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1.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 81(3): 415-420, jun. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1346478

ABSTRACT

Resumen La pandemia COVID-19 limitó el acceso de los pacientes post accidente cerebro vascular a los controles de seguimiento médico y a la rehabilitación, por lo cual decidimos incorporar herramientas tecnológicas gratuitas y accesibles para su continuación. Realizamos seguimiento remoto a 32 pacientes dados de alta en los primeros tres meses del período de aislamiento social preventivo obligatorio con el objetivo de continuar controles médicos, rehabilitación física y fonoaudiológica. El 100% adhirió al tratamiento médico y al auto-monitoreo de factores de riesgo; detectamos en forma temprana la interrupción de las terapias de rehabilita ción y mantuvimos la adherencia por medio de tele-rehabilitación. Los 32 pacientes mostraron disponibilidad para seguir con esta modalidad de atención, permitiendo continuar el seguimiento médico y supervisar la rehabilitación con la colaboración de las familias. Es una metodología accesible y de bajo costo que podría ser replicada y utilizada en instituciones de salud que traten enfermedades neurovasculares.


Abstract The COVID-19 pandemic resulted in limited access of post-stroke patients to their usual medical follow-up and rehabilitation. To continue these activities, we adopted a technology that is free and has universal access. We remotely followed 32 patients after discharge from the stroke unit during the mandatory lock-down. This allowed to continue with medical controls, physical therapy and speech pathology treatments. All patients fully complied with medical treatment and self-monitoring of vascular risk factors. Early discontinuation of rehabilitation therapies was identified and immediately compensated with tele-rehabilitation. All expressed their willingness to continue with this treatment modality. This strategy was successful to effectively continue medical follow-up and rehabilitation supervision with the collaboration of families, is an accessible and low-cost technology that could be replicated and used in health institutions that treat neurovascular diseases.


Subject(s)
Humans , Telemedicine , Stroke/prevention & control , Stroke Rehabilitation , COVID-19 , Communicable Disease Control , Secondary Prevention , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 139(2): 117-122, Mar.-Apr. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1181011

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Stroke is the second leading cause of death in Brazil and the main cause of disability. Inability to identify alarm signals causes delays in seeking emergency services, thereby leading to a worse prognosis. OBJECTIVES: To assess the population's knowledge of how to recognize and prevent stroke. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective cross-sectional study on data derived from a questionnaire that was administered during the 2016 World Stroke Campaign, launched in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: Data on 806 interviewees were evaluated using descriptive statistics and univariate and multivariate analyses. RESULTS: Among all the interviewees, 52.1% knew how to conceptualize stroke; 70.07% knew someone who had suffered a stroke; and 29.03% listed three or more risk factors. Only 27.5% mentioned controlling high blood pressure as a preventive measure. In the event of witnessing a stroke, 57.8% would call the emergency service and 2.9% would check the timing. Less educated individuals were 5.6 times more likely (95% confidence interval, CI 3.45-9.02) to have poor knowledge of stroke, compared with the more educated group. Knowing someone who had had a stroke reduced the chances of not knowing the terms relating to the disease (odds ratio, OR = 0.56; 95% CI 0.4-0.78). CONCLUSIONS: Despite the severity and prevalence of stroke, the population still has little information on this disease. In this context, the importance of mounting campaigns to improve prevention and treatment and to contribute to healthcare policies becomes evident.


Subject(s)
Humans , Stroke/prevention & control , Stroke/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors
3.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 80(supl.6): 65-70, dic. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1250321

ABSTRACT

Resumen La pandemia por COVID-19 y el aislamiento social preventivo y obligatorio (ASPO) han generado cambios en la organización y utilización del sistema de salud en todo el mundo. Analizamos el impacto de la situación sanitaria en el número de consultas ambulatorias, internaciones y acceso a terapias de revascularización por enfermedad cerebrovascular. Se analizó el período desde el 1 marzo al 31 de julio de 2020. Se comparó con el mismo período de 2019. Se evaluaron total de consultas ambulatorias e internaciones, escala NIHSS (National Institute of Health Stroke Scale) al ingreso, tipo de enfermedad cerebrovascular y uso de terapias de revascularización. Ingresaron 197 pacientes con eventos cerebrovasculares agudos en 2019 y 150 pacientes en 2020. Hubo un descenso significativo en el número de internaciones por eventos isquémicos totales y accidentes isquémico transitorios en el comparativo de los 5 meses. Se vio además un aumento en trombosis venosas cerebrales y hemorragias cerebrales. El acceso a fibrinolisis intravenosa y trombectomía mecánica se mantuvo estable, pero con prolongación del tiempo puerta-aguja. Las consultas ambulatorias descendieron 67%, siendo mayor el descenso en abril y más marcado en consultas de seguimiento. El número de internaciones y de consultas ambulatorias durante el ASPO descendió sustancialmente. Esto pareciera obedecer al cumplimiento estricto de la cuarentena y no a mecanismos fisiopatológicos relacionados con el COVID-19. Debe educarse a la población sobre la necesidad del control de enfermedades crónicas y de eventos agudos y se deben garantizar medidas de seguridad en los centros de salud.


Abstract The COVID-19 pandemic and preventive and compulsory social isolation (PCSI) have generated changes in the organization and use of the health system around the world. We analyze the impact of the health situation on the number of outpatient visits, hospitalizations and access to revascularization therapy for cerebrovascular disease. The period from March 1 to July 31, 2020 was analyzed. It was compared with the same period in 2019. Total outpatient and hospital visits were evaluated, NIHSS scale (National Institute of Health Stroke Scale) upon admission, type of cerebrovascular disease and use of revascularization therapies; 197 patients with acute cerebrovascular events were admitted in 2019 and 150 patients in 2020. There was a significant decrease in the number of hospitalizations for total ischemic events and transient ischemic attacks in the comparison of 5 months. An increase in cerebral venous thrombosis and cerebral hemorrhages was also seen. Access to intravenous fibrinolysis and mechanical thrombectomy remained stable, but with prolonged door-to-needle time. Outpatient visits fell 67%, the decrease being greater in April and more marked in follow-up visits. The number of hospitalizations and outpatient visits during the PCSI dropped substantially. This seems to be due to strict compliance with quarantine and not to pathophysiological mechanisms related to COVID-19. The population should be educated about the need to control chronic diseases and acute events and safety measures should be guaranteed in health centers.


Subject(s)
Humans , Stroke/prevention & control , Stroke/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Outpatients , Argentina/epidemiology , Social Isolation , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Hospitalization
4.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 115(4): 717-718, out. 2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1131352

ABSTRACT

Resumo Baixas doses de edoxabana e enoxaparina sódica foram objeto de uma comparação retrospectiva implementada com a técnica do escore de propensão a fim de mitigar os efeitos das diferenças nas características clínicas basais de duas coortes e minimizar o risco de viés. Posteriormente, usando um modelo de riscos proporcionais de Cox, avaliou-se a associação de cada tipo de terapia com o risco do composto de morte por todas as causas, acidente vascular cerebral/ataque isquêmico transitório, hospitalizações e ocorrência de sangramentos maiores. Para essa análise, um valor de p < 0,05 foi considerado estatisticamente significante. A terapia com enoxaparina e cirrose hepática como causadora de trombocitopenia estiveram associadas ao aumento do risco do endpoint composto (enoxaparina: hazard ratio (HR): 3,31; IC 95%: 1,54 a 7,13; p = 0,0023; cirrose hepática, HR: 1,04; 95% CI: 1,002 a 1,089; p = 0,0410). Por outro lado, a terapia com edoxabana mostrou-se significativamente associada à diminuição do risco do endpoint composto (HR: 0,071; 95% CI: 0,013 a 0,373; p = 0,0019). Com base nessa análise retrospectiva, o edoxaban em doses baixas seria uma ferramenta farmacológica segura e eficaz para a profilaxia de eventos cardioembólicos em pacientes com FA e trombocitopenia.


Abstract Low-dose edoxaban and enoxaparin sodium have been the subject of a retrospective comparison implemented with the propensity score technique in order to mitigate the effects of the differences in the basal clinical features of two cohorts and minimize the risk of bias. Subsequently, using a Cox proportional-hazards model, the association of each type of therapy with the risk of the composite of all-cause death, stroke/transient ischemic attack, hospitalizations and major bleeding events was assessed. For this analysis, a p-value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Therapy with enoxaparin and liver cirrhosis as causing thrombocytopenia were associated with increased risk of the composite endpoint (enoxaparin: hazard ratio (HR): 3.31; 95% CI: 1.54 to 7.13; p = 0.0023; liver cirrhosis, HR: 1.04; 95% CI: 1.002 to 1.089; p = 0.0410). Conversely, edoxaban therapy was significantly associated with decreased risk of the composite endpoint (HR: 0.071; 95% CI: 0.013 to 0.373; p = 0.0019). Based on this retrospective analysis, edoxaban at low doses would appear as an effective and safe pharmacological tool for the prophylaxis of cardioembolic events in patients with AF and thrombocytopenia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Atrial Fibrillation/complications , Atrial Fibrillation/drug therapy , Thrombocytopenia/chemically induced , Stroke/etiology , Stroke/prevention & control , Patients , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Fibrinolytic Agents/adverse effects , Anticoagulants/adverse effects
5.
Rev. chil. cardiol ; 39(2): 154-158, ago. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138528

ABSTRACT

Abstract Atrial fibrillation (AF) is an increasing health care problem associated with thromboembolic risk about 5% per year, with high mortality and morbidity when associated to stroke. Oral anticoagulants (OAC) are the treatment of choice for preventing ischemic stroke in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF). However, these drugs are associated with an increased risk of serious complications such an intracranial hemorrhage (ICH). In this context percutaneous closure of the left atrial appendage (LAA) is an effective therapeutic alternative to OACs, with an increasing success rate. Novel devices might allow or facilitate the procedure in some anatomically and technically complicated cases. Two patients with a complex morphology of the LAA, in which the LAmbre (Lifetech Scientific [Shenzhen] Co. Ltd.) device was implanted with good technical and clinical results are presented.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged, 80 and over , Atrial Fibrillation/therapy , Cardiac Catheterization/instrumentation , Atrial Appendage/diagnostic imaging , Septal Occluder Device , Atrial Fibrillation/diagnostic imaging , Angiography , Echocardiography , Cardiac Catheterization/methods , Stroke/prevention & control
6.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 78(8): 461-467, Aug. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131748

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Statin therapy has become one of the most important advances in stroke secondary prevention. Objective: To provide evidence from real-world data for evaluating detailed associations between secondary prevention of stroke and statin use in Brazil. Methods: We conducted a prospective cohort study including consecutive patients diagnosed with an ischemic stroke. Subjects were classified into non-statin, simvastatin 20 mg, simvastatin 40 mg, and high-potency statin groups. We also registered the onset of statin therapy, previous use of statins, the adherence to medication, and if there was discontinuation of the therapy. After two years, the functional outcome, stroke recurrence, major cardiovascular events, and mortality were assessed. Results: Among the 513 patients included in our cohort, there were 96 (18.7%) patients without statins, 169 (32.9%) with simvastatin 20 mg, 202 (39.3%) with simvastatin 40 mg, and 46 (9.0%) with high-potency statins. Patients without statins were at increased risk of stroke recurrence and worse functional outcomes. Concerning etiology, evidence of beneficial use of statins was observed in cases of large-artery atherosclerosis, small-vessel occlusion, and stroke of undetermined cause. Those who presented poor adherence to statins or discontinuation of the treatment had worse prognosis after stroke whereas the early onset of statins use was associated with better outcomes. Patients with simvastatin 40 mg and high-potency statins presented the best functional recovery throughout the follow-up. Conclusions: Statins play an important role in the treatment of ischemic stroke, preventing stroke recurrence and cardiovascular events, and improving functional performance.


RESUMO Introdução: A terapia com estatinas tornou-se um dos avanços mais importantes na prevenção secundária do acidente vascular cerebral (AVC). Objetivo: Fornecer evidências de dados do mundo real para avaliar associações detalhadas entre a prevenção secundária do AVC e o uso de estatinas no Brasil. Métodos: Realizamos um estudo de coorte prospectivo, incluindo pacientes consecutivos com diagnóstico de AVC isquêmico. Os indivíduos foram classificados em grupos sem estatinas, sinvastatina 20 mg, sinvastatina 40 mg e estatina de alta potência. Também registramos o início da terapêutica com estatinas, o uso prévio de estatinas, a adesão à medicação e se houve descontinuação da terapia. Após dois anos, foram avaliados o resultado funcional, a recorrência do AVC, os principais eventos cardiovasculares e a mortalidade. Resultados: Entre os 513 pacientes incluídos em nossa coorte, havia 96 (18,7%) pacientes sem estatinas, 169 (32,9%) com sinvastatina 20 mg, 202 (39,3%) com sinvastatina 40 mg e 46 (9,0%) com estatinas de alta potência. Pacientes sem estatinas apresentaram maior risco de recorrência de AVC e piores resultados funcionais. Em relação à etiologia, foram observadas evidências do benefício das estatinas nos casos de aterosclerose de grandes artérias, oclusão de pequenos vasos e AVC de causa indeterminada. Aqueles com baixa adesão às estatinas ou que interromperam o uso tiveram pior prognóstico após o AVC, enquanto o início precoce do uso de estatinas foi associado a melhores resultados. Pacientes com sinvastatina 40 mg e estatinas de alta potência apresentaram melhor recuperação funcional ao longo do período de acompanhamento. Conclusões: As estatinas desempenham um importante papel no tratamento do AVC isquêmico, prevenindo sua recorrência e eventos cardiovasculares e melhorando o desempenho funcional.


Subject(s)
Humans , Brain Ischemia/prevention & control , Brain Ischemia/drug therapy , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Stroke/prevention & control , Stroke/drug therapy , Brazil , Prospective Studies
7.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 53(11): e8930, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1132486

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to investigate whether the routine administration of escitalopram for three months would improve the prognosis of patients with ischemic stroke and decrease the plasma copeptin level. A total of 97 patients with acute cerebral infarction were randomly allocated to receive escitalopram (5-10 mg once per day, orally; n=49) or not to receive escitalopram (control group; n=48) for 12 weeks starting at 2-7 days after the onset of stroke. Both groups received conventional treatments, including physiotherapy and secondary prevention of stroke. The National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score was used to evaluate the disability of patients at the initial evaluation and at the monthly follow-up visits for three months. Impairment in the daily activities was assessed using the Barthel Index (BI), while cognitive impairment was assessed using Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score. The psychiatric assessment included the administration of the Present State Examination modified to identify Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) symptoms of depression. The severity of depression was measured using the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAMD). During the 3-month follow-up period, 95 patients were included in the analysis (two patients withdrew from the escitalopram group). NIHSS and BI improvement at the 90th day were significantly greater in the escitalopram group (P<0.05), while HAMD and plasma copeptin levels significantly decreased, compared to the control group (P<0.01). In patients with acute ischemic stroke, the earlier administration of escitalopram for three months may improve neurological functional prognosis and decrease copeptin level.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cerebral Infarction/drug therapy , Brain Ischemia , Stroke/prevention & control , Stroke/drug therapy , United States , Citalopram/therapeutic use , Cerebral Infarction/prevention & control , Acute Disease
8.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 113(4): 712-721, Oct. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038571

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Left atrial appendage (LAA) occlusion is an alternative therapy for atrial fibrillation patients who have high embolic risk and contraindications to anticoagulant therapy. Objective: To evaluate the feasibility, safety, and mid-term outcomes of percutaneous LAA occlusion, including device-related thrombosis. Methods: Sixty consecutive patients who had undergone percutaneous LAA occlusion with AMPLATZER™ Amulet™ device from September 2015 to March 2018 were enrolled. Patients were followed for 21 ± 15 months (median - 20 months, interquartile range - 9 to 27 months). The postprocedural assessment was done at the 1(st), 6(th), and 12(th) month. Patients were clinically evaluated, and transesophageal echocardiography was performed at each visit. We evaluated the condition of normality of variables using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. P-values < 0.05 were statistically significant. Results: The most common indication for the procedure was major bleeding with anticoagulants (n: 53, 88.3%). The procedure was completed successfully in 59 (98.3%) patients. Periprocedural mortality was observed in one patient. Postprocedural antiplatelet treatment was planned as dual or single antiplatelet therapy or low-dose anticoagulant therapy in 52 (88.1%), 2 (3.4%), and 5 (8.5%) patients, respectively. We found no clinically significant cerebrovascular events, device-related thrombus, or embolization in any patient during the follow-up. Two (3.4 %) patients presented significant peri-device leak (>3 mm) at the 1st month evaluation, which disappeared at the 12th month follow-up. Conclusion: We concluded that LAA occlusion using the Amulet™ LAA occluder can be performed with high procedural success and acceptable outcomes.


Resumo Fundamento: A oclusão do apêndice atrial esquerdo (AAE) é uma terapia alternativa para pacientes com fibrilação atrial que tenham alto risco embólico e contraindicações à terapia anticoagulante. Objetivo: Avaliar a viabilidade, segurança e resultados de médio prazo da oclusão percutânea do AAE, incluindo a trombose relacionada à prótese. Métodos: Sessenta pacientes consecutivos que foram submetidos à oclusão percutânea do AAE com a prótese AMPLATZER™ Amulet™ de setembro de 2015 a março de 2018 foram incluídos no estudo. Os pacientes foram acompanhados por 21 ± 15 meses (mediana - 20 meses, intervalo interquartílico - 9 a 27 meses). A avaliação pós-procedimento foi feita no 1º, 6º e 12º mês. Os pacientes foram examinados clinicamente e um ecocardiograma transesofágico foi realizado a cada visita. A condição de normalidade das variáveis foi avaliada por meio do teste de Kolmogorov-Smirnov. Os valores de p < 0,05 foram considerados estatisticamente significativos. Resultados: A indicação mais comum para o procedimento foi sangramento significativo com anticoagulantes (n: 53, 88,3%). O procedimento foi concluído com sucesso em 59 (98,3%) pacientes. Mortalidade peri-procedimento ocorreu em um paciente. A tratamento antiplaquetário pós-procedimento foi planejado como terapia antiplaquetária única ou dupla ou terapia anticoagulante de dose baixa em 52 (88,1%), 2 (3,4%) e 5 (8,5%) pacientes, respectivamente. Não foram encontrados eventos cerebrovasculares clinicamente significativos, trombo relacionado à prótese ou embolização nos pacientes durante o seguimento. Dois (3,4%) pacientes apresentaram vazamento peri-prótese significativo (>3 mm) na avaliação do 1º mês, que desapareceu no 12º mês de seguimento. Conclusão: Concluiu-se que a oclusão do AAE com o oclusor de AAE Amulet™ pode ser realizada com grande sucesso e resultados aceitáveis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Atrial Fibrillation/therapy , Cardiac Catheterization/methods , Atrial Appendage/surgery , Septal Occluder Device , Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Echocardiography , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Follow-Up Studies , Treatment Outcome , Echocardiography, Transesophageal , Risk Assessment , Atrial Appendage/diagnostic imaging , Stroke/prevention & control , Hemorrhage/chemically induced , Anticoagulants/adverse effects
9.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 77(10): 731-740, Oct. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038732

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The treatment of cryptogenic stroke patients with a patent foramen ovale (PFO) is controversial. A critical review of these studies is presented. Methods A description of all trials comparing medical and endovascular treatment with closing devices is given. Additional pertinent studies are discussed to help construct a rational basis for treatment decisions. Results Initial negative trials evaluating PFO closure were followed by positive studies published in 2017 and 2018. All trials evaluated young patients (up to 60 years). Methodological problems are present in all trials including their open label construction. Most positive trials developed strategies to increase the percentage of patients with interatrial septal aneurysms or hypermobility and large right-to-left shunts. Even in these positive trials, large numbers of patients need to be treated to avoid one stroke. Atrial fibrillation occurred in 2-6% and other adverse effects related to the procedure and to the devices occurred in a substantial number of patients. Incomplete occlusion of the PFO is also frequent. Anticoagulant treatment has not been adequately studied as a therapeutic option. Conclusion Young patients with cryptogenic strokes seem to benefit from endovascular closure of a PFO in the presence of a large right-to-left shunt or an associated atrial septum aneurysm. For most other patients, a highly-individualized decision must be made, taking into account the low risk of recurrence in patients with a cryptogenic stroke attributable to a PFO, the high numbers needed to treat and the risks related to the procedure.


RESUMO O tratamento de pacientes com infarto cerebral criptogênico e forame oval patente (FOP) é controverso. Uma revisão crítica destes estudos é apresentada. Métodos São descritos em detalhes os estudos comparando tratamento médico com o uso de próteses de oclusão do FOP após infarto cerebral. Discutem-se outros estudos pertinentes para ajudar na tomada racional de decisões terapêuticas individualizadas. Resultados Estudos iniciais avaliando fechamento endovascular com próteses foram negativos, porém seguidos de outros estudos com resultados positivos em 2017 e 2018. Somente pacientes até 60 anos foram estudados. Os estudos apresentam vários problemas metodológicos, incluindo sua natureza aberta. A maioria dos estudos positivos desenvolveu estratégias para aumentar o percentual de pacientes com risco aumentado de recorrência, especificamente grandes shunts direita-esquerda e aneurismas/hipermobilidade do septo interatrial. Mesmo estes estudos positivos revelaram um alto NNT (número de pacientes tratados para evitar um evento de desfecho). Fibrilação atrial ocorreu em 2-6 % dos pacientes tratados. Outras complicações relacionadas ao procedimento e às endopróteses e ainda fechamento incompleto do FOP foram também frequentes. Anticoagulantes poderiam constituir estratégia alternativa de tratamento clínico, mas não foram adequadamente estudados. Conclusão Pacientes jovens com infartos criptogênicos parecem beneficiar-se de oclusão endovascular do FOP na presença de grandes shunts e principalmente aneurismas ou hipermobilidade de septo interatrial. Para a maioria dos outros pacientes, uma decisão altamente individualizada deve ser tomada, considerando o baixo risco de recorrência dos infartos atribuíveis ao FOP, o ato NNT e os riscos inerentes ao procedimento.


Subject(s)
Humans , Stroke/prevention & control , Foramen Ovale, Patent/surgery , Endovascular Procedures/methods , Risk Factors , Clinical Trials as Topic , Treatment Outcome , Vascular Closure Devices , Heart Aneurysm/prevention & control
12.
Int. j. odontostomatol. (Print) ; 13(1): 75-81, mar. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-990068

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Carotid stenosis usually results from the accumulation of atherosclerotic plaque in the carotid artery wall and is an important risk factor for ischemic cerebral vascular accident (CVA). This study describes the importance of diagnostic imaging exams used in dentistry for the early identification of atheroma plaques in the extracranial and intracranial internal carotid artery. A male patient was referred to a radiology clinic to perform panoramic radiography (PR) and a cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) to develop treatment plan options. In the PR and CBCT a radiopaque image, suggestive of atheroma in the extracranial internal carotid artery, was observed on the right side. The diagnosis was confirmed by color DOPPLER ultrasonography. In the CBCT, the presence of calcifications in the intracranial internal carotid artery was also observed. Diagnostic imaging exams used in dentistry allow the identification of asymptomatic individuals, facilitating early intervention and consequent reduction in the risk of ischemic CVA.


RESUMEN: La estenosis carotídea generalmente es consecuencia de la acumulación de placa aterosclerótica en la pared de la arteria carótida y es un factor de riesgo importante para el accidente cerebral vascular (ACV) isquémico. Este estudio describe la importancia de los exámenes de diagnóstico por imágenes utilizados en odontología para la identificación precoz de placas de ateroma en la arteria carótida interna, a nivel extracraneal e intracraneal. Un paciente masculino fue remitido a una clínica de radiología para realizar una radiografía panorámica (RP) y tomografía computarizada de haz cónico (TCHC) para analizar opciones de tratamiento. En el RP y TCHC se observó una imagen radiopaca, sugestiva de ateroma en la arteria carótida, extracraneal, en el lado derecho. El diagnóstico fue confirmado por ultrasonido DOPPLER color carotídeo. En el TCHC, también se observó la presencia de calcificaciones en la arteria carótida interna, intracraneal. Los exámenes de imagenología diagnóstica utilizados en odontología permiten la identificación de individuos asintomáticos, lo que facilita la intervención temprana y la consiguiente reducción en el riesgo de ACV isquémico.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Radiography, Panoramic , Carotid Arteries/diagnostic imaging , Cone-Beam Computed Tomography , Plaque, Atherosclerotic/diagnostic imaging , Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color , Stroke/prevention & control , Early Diagnosis
13.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 77(2): 80-83, Feb. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-983886

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objectives: To compare warfarin and dabigatran for thromboembolic event prevention in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation or atrial flutter. Methods: This was a retrospective cohort of participants with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation or atrial flutter using either warfarin or dabigatran in a reference center in Brazil. Results: There were 112 patients (mean age 65.5 years), with 55.3% using warfarin. The median duration of follow-up was 1.9 years for warfarin and 1.6 years for dabigatran (p = 0.167). Warfarin patients had a higher median of medical appointments per year (8.3 [6.8-10.4] vs 3.1 [2.3-4.2], p < 0.001) and the frequency of minor bleeding was more than four times higher (17.7% vs 4.0%, p = 0.035). Among patients with prior stroke, those using warfarin had 2.6 times more medical appointments for person-years of follow-up (8.5 vs 3.3). There was no major bleeding or embolic event during follow-up period. Conclusion: The dabigatran group had a lower frequency of minor bleeding and number of medical appointments than the warfarin group, without more embolic events or major bleeding.


RESUMO Objetivos: Comparar varfarina e dabigatrana para prevenção de eventos tromboembólicos em pacientes com fibrilação atrial não valvar ou flutter (FA). Métodos: Coorte retrospectiva de pacientes com FA em uso de varfarina ou dabigatrana em serviço especializado no Brasil. Resultados: Foram avaliados 112 pacientes (média idade 65,5), com 55,3% no grupo varfarina. A mediana do tempo de seguimento foi de 1,9 anos para o grupo varfarina e 1,6 para dabigatrana (p = 0,167). No grupo varfarina houve maior mediana de consultas médicas (CM) por ano (8,3[6,8-10,4] vs. 3,1[2,3-4,2], p < 0,001), com frequência de sangramento menor quatro vezes maior (17,7% vs. 4,0%, p = 0,035). Nos pacientes com acidente vascular cerebral isquêmico prévio, o grupo varfarina teve 2,6 vezes mais CM por pessoas-ano de seguimento (8,5 vs. 3,3). Não houve sangramento maior ou eventos embólicos no período de seguimento. Conclusão: Pacientes em uso de dabigatrana tiveram menor número de sangramento menor e CM que aqueles em uso de varfarina, sem aumentar eventos embólicos ou sangramentos maiores.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Atrial Fibrillation/prevention & control , Atrial Flutter/prevention & control , Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Warfarin/therapeutic use , Dabigatran/therapeutic use , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Atrial Fibrillation/complications , Atrial Flutter/complications , Thromboembolism/etiology , Brazil , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Follow-Up Studies , Treatment Outcome , Statistics, Nonparametric , Stroke/etiology , Stroke/prevention & control , Ambulatory Care Facilities , Hemorrhage/prevention & control , Anti-Arrhythmia Agents/therapeutic use
16.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 76(12): 849-852, Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-983862

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Neurological disorders account for the most Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALY's) -of the Global Burden of Disease (10%). More than half of neurological DALY's result from the combination of stroke (42%) and dementia (10%). The two pose risk for each other and share the same predisposing factors. A stroke doubles the risk of dementia. The close interactions call for convergent approaches. Stroke and dementia also converge at the microscopic level. The neurovascular unit has emerged as a key organizational structure of the brain. Involvement of any of its elements affects all the others. Thus, neurodegeneration impairs the microcirculation and disturbances of the microcirculation accelerate neurodegeneration. Evolving technologies allow "in vivo" imaging of the usual mixture of vascular and neurodegenerative pathology of the elderly that makes them prone to stroke and dementia. Since they occur together, they should be prevented together with a multimodal approach of lifestyle changes and mechanistic therapeutic targets. The two fields are also converging at the policy level. The World Stroke Organization has updated its Proclamation to include potentially preventable dementias that has been endorsed by Alzheimer Disease International, The World Federation of Neurology, the American Academy of Neurology and 20 international, regional and national organizations. Those interested in stroke and those dealing with dementia should work together where they can, differ where they must, with the common aim of preventing jointly, both stroke and dementia.


RESUMO As doenças neurológicas são responsáveis pela maior parte dos Anos de Vida Ajustados por Incapacidade (DALY's) segundo o Estudo da Carga Global de Doença (10%). Mais da metade dos DALY's de origem neurológica resultam da combinação de acidente vascular cerebral-AVC (42%) e demência (10%). Estas duas condições representam risco uma para a outra e compartilham dos mesmos fatores predisponentes. Um AVC quase triplica o risco de demência. Esta grande interação demanda abordagens convergentes. AVC e demência também convergem em nível microscópico. A unidade neurovascular emergiu como estrutura de organização chave da saúde do cérebro. O envolvimento de qualquer um dos seus elementos afeta todos os outros. Desse modo, a neurodegeneração compromete a microcirculação, enquanto distúrbios da microcirculação aceleram a neurodegeneração. Novas tecnologias permitem a obtenção de imagens "in vivo" da combinação usual entre patologia vascular e neurodegenerativa de idosos, que os torna vulneráveis ao AVC e à demência. Como estas duas condições ocorrem associadas, devem ser prevenidas em conjunto, com uma abordagem multimodal que conjugue mudanças de hábitos de vida e alvos terapêuticos mecanísticos. Estes dois campos também estão convergindo no campo das políticas de saúde. A Organização Mundial do AVC atualizou sua Proclamação de modo a incluir demências potencialmente passíveis de prevenção, que foi endossada pela Associação Internacional da Doença de Alzheimer, pela Federação Mundial de Neurologia, pela Academia Americana de Neurologia, e por 20 outras organizações internacionais, regionais e nacionais. Os colegas interessados em AVC e aqueles que lidam com demência devem trabalhar juntos onde puderem, diferindo onde devem, com o objetivo comum da prevenção conjunta tanto do AVC quanto da demência.


Subject(s)
Humans , Stroke/complications , Dementia/complications , Risk Factors , Stroke/prevention & control , Dementia/prevention & control
17.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 136(5): 398-406, Sept.-Oct. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-979375

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Secondary prevention of stroke is a very important goal for achieving continuous reduction in stroke mortality rates over the next decades. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional analysis on the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health ­(ELSA-Brasil), with data from Salvador, Vitória, Belo Horizonte, Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo and Porto Alegre. METHODS: This descriptive analysis focused on secondary prevention of stroke among participants who self-reported a medical diagnosis of stroke at the baseline of ELSA-Brasil, and its association with sociodemographic characteristics. RESULTS: Overall, 197 participants (1.3%) reported a prior medical history of stroke. Participants with stroke were older and less educated and had lower mean monthly family income, compared with non-stroke participants. Among all stroke cases, 23.7% did not use any medication for secondary prevention of stroke. Use of secondary prevention was higher among men than among women (respectively, 59.6% versus 40.4%; P = 0.02 for aspirin; and 71.4% versus 28.6%; P = 0.04 for other antiplatelet drugs). Having private health insurance was associated with greater use of less cost-effective and more expensive medications (like angiotensinogen receptor blockers) and a tendency to use antiplatelet drugs other than aspirin, among participants reporting stroke, compared with others. Use of medication decreased as time passed after suffering a stroke. CONCLUSIONS: In this sample of individuals with better access to healthcare services, use of secondary prevention for stroke was low, which may suggest that the situation in the general population is worse. Sex was the most important sociodemographic variable associated with low use of secondary prevention.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Stroke/prevention & control , Stroke/epidemiology , Secondary Prevention/statistics & numerical data , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Analysis of Variance , Longitudinal Studies , Sex Distribution , Statistics, Nonparametric , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Stroke/drug therapy , Self Report , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use
18.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 33(5): 511-521, Sept.-Oct. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-977455

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: We aimed to analyze whether patent foramen ovale (PFO) closure reduces the risk of stroke, assessing also some safety outcomes after the publication of a new trial. Introduction: The clinical benefit of closing a PFO has been an open question, so it is necessary to review the current state of published medical data in regards to this subject. Methods: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL/CCTR, SciELO, LILACS, Google Scholar and reference lists of relevant articles were used to search for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that reported any of the following outcomes: stroke, death, major bleeding or atrial fibrillation. Six studies fulfilled our eligibility criteria and included 3560 patients (1889 for PFO closure and 1671 for medical therapy. Results: The risk ration (RR) for stroke in the "closure" group compared with the "medical therapy" showed a statistically significant difference between the groups, favouring the "closure" group (RR 0.366; 95%CI 0.171-0.782, P=0.010). There was no statistically significant difference between the groups regarding the safety outcomes, death and major bleeding, but we observed an increase in the risk of atrial fibrillation in the "closure" group (RR 4.131; 95%CI 2.293-7.443, P<0.001). We also observed that the larger the proportion of effective closure, the lower the risk of stroke. Conclusion: This meta-analysis found that stroke rates are lower with percutaneously implanted device closure than with medical therapy alone, being these rates modulated by the rates of hypertension, atrial septal aneurysm and effective closure. The publication of a new trial did not change the scenario in the medical literature.


Subject(s)
Humans , Stroke/prevention & control , Foramen Ovale, Patent/surgery , Clinical Trials as Topic , Risk Assessment , Stroke/etiology , Foramen Ovale, Patent/complications
19.
Acta fisiátrica ; 25(3)set. 2018.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-999736

ABSTRACT

Níveis de testosterona sérica já foram relacionados a piora de fatores hematológicos, função e envelhecimento vascular, contribuindo potencialmente para formação de trombos. Com o envelhecimento, dados epidemiológicos mostram declínio dos níveis de testosterona, prejuízo da função vascular e aumento das incidências de doenças vasculares, como o AVE. Objetivo: Descrever estudos que abordaram a potencial relação dos níveis de testosterona com a prevenção, apresentação clínica e prognóstico do AVE. Métodos: Uma pesquisa e seleção de artigos foi conduzida em três diferentes bases de dados (MEDLINE, SCIELO, LILACS) utilizando termos relacionados a testosterona e AVE (inglês e português), filtrada para estudos em humanos. Apenas estudos que abordaram algum aspecto da relação entre testosterona e AVE foram incluídos para discussão no presente estudo. Resultados: A busca resultou em 12 estudos relevantes para análise e discussão (7 observacionais, 3 transversais, 2 experimentais). Estudos observacionais verificaram um papel protetor da testosterona na incidência de AVE. Estudos transversais verificaram alterações endocrinológicas, como o hipogonadismo, na fase aguda do AVE, bem como melhor apresentação clínica (gravidade, tamanho da lesão). Estudos experimentais controlados verificaram benefícios clínicos e funcionais da suplementação de testosterona em pacientes em reabilitação. Conclusão: Apesar dos potenciais diversos benefícios destacados de níveis mais altos de testosterona no AVE, mais estudos que abordem de forma sistematizada o papel da testosterona em aspectos preventivos, de apresentação clínica, e de reabilitação e prognóstico serão bem vindos, para melhor manejo e otimização do tratamento do AVE.


Serum testosterone levels have already been related to endothelial function, vascular aging and hemathological factors, possibly contributing to thrombus formation. As aging progresses, epidemiological data shows declining testosterone levels, impaired vascular function and an increasing incidence of vascular diseases like stroke. Objective: The aim of present paper is to describe studies with a possible relation of testosterone levels with stroke prevention, clinical presentation, and prognosis. Methods: A research and selection of articles, filtering for humans studies only, was conducted in three different eletronic scientific databases, (MEDLINE, SCIELO, LILACS), using related and registered terms (english and portuguese) about "stroke" and "testosterone". Only studies that encompasses the role of testosterone in stroke and its different clinical aspects were included in the present review. Results: The search retrieved 12 relevant studies for analysis and discussion relating testosterone and stroke (7 observational, 3 cross sectional, 2 experimental). Observational studies verified a preventive role of testosterone levels on stroke incidence, cross-sectional studies verified endocrinologial alterations like hypogonadism on acute stroke phase and better clinical presentation (severity, brain lesion size). Experimental controled studies observed clinical benefits of testosterone supplementation in rehabilitation patients. Conclusion: Despite the potential benefits of higher levels of testosterne in stroke spectrum, more studies that systematically aproach the role of testosterone in stroke prevention, severity, clinical features, prognosis, rehabilitation and mortality will be welcome to better elaborate future medical management and otimization in stroke spectrum.


Subject(s)
Humans , Testosterone/blood , Stroke/prevention & control , Rehabilitation , Androgens
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