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In. Fernández, Anabela. Manejo de la embarazada crítica y potencialmente grave. Montevideo, Cuadrado, 2021. p.211-227.
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY, UY-BNMED | ID: biblio-1377628
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880338


Recent studies have revealed an inverse association between height and cardiovascular disease. However, the background mechanism of this association has not yet been clarified. Height has also been reported to be positively associated with cancer. Therefore, well-known cardiovascular risk factors, such as increased oxidative stress and chronic inflammation, are not the best explanations for this inverse association because these risk factors are also related to cancer. However, impaired blood flow is the main pathological problem in cardiovascular disease, while glowing feeding vessels (angiogenesis) are the main characteristic of cancer pathologies. Therefore, endothelial maintenance activity, especially for the productivity of hematopoietic stem cells such as CD34-positive cells, could be associated with the height of an individual because this cell contributes not only to the progression of atherosclerosis but also to the development of angiogenesis. In addition, recent studies have also revealed a close connection between bone marrow activity and endothelial maintenance; bone marrow-derived hematopoietic stem cells contribute towards endothelial maintenance. Since the absolute volume of bone marrow is positively associated with height, height could influence endothelial maintenance activity. Based on these hypotheses, we performed several studies. The aim of this review is not only to discuss the association between height and bone marrow activity, but also to describe the potential mechanism underlying endothelial maintenance. In addition, this review also aims to explain some of the reasons that implicate hypertension as a major risk factor for stroke among the Japanese population. The review also aims to clarify the anthropological reasons behind the high risk of atherosclerosis progression in Japanese individuals with acquired genetic characteristics.

Aged , Atherosclerosis/physiopathology , Body Height/physiology , Bone Marrow/physiology , Disease Progression , Endothelium/physiology , Humans , Hypertension/physiopathology , Japan/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , Stroke/physiopathology
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 80(1): 54-68, feb. 2020. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1125038


Se estima que dos tercios de las personas que han sufrido un accidente cerebrovascular (ACV) tienen secuelas que condicionan su calidad de vida. La rehabilitación del ACV es un proceso complejo, que requiere de un equipo multidisciplinario de profesionales especializados (médicos, kinesiólogos, enfermeros, terapistas ocupacionales, fonoaudiólogos, neuropsicólogos y nutricionistas). Actualmente, las prácticas realizadas en rehabilitación son consecuencia de la combinación de evidencia y consenso, siendo la mayoría aportadas a través de guías internacionales de rehabilitación en ACV. El objetivo de esta revisión es ajustar las recomendaciones internacionales sobre rehabilitación a lo aplicado a la práctica diaria, a fin de unificar criterios en las recomendaciones y reducir la variabilidad de las prácticas empleadas. En este trabajo, se realizó una revisión de la literatura sobre las guías de rehabilitación en ACV realizadas en los últimos 10 años y cada apartado fue supervisado por distintos profesionales especializados en dichas áreas. Se analizaron los tiempos y organización necesaria para desarrollarla, las recomendaciones para la rehabilitación motora, cognitiva y visual, el tratamiento de la disfagia y nutrición, de las comorbilidades (trombosis venosa, úlceras cutáneas, dolor, trastornos psiquiátricos, osteoporosis) y las tareas necesarias para favorecer el retorno a las actividades de la vida diaria.

It is estimated that two thirds of people who have suffered a stroke have sequels that condition their quality of life. The rehabilitation of the stroke is a complex process, which requires the multidisciplinary approach of specialized professionals (doctors, kinesiologists, nurses, occupational therapists, phonoaudiologists, neuropsychologists and nutritionists). Currently, the practices carried out are a consequence of the combination of evidence and consensus, most of them through international stroke rehabilitation guides. The objective of this review is to adjust the international recommendations on stroke rehabilitation to what is applied to daily practice, in order to unify the criteria of the recommendations and to reduce the variability of the practices carried out. This work is a review of the literature on stroke rehabilitation guides developed in the last 10 years. Each section was supervised by different professionals specialized in these areas. We analyze the time and organization necessary to develop rehabilitation, recommendations for motor, cognitive and visual rehabilitation, the management of dysphagia and nutrition, the approach of comorbidities (venous thrombosis, skin ulcers, pain, psychiatric disorders and osteoporosis) and the necessary tasks to favor the return to the activities of daily life.

Humans , Adult , Stroke/physiopathology , Stroke Rehabilitation/methods , Risk Factors , Patient-Centered Care/methods , Cognitive Dysfunction/physiopathology , Cognitive Dysfunction/rehabilitation
Int. braz. j. urol ; 45(6): 1204-1208, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056338


ABSTRACT Purpose: This study aims to assess the association between CHA2DS2-VASc score and erectile dysfunction in patients who were admitted to cardiology outpatient clinics. Materials and methods: One hundred and two male patients who were admitted to the cardiology outpatient clinic were included to the study. Erectile dysfunction was evaluated in the urology outpatient clinic in the same hospital and scored using Turkish Version of The International Index of Erectile Function. CHA2DS2-VASc score was calculated for every patient using the current associated guidelines. Results: There was a negative correlation between The International Index of Erectile Function score and CHA2DS2-VASc score, age, hypertension, heart failure, diabetes mellitus, stroke respectively. Smoking and dislipidemia were not correlated with The International Index of Erectile Function score (p>0.05). Conclusion: CHA2DS2-VASc score can be used to detect Erectile dysfunction in patients who are admitted to the cardiology outpatient clinics.

Humans , Male , Adult , Aged , Risk Assessment/methods , Erectile Dysfunction/diagnosis , Erectile Dysfunction/physiopathology , Reference Values , Anthropometry , Cross-Sectional Studies , Reproducibility of Results , Risk Factors , Age Factors , Statistics, Nonparametric , Stroke/physiopathology , Diabetes Mellitus/physiopathology , Heart Failure/physiopathology , Hypertension/physiopathology , Middle Aged
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 77(10): 681-688, Oct. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038731


ABSTRACT Immersive virtual reality (VR) is a technology that provides a more realistic environmental design and object tracking than ordinary VR. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of immersive VR on upper extremity function in patients with ischemic stroke. Sixty-five patients with ischemic stroke were included in this randomized, controlled, double-blind study. Patients were randomly divided into VR (n = 33) and control (n = 32) groups. The VR group received 60 minutes of the upper extremity immersive VR rehabilitation program and the control group received 45 minutes of conventional therapy and 15 minutes of a sham VR program. Rehabilitation consisted of 18 sessions of therapy, three days per week, for six weeks. The outcome measures were the Action Research Arm Test (ARAT), Functional Independence Measure (FIM), Fugl-Meyer Upper Extremity Scale (FMUE) and Performance Assessment of Self-Care Skills (PASS). In both the VR and control groups all parameters except the PASS improved over time. However independent t-test results showed that all of the FMUE, ARAT, FIM and PASS scores were significantly higher in the VR group compared with the control (p < 0.05). The minimal clinically important difference (MCID) scores of the FMUE and ARAT were higher than the cut-off MCID scores described in the literature in the VR group, whereas the FIM scores were below the cut-off MCID scores. All scores in the control group were below the cut-off scores. Immersive VR rehabilitation appeared to be effective in improving upper extremity function and self-care skills, but it did not improve functional independence.

RESUMO A VR imersiva é uma tecnologia que fornece design ambiental e rastreamento de objetos mais realistas do que a VR comum. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a eficácia da VR imersiva na função da extremidade superior em pacientes com AVC isquêmico. Sessenta e cinco pacientes com AVC isquêmico foram incluídos neste estudo randomizado, controlado e duplo-cego ( ID: NCT03135418). Os pacientes foram divididos aleatoriamente em VR (n = 33) e controle (n = 32). O grupo VR recebeu 60 minutos do programa de reabilitação imersiva da extremidade superior e o grupo controle recebeu 45 minutos de terapia convencional e 15 minutos de um programa falso de VR. A reabilitação consistiu em 18 sessões de terapia, 3 dias por semana, durante 6 semanas. As medidas de resultado foram Teste de braço de pesquisa-ação (ARAT), Medida de independência funcional (FIM), Escala de extremidades superiores de Fugl-Meyer (FMUE) e Avaliação de desempenho de habilidades de autocuidado (PASS). Nos grupos VR e controle, todos os parâmetros, exceto o PASS, melhoraram com o tempo. No entanto, os resultados dos testes t independentes mostraram que todos os escores FMUE, ARAT, FIM e PASS foram significativamente maiores no grupo VR em comparação ao controle (p <0,05). Os escores de FMUE e ARAT de diferença minimamente clinicamente importante (MCID) foram maiores que os pontos de corte de MCID descritos na literatura no grupo VR, enquanto os escores de FIM estiveram abaixo dos pontos de corte de MCID. Todas as pontuações no grupo controle estiveram abaixo das pontuações de corte. A reabilitação imersiva da VR parece ser eficaz para melhorar a função da extremidade superior e as habilidades de autocuidado, mas não melhora a independência funcional.

Humans , Male , Female , Brain Ischemia/rehabilitation , Upper Extremity/physiopathology , Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy/methods , Stroke Rehabilitation/methods , Reference Values , Socioeconomic Factors , Time Factors , Activities of Daily Living , Double-Blind Method , Treatment Outcome , Statistics, Nonparametric , Recovery of Function/physiology , Stroke/physiopathology , Motor Skills/physiology , Movement/physiology
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 77(7): 501-508, July 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011364


ABSTRACT A swallowing disorder is present in more than 50% of patients with acute stroke. Objective To identify clinical prognostic indicators of the swallowing function in a population with acute ischemic stroke and to determine prioritization indicators for swallowing rehabilitation. Methods Participants were adults admitted to the emergency room who were diagnosed with acute ischemic stroke. Data gathering involved a swallowing assessment to determine the functional level of swallowing (American Speech-Language-Hearing Association National Outcome Measurement System - ASHA NOMS) and the verification of demographic and clinical variables. Results The study sample included 295 patients. For analysis purposes, patients were grouped as follows: ASHA NOMS levels 1 and 2 - ASHA1 (n = 51); levels 3, 4 and 5 - ASHA2 (n = 96); levels 6 and 7 - ASHA3 (n = 148). Statistical analyses indicated that patients who presented a poorer swallowing function (ASHA1) were older (age ≥ 70 years); had anterior circulation infarct; had lower scores on the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS ≤ 14 points); took longer to initiate swallowing rehabilitation; had longer hospital stays; made more use of alternative feeding methods; needed more sessions of swallowing rehabilitation to remove alternate feeding methods; took longer to return to oral feeding and had poorer outcomes (fewer individuals discharged from swallowing rehabilitation sessions and increased mortality). Conclusion Patients with acute ischemic stroke, admitted to the emergency room, aged ≥ 70 years, score on the GCS ≤ 14, anterior circulation infarct and dementia should be prioritized for swallowing assessment and rehabilitation.

RESUMO Alterações da deglutição são observadas em mais de 50% dos pacientes com acidente vascular cerebral isquêmico (AVCI) agudo. Objetivo Identificar os indicadores de prognóstico clínico da funcionalidade da deglutição na população com AVCI em fase aguda, visando o estabelecimento de indicadores de priorização de atendimento fonoaudiológico. Métodos Participaram do estudo adultos admitidos em Pronto Socorro (PS) com AVCI. As etapas de coleta de dados envolveram avaliação fonoaudiológica para determinação do nível funcional da deglutição (American Speech-Language-Hearing Association National Outcome Measurement System - ASHA NOMS) e a coleta de variáveis demográficas e clínicas. Resultados A amostra do estudo incluiu 295 pacientes agrupados de acordo com os níveis ASHA NOMS: níveis 1 e 2 - ASHA1 (n = 51); níveis 3, 4 e 5 - ASHA2 (n = 96); níveis 6 e 7 - ASHA3 (n = 148). As análises indicaram os seguintes resultados significantes: pacientes com pior funcionalidade da deglutição (ASHA1) apresentaram média de idade superior a 70 anos, maior comprometimento da circulação cerebral anterior pós-AVCI, pior pontuação na Escala de Coma de Glasgow (ECG ≤ 14 pontos), demoraram mais tempo para iniciar o atendimento fonoaudiológico, permaneceram mais tempo internados no hospital, fizeram mais uso de via alternativa de alimentação, necessitaram de mais sessões fonoaudiológicas para retirada da via alternativa de alimentação, demoraram mais tempo para retornar para alimentação por via oral e apresentaram pior desfecho (um número menor de indivíduos recebeu alta fonoaudiológica e apresentaram mortalidade aumentada). Conclusão Pacientes com AVCI agudo, admitidos em PS, que apresentem idade ≥ 70 anos, pontuação na ECG ≤ 14, com comprometimento do sistema circulatório cerebral anterior e demência, devem ser priorizados no atendimento fonoaudiológico.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Deglutition Disorders/diagnosis , Brain Ischemia/physiopathology , Stroke/physiopathology , Prognosis , Deglutition Disorders/etiology , Deglutition Disorders/rehabilitation , Comorbidity , Glasgow Coma Scale , Cross-Sectional Studies
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 77(6): 387-392, June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011353


ABSTRACT Stroke often leads to abnormalities in muscle tone, posture, and motor control that may compromise voluntary motor function, thus affecting the motor control required for maintaining the synergy of both peripheral and respiratory muscles. Objective To evaluate respiratory muscle strength, pulmonary function, trunk control, and functional independence in patients with stroke and to correlate trunk control with the other variables. Methods This was a cross-sectional study of patients diagnosed with stroke. We assessed respiratory muscle strength, trunk control as assessed by the Trunk Impairment Scale, spirometric variables, and the Functional Independence Measure. Results Forty-four patients were included. Pulmonary function and respiratory muscle strength were significantly lower than predicted for the study population, and the mean Trunk Impairment Scale score was 14.3 points. The following significant correlations were found between the variables: trunk control vs. maximal inspiratory pressure (r = 0.26, p < 0.05); trunk control vs. forced vital capacity (r = 0.28, p < 0.05); trunk control vs. forced expiratory volume in one second (r = 0.29, p < 0.05), and trunk control vs. the Functional Independence Measure (r = 0.77, p < 0.05). Conclusion The present study showed that respiratory muscle strength, pulmonary function, functional independence, and trunk control are reduced in patients diagnosed with stroke.

RESUMO Acidente vascular cerebral (AVC) frequentemente leva a anormalidades no tônus muscular, postura e controle motor que podem comprometer a função motora voluntária, afetando o controle motor necessário para manter a sinergia dos músculos periféricos e respiratórios. Objetivo Avaliar a força muscular respiratória, a função pulmonar, o controle do tronco e a independência funcional em pacientes com AVC e correlacionar o controle do tronco com as demais variáveis. Métodos Este foi um estudo transversal, incluindo pacientes diagnosticados com AVC. Avaliamos a força muscular respiratória, o controle do tronco avaliado pela escala de comprometimento de tronco, as variáveis espirométricas e a medida de independência funcional. Resultados Quarenta e quatro pacientes foram incluídos. A função pulmonar e a força muscular respiratória foram significativamente menores do que o previsto para a população estudada, e o escore médio do escala de comprometimento de tronco foi de 14,3 pontos. As seguintes correlações significativas foram encontradas entre as variáveis: controle do tronco vs. pressão inspiratória máxima (r = 0,26, p <0,05); controle do tronco vs capacidade vital forçada (r = 0,28, p <0,05); controle do tronco versus volume expiratório forçado no primeiro segundo (r = 0,29, p <0,05) e controle do tronco vs. medida de independência funcional (r = 0,77, p <0,05). Conclusão O presente estudo demonstrou que a força muscular respiratória, a função pulmonar, a independência funcional e o controle do tronco estão diminuídos em pacientes diagnosticados com AVC.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Respiratory Muscles/physiopathology , Stroke/physiopathology , Muscle Strength/physiology , Torso/physiopathology , Reference Values , Respiratory Function Tests , Cross-Sectional Studies , Statistics, Nonparametric , Lung/physiopathology
Fisioter. Pesqui. (Online) ; 26(2): 158-163, abr.-jun. 2019. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012139


RESUMO O objetivo do estudo foi verificar se existem diferenças na força muscular dos membros inferiores (MMII) e na habilidade de locomoção de indivíduos pós-acidente vascular encefálico (AVE) crônico, classificados como deambuladores comunitários ou não comunitários. Foi realizado um estudo transversal em 60 indivíduos pós-AVE crônico, divididos em deambuladores comunitários (n=33) e não comunitários (n=27) pela velocidade de marcha. A força muscular de sete grupos musculares bilaterais de MMII foi avaliada por meio do teste do esfigmomanômetro modificado e habilidade de locomoção pelo ABILOCO. Estatísticas descritivas foram utilizadas para caracterizar a amostra, e o teste t de Student para amostras independentes, a fim de comparar os dois grupos de indivíduos pós-AVE. Observou-se que os deambuladores comunitários apresentaram maiores valores de força muscular para a maioria dos grupos musculares de MMII (−0,973≥t≥−3,189; p≤0,04), e na habilidade de locomoção (t=−2,841; p=0,006). Os indivíduos pós-AVE crônico deambuladores comunitários possuem maior força muscular de MMII e mais habilidade de locomoção em comparação aos deambuladores não comunitários. Sugere-se que a avaliação fisioterapêutica de indivíduos pós-AVE inclua, além da mensuração da força muscular de MMII e seu tratamento, a mensuração da percepção da habilidade de locomoção, para análises da evolução do paciente e da eficácia da conduta terapêutica.

RESUMEN El objetivo del estudio fue verificar si existen diferencias en la fuerza muscular de los miembros inferiores (MMII) y en la habilidad de locomoción de individuos post-accidente cerebrovascular encefálico (ACV) crónico, clasificados como deambuladores comunitarios o no comunitarios. Se realizó un estudio transversal en 60 individuos post-ACV crónico, divididos en deambuladores comunitarios (n = 33) y no comunitarios (n = 27) por la velocidad de marcha. La fuerza muscular de siete grupos musculares bilaterales de MMII fue evaluada por medio de la prueba del esfigmomanómetro modificado, y la habilidad de locomoción por el ABILOCO. Las estadísticas descriptivas se utilizaron para caracterizar la muestra, y la prueba t de Student para muestras independientes con el fin de comparar los dos grupos de sujetos post-ACV. Se observó que los deambuladores comunitarios presentaron mayores valores de fuerza muscular para la mayoría de los grupos musculares de MMII (−0,973≥t≥−3,189; p≤0,04), y en la habilidad de locomoción (t=−2,841; p=0,006). Los individuos post-ACV crónico deambuladores comunitarios poseen mayor fuerza muscular de MMII y más habilidad de locomoción en comparación a los deambuladores no comunitarios. Se sugiere que la evaluación fisioterapéutica de individuos post-ACV incluya, además de la medición de la fuerza muscular de MMII y su tratamiento, la medición de la percepción de la habilidad de locomoción, para análisis de la evolución del paciente y de la eficacia de la conducta terapéutica.

ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to verify if there are differences in the lower-limb muscle strength (LL) and in the locomotion ability among post-stroke patients classified as community or non-community ambulators. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 60 post-chronic stroke subjects, divided into community (n=33) and non-community (n=27) ambulators by gait speed. The muscle strength of seven bilateral muscle groups of LL was evaluated through the modified sphygmomanometer test and locomotion ability through ABILOCO. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize the sample, and Student's t-test was used for independent samples to compare the two groups of post-stroke individuals. We observed that community ambulators had higher values of muscle strength for most muscle groups of LL (−0.973≥t≥3.189; p≤0.04), and in the locomotion ability (t=−2.841; p=0.006). Community ambulators showed higher LL muscle strength and better locomotion ability compared with non-community ambulators. Physiotherapeutic evaluation of post-stroke individuals should include, besides the measurement of LL muscle strength and its treatment, the measurement of the perception of locomotion ability to analyze the evolution of the patient and the efficacy of the therapeutic behavior.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Stroke/physiopathology , Muscle Strength/physiology , Locomotion/physiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Walking/physiology , Sphygmomanometers , Lower Extremity/physiopathology , Gait/physiology
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 77(4): 268-278, Apr. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001359


ABSTRACT Objective: To describe the intervention protocols to using commercial video games as virtual reality (VR) in rehabilitation of patients with stroke. Methods: Integrative review using the descriptors "rehabilitation", "virtual reality exposure therapy" and "videogames" in the LILACS and PUBMED databases. Articles published from 2011 to 2018 were selected. Results: We found 1,396 articles, 1,383 were excluded and 13 were selected. Most of the articles were randomized clinical trials published in 2014 or later. The sample size varied from 5-47 adults, or adults and elders, with chronic stroke. The Nintendo Wii® was the most used video game system. The intervention happened two or three times a week, each session lasting from 30 to 60 minutes, over 2-12 weeks. Balance, upper limb motor functions, quality of life and daily living activities were the most common evaluated outcomes. The Fugl-Meyer Assessment, Berg Balance Scale, Timed Up and Go test, Barthel Scale and SF-36 were the most common outcome measurement tools. Conclusions: The studies indicated improvement in dynamic balance, upper limb motor function and quality of life after rehabilitation using VR. The VR was more effective than conventional treatments for the outcome of dynamic balance. Two studies did not find any changes in static balance and daily living activities. Physical aspects and quality of life were the outcomes most evaluated by the researchers; as were the population with chronic strokes and protocols of long duration and low intensity. Few studies targeted immediate VR effects, performance in daily living activities and social participation.

RESUMO Objetivo: Descrever os protocolos de intervenção utilizando sistemas de vídeo game comerciais como realidade virtual (RV) na reabilitação de pacientes após AVE. Método: Revisão integrativa usando os descritores "reabilitação", "terapia de exposição a realidade virtual" e "videogames", nas bases de dados LILACS e PUBMED, e artigos publicados entre 2011 e 2018. Resultados: Foram encontrados 1.396, excluídos 1.383 e selecionados 13 artigos. A maioria era ensaio clínico aleatorizado publicados a partir de 2014. O tamanho da amostra variou de 5 a 47 participantes adultos ou adultos e idosos com AVE crônico. O Nintendo Wii® foi o videogame mais empregado. A intervenção constava de duas ou três sessões semanais, com duração de 30 ou 60 minutos por um período de duas a 12 semanas. Equilíbrio, função motora de membro superior, qualidade de vida e atividade de vida diária foram os principais desfechos. Empregou-se principalmente Escala Fugl-Meyer, Escala de Equilíbrio de Berg, teste Timed Up and Go, Índice de Barthel e SF-36 como medidas de desfecho. Conclusões: Os estudos indicaram melhora do equilíbrio dinâmico, função motora de membro superior e qualidade de vida após reabilitação usando RV. A RV se mostrou mais eficaz que tratamentos convencionais para o desfecho equilíbrio dinâmico. Dois estudos não encontraram mudanças no equilíbrio estático e atividade de vida diária. Observou-se maior foco em desfechos relacionados a aspectos físicos e qualidade de vida, em população com AVE crônico e protocolo com maior duração e menor intensidade. Poucos estudos voltados para efeitos imediatos da RV, desempenho em atividades de vida diária e participação social.

Humans , Male , Female , Video Games , Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy/methods , Stroke Rehabilitation/methods , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Stroke/physiopathology
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 77(1): 25-32, Jan. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-983874


ABSTRACT Changes in postural balance and visual complaints are frequent consequences of stroke. We aimed to investigate the symptoms and the vestibular and oculomotor functions of patients with dizziness post ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke and compare the results among them. Methods: Fifty patients with dizziness after stroke were evaluated through a clinical anamnesis and computerized vector electronystagmography: calibration of ocular movements, spontaneous nystagmus, semi-spontaneous nystagmus, pendular tracking, optokinetic nystagmus, rotary chair testing, and the caloric test. Results: All patients complained of dizziness, especially imbalance. Ischemic stroke in the carotid territory was the prevalent type. Visual complaints were reported by 56% of the sample and were related to abnormalities in oculomotor and caloric tests. Conclusion: The occurrence of visual symptoms was related to some abnormalities in the vector electronystagmography tests, being more frequent in cases of stroke in the vertebrobasilar system, and with oscillopsia and reduced visual acuity as symptoms.

RESUMO Alterações no equilíbrio postural são consequências frequentes no acidente vascular cerebral (AVC). O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar os sintomas e as funções vestibular e oculomotora de sujeitos com tontura após AVC isquêmico e hemorrágico, comparando seus resultados. Métodos: Foram avaliados 50 sujeitos com tontura após AVC, por meio de anamnese clínica e vectoeletronistagmografia computadorizada (VENG): calibração dos movimentos oculares; nistagmo espontâneo e semi-espontâneo; rastreio pendular; nistagmo optocinético; prova rotatória pendular decrescente e prova calórica com estímulo a ar. Resultados: Todos relataram tontura, principalmente do tipo desequilíbrio. O AVC isquêmico e no sistema carotídeo foi o mais frequente. Sintomas visuais pós-AVC foram referidos por 56% da amostra, os quais tiveram relação com alterações nas provas oculomotoras e calórica da VENG. Conclusão: A ocorrência de sintomas visuais relacionou-se a alterações em alguns testes. Essas alterações foram mais frequentes nos casos de AVC da circulação posterior, naqueles com oscilopsia e diminuição da acuidade visual.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Vestibular Function Tests , Stroke/complications , Stroke/physiopathology , Dizziness/etiology , Dizziness/physiopathology , Oculomotor Nerve/physiopathology , Vision Disorders/etiology , Vision Disorders/physiopathology , Caloric Tests , Visual Acuity/physiology , Nystagmus, Pathologic/etiology , Nystagmus, Pathologic/physiopathology , Vestibule, Labyrinth/physiopathology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Statistics, Nonparametric , Electronystagmography/methods
CoDAS ; 31(6): e20180160, 2019. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039622


RESUMO Objetivo Comparar os resíduos faríngeos por consistência de alimento entre indivíduos com disfagia orofaríngea neurogênica. Método Estudo clínico transversal. Realizada análise de 30 exames de videoendoscopia de deglutição de indivíduos com diagnóstico de doenças neurológicas e disfagia orofaríngea, independentemente do tempo ou estágio das doenças. Os indivíduos foram divididos em três grupos: o grupo I composto por 10 indivíduos pós-Acidente Vascular Cerebral, 8 homens e 2 mulheres, faixa etária entre 51 e 80 anos (média 67 anos); o grupo II por 10 indivíduos com Esclerose Lateral Amiotrófica, 5 homens e 5 mulheres, faixa etária entre 39 e 78 anos (média 57 anos), e o grupo III por 10 indivíduos com Doença de Parkinson (DP), 5 homens e 5 mulheres, faixa etária entre 65 e 88 anos (média 74 anos). Para análise dos resíduos faríngeos em valéculas e seios piriformes, foi aplicada a Yale Pharyngeal Residue Severity Rating Scale, considerando a primeira deglutição de 5 mL nas consistências pastosa e líquida espessada, por dois juízes independentes e de forma cega. Resultados Não houve diferença estatística significativa nos resíduos faríngeos, em valéculas (p= 0,25/ p= 0,18) e seios piriformes (p= 1,41/ 0,49), respectivamente nas consistências pastosa e líquida espessada, nas diferentes doenças estudadas. Conclusão Os níveis de resíduos faríngeos na consistência pastosa ou líquida espessada na população estudada foram semelhantes e mais frequentes nos níveis menos grave.

ABSTRACT Purpose To compare pharyngeal residues of different consistencies among groups of individuals with neurogenic oropharyngeal dysphagia. Methods In a cross-sectional study, a fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation was performed in 30 swallowing exams of individuals diagnosed with neurological disease and oropharyngeal dysphagia, regardless of the time or stage of the disease. The individuals were divided into three groups according to etiology: group I, 10 post-stroke, 8 male and 2 female, aged 51 to 80 years (average age: 67 years); group II, 10 individuals with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, 5 male and 5 female, aged 39 to 78 years (average age: 57 years); group III, 10 examinations of individuals with Parkinson's disease, 5 male and 5 female aged 65-88 years (average age: 74 years). The Yale Pharyngeal Residue Severity Rating Scale was applied by two independent raters in a blind manner for the analysis of pharyngeal residues in valleculae and pyriform sinuses based on the first swallowing of 5 mL of pureed and thickened liquid. Results No statistically significant difference was observed among groups in the degree of pharyngeal residues of puree food or thickened liquid in the valleculae (p = 0.25/p = 0.18) or the pyriform sinuses (p = 1.41/0.49). Conclusion The pharyngeal residue levels of pureed and thickened liquid were similar for the groups studied, with less severe levels being more frequent.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Parkinson Disease/complications , Deglutition Disorders/physiopathology , Stroke/complications , Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis/complications , Parkinson Disease/physiopathology , Video Recording , Severity of Illness Index , Deglutition Disorders/etiology , Deglutition Disorders/diagnostic imaging , Cross-Sectional Studies , Stroke/physiopathology , Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis/physiopathology , Laryngoscopy
Clinics ; 74: e1222, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039547


OBJECTIVES: Ischemic stroke (IS) or transient ischemic attack (TIA) history is present in 4-17% of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). This subgroup of patients is at high risk for both ischemic and bleeding events. The aim of this study was to determine the role of platelet aggregability, coagulation and endogenous fibrinolysis in patients with CAD and previous IS or TIA. METHODS: A prospective case-control study that included 140 stable CAD patients divided into two groups: the CASE group (those with a previous IS/TIA, n=70) and the CONTROL group (those without a previous IS/TIA, n=70). Platelet aggregability (VerifyNow Aspirin® and VerifyNow P2Y12®), coagulation (fibrinogen and thromboelastography by Reorox®) and endogenous fibrinolysis (D dimer and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1) were evaluated. RESULTS: Patients in the CASE group presented significantly higher systolic blood pressure levels (135.84±16.09 vs 123.68±16.11, p<0.01), significantly more previous CABG (25.71% vs 10%, p=0.015) and significantly higher calcium channel blocker usage (42.86% vs 24.29%, p=0.02) than those in the control group. In the adjusted models, low triglyceride values, low hemoglobin values and higher systolic blood pressure were significantly associated with previous IS/TIA (CASE group). Most importantly, platelet aggregability, coagulation and fibrinolysis tests were not independently associated with previous cerebrovascular ischemic events (CASE group). CONCLUSION: Platelet aggregability, coagulation and endogenous fibrinolysis showed similar results among CAD patients with and without previous IS/TIA. Therefore, it remains necessary to identify other targets to explain the higher bleeding risk presented by these patients.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Blood Coagulation/physiology , Coronary Artery Disease/blood , Ischemic Attack, Transient/blood , Platelet Aggregation/physiology , Stroke/blood , Fibrinolysis/physiology , Platelet Function Tests , Blood Coagulation Tests , Coronary Artery Disease/physiopathology , Case-Control Studies , Ischemic Attack, Transient/physiopathology , Prospective Studies , Stroke/physiopathology
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 78(6): 427-435, Dec. 2018. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-976141


El accidente cerebrovascular, una de las principales causas de discapacidad y muerte a nivel global, se asocia con frecuencia al síndrome de apneas-hipopneas obstructivas del sueño. Se ha demostrado que este trastorno del sueño es un factor de riesgo independiente de accidente cerebrovascular, por lo que se ha recomendado su estudio y tratamiento. Entre los mecanismos que relacionan estos dos cuadros clínicos se destacan: el estrés oxidativo, las alteraciones del flujo sanguíneo cerebral, la disfunción autonómica y la hipercoagulabilidad, como también la persistencia del foramen oval, la hipertensión arterial y los trastornos del ritmo cardiaco. Evidencias incipientes tienden a respaldar el tratamiento del accidente cerebrovascular con presión positiva continua en la vía aérea, pero aún son necesarios más ensayos clínicos aleatorizados para avalar ese tratamiento. Este trabajo presenta una revisión de la literatura sobre epidemiología, fisiopatología, clínica y tratamiento del síndrome de apneas-hipopneas asociado al accidente cerebrovascular.

Stroke, one of the main causes of disability and death worldwide, is frequently associated to the obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome. This sleep disorder has been demonstrated to be an independent risk factor for stroke, and therefore its investigation and treatment has been recommended for patients with stroke. Mechanisms relating these two clinical disorders include: oxidative stress, cerebral blood flow alterations, autonomic dysfunction, and hypercoagulability, as well as patent foramen ovale, blood pressure, and heart rhythm disorders. Increasing amount of evidence supports continuous airway positive pressure therapy in patients with stroke, but further randomized clinical trials are needed to obtain solid conclusions. This work reviews the literature on epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical assessment, and treatment of apnea-hypopnea syndrome in patients with stroke.

Humans , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/complications , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/physiopathology , Stroke/etiology , Stroke/physiopathology , Risk Factors , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/diagnosis , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/therapy , Stroke/therapy , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure
Rev. Ciênc. Méd. Biol. (Impr.) ; 17(3): 354-358, nov 19, 2018. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1247806


Introdução: danos à função sensório-motora podem ocorrer após um acidente vascular cerebral (AVC), contribuindo para o surgimento de disfunções no controle do movimento, o que inclui a manutenção do controle postural. Déficits de equilíbrio são comuns em indivíduos após AVC, preditores de funcionalidade e integração comunitária. Portanto, é necessária a identificação de possíveis fatores associados a alterações do equilíbrio funcional desses indivíduos. Objetivo: analisar a associação entre função sensóriomotora e equilíbrio funcional de indivíduos hemiparéticos crônicos após AVC. Metodologia: estudo transversal, com indivíduos que sofreram AVC, de idade entre 18 e 80 anos, com hemiparesia por no mínimo 6 meses, capazes de deambular, sem déficit visual e(ou) auditivo, sem sequelas cognitivas e sem outros diagnósticos neurológicos e(ou) ortopédicos que limitem a mobilidade. A escala de Fugl-Meyer e a escala de equilíbrio de Berg foram usadas para avaliar a função sensório-motora e o equilíbrio funcional, respectivamente. Resultados: 63 indivíduos foram incluídos no estudo, com idade média de 56 anos e tempo mediano de AVC de 36 meses. Houve uma correlação positiva moderada com a sensibilidade (r = 0,512) e uma correlação que variou de fraca a desprezível com mobilidade (r = 0,489), dor (r = -0,163), função motora de membro superior (r = 0,098) e função motora de membro inferior (r = 0,344). Conclusão: déficits no equilíbrio funcional estiveram associados moderadamente às alterações na sensibilidade dos indivíduos hemiparéticos crônicos após AVC. Mobilidade, dor e função motora dos membros superiores e inferiores não demostraram uma associação importante com o equilíbrio funcional.

Introduction: damages to the sensory-motor function can occur after a brain injury, contributing to the emergence of malfunctions in the control of the movement, including the maintenance of postural control. Balance deficits are common in subjects after stroke, and are predictors of community functionality and integration. Therefore, it is necessary to identify possible factors that are associated with changes in the functional balance of these individuals. Objective: to analyze the association between the sensory-motor function and functional balance of chronic hemiparetic individuals after stroke. Methodology: cross-sectional study, with post-stroke individuals between 18 and 80 years with hemiparesis for at least 6 months, able to walk, without visual and/or auditory deficit, without cognitive sequelae and without other neurological and/or orthopedic diagnosis that limit mobility. The Fugl-Meyer and Berg balance scale were used to evaluate the sensory-motor function and functional balance, respectively. Results: 63 individuals were included in the study, with an average age of 56 years and average time of stroke of 36 months. There was a moderate positive correlation with sensitivity (r = 0.512) and a correlation between low to negligible with mobility (r = 0,489), pain (r = -0,163), motor function of upper limb (r = 0,098) and motor function of lower limbs (r = 0,344). Conclusion: functional balance deficits were mildly associated with changes in sensitivity of chronic hemiparetic individuals post-stroke. Mobility, pain, motor function of upper limbs and lower limbs did not demonstrate a significant association with the functional balance.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Sensation Disorders/physiopathology , Stroke/physiopathology , Postural Balance/physiology , Chronic Disease , Cross-Sectional Studies
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 76(11): 767-774, Nov. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-973937


ABSTRACT Executive dysfunction occurs in 18.5% to 39% of patients who present with cognitive impairment. Occupational therapy aims to facilitate independence and autonomy, hence improving quality of life. The Executive Function Performance Test - Brazilian version (EFPT-BR) has been developed to assess the need for assistance in performing four basic daily tasks. Objectives: The aims of this research were: (1) to offer cross-cultural adaptation in patients with stroke; (2) to assess the psychometric properties of the Brazilian version of the EFPT-BR in patients with stroke; (3) to assess the relationship between scores on the EFPT-BR in patients with stroke, and demographic variables, stroke location, symptoms of anxiety and depression. Methods: The transcultural adaptation and validation were performed based on standard procedures, and psychometric properties were assessed in 86 Brazilian patients who suffered a stroke. Results: The test has shown a good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha: 0.819). The ICC for intra-rater reliability was 0.435 and for the inter-rater was 0.732. Significant correlations between scores in the EFPT-BR and executive measures (verbal fluency test, clock drawing test, digit span - forwards and backwards, zoo map test and Six Elements Test) were observed. Conclusion: The EFPT-BR is a valid and reliable tool for occupational therapists to assess executive dysfunction in daily routine tasks in patients with stroke in Brazil.

RESUMO Disfunção executiva ocorre em 18,5% a 39% dos pacientes que apresentam comprometimento cognitivo. A terapia ocupacional visa proporcionar independência e autonomia, de modo a melhorar a qualidade de vida. O Teste Desempenho da Função Executiva (TDFE) foi desenvolvido para avaliar a necessidade de assistência para realizar quatro tarefas diárias básicas. Objetivos: Os objetivos desta pesquisa são: (1) realizar a adaptação transcultural em pacientes com AVC; (2) avaliar as propriedades psicométricas da TDFE em pacientes com AVC; (3) avaliar a relação entre TDFE em pacientes com AVC e variáveis demográficas, região afetada pelo acidente vascular cerebral, sintomas de ansiedade e depressão. Métodos: A adaptação e validação transcultural foram realizadas com base em procedimentos padrão e as propriedades psicométricas foram avaliadas em 86 pacientes brasileiros que sofreram acidente vascular cerebral. Resultados: O teste apresentou boa consistência interna (alfa de Cronbach: 0,819). A confiabilidade intra examinador foi de 0,435 e para o inter examinador foi de 0,855. Foram observadas correlações significativas entre a pontuação final do TDFE e os seguintes testes de função executiva: teste de fluência verbal, teste do desenho do relógio, Teste de Extensão dos Dígitos (diretos e inversos), subteste do mapa zoológico e subteste modificado dos seis elementos. Conclusão: A TDFE é uma ferramenta válida e confiável para os terapeutas ocupacionais para avaliar a disfunção executiva nas tarefas de rotina diária em pacientes com AVC no Brasil.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Psychometrics/methods , Surveys and Questionnaires/standards , Stroke/psychology , Executive Function/physiology , Brazil , Cross-Cultural Comparison , Reproducibility of Results , Occupational Therapy , Stroke/physiopathology , Stroke/therapy
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 76(10): 649-653, Oct. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-973922


ABSTRACT The aim of the study was to analyze the long-term recurrence rate in patients with a first-ever ischemic stroke secondary to intracranial large artery atherosclerosis (LAA) in a Brazilian population. Methods: All stroke patients admitted to the hospital between October 2012 and September 2015 were evaluated. The stroke mechanism subtypes were classified as cardioembolism, LAA, small-vessel occlusion, other determined etiologies, and stroke of undetermined etiology. Results: The 359 first-ever ischemic stroke patients were followed up for a mean time of 21.6 ± 15.1 months. The LAA intracranial (38.9%) and extracranial (24.6%) stroke patients presented with a higher stroke recurrence. Intracranial LAA [HR, 10.2 (3.6-29.1); p < 0.001] and extracranial LAA [HR, 5.05 (1.79-14.2); p = 0.002] were the only conditions to show positive correlation with the recurrence rate, after adjusting for risk factors, thrombolysis, and National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score at admission. Conclusion: Intracranial LAA presents a higher incidence of recurrence of ischemic stroke when compared with other etiologies in a Southern Brazilian population.

RESUMO O objetivo do presente estudo é analisar a taxa de recorrência a longo prazo em pacientes com o primeiro AVCi secundário à aterosclerose de grande artéria intracraniana em uma amostra brasileira. Métodos: Pacientes admitidos entre outubro de 2012 e setembro de 2015 foram analisados. Os subtipos do mecanismo de AVC foram classificados como cardioembolismo, aterosclerose de grandes artérias, oclusão de pequenos vasos, outras etiologias determinadas e AVCi de causa indeterminada. Resultados: Foram avaliados 359 pacientes com primeiro AVCi. O tempo médio de seguimento foi de 21,6 ± 15,1 meses. A aterosclerose de grande artéria, intracraniana (38,9%) e extracraniana (24,6%), apresentou a maior taxa de recorrência. A aterosclerose de grande artéria intracraniana [HR, 10,2 (3,6-29,1); p < 0,001] e extracraniana [HR, 5,05 (1,79-14,2); p = 0,002] demonstraram correlação positiva com a taxa de recorrência, após o ajuste para fatores de risco, trombólise e gravidade dos sintomas na admissão. Conclusão: A aterosclerose de grande artéria, tanto intracraniana como extracraniana, apresenta maior recorrência comparado aos outros mecanismos de AVCi em uma amostra do Sul do Brasil.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Intracranial Arteriosclerosis/complications , Stroke/etiology , Recurrence , Brazil/epidemiology , Intracranial Arteriosclerosis/diagnosis , Intracranial Arteriosclerosis/physiopathology , Intracranial Arteriosclerosis/epidemiology , Incidence , Risk Factors , Follow-Up Studies , Stroke/diagnosis , Stroke/physiopathology , Stroke/epidemiology
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 64(9): 833-836, Sept. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-976859


SUMMARY INTRODUCTION Acute neurological illness often results in severe disability. Five-year life expectancy is around 40%; half the survivors become completely dependent on outside help. OBJECTIVE Evaluate the symptoms of patients admitted to a Hospital ward with a diagnosis of stroke, subarachnoid hemorrhage or subdural hematoma, and analyze the role of an In-Hospital Palliative Care Support Team. MATERIAL AND METHODS Retrospective, observational study with a sample consisting of all patients admitted with acute neurological illness and with a guidance request made to the In-Hospital Palliative Care Support Team of a tertiary Hospital, over 5 years (2012-2016). RESULTS A total of 66 patients were evaluated, with an age median of 83 years old. Amongst them, there were 41 ischaemic strokes, 12 intracranial bleedings, 12 subdural hematomas, and 5 subarachnoid hemorrhages. The median of delay between admission and guidance request was 14 days. On the first evaluation by the team, the GCS score median was 6/15 and the Palliative Performance Scale (PPS) median 10%. Dysphagia (96.8%) and bronchorrhea (48.4%) were the most prevalent symptoms. A total of 56 patients had a feeding tube (84.8%), 33 had vital sign monitoring (50.0%), 24 were hypocoagulated (36.3%), 25 lacked opioid or anti-muscarinic therapy for symptom control (37,9%); 6 patients retained orotracheal intubation, which was removed. In-hospital mortality was 72.7% (n=48). DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION Patients were severely debilitated, in many cases futile interventions persisted, yet several were under-medicated for symptom control. The delay between admission and collaboration request was high. Due to the high morbidity associated with acute neurological illness, palliative care should always be timely provided.

RESUMO INTRODUÇÃO Eventos neurológicos agudos resultam frequentemente em incapacidade grave que impede o doente de participar ativamente nas decisões do seu próprio tratamento. A sobrevida a cinco anos ronda os 40%; metade dos sobreviventes fica dependente de terceiros. Objetivo Avaliar a sintomatologia de doentes internados com acidente vascular cerebral (AVC), hemorragia subarcnoideia (HSA) ou subdural (HSD) e analisar a intervenção de uma Equipe Intra-Hospitalar de Suporte em Cuidados Paliativos (EIHSCP). MATERIAL E MÉTODOS Estudo retrospetivo observacional dos doentes com diagnóstico principal de evento neurológico agudo com pedido de colaboração à EIHSCP, num hospital terciário, durante cinco anos (2012-2016). RESULTADOS Avaliados 66 doentes, com média de idade de 83 anos. Destacam-se 41 AVC isquêmicos, 12 hemorrágicos, 12 HSD e 5 HSA. A média da demora entre internamento e pedido de colaboração à EIHSCP foi de 14 dias. Na primeira observação, a média na escala de coma de Glasgow foi de 6/15 e na Palliative Performance Scale (PPS) foi de 10%. Disfagia (96,8%) e broncorreia (48,4%) foram os sintomas mais frequentes. A maioria dos doentes (56/66) mantinha sonda nasogástrica (84,8%); 33 encontravam-se em monitorização cardiorrespiratória (50,0%); 24 estavam sob hipocoagulação (36,3%); 25 necessitavam de opioide e antimuscarínico que não estavam prescritos (37,9%); seis tinham tubo orotraqueal, que foi retirado. A mortalidade intra-hospitalar foi de 72,7% (n=48). DISCUSSÃO E CONCLUSÃO Destaca-se o estado debilitado dos doentes; em muitos casos, intervenções fúteis persistiam, mas várias foram submedicadas para o controle dos sintomas. Verificou-se um tempo de espera elevado até o pedido de colaboração. Pela elevada morbilidade associada a esses eventos, cuidados paliativos diferenciados deveriam ser oferecidos no tempo adequado.

Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Palliative Care/methods , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/therapy , Stroke/therapy , Hematoma, Subdural/therapy , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/physiopathology , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/mortality , Time Factors , Pain Measurement , Glasgow Coma Scale , Acute Disease , Retrospective Studies , Hospital Mortality , Stroke/physiopathology , Stroke/mortality , Hematoma, Subdural/physiopathology , Hematoma, Subdural/mortality
Rev. Soc. Cardiol. Estado de Säo Paulo ; 28(3): 267-275, jul.-ago. 2018. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-916465


O acidente vascular cerebral (AVC) é a maior causa de incapacidade em todo mundo, e atualmente é também considerado como a segunda maior causa de morte no Brasil. O AVC isquêmico é o subtipo mais comum e pode ser subdividido etiologicamente em car-dioembólico, aterosclerótico de grandes ou pequenas artérias (lacunas), criptogênico ou de outras etiologias. Dependendo da etiologia encontrada, a profilaxia secundária de novos eventos deve ser feita através de medicações antitrombóticas específicas. Portanto, investigar adequadamente a etiologia do evento vascular isquêmico é fundamental para a instituição da profilaxia secundária apropriada. A terapia antitrombótica pós-AVC isquêmico evoluiu consideravelmente na última década. Especificamente para pacientes com AVC e fibrilação atrial, a incorporação de anticoagulantes de ação direta à prática clínica representa um grande avanço, já que tais medicações são mais eficazes e seguras para o tratamento de pacientes de alto risco. No presente artigo, discutiremos o uso de antitrombóticos em pacientes com AVC em diferentes momentos pós-icto vascular e nas distintas etiologias possíveis

Stroke is the leading cause of disability worldwide, and is currently also considered the second leading cause of death in Brazil. Ischemic stroke is the most common subtype and can be subdivided etiologically into cardioembolic, atherosclerotic (large artery atherosclero-sis or small vessel disease-lacunae), cryptogenic or strokes of other etiologies. Depending on the etiology, secondary prophylaxis of new events should be undertaken with specific antithrombotic medications. Therefore, a thorough investigation of ischemic vascular event etiology is essential for the introduction of appropriate secondary prophylaxis. Antithrombotic therapy after ischemic stroke has evolved considerably in the last decade. The incorporation of direct-acting anticoagulants into clinical practice represents a major advance, particularly for stroke and atrial fibrillation patients, since such medications are safer and more effective for the treatment of high-risk patients. In this article, we will discuss the use of antithrombo-tics in stroke patients at different post-stroke stages and in the distinct possible etiologies

Humans , Male , Female , Thrombolytic Therapy/methods , Stroke/etiology , Stroke/physiopathology , Disease Prevention , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Cerebral Infarction/diagnosis , Aspirin/therapeutic use , Risk Factors , Diabetes Mellitus , Secondary Prevention/methods , Sedentary Behavior , Rivaroxaban/therapeutic use , Hypertension , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 76(3): 158-162, Mar. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888368


ABSTRACT Purpose To investigate potential associations among executive, physical and food functions in the acute phase after stroke. Methods This is a cross-sectional study that evaluated 63 patients admitted to the stroke unit of a public hospital. The exclusion criteria were other neurological and/or psychiatric diagnoses. The tools for evaluation were: Mini-Mental State Examination and Frontal Assessment Battery for cognitive functions; Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score for quantification of brain injury; National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale for neurological impairment; Modified Rankin Scale for functionality, and the Functional Oral Intake Scale for food function. Results The sample comprised 34 men (54%) and 29 women with a mean age of 63.6 years. The Frontal Assessment Battery was significantly associated with the other scales. In multivariate analysis, executive function was independently associated with the Functional Oral Intake Scale. Conclusion Most patients exhibited executive dysfunction that significantly compromised oral intake.

RESUMO Objetivo Investigar potenciais associações entre funções executiva, física global e de alimentação na fase aguda do acidente vascular cerebral (AVC). Métodos Trata-se de estudo transversal envolvendo 63 pacientes admitidos em unidade de AVC de um hospital público. Os critérios de exclusão foram outros diagnósticos neurológicos e/ou psiquiátricos. Os instrumentos utilizados foram: Mini-Exame do Estado Mental e Bateria de Avaliação Frontal para avaliar funções cognitivas; Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score para quantificação da lesão cerebral; National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale para comprometimento neurológico; Escala Modificada de Rankin para funcionalidade e Functional Oral Intake Scale para função alimentar. Resultados A amostra compreendeu 34 homens e 29 mulheres, sendo a idade média de 63,6 anos. A Bateria de Avaliação Frontal correlacionou significativamente com as demais escalas. Na análise multivariada, a variável independentemente associada com a função executiva foi a Functional Oral Intake Scale. Conclusão A maioria dos pacientes com AVC apresenta alterações das funções executivas que comprometem significativamente a alimentação oral.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Stroke/complications , Stroke/physiopathology , Eating/physiology , Executive Function/physiology , Motor Disorders/etiology , Motor Disorders/physiopathology , Severity of Illness Index , Linear Models , Acute Disease , Cross-Sectional Studies , Multivariate Analysis , Cognition/physiology , Statistics, Nonparametric , Cognitive Dysfunction/etiology , Cognitive Dysfunction/physiopathology , Mental Status and Dementia Tests , Motor Skills/physiology , Neuropsychological Tests