Meta-regression analysis revealed no significant relationship between age and stroke (P=0.652), age and mortality (P=548), and age and MI (P=0.464). Conclusion: Patients undergoing CABG are becoming older and may suffer from multiple comorbidities increasing their risk profile. However, with respect to short-term clinical outcomes, the patient's age does not help in determining whether off- or on-pump is superior.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Stroke/etiology , Stroke/epidemiology , Coronary Artery Bypass, Off-Pump/adverse effects , Myocardial Infarction , Postoperative Complications , Quality of Life , Coronary Artery Bypass , Treatment Outcome
9.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 115(4): 717-718, out. 2020.
Article in Portuguese | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1131352

ABSTRACT

Resumo Baixas doses de edoxabana e enoxaparina sódica foram objeto de uma comparação retrospectiva implementada com a técnica do escore de propensão a fim de mitigar os efeitos das diferenças nas características clínicas basais de duas coortes e minimizar o risco de viés. Posteriormente, usando um modelo de riscos proporcionais de Cox, avaliou-se a associação de cada tipo de terapia com o risco do composto de morte por todas as causas, acidente vascular cerebral/ataque isquêmico transitório, hospitalizações e ocorrência de sangramentos maiores. Para essa análise, um valor de p < 0,05 foi considerado estatisticamente significante. A terapia com enoxaparina e cirrose hepática como causadora de trombocitopenia estiveram associadas ao aumento do risco do endpoint composto (enoxaparina: hazard ratio (HR): 3,31; IC 95%: 1,54 a 7,13; p = 0,0023; cirrose hepática, HR: 1,04; 95% CI: 1,002 a 1,089; p = 0,0410). Por outro lado, a terapia com edoxabana mostrou-se significativamente associada à diminuição do risco do endpoint composto (HR: 0,071; 95% CI: 0,013 a 0,373; p = 0,0019). Com base nessa análise retrospectiva, o edoxaban em doses baixas seria uma ferramenta farmacológica segura e eficaz para a profilaxia de eventos cardioembólicos em pacientes com FA e trombocitopenia.


Abstract Low-dose edoxaban and enoxaparin sodium have been the subject of a retrospective comparison implemented with the propensity score technique in order to mitigate the effects of the differences in the basal clinical features of two cohorts and minimize the risk of bias. Subsequently, using a Cox proportional-hazards model, the association of each type of therapy with the risk of the composite of all-cause death, stroke/transient ischemic attack, hospitalizations and major bleeding events was assessed. For this analysis, a p-value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Therapy with enoxaparin and liver cirrhosis as causing thrombocytopenia were associated with increased risk of the composite endpoint (enoxaparin: hazard ratio (HR): 3.31; 95% CI: 1.54 to 7.13; p = 0.0023; liver cirrhosis, HR: 1.04; 95% CI: 1.002 to 1.089; p = 0.0410). Conversely, edoxaban therapy was significantly associated with decreased risk of the composite endpoint (HR: 0.071; 95% CI: 0.013 to 0.373; p = 0.0019). Based on this retrospective analysis, edoxaban at low doses would appear as an effective and safe pharmacological tool for the prophylaxis of cardioembolic events in patients with AF and thrombocytopenia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Atrial Fibrillation/complications , Atrial Fibrillation/drug therapy , Thrombocytopenia/chemically induced , Stroke/etiology , Stroke/prevention & control , Patients , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Fibrinolytic Agents/adverse effects , Anticoagulants/adverse effects
10.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 80(5): 442-446, ago. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1287196

ABSTRACT

Resumen Aproximadamente uno de cada 10 pacientes que sufre un accidente cerebrovascular isquémico (ACVi) padece cáncer concomitantemente. Nuestro objetivo fue evaluar características clínicoradiológicas del ACVi en pacientes con cáncer y compararlas con otros sin cáncer. Fue un estudio caso-control retrospectivo que incluyó pacientes con ACVi entre julio 2013 y septiembre 2018. Los casos tenían diagnóstico de cáncer y ACVi, y los controles solamente ACVi. Se comparó edad, sexo, factores de riesgo vascular, patrones radiológicos de lesiones, etiología y evolución clínica entre ambos grupos. Hubo 57 casos, 61% (n = 35) eran varones. La edad media fue 75 ± 11 años, sin diferencias en prevalencia de factores de riesgo vascular. En los casos hubo más pacientes con antecedentes de trombosis venosa profunda y/o tromboembolismo pulmonar (8% vs. 1%, p = 0.01). En 52 se conocía la presencia del cáncer antes del ACVi. El 91% se trató de tumores sólidos (n = 52) y en 54% el tumor no presentaba metástasis. El puntaje NIHSS promedio fue 3.8 ± 4 en los casos, y 9 ± 7 en los controles (p = 0.01). Las lesiones de pequeña arteria fueron menos frecuentes en los casos (2% vs. 26%, p = 0.001). Las lesiones de aspecto embólico fueron más comunes entre los casos (82% vs. 35%, p = 0.001). Aquellos con cáncer tuvieron menor NIHSS, menor frecuencia de lesiones de pequeña arteria, y mayor frecuencia de lesiones de aspecto embólico. La recurrencia a 90 días fue 3 veces mayor y la mortalidad 6 veces mayor en pacientes con cáncer (10% vs. 3%, y 18% vs. 3%. p = 0.08 y 0.001 respectivamente).


Abstract One in 10 patients with ischemic stroke has comorbid cancer. Our goal was to compare stroke patients with cancer against those without cancer in terms of clinical and radiological features, and the underlying mechanism. We conducted a retrospective case-control study in patients admitted with ischemic stroke between July 2013 and September 2018. Cases had a concomitant diagnosis of cancer and acute ischemic stroke, controls only of ischemic stroke. Age, gender, vascular risk factors (VRF), pattern of ischemic lesion in neuroimaging, etiology and clinical outcome were compared between groups. Fifty-seven cases were identified, 61% were male (n = 35), and mean age was 75 ± 11. Fiftytwo had known oncologic disease at the onset of stroke. Most of them had solid tumors (91%, n = 52), and 54% (n = 31) had a non-metastatic tumor at the time of stroke. Prevalence of common VRF between groups was not significantly different. Previous deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary thromboembolism were more frequent in the cancer cohort (8% vs. 1%, p = 0.01). The average NIHSS was 3.8 ± 4 in the cancer group and 9±7 in the control group (p = 0.01). Small artery disease as the etiology of stroke was significantly less common in the cancer group (2% vs. 26%, p = 0.001). Regarding neuroimaging, the embolic pattern was more frequent in patients with cancer (82% vs. 35%, p = 0.001). In these patients recurrence and mortality at 90 days was three and six times higher (10% vs. 3%, and 18% vs. 3%. p = 0.08 and 0.001, respectively).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Brain Ischemia/epidemiology , Stroke/epidemiology , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Case-Control Studies , Retrospective Studies , Stroke/etiology , Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Neoplasms/complications
11.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 78(7): 390-396, July 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131731

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Hemorrhagic transformation (HT) is a common complication after ischemic stroke. It may be associated to poor outcomes. Some predictors of HT have been previously identified, but there remain controversies. Objective: To describe the risk factors for HT more frequently reported by a panel of experts surveyed for this project. Methods: We sent a standard questionnaire by e-mail to specialists in Vascular Neurology from 2014 to 2018. Forty-five specialists were contacted and 20 of them responded to the invitation. Predictors cited by three or more specialists were included in a table and ranked by the frequency in which they appeared. A review of the literature looking for published predictive scores of HT was performed, comparing to the answers received. Results: The 20 responding specialists cited 23 different risk factors for HT. The most frequent factors in the order of citation were the volume of ischemia, previous use of antithrombotic medication, neurological severity, age, hyperglycemia at presentation, hypertension on admission, and cardioembolism. Most variables were also found in previously published predictive scores, but they were reported by the authors with divergences of frequency. Conclusion: Although many studies have evaluated HT in patients with acute ischemic stroke, the published risk factors were neither uniform nor in agreement with those cited by the stroke specialists. These findings may be helpful to build a score that can be tested with the goal of improving the prediction of HT.


RESUMO Introdução: A transformação hemorrágica (TH) é uma complicação comum após a isquemia cerebral e pode estar associada a desfechos desfavoráveis. Alguns fatores de risco para TH têm sido identificados, mas ainda há controvérsias. Objetivo: Descrever os fatores de risco para TH mais frequentemente reportados por um painel de especialistas consultados para esse projeto. Métodos: Enviamos um questionário padronizado por e-mail para 45 especialistas em Neurologia Vascular no período de 2014 a 2018. Vinte dos 45 especialistas responderam ao convite. Preditores citados por três ou mais especialistas foram incluídos em uma tabela e classificados pela frequência em que foram reportados. Uma revisão de literatura foi realizada em busca de escores preditivos de TH publicados anteriormente, comparando-os com as respostas recebidas. Resultados: Os 20 especialistas citaram 23 diferentes fatores de risco para TH. Os fatores mais frequentemente citados foram, pela ordem, volume da isquemia, uso prévio de medicação antitrombótica, gravidade neurológica, idade, hiperglicemia na apresentação, hipertensão na admissão e cardioembolismo. A maioria das variáveis também foi incluída em escores preditivos de TH já publicados, mas sem a mesma frequência e com divergências entre os especialistas consultados. Conclusão: Embora muitos estudos tenham avaliado a TH em pacientes com isquemia cerebral, os fatores de risco já publicados não foram uniformes na concordância com aqueles reportados pelos neurologistas vasculares consultados. Esses achados podem ser úteis para elaborar um escore que possa ser testado para aperfeiçoar a predição de transformação hemorrágica.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cerebral Hemorrhage/diagnosis , Brain Ischemia/diagnosis , Stroke/complications , Cerebral Hemorrhage/pathology , Risk Factors , Stroke/etiology
13.
Rev. cuba. enferm ; 36(2): e3173, abr.-jul.2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF, CUMED | ID: biblio-1280257

ABSTRACT

Introdução: O Acidente Vascular Cerebral é uma das principais causas de mortes e incapacidades entre idosos. Os cuidados após Acidente Vascular Cerebral, comumente, são assumidos pela família, que possui pouco conhecimento acerca da doença e capacidades para desempenhar o cuidado no domicílio. Objetivo: Conhecer as vivências e desafios enfrentados por cuidadores familiares de pessoas idosas dependentes de cuidados após Acidente Vascular Cerebral, sobre as atividades de cuidado realizadas no domicílio. Métodos: Estudo qualitativo por meio da técnica de grupo focal, realizado com cinco cuidadores familiares de idosos com Acidente Vascular Cerebral, em acompanhamento na Linha de Cuidado do Acidente Vascular Cerebral de um hospital da região sul do Brasil. Realizaram-se três encontros em abril de 2018. Utilizou-se a Análise Temática para interpretação dos resultados. O estudo foi aprovado por Comitê de Ética em Pesquisa sob nº 18007. Resultados: Emergiram quatro categorias: Tornar-se cuidador de um familiar após Acidente Vascular Cerebral; Dificuldades vivenciadas; Despreparo para lidar com o familiar dependente; e Estratégias de enfrentamento. Conclusões: As vivências e desafios relatados fornecem evidências para estruturar e qualificar programas de atenção a cuidadores partindo das necessidades dos mesmos(AU)


Introducción: El accidente vascular cerebral es una de las principales causas de muerte e incapacidad entre ancianos. Los cuidados después del accidente vascular cerebral, comúnmente, son asumidos por la familia, que tiene poco conocimiento acerca de la enfermedad y capacidades para desempeñar el cuidado en el domicilio. Objetivo: Conocer las vivencias y desafíos en las actividades de cuidado realizadas en el domicilio enfrentados por los cuidadores familiares de personas ancianas dependientes de cuidados tras accidente vascular cerebral. Métodos: Estudio cualitativo por medio de la técnica de grupo focal, realizado con cinco cuidadores familiares de ancianos con accidente vascular cerebral, en seguimiento en la Línea de Cuidado do Accidente Vascular Cerebral de un hospital de la región sur de Brasil. Se realizaron tres encuentros en abril de 2018. Se utilizó el análisis temático para la interpretación de los resultados. el estudio fue aprobado por el comité de ética en investigación con el número 18007. Resultados: Emergieron cuatro categorías: hacerse cuidador de un familiar después de accidente vascular cerebral; dificultades vivenciadas; no preparación para tratar con el familiar dependiente y estrategias de enfrentamiento. Conclusiones: Las vivencias y desafíos relatados proporcionan evidencias para estructurar y calificar programas de atención a cuidadores partiendo de las necesidades de los mismos(AU)


Introduction: Cerebrovascular accident is one of the main causes of death and disability among the elderly. The cares following cerebrovascular accident are commonly undertaken by the family, with little knowledge about the disease and few capacities to provide care at home. Objective: To know the experiences and challenges in the care-related activities performed at home and undertaken by the family caregivers of elderly people dependent on care after cerebrovascular accident. Methods: Qualitative study carried out using the focus group technique and with five family caregivers of elderly people with cerebrovascular accident under follow-up by the Cerebral Vascular Accident Care Line of a hospital in the southern region of Brazil. Three meetings were held in April 2018. Thematic analysis was used for the interpretation of the results. The study was approved by the Research Ethics Committee under number 18007. Results: Four categories emerged: becoming a caregiver for a family member after cerebrovascular accident, difficulties experienced, no preparation for managing the dependent family member, and coping strategies. Conclusions: The experiences and challenges reported provide evidence for structuring and qualifying care programs for caregivers based on their needs(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Aged , Adaptation, Psychological , Caregivers , Stroke/etiology , Ethics Committees, Research
14.
Autops. Case Rep ; 10(4): e2020178, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131846

ABSTRACT

Atrial myxomas are rare primary cardiac tumours with neurological manifestations being reported in 30% of cases. Though a rare cause of ischemic stroke in young patients, considering it as a possibility in absence of any obvious risk factors can help avoid misdiagnosis at early stages. We present a case of left atrial myxoma in a 36-year-old male with no known co-morbidities, showing an unusual clinical presentation of isolated bilateral painless vision loss. With multiple infarcts on Non Contrast Computerised Tomography (NCCT) and a suspicion of Atrial Myxoma on Transesophageal Echocardiography (TEE), patient was successfully managed surgically with confirmation of diagnosis on histopathology.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Stroke/etiology , Myxoma , Thrombosis , Heart Diseases/diagnosis , Neurologic Manifestations
15.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 34(5): 581-587, Sept.-Oct. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042051

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors of carotid artery stenosis (CAS) using carotid duplex ultrasound in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Methods: This retrospective study was conducted between January 2017 and January 2018 and included 166 consecutive patients [130 males (78.31%), 36 females (21.69%); mean age: 64.25±9.78 years] who underwent elective and isolated CABG. Patients who had significant CAS (≥50% stenosis) were compared with patients who had non-significant CAS (<50% stenosis). Logistic regression analysis was applied across the selected parameters to identify risk factors for significant CAS. Results: Of all patients, 36 (21.68%) had CAS ≥50% and 8 (4.81%) had unilateral carotid stenosis ≥70%. Carotid endarterectomy/CABG was performed simultaneously in five (3.01%) patients. None of these patients had cardiac and neurological problems during the postoperative period. The overall incidence of cerebrovascular accident (CVA) after CABG was 1.20% (n=2). Age (P=0.011) and history of CVA (P=0.035) were significantly higher in the CAS ≥50 group than in the CAS <50 group. Significant CAS was identified as a risk factor for postoperative CVA (P=0.013). Conclusion: Age and history of CVA were identified as risk factors for significant CAS. Furthermore, significant CAS was identified as a risk factor for postoperative CVA. For this reason, carotid screening is recommended for patients undergoing CABG even in the absence of associated risk factors.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Coronary Artery Bypass/methods , Carotid Stenosis/diagnostic imaging , Ultrasonography, Doppler, Duplex/methods , Postoperative Complications/etiology , Time Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Logistic Models , Coronary Artery Bypass/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome , Endarterectomy, Carotid/adverse effects , Endarterectomy, Carotid/methods , Carotid Stenosis/etiology , Stroke/etiology , Preoperative Period
16.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 77(9): 632-637, Sept. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038746

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Cervical arterial dissection accounts for only a small proportion of ischemic stroke but arouses scientific interest due to its wide clinical variability. Objective: This study aimed to evaluate its risk factors, outline its clinical characteristics, compare treatment with antiaggregation or anticoagulation, and explore the prognosis of patients with cervical arterial dissection. Methods: An observational, retrospective study using data from medical records on patients with cervical arterial dissection between January 2010 and August 2015. Results: The total number of patients was 41. The patients' ages ranged from 19 to 75 years, with an average of 44.5 years. The most common risk factor was smoking. Antiaggregation was used in the majority of patients (65.5%); 43% of all patients recanalized in six months, more frequently in patients who had received anticoagulation (p = 0.04). Conclusion: The presence of atherosclerotic disease is considered rare in patients with cervical arterial dissection; however, our study found a high frequency of hypertension, smoking and dyslipidemia. The choice of antithrombotic remains controversial and will depend on the judgment of the medical professional; the clinical results with anticoagulation or antiaggregation were similar but there was more recanalization in the group treated with anticoagulation; its course was favorable in both situations. The recurrence of cervical arterial dissection and stroke is considered a rare event and its course is favorable.


RESUMO As dissecções arterais cervicais correspondem somente a uma pequena proporção dos casos de acidente vascular cerebral (AVC) isquêmico, mas despertam interesse científico devido à sua alta variabilidade clínica. Objetivos: Este estudo destina-se a avaliar os fatores de risco, desfechos clínicos, comparar o tratamento com anticoagulação e antiagregação, e avaliar o prognóstico desses pacientes. Métodos: Estudo observacional, retrospectivo utilizando dados de prontuários de pacientes com dissecção arterial cervical entre os períodos de janeiro de 2010 e agosto de 2015. Resultados: O número de pacientes foi 41. A idade foi de 19 a 75 anos, com idade média de 44,5 anos. O fator de risco mais comum encontrado foi o tabagismo. Antiagregação foi utilizada na maioria dos pacientes (65,5%); 43% dos pacientes apresentaram recanalização em seis meses, sendo esta mais frequentemente observada nos pacientes que receberam anticoagulação (p = 0,04). Conclusão: A presença de doença aterosclerótica é considerada rara em pacientes com dissecção arterial cervical. Entretanto, nosso estudo encontrou alta frequência de hipertensão arterial, tabagismo e dislipidemia. A escolha pela terapia antitrombótica permanece controversa e dependerá do julgamento clínico do médico; os resultados clínicos com anticoagulação ou antiagregação foram similares, mas houve maior taxa de recanalização no grupo tratado com anticoagulação. A recorrência de dissecação arterial cervical e AVC foi considerada rara e o curso, favorável.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Vertebral Artery Dissection/etiology , Vertebral Artery Dissection/drug therapy , Prognosis , Time Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Brazil/epidemiology , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Carotid Artery Diseases/etiology , Carotid Artery Diseases/drug therapy , Carotid Artery Diseases/epidemiology , Smoking/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome , Stroke/etiology , Stroke/epidemiology , Vertebral Artery Dissection/epidemiology , Atherosclerosis/etiology , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use
17.
Rev. otorrinolaringol. cir. cabeza cuello ; 79(3): 336-340, set. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058705

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Un síndrome caracterizado por dolor cervical y un apófisis estiloides alargado fue descrito por primera vez por Watt Eagle en 1937. Aunque el síndrome de Eagle en su variante vascular es raro y no es reconocido como causa clara de disección carotídea, en los últimos años ha sido reportado un incremento del número de casos de disección carotídea causada por una apófisis estiloides alargada. Paciente de 56 años que acudió al servicio de urgencias por paresia facial izquierda aguda y habla confusa. Presentaba dolor cervical de dos días de evolución, relacionado con un ataque de tos. Se activó el código ictus y la tomografía computarizada (TC) mostró isquemia del lóbulo temporal derecho y disección bilateral de la arteria carótida interna. La angio-TC de los troncos supraaórticos con reconstrucción tridimensional, identificó una apófisis estiloides alargado en ambos lados. El paciente fue sometido a una angioplastía con colocación de dos stents. Debido al alto riesgo de padecer nuevo ictus, se decidió realizar tratamiento quirúrgico. Para el lado derecho se realizó un abordaje transoral y en el izquierdo un abordaje abierto. La apófisis estiloides alargado es una causa importante de disección carotídea y de las complicaciones cerebrovasculares relacionadas.


ABSTRACT A syndrome characterized by cervical pain and an abnormally elongated styloid process was first described by Watt Eagle in 1937. Even though vascular Eagle syndrome is uncommon and is not well recognized as a cause for carotid artery dissection, in the last few years there have been an increasing number of case reports of carotid artery dissection caused by an elongated styloid process. A 56 years old man presented to the emergency department with acute left facial weakness and slurred speech. He complained of two days neck pain, related to a coughing fit. The code stroke protocol was activated and imaging showed a right temporal bone stroke and a bilateral internal carotid artery dissection. A scan angiography of the supra-aortic vessels with 3D reconstruction was performed showing a bilateral abnormally elongated styloid process. The patient underwent angioplasty with two stent placements. Due to the high risk of recurrent strokes, the patient was evaluated in the otolaryngology department for styloid process resection. Finally a transoral approach for the right side and an open approach for the left side were performed. We have to consider an elongated styloid process as an important cause of carotid artery dissection and subsequent cerebrovascular complications


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Ossification, Heterotopic/complications , Carotid Artery, Internal, Dissection/etiology , Carotid Artery, Internal, Dissection/therapy , Stroke/etiology , Temporal Bone/abnormalities , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Angioplasty , Neck Pain/etiology , Carotid Artery, Internal, Dissection/diagnostic imaging
18.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 34(4): 396-405, July-Aug. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1020497

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To evaluate whether there is any difference on the results of patients treated with coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) or percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in the setting of ischemic heart failure (HF). Methods: Databases (MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register [CENTRAL/CCTR], ClinicalTrials.gov, Scientific Electronic Library Online [SciELO], Literatura Latino-americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde [LILACS], and Google Scholar) were searched for studies published until February 2019. Main outcomes of interest were mortality, myocardial infarction, repeat revascularization, and stroke. Results: The search yielded 5,775 studies for inclusion. Of these, 20 articles were analyzed, and their data were extracted. The total number of patients included was 54,173, and those underwent CABG (N=29,075) or PCI (N=25098). The hazard ratios (HRs) for mortality (HR 0.763; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.678-0.859; P<0.001), myocardial infarction (HR 0.481; 95% CI 0.365-0.633; P<0.001), and repeat revascularization (HR 0.321; 95% CI 0.241-0.428; P<0.001) were lower in the CABG group than in the PCI group. The HR for stroke showed no statistically significant difference between the groups (random effect model: HR 0.879; 95% CI 0.625-1.237; P=0.459). Conclusion: This meta-analysis found that CABG surgery remains the best option for patients with ischemic HF, without increase in the risk of stroke.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Coronary Artery Bypass/mortality , Myocardial Ischemia/surgery , Stroke/etiology , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/mortality , Heart Failure/surgery , Postoperative Complications/etiology , Postoperative Complications/mortality , Brazil/epidemiology , Review Literature as Topic , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Coronary Artery Bypass/adverse effects , Epidemiologic Methods , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Treatment Outcome , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Myocardial Ischemia/mortality , Evidence-Based Medicine , Stroke/mortality , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/adverse effects
19.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 147(7): 932-934, jul. 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058624

ABSTRACT

We report an 89-year-old male under oral anticoagulant therapy with a therapeutic international normalized ratio, presenting at the emergency room with right side hemiparesis and aphasia. Neuroimaging was compatible with an acute middle cerebral artery ischemic stroke. Anticoagulation was reverted with the use of four factor prothrombin complex, followed by thrombolysis with alteplase, with a favorable evolution, returning to his basal functional status.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged, 80 and over , Prothrombin/administration & dosage , Thrombolytic Therapy/methods , Amlodipine/adverse effects , Stroke/drug therapy , Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery/drug therapy , Acenocoumarol/adverse effects , Metformin/adverse effects , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Amlodipine/administration & dosage , Stroke/etiology , Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery/etiology , Administration, Intravenous , Acenocoumarol/administration & dosage , Metformin/administration & dosage
20.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 77(7): 456-459, July 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011365

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Patients on anticoagulant or antiplatelet therapy are often required to discontinue these medications before and during surgical or invasive procedures. In some cases, the patient stops the treatment without medical supervision. These situations may increase stroke risk. Objective To identify the ischemic stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA) prevalence related to length of time of discontinuation of antiplatelet or vitamin K antagonist therapy, in a group of inpatients from a specialized neurological hospital in Brazil. Methods Cross-sectional, retrospective and descriptive study of stroke inpatients for three years. Medical reports were reviewed to find study participants, stroke characteristics, risk factors, reasons and time of drug interruption. Results In three years, there were 360 stroke and TIA inpatients, of whom 27 (7.5%) had a history of antiplatelet or vitamin K antagonist interruption correlated with the time of the event (81% ischemic stroke, 19% TIA). The median time between antiplatelet interruption and an ischemic event was five days, and 62% of events occurred within seven days after drug suspension. For vitamin K antagonists, the average time to the ischemic event was 10.4 days (SD = 5.7), and in 67% of patients, the time between drug discontinuation and the event was 7-14 days. The most frequent reason for drug suspension was patient negligence (37%), followed by planned surgery or invasive examination (26%) and side effects, including hemorrhage (18.5%). Conclusion Antiplatelet or vitamin K antagonist suspension has a temporal relationship with the occurrence of stroke and TIA. Since these events are preventable, it is crucial that healthcare professionals convince their patients that drug withdrawal can cause serious consequences.


RESUMO Pacientes em terapia anticoagulante ou antiagregante plaquetária frequentemente são solicitados a descontinuar essas medicações antes e durante procedimentos cirúrgicos ou invasivos. Se o paciente interromper tratamento sem supervisão médica, poderá aumentar de risco de acidente vascular cerebral (AVC). Objetivo Identificar prevalência de AVC isquêmico e ataque isquêmico transitório (AIT) associados à descontinuação de terapia antiplaquetária ou coumarínicos em pacientes internados em hospital especializado em atendimento neurológico no Brasil. Métodos Estudo transversal, retrospectivo de três anos, descritivo dos pacientes hospitalizados por AVC. A revisão de relatórios médicos determinou características do AVC, fatores de risco, motivos e tempo de interrupção medicamentosa. Resultados Em três anos, foram internados 360 pacientes por AVC ou AIT; destes, 27 interromperam temporariamente terapia antiplaquetária ou coumarínicos relacionando ao evento (81% acidente vascular cerebral isquêmico, 19% AIT). A prevalência foi de 7,5%. O tempo médio entre interrupção antiplaquetária e evento foi cinco dias, com 62% deles ocorrendo até sete dias após suspensão medicamentosa. Para coumarínicos, o tempo médio foi 10,4 dias (d.p.= 5,7), em 67% dos casos o tempo entre a descontinuação medicamentosa e o evento foi 7-14 dias. O motivo mais frequente para suspensão do medicamento foi negligência do paciente (37%), seguido por cirurgia planejada ou exame invasivo (26%) e efeitos colaterais, incluindo hemorragia (18,5%). Conclusão Suspensão de terapia de antiplaquetários ou coumarínicos tem relação temporal com ocorrência de AVC e de AIT. Esses eventos são passíveis de serem evitados, sendo imprescindível que profissionais de saúde convençam seus pacientes das consequências graves da retirada do medicamento.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Atrial Fibrillation/etiology , Warfarin/administration & dosage , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Ischemic Attack, Transient/etiology , Stroke/etiology , Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , Brazil , Aspirin/administration & dosage , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Clopidogrel/administration & dosage
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