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1.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(1): 25-33, Jan.-Feb. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1153055

ABSTRACT

The present study provides the first evaluation of the endoparasite profile in dairy cattle from the microregion of São João del-Rei, Minas Gerais, Brazil, including seasonal variations in parasitic infections. Fecal samples were collected directly from rectum of 123 dairy cows and 160 calves on 15 farms. These were kept in insulated boxes and sent for immediate analysis. Using eggs per gram of feces (EPG) we found the following prevalences: Strongyloidea 43.5%, Moniezia sp. 7.6% and both Strongyloides sp. and Trichuris spp. 2.2%, in dairy cows. In calves, the prevalence was Strongyloidea 50.9%, Moniezia sp. 5.6% and Strongyloides sp. 1.9%. The third-stage larvae recovered from coprocultures from cows and calves consisted mainly of Cooperia spp., Haemonchus spp. and Ostertagia spp. EPG counts were significantly higher in calves. Regarding seasonality, the EPG counts and prevalence of Moniezia sp. tended to be higher in the dry period, whereas those of Strongyloidea were higher in the rainy season. Evidence suggests that parasite control and prophylaxis were inadequately managed on the farms studied here. The present parasitological profile correlates with those found by other similar studies, indicating that the main problem is still the inadequate management of parasite control and prophylaxis by farmers.(AU)


O presente estudo representa a primeira avaliação do perfil de endoparasitos em bovinos leiteiros da microrregião de São João del-Rei, Minas Gerais, Brasil, e das variações sazonais das infecções parasitárias. Foram avaliadas amostras fecais de 123 vacas e 160 bezerros de 15 propriedades rurais, coletadas diretamente do reto, mantidas em caixas térmicas isoladas e analisadas imediatamente. A contagem de ovos por grama de fezes (OPG) revelou prevalências de 43,5% de Strongyloidea, 7,6% de Moniezia sp. e 2,2% de Strongyloides sp. e Trichuris spp. em vacas leiteiras. As prevalências de OPG em bezerros foram 50,9% de Strongyloidea, 5,6% de Moniezia sp. e 1,9% de Strongyloides sp. As larvas do terceiro estádio recuperadas de coproculturas de vacas e bezerros foram principalmente de Cooperia spp., Haemonchus spp. e Ostertagia spp. OPG dos parasitos foram significativamente maiores em bezerros. Em relação à sazonalidade, OPG e a prevalência de Moniezia sp. tenderam a ser maiores durante a estação seca, enquanto OPG de Strongyloidea foram maiores na estação chuvosa. Com base nos resultados, é possível concluir que o manejo antiparasitário nas propriedades estudadas não é realizado de maneira plenamente satisfatória. O presente perfil parasitológico se assemelha a outros encontrados em estudos semelhantes, indicando que o maior problema ainda é o manejo antiparasitário inadequado realizado nas propriedades de bovinos leiteiros.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Cattle , Parasitic Diseases, Animal/parasitology , Strongyloidea/isolation & purification , Strongyloides/isolation & purification , Trichuris/isolation & purification , Haemonchus/isolation & purification , Anthelmintics/therapeutic use , Brazil/epidemiology , Dry Season , Rainy Season
2.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(2): e10462, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153510

ABSTRACT

Infections caused by uncommon and resistant pathogens in unusual sites have been increasingly reported in medical literature. We describe four cases of rare cytological findings and clinical impact for patients. In the first case, Aspergillus sp and Pneumocystis jirovecii were observed in the bronchoalveolar lavage of a patient with severe systemic lupus. In the second and third cases, we describe the presence of Trichomonas sp and Strongyloides sp larvae in samples of pleural and peritoneal fluid, respectively. The fourth report is about a patient with a wrist subcutaneous nodule whose synovial aspiration and cytology revealed the presence of brown septate hyphae. The early identification of the infectious agent in the cytological examination was essential for the introduction and/or re-adaptation of therapy in the four cases described. Patients in this report were immunocompromised with severe comorbidities, conditions often associated with unfavorable clinical outcomes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Communicable Diseases/diagnosis , Cytodiagnosis/methods , Pleural Effusion/parasitology , Aspergillus/isolation & purification , Strongyloides/isolation & purification , Strongyloidiasis/diagnosis , Trichomonas/isolation & purification , Trichomonas Infections/diagnosis , Ascitic Fluid/parasitology , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/microbiology , Fatal Outcome , Pneumocystis carinii/isolation & purification
3.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 40(10): 739-749, Oct. 2020. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1143406

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to analyze the parasites infesting pigs and their producers on family farms in Tanguá, RJ, Brazil, and to conduct extension activities between 2018 and 2019. Fecal samples were collected from 132 pigs, as well as, skin scrapings from the ears of 125 animals. In addition, 36 stool specimens from farmers and their families were analyzed. The collected material was processed by direct examination, sedimentation and flotation techniques. Gastrointestinal parasites were detected in 88.6% of the pigs, especially coccidia (71.8%), Balantioides coli (55%), strongyles (40.2%) and Strongyloides ransomi (31.6%) which showed statistically significance (p<0.05). Ectoparasites were identified in 16% of the pigs, mostly Sarcoptes scabiei var. suis (76.2%). Parasites were detected in 19.4% of the humans, including, Entamoeba coli (19.4%), Ascaris lumbricoides (8.3%) and Trichuris trichiura (5.5%). The frequency of B. coli and S. scabiei var. suis (p<0.05) were statistically significant, when analyzing the age group of the animals, having been more detected in the older years, fatterners phase. The pig farmers participated in these activities extension, which included lecture and "field day", aimed at imparting information about parasites and their prophylaxis. The situation in Tanguá pig farms reinforces the need to carry out programs that provide technical support to these farmers, whose livelihood depends on pig farming.(AU)


Este estudo objetivou analisar os parasitos que infectam suínos e seus produtores em propriedades familiares em Tanguá, RJ, Brasil, realizando atividades extensionistas entre 2018 e 2019. Amostras fecais foram coletadas de 132 suínos, bem como raspados da pele da orelha de 125 animais. Além disso, 36 amostras fecais dos produtores e seus familiares foram analisadas. O material coletado foi processado pelo exame direto e por técnicas de sedimentação e flutuação. Parasitos gastrointestinais foram detectados em 88,6% dos suínos, principalmente coccídios (71,8%), Balantioides coli (55%), estrôngilos (40,2%) e Strongyloides ransomi (31,6%) que apresentaram significância estatística (p<0,05). Ectoparasitos foram identificados em 16% dos suínos, principalmente Sarcoptes scabiei var. suis (76,2%). Parasitos foram detectados em 19,4% das amostras fecais humanas, incluindo Entamoeba coli (19,4%), Ascaris lumbricoides (8,3%) e Trichuris trichiura (5,5%). A frequência de B. coli e S. scabiei var. suis foi estatisticamente significativa (p<0,05), quando se analisou os animais por faixa etária, tendo sido principalmente detectado nos animais mais velhos, como na fase de terminação. Os produtores de suínos participaram ativamente das atividades de extensão, incluído a palestra e a atividade "dia de campo", que tinham como objetivo mediar informações sobre parasitos e suas medidas profiláticas. A situação nas granjas familiares de Tanguá demonstra a necessidade de realização de programas que apoiem tecnicamente esses produtores, que utilizam a suinocultura como fonte de subsistência.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Strongyloides/isolation & purification , Balantidium/isolation & purification , Coccidia/isolation & purification , Sus scrofa/parasitology , Swine Diseases/epidemiology , Zoonoses , Animal Husbandry/education
4.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 28(3): 443-450, July-Sept. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042526

ABSTRACT

Abstract Diseases related to the alimentary system are the main cause of death in horses. This retrospective study aimed to describe the pathological findings of fatal parasite-induced enteritis and typhlocolitis caused by cyathostominae, Eimeria leuckarti, Balantidium coli, and Strongyloides westeri in horses. The records of parasite-induced intestinal lesions in horses necropsied in Southern Brazil between 2005 and 2017 were reviewed. Ten horses had fatal parasitic enteritis and/or typhlocolitis, and the main causes were: cyathostominae typhlocolitis (6/10), E. leuckarti enteritis (1/10), S. westeri enteritis (1/10), B. coli colitis related to cyathostominae (1/10), and infection by multiple agents (1/10). Cyathostominae typhlocolitis showed marked mucosal thickening, with multifocal elevated nodules containing tangled filiform parasites. Microscopic examination revealed that the mucosa and submucosa had encysted parasitic structures surrounded by eosinophilic and granulomatous inflammation. E. leuckarti enteritis was microscopically characterized by macrogamonts, microgamonts, and oocysts inside the host cells. S. westeri enteritis showed microscopic atrophy of the villi with numerous mucosal encysted parasitic structures. B. coli typhlocolitis showed severe diffuse mucosal reddening, with microscopic superficial mucosal necrosis associated with multiple protozoan trophozoites. Fatal parasite-induced enteritis and typhlocolitis are important causes of death in horses in Southern Brazil.


Resumo Doenças relacionadas ao sistema alimentar são as principais causas de morte em equinos. Esse estudo teve o objetivo de descrever aspectos patológicos de enterites e tiflocolites parasitárias fatais por ciatostomíneos, Eimeria leuckarti, Balantidium coli e Strongyloides westeri, em equinos. Foi revisado o banco de dados de lesões intestinais parasitárias em equinos necropsiados de 2005 a 2017, no Sul do Brasil. Dez equinos apresentaram enterite e/ou tiflocolite parasitária fatal, e as principais foram: tiflocolite por ciatostomíneos (6/10), enterite por E. leuckarti (1/10), enterite por S. westeri (1/10), colite por B. coli com ciatostomíneos (1/10), e infecção por múltiplos agentes (1/10). A tiflocolite por ciatostomíneos exibia acentuado espessamento da mucosa, com nódulos multifocais elevados contendo parasitas filiformes. Microscopicamente, a mucosa e submucosa apresentavam estruturas parasitárias encistadas envoltas por inflamação eosinofílica e granulomatosa. A enterite por E. leuckarti era caracterizada microscopicamente por macrogamontes, microgamontes e oocistos no interior de células do hospedeiro. Microscopicamente, a enterite por S. westeri apresentava atrofia de vilosidades com numerosas estruturas parasitárias encistadas na mucosa. A tiflocolite por B. coli exibia avermelhamento acentuado difuso da mucosa, e microscopicamente necrose superficial associada a múltiplos trofozoítos protozoáricos. Enterites e tiflocolites fatais parasitárias são importantes causas de morte em equinos no Sul do Brasil.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Strongyloides/isolation & purification , Balantidium/isolation & purification , Colitis/parasitology , Eimeria/isolation & purification , Enteritis/parasitology , Typhlitis/parasitology , Horse Diseases/parasitology , Seasons , Retrospective Studies , Colitis/mortality , Enteritis/mortality , Typhlitis/mortality , Feces/parasitology , Horse Diseases/mortality , Horses
5.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 51(4): 493-502, July-Aug. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-957450

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Strongyloides stercoralis is an intestinal parasitic nematode that causes hyperinfection and/or a dissemination syndrome in hosts, which is often difficult to diagnose. This study aims to compare the diagnostic efficacy of four conventional methods used to diagnose strongyloidiasis with real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) to detect S. stercoralis in fecal samples. METHODS: We analyzed 143 fecal samples collected from Colombian regions with varying degrees of risk for intestinal infections caused by S. stercoralis to assess the validity, performance, overall efficiency, and concordance of the qPCR using a direct stool test, modified Ritchie concentration technique, agar plate culture, and Harada-Mori technique as reference tests. RESULTS While four fecal samples were positive for S. stercoralis using conventional methods, 32 were positive via qPCR. The diagnostic sensitivity of the qPCR was 75% [95% confidence interval (CI): 20.07-100%], whereas its specificity, negative predictive value, negative likelihood ratio, and Youden's J index were 78.42% (95% CI: 71.22-85.62%), 99.09% (95% CI: 96.86-100%), 0.32 (95% CI: 0.06-1.74), and 0.53, respectively. In addition, the estimated kappa index between the qPCR and the conventional methods was 0.12 (95% CI: -0.020-0.26). CONCLUSIONS: The diagnostic sensitivity of qPCR to detect strongyloidiasis is analogous to that of conventional parasitology methods, with an additional advantage of being capable of identifying the parasite DNA at low sample concentrations.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Strongyloides/genetics , Strongyloidiasis/diagnosis , RNA, Ribosomal, 18S/genetics , RNA, Protozoan/genetics , Feces/parasitology , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Strongyloides/isolation & purification , Sensitivity and Specificity , Middle Aged
6.
Braz. j. biol ; 76(4): 884-887, Oct.-Dec. 2016. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-828101

ABSTRACT

Abstract The present study reports the first case of the presence of the intestinal nematode Strongyloides sp. in fecal examinations of a male Lutreolina crassicaudata, considered a synanthropic marsupial species with zoonotic potential. The Willis technique was used for the diagnosis. Presence of typical eggs of Strongyloides species in feces was detected. A fecal culture was performed to obtain larval stages, free-living adults and infective third stage larvae (L3) of this nematode after seven days, which was morphologically identified as Strongyloididae. This is the first report of infection by Strongyloides sp. in a tick-tailed opossum from Brazil.


Resumo O presente estudo relata o primeiro registro da presença do nematódeo intestinal Strongyloides sp. em exames de fezes de um macho de Lutreolina crassicaudata, considerado um marsupial sinantrópico com potencial zoonótico. A técnica de Willis foi empregada no diagnóstico. Presença de ovos típicos de Strongyloides spp. foi detectada nas fezes. Uma coprocultura foi realizada para obtenção de estágios larvais, adultos de vida livre e larvas infectantes de terceiro estágio (L3) deste nematódeo após sete dias, os quais foram identificados morfologicamente como Strongyloididae. Este é o primeiro relato de infecção por Strongyloides sp. em uma cuíca de cauda grossa do Brasil.


Subject(s)
Animals , Opossums/parasitology , Parasitic Diseases, Animal/parasitology , Strongyloides/isolation & purification , Strongyloidiasis/veterinary , Brazil , Feces/parasitology , Larva
7.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 34(1): 39-45, jan. 2014. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-707110

ABSTRACT

The present survey was carried out at Zoology Laboratory, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, and Animal Parasitology Sector, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro, Rio de Janeiro state, from 2011 to 2012. The aim was to test in vitro and in vivo the effectiveness of the medicinal plant Chenopodium ambrosioides Linnaeus, 1786 (santa maria herb) regarding phytotherapeutic and homeopathic alternative methods to control endoparasites of Gallus gallus Linnaeus, 1758 (free range chicken), a serious problem affecting domestic poultry performance causing losses, retarded development, decreased food conversion rate and increase of susceptibility to infectious diseases. In vitro essay demonstrated high reduction rate on eggs eclosion inhibition (97.18%), and in vivo essay showed high fecal eggs counting reduction rate (91.67%). Presence of the genera Ascaridia (35.00%), Capillaria (30.00%), Heterakis (25.00%) and Strongyloides (10.00%) was displayed by this survey. The plant C. ambrosioides showed upper rates front traditional products (Thiabendalol/Mebendazol) as well as to those ones advocated by the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture and the World Health Organization as effective.


A pesquisa foi desenvolvida no Laboratório de Zoologia da Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro e Setor de Parasitologia Animal da Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro, estado do Rio de Janeiro, no período de 2011 a 2012. O objetivo foi testar in vitro e in vivo a eficácia da planta medicinal Chenopodium ambrosioides Linnaeus, 1786 (erva-de-santa-maria), nas formas fitoterápica e homeopática, como meios alternativos para o controle de endoparasitos de Gallus gallus Linnaeus, 1758 (galinha caipira), um sério problema que afeta a criação e desempenho de aves domésticas, ocasionando morte quando muito intenso, retardo de crescimento, redução do índice de conversão alimentar e aumento na suscetibilidade às doenças infecciosas. As metodologias utilizadas foram preconizadas por Coles et al. (1992), creditada pela World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP). O ensaio in vitro demonstrou alta taxa de redução na inibição de eclosão de ovos (97,18%), e o ensaio in vivo, elevada taxa na redução da contagem de ovos nas fezes (91,67%). A pesquisa evidenciou a presença dos gêneros Ascaridia (35,00%), Capillaria (30,00%), Heterakis (25,00%) e Strongyloides (10,00%). C. ambrosioides mostrou em certos momentos superioridade frente ao produto tradicional (Thiabendazole/Mebendazole) e índices superiores aos preconizados pelo Ministério da Agricultura do Brasil e Organização Mundial da Saúde como indicativos de eficácia.


Subject(s)
Animals , Chenopodium ambrosioides/parasitology , Phytotherapy/veterinary , Chickens/parasitology , Ascaridia/isolation & purification , Capillaria/isolation & purification , Strongyloides/isolation & purification
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-7391

ABSTRACT

Surveys on helminthic fauna of the nutria, Myocastor coypus, have seldom been performed in the Republic of Korea. In the present study, we describe Strongyloides myopotami (Secernentea: Strongyloididae) recovered from the small intestine of feral nutrias. Total 10 adult nutrias were captured in a wetland area in Gimhae-si (City), Gyeongsangnam-do (Province) in April 2013. They were transported to our laboratory, euthanized with ether, and necropsied. About 1,300 nematode specimens were recovered from 10 nutrias, and some of them were morphologically observed by light and scanning electron microscopies. They were 3.7-4.7 (4.0+/-0.36) mm in length, 0.03-0.04 (0.033) mm in width. The worm dimension and other morphological characters, including prominent lips of the vulva, blunted conical tail, straight type of the ovary, and 8-chambered stoma, were all consistent with S. myopotami. This nematode fauna is reported for the first time in Korea.


Subject(s)
Animals , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Rodent Diseases/epidemiology , Rodentia , Strongyloides/isolation & purification , Strongyloidiasis/epidemiology
9.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 21(3): 249-253, July-Sept. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-653713

ABSTRACT

Solid and liquid wastes from livestock operations represent important challenges for animal production regarding their impact in the environment and public health. Parasitological tests performed on 80 samples of affluent and effluent waters from three anaerobic biodigestors with flexible structure from swine farms of Caldas - Colombia, showed the presence of Isospora suis (45%), Eimeria suis (42.5%), E. espinosa (35%), Strongyloides ransomi (28.8%), E. perminuta (12.5%), E. cerdonis (3.8%), and E. porci (2.5%). The additional finding of eggs of Taenia spp. in 10% of the samples was probably caused by a connection between the human sewage system and the biodigester. Although we observed a mean decrease of 65.6% of parasites, these levels were insufficient to meet the minimum requirement set by Engelberg's guidelines regarding water quality. This study demonstrates the serious environmental impact that an inadequately treated animal wastewater represents, and has important implications for water resources and human health.


Resíduos sólidos e líquidos oriundos da suinocultura representam desafios importantes para a produção animal no que diz respeito ao impacto do meio ambiente e em saúde pública. Testes parasitológicos foram realizados em 80 amostras de águas afluentes e efluentes de três biodigestores anaeróbicos com estrutura flexível em granjas de Caldas - Colômbia, demonstrando a presença de Isospora suis (45%), Eimeria suis (42,5%), E. espinosa (35%), Strongyloides ransomi (28,8%), E. perminuta (12,5%), E. cerdonis (3,8%) e E. porci (2,5%). A constatação adicional de ovos de Taenia spp. em 10% das amostras foi provavelmente causada pela conexão entre o sistema de esgoto humano e o biodigestor. Embora fosse observada uma diminuição média de 65,6% dos parasitas, estes níveis são insuficientes para atender ao requisito mínimo estabelecido pelas diretrizes Engelberg em relação à qualidade da água. Este estudo demonstra o grave impacto ambiental que águas residuais animais inadequadamente tratadas representam, bem como as implicações nos recursos hídricos e na saúde humana.


Subject(s)
Animals , Animal Husbandry , Eimeria/isolation & purification , Isospora/isolation & purification , Sewage/parasitology , Strongyloides/isolation & purification , Taenia/isolation & purification , Anaerobiosis , Intestines/parasitology , Swine , Stomach/parasitology
11.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 105(1): 57-61, Feb. 2010. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-539296

ABSTRACT

More sensitive methodologies are necessary to improve strongyloidiasis diagnosis. This study compared the sensitivities of the McMaster modified technique and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays, both performed in faecal samples. Lewis rats were subcutaneously infected with 4,000, 400 or 40 infective third-stage larvae, considered as high, moderate or low infection, respectively. Seven days later, they were euthanized to count adult nematodes recovered from the small intestine. Stool samples were used to count the number of eggs per gram (EPG) of faeces and to detect parasite DNA by PCR performed with a species and a genus primer pair. The sensitivity of these assays depended upon parasite burden and the primer specificity. All assays presented 100 percent sensitivity at the highest parasite load. In the moderate infection, EPG and PCR with the genus primer maintained 100 percent specificity, whereas PCR sensitivity with the species primer decreased to 77.7 percent. In low infection, the sensitivity was 60 percent for EPG, 0 percent for PCR with the species primer and 90 percent for PCR done with the genus primer. Together, these results suggest that PCR with a genus primer can be a very sensitive methodology to detect Strongyloides venezuelensisin faeces of Lewis rats infected with very low parasite burden.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Male , Rats , Feces/parasitology , Parasite Egg Count , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Strongyloides , Strongyloidiasis/diagnosis , DNA, Helminth/analysis , Genotype , Rats, Inbred Lew , Sensitivity and Specificity , Strongyloides/genetics , Strongyloides/isolation & purification
12.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 41(6): 648-653, Nov.-Dec. 2008. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-502048

ABSTRACT

A estrongiloidíase afeta 30 milhões de pessoas em 70 países. Usualmente, o diagnóstico dessa enteroparasitose é realizado por testes parasitológicos baseados no hidro termotropismo das larvas eliminadas nas fezes, porém esses têm se mostrado pouco sensíveis. Neste trabalho, extratos antigênicos foram testados pelas técnicas de ELISA, Immunoblotting e IFI, utilizando larvas filarióides de Strongyloides venezuelensis, parasita de roedores, que mostram reação cruzada com epítopos de Strongyloides stercoralis. Sensibilidade de 89, 85, 57 por cento para a reação de ELISA e de 100, 100 e 96 por cento, para o Immunoblotting com os antígenos SAL, ZWIP e ZW, e especificidade de 90, 60 e 81 por cento para o ELISA e 96, 92 e 91 por cento para o Immunoblotting para os mesmos antígenos, foram encontradas nestes ensaios.


Strongyloidiasis affects 30 million people in 70 countries. This enteral parasitosis is usually diagnosed using parasitological tests based on hydrotropism or thermotropism of larvae eliminated in feces, but these tests have been shown to have low sensitivity. In this study, antigenic extracts were tested by means of ELISA, immunoblotting and IFI, using filariform larvae of Strongyloides venezuelensis, a parasite of rodents that shows cross-reactions with Strongyloides stercoralis epitopes. Sensitivity of 89, 85 and 57 percent for the ELISA reaction and 100, 100 and 96 percent for immunoblotting with the SAL, ZWIP and ZW antigens, and specificity of 90, 60 and 81 percent for ELISA and 96, 92 and 91 percent for immunoblotting with the same antigens, were found in these assays.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Antigens, Helminth , Strongyloides/immunology , Strongyloidiasis/immunology , Antigens, Helminth/immunology , Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect , Feces/parasitology , Immunoblotting , Larva/immunology , Sensitivity and Specificity , Strongyloides/classification , Strongyloides/isolation & purification , Strongyloidiasis/diagnosis
13.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-36405

ABSTRACT

We report an atypical occurrence of invasive Strongyloides stercoralis infection of the stomach mucosa in an elderly female patient from Bangka Island, northwestern Indonesia. The patient presented with severe epigastric pain, edema of the legs, proteinuria and severe hypoalbuminemia. Gastric and duodenal biopsies found eggs, larval and adult forms present in the superficial mucosa with mild inflammation. The Harada-Mori filter paper culture technique revealed S. stercoralis filariform larvae and free-living adult worms, corroborating the diagnosis. The infection was associated with acute interstitial nephritis. The patient showed rapid and dramatic improvement after treatment with mebendazole.


Subject(s)
Aged , Animals , Female , Gastric Mucosa/parasitology , Humans , Indonesia , Mebendazole/therapeutic use , Nephritis, Interstitial/etiology , Strongyloides/isolation & purification , Strongyloidiasis/complications
14.
Braz. j. vet. res. anim. sci ; 43(4): 496-501, 2006. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-461498

ABSTRACT

Este estudo teve como objetivos padronizar o kit TF-Test para a quantificação de ovos de parasitas gastrintestinais de ovinos e compará-lo ao método de Gordon & Whitlock modificado (G&W). Vinte quatro cordeiros confinados foram infectados artificialmente com Haemonchus contortus, durante 12 semanas, até o abate, quando foram colhidas amostras fecais e realizada a identificação e contagem dos parasitas abomasais. Nestes animais, ovos de H. contortus foram detectados em 95,8% das amostras fecais por ambos os testes (P>0,05). Os coeficientes de correlação (r) entre a carga parasitária (CP) e os valores de OPG obtidos pelos métodos de G&W e TF-Test foram, respectivamente, de r=0,52 e r=0,51 (dados não transformados) e r=0,85 e r=0,87 (dados transformados em log). Outras 100 amostras fecais foram colhidas de ovinos naturalmente infectados. Nas amostras destes animais, os testes G&W e TF-Test propiciaram o diagnóstico de ovos de estrongilídeos em 85% e 86% das amostras, respectivamente (P>0,05). Pelo TF-Test e pelo G&W, oocistos de Eimeria foram detectados em 33% e em 12% das amostras (P<0,001) e ovos de Strongyloides spp. em 15% e 5% das amostras, respectivamente (P<0,05). Ambos os testes foram precisos para o diagnóstico de estrongilídeos gastrintestinais, porém, o TF-Test foi superior para o diagnóstico de oocistos de Eimeria spp. e de ovos de Strongyloides spp., mas, por outro lado, subestimou o número de ovos de estrongilídeos presente nas amostras.


This study was performed to standardize parasite egg counting in feces of sheep by TF- Test, in addition to compare this test to the Gordon & Whitlock technique (G&W). Twenty-four lambs were artificially infected with Haemonchus contortus throughout 12 weeks. At the end of this time, faecal samples were taken and animals were slaughtered for worm identification and counting. G&W and TF-Test methods were carried out on each fecal sample. Both tests showed Haemonchus eggs in 95.8% of the samples (P>0.05). The corre1ation coefficients (r) between fecal egg counts (FEC) using G&W x Total Worm Count (TWC) were r=0.52 (not transformed data) and r=0.85 (transformed data); between FEC by TF-Test x TWC were r=0.51 (not transformed data) and r=0.87 (transformed data). Other 100 fecal samples were taken from naturally infected sheep. In these animals, the G&W and TF-Test methods showed 85% and 86% of fecal samples positive for Strongylidea eggs, respectively (P>0.05). Also in those animals, Eimeria oocysts were found in 33% of fecal samples by TF-Test, whereas in the G&W only 12% were positive (P<0.001). For Strongyloides spp., TF-Test showed 15% of positive fecal samples, whereas G&W showed 5% (P<0.05). In conclusion, both methods were efficient to diagnose gastrointestinal nematodes and TF-Test was superior to diagnose oocysts of Eimeria spp. and eggs of Strongyloides spp; conversely, Strongylidea eggs counting using TF-Test was underestimated.


Subject(s)
Eimeria/isolation & purification , Haemonchus/isolation & purification , Sheep , Strongyloides/isolation & purification , Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures
17.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 96(6): 805-807, Aug. 2001. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-298616

ABSTRACT

The diagnosis of Strongyloides stercoralis infections is routinely made by microscopic observation of larvae in stool samples, a low sensitivity method, or by other, most effective methods, such as the Baermann or agar culture plate methods. We propose in this paper a practical modification of Baermann method. One hundred and six stool samples from alcoholic patients were analyzed using the direct smear test, agar culture plate method, the standard Baermann method, and its proposed modification. For this modification the funnel used in the original version of the method is substituted by a test tube with a rubber stopper, perforated to allow insertion of a pipette tip. The tube with a fecal suspension is inverted over another tube containing 6 ml of saline solution and incubated at 37ÝC for at least 2 h. The saline solution from the second tube is centrifuged and the pellet is observed microscopically. Larva of S. stercoralis were detected in six samples (5.7 percent) by the two versions of the Baermann method. Five samples were positive using the agar culture plate method, and only in two samples the larva were observed using direct microscopic observation of fecal smears. Cysts of Endolimax nana and Entamoeba histolytica/dyspar were also detected in the modification of Baermann method. Data obtained by the modified Baermann method suggest that this methodology may helps concentrate larvae of S. stercoralis as efficiently as the original method


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Feces/parasitology , Strongyloides/isolation & purification , Strongyloidiasis/diagnosis , Agar , Culture Media , Sensitivity and Specificity
18.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-35964

ABSTRACT

The community control program for Strongyloides infection was conducted by fecal examination and subsequent treatment of the population on a model island (Kume Island) in Okinawa, Japan, for 5 years from 1993 to 1997. More than 1,200 persons, accounting for 17% to 20% of the persons subjected, received fecal examinations each year. The positive rate in 1993 was found to be 9.7% (133/1,374). The positive rate decreased to 6.5% (95/1,468) in 1994, then 4.8% (60/1,245) in 1995, 2.2% (27/1,225) in 1996 and 2.7% (33/1,217) in 1997 through treatment with albendazole or ivermectin on the positive persons detected each year. Among the positive persons detected after operation of the control program, more than 70% were newly detected persons who did not receive an examination in the previous year or were falsely-negative in the previous examination. The low enforcement of procuring fecal examinations, as well as low sensitivity of fecal examination, might have had an effect on the relatively gradual decrease in the prevalence rate, in spite of the high efficacy of the treatment. The results indicate that continuation of the control program for several years is needed to effectively reduce the prevalence of the parasitic infection in the community.


Subject(s)
Adult , Albendazole/therapeutic use , Animals , Antinematodal Agents/therapeutic use , Feces/parasitology , Female , Humans , Ivermectin/therapeutic use , Japan/epidemiology , Male , Mass Screening , Strongyloides/isolation & purification , Strongyloidiasis/drug therapy
19.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-118385

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Diarrhoea is a common presentation in patients with AIDS. It occurs due to a number of parasites which are seldom seen in immunocompetent hosts. METHODS: Between January 1993 and July 1994, faecal specimens from 77 patients with AIDS presenting with diarrhoea of more than a month's duration were examined by direct wet mount microscopy of saline and iodine preparations and by the modified Ziehl-Neelsen stain. RESULTS: Cryptosporidium, Isospora and Strongyloides stercoralis alone or in combination were present in 29 of the 77 patients. CONCLUSION: The presence of these parasites highlights their pathogenic potential for immunocompromised patients with AIDS. Diarrhoea due to Isosporais responsive to treatment, hence their identification has therapeutic implications as well.


Subject(s)
AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/drug therapy , Adult , Animals , Antimalarials/therapeutic use , Cryptosporidium/isolation & purification , Diarrhea/parasitology , Female , Humans , Isospora/isolation & purification , Male , Middle Aged , Strongyloides/isolation & purification , Trimethoprim, Sulfamethoxazole Drug Combination/therapeutic use
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