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1.
Int. j. morphol ; 36(4): 1252-1261, Dec. 2018. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-975692

ABSTRACT

El auge de la producción intensiva del avestruz, comenzó en la década de los noventa impulsada por la calidad de su carne y potencialidad de sus subproductos. La raza empleada para producción por la calidad nutricional y sabor de su carne es el híbrido llamado African black (Struthio camelus var. domesticus). En cuanto a la reproducción, el avestruz hembra alcanza su madurez sexual a partir de los 2,5 años. Es importante considerar el aparato genital en aves de producción, ya que una alteración en él, puede generar deficiencias en la fertilidad que se traducen en un menor número de crías. El estudio histológico del aparato reproductor de la hembra será una herramienta más que permitirá resolver problemas reproductivos. Para este análisis se obtuvo muestras de los diferentes segmentos del aparato reproductor de 6 avestruces hembras en edad reproductiva y se procesaron de acuerdo a las técnicas histológicas de rutina. Los cortes fueron observados, fotografiados y analizados bajo microscopio de luz. Obtenidas las fotografías, se analizó comparativamente su morfología con la descrita en la gallina (Gallus gallus). El aparato reproductor de la hembra tiene la particularidad de tener desarrollado solo el ovario y oviducto izquierdo. El ovario es de gran tamaño y en forma de racimo, el cual varía según la estacionalidad. Presenta folículos primordiales, previtelogénicos, vitelogénicos y atrésicos. Los folículos vitelogénicos presentan células de la granulosa y de la teca interna y externa. El oviducto presenta de cefálico a caudal los siguientes segmentos: infundíbulo, magnum, istmo, útero y vagina, que desemboca en la cloaca a nivel del urodeo. En ellos hay pliegues de variada longitud, grosor y número que comprometen la mucosa y submucosa, con glándulas de secreción mucosa y serosa a excepción de la vagina. El análisis histológico comparativo, permitió establecer que la morfología del aparato reproductor de la hembra es semejante a la observada en la gallina con ciertas diferencias microscópicas (Gallus gallus).


In the 1990's, ostrich production reached a peak in our country, boosted by the special characteristics of its meat and the potential of the derivatives. The breed raised is a hybrid called African Black (Struthio camelus var. domesticus) which has a high quality meat in terms of nutritional factors and flavor. With regard to reproduction, the female ostrich reaches maturity at the age of 2.5 years. Genital organs are very important in fowl's production, because they can generate fertility deficiencies that, in turn can diminish brood number. Histological analysis allows a better understanding of the basic structure of the female's genital organs and is a helpful tool to resolve breeding problems. For this analysis samples were obtained from the different segments of the reproductive system of 6 female ostrich in reproductive age. These samples were processed using standard histological technique. Sections were observed, photographed and analyzed under the light-microscope. Photographs were compared with hen's samples. The ostrich female's reproductive system has the particularity of having just the left ovary and oviduct developed. The ovary has a big size and a cluster shape which varies from season to season. It presents paramount, previtellogenic, vitellogenic and atresic follicles. The vitellogenic follicles have granulosa cells and inner and external theca. The oviduct presents cephalocaudally: infundibulum, magnum, isthmus, uterus and vagina, flowing into the urodeum. It shows long pleats of different length and number, with drusen of mucose and serose secretion, except in the vagina. The comparative histological analysis allowed us to establish that the basic structure of the female reproductive system is similar to that of the hen (Gallus gallus).


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Struthioniformes/anatomy & histology , Genitalia, Female/anatomy & histology , Ovary/anatomy & histology , Oviducts/anatomy & histology , Uterus/anatomy & histology , Vagina/anatomy & histology
2.
Int. j. morphol ; 35(4): 1285-1290, Dec. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-893129

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Ghrelin is the endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor, and has been found in the liver of multiple vertebrates. While ghrelin has been identified in the gastrointestinal tract of African ostrich chicks, little is known regarding its distribution in the liver of the African ostrich. In the present study, the distribution and morphological characteristics of ghrelin-immunopositive (ghrelin-ip) cells in the liver of the African ostrich were investigated using immunohistochemistry. Our results indicate that the liver is divided into two sections: the capsule and the parenchyma, which comprises hepatic lobules and the hepatic portal area. The hepatic lobules include the central vein, hepatocellular cord, and the hepatic sinusoid. The hepatocellular cord is composed of hepatocytes, and Macrophagocytus stellatus (Kupffer cells) as well as endothelial cells reside within the hepatic sinusoid. ghrelin-ip cells were detected among both the Macrophagocytus stellatus and endothelial cells of the hepatic sinusoid in the African ostrich liver. In contrast, no ghrelinip cells were located within the hepatocytes or the hepatic portal area. These results clearly demonstrated the presence of ghrelin-ip cells in the liver of the African ostrich. Therefore, ghrelin may have a physiological function in the liver of the African ostrich.


RESUMEN: La ghrelina es el ligando endógeno para el receptor secretagogo de la hormona del crecimiento, y se ha encontrado en el hígado de múltiples vertebrados. A pesar que la ghrelina ha sido identificada en el tracto gastrointestinal de polluelos de avestruz africanas, poco se sabe sobre su distribución en el hígado de esta ave. En el presente estudio se investigó la distribución y características morfológicas de las células ghrelininmunopositivas (ghrelin-ip) en el hígado del avestruz africana mediante inmunohistoquímica. Nuestros resultados indican que el hígado se divide en dos secciones: la cápsula y el parénquima, que comprende los lóbulos hepáticos y el área portal hepática. Los lóbulos hepáticos incluyen la vena central, el cordón hepatocelular y el sinusoide hepático. El cordón hepatocelular está compuesto de hepatocitos y de Macrophagocytus stellatus (células de Kupffer) y las células endoteliales se localizan dentro del sinusoide hepático. Fueron detectacas células ghrelin-ip entre los Macrophagocytus stellatus y las células endoteliales del sinusoide hepático en el hígado de avestruz africana. En contraste, no se localizaron células de ghrelin-ip dentro de los hepatocitos o en el área portal hepática. Estos resultados demuestran claramente la presencia de células de ghrelin-ip en el hígado. Por lo tanto, la ghrelina puede tener una función fisiológica en el hígado de avestruz africana.


Subject(s)
Animals , Struthioniformes/anatomy & histology , Ghrelin/metabolism , Liver/cytology , Immunohistochemistry
3.
Int. j. morphol ; 34(3): 830-835, Sept. 2016. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-828948

ABSTRACT

Boron is an essential trace element which plays an important role in process of metabolism and the function of the tissues. However, the effects of boron on the intestinal cells in African ostrich chicks are poorly reported. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the role of boron on proliferation and apoptosis of the intestinal cells. A total of 36, ten day-old ostrich chicks were randomly divided into six groups and fed on the same basal diet supplemented with 0, 40, 80, 160, 320 and 640 mg/L boric acid in drinking water for 80 days. Proliferatingcell nuclearantigen (PCNA) wasused to test the proliferation indexof intestine in different group byimmunohistochemicalstaining (IHC). Apoptoticcellsofintestinewere detectedbyDutp-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) reaction and evaluated by integral optical density (IOD). Results showed that proliferationof intestinal cells significantly increased in groups of 80, 160, 320 and 640 mg/L. TUNEL reaction showed that apoptosis significantly decreased in 80 mg/L groups, while significantly increased in high dose of boron groups (320 and 640 mg/L), especially inepithelium. In conclusion, low dose of boron-supplemented water could promote cell proliferation and depress apoptosis, while high dose of boron could cause intestinal apoptosis and thus we found increased proliferation of intestine cell as a compensatory adaption. These findings may support optimal dosage of boron that could protect the development of ostrich intestine, while high dosage of boron could suppress it, or even has toxic effects on it.


El boro es un elemento esencial que desempeña un importante rol en el proceso del metabolismo y en la función de los tejidos. Sin embargo, existe poca información de los efectos del boro en las células intestinales de polluelos de avestruz Africana. Por lo tanto, este estudio fue diseñado para investigar el papel del boro sobre la proliferación y la apoptosis de las células intestinales. Un total de 36 polluelos de avestruz de diez días se dividieron, aleatoriamente, en seis grupos y se alimentaron con una misma dieta basal suplementada con 0, 40, 80, 160, 320 y 640 mg/L de ácido bórico en agua potable durante 80 días. Se utilizó el antígeno nuclear celular de células en proliferación (PCNA) para probar el índice de proliferación de intestino en diferentes grupos por tinción inmunohistoquímica. Las células apoptóticas del intestino fueron detectadas por dUTP-biotina nick etiquetado para reacción (TUNEL) y evaluadas por la densidad óptica integrada (DOI). Los resultados mostraron que la proliferación de las células intestinales aumentó significativamente en los grupos de 80, 160, 320 y 640 mg /L. La reacción TUNEL mostró que la apoptosis se redujo significativamente en los grupos de 80 mg/L, mientras que el aumento fue significativo en grupos tratados con dosis alta de boro (320 y 640 mg/L), especialmente en el epitelio. En conclusión, la baja dosis de boro en agua suplementada podría promover la proliferación celular y deprimir la apoptosis, mientras que altas dosis de boro podrían provocar apoptosis intestinal y, por lo tanto, se halló una mayor proliferación de las células del intestino como una adaptación compensatoria. Estos hallazgos indican que una dosis óptima de boro podría proteger el desarrollo del intestino del avestruz, mientras que altas dosis de boro podrían suprimirla, o incluso tener efectos tóxicos sobre ella.


Subject(s)
Animals , Boron/administration & dosage , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Intestines/drug effects , Struthioniformes/anatomy & histology , Apoptosis/drug effects , Immunohistochemistry , Intestines/cytology
4.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 36(9): 912-918, set. 2016. tab, graf, ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-829321

ABSTRACT

As artérias mesentéricas das aves são importantes para a irrigação do aparelho digestório e encontram-se associadas ao ganho de peso e conversão alimentar. Objetivou-se descrever as origens, esqueletopias, medidas e principais ramificações das artérias mesentéricas cranial e caudal em avestruzes. Foram utilizados 41 cadáveres de filhotes de avestruzes, 23 machos e 18 fêmeas, obtidos de um criadouro após morte natural. Os cadáveres foram fixados com formaldeído a 10% e tiveram o sistema vascular preenchido com Petrolatex® S-65 colorido. As artérias mesentéricas, cranial e caudal e seus ramos proximais foram dissecados "in situ" e medidas com paquímetro digital. A artéria mesentérica cranial teve comprimento médio de 3,68 ± 1,04 cm e surgiu da aorta descendente ao nível da oitava vértebra torácica na maioria dos casos. Ramificou-se em artérias jejunal e ileocecal. A artéria jejunal ofereceu média de 14,04 ±2,08 ramos ao jejuno e a artéria ileocecal originou um ramo retal e outro que se bifurcou para derivar ramos para íleo, ceco e reto. Em um espécime macho a artéria ileocecal foi ramo da artéria celíaca. A artéria mesentérica caudal originou-se na porção terminal da aorta descendente predominantemente ao nível das 4ª e 6ª vértebras sacro-caudais. Perto da extremidade caudal do rim emitiu os ramos cranial e caudal. O primeiro irrigou o reto e anastomosou-se com ramo retal da artéria mesentérica cranial; o segundo irrigou a porção final do reto, cloaca e bolsa cloacal. Não houve diferença significativa (p<0,05) entre as medidas, esqueletopia e número de ramificações das artérias entre os sexos.(AU)


The mesenteric arteries of birds are important for the irrigation of the digestive tract and are associated with weight gain and food conversion. This study aimed to describe the origins, skeletopy, measures and main branches of cranial and caudal mesenteric arteries in ostriches. Forty-one cadavers of ostrich chicks, 23 males and 18 females, obtained from a farmer after natural death. The cadavers were fixed with 10% formaldehyde solution and their vascular system was filled with colored Petrolatex® S-65. The cranial and caudal mesenteric arteries and its proximal branches were dissected in situ and measured with a digital caliper. The mesenteric artery had an average length of 3.68cm±1.04 and emerged from the descending aorta at the level of the eighth thoracic vertebra in most cases; it branched into jejunal and ileocecal arteries. The jejunal artery sent a mean of 14 (14.04±2.08) branches to the jejunum. The ileocecal artery sent a rectal branch and another branch that irrigated ileum, cecum and rectum. In a male specimen the ileocecal artery was originated from the celiac artery. The caudal mesenteric artery emerged in the terminal portion of the descending aorta predominantly at the level of the 4th and 6th sacrocaudal vertebrae. Near the caudal end of the kidney it issued the cranial and caudal branches. The first irrigated the rectum and anastomosed with the rectal branch of the cranial mesenteric artery; the second irrigated the final part of the rectum, cloaca and cloacal bursa. There was no significant difference (p<0.05) between measurements, skeletopy and number of branches of the arteries between genders.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Intestines/blood supply , Mesenteric Arteries/anatomy & histology , Skull/blood supply , Struthioniformes/anatomy & histology , Tail/blood supply , Cardiovascular System/anatomy & histology
5.
Int. j. morphol ; 33(4): 1468-1475, Dec. 2015. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-772340

ABSTRACT

The aim of the current study focused on the morphological features of the brain of the African ostrich. The brain was studied macroscopically, microscopically and the measurements of all brain parts were demonstrated. The brain of ostrich was rhombus in shape with large obtuse triangular cerebrum with sagittal dorsomedial wulst. The olfactory bulb was small with undeveloped olfactory lobe. The diencephalon gave rise to the pineal gland, which was inverted tubal structure with an obtuse triangle bottom. Large optic chiasm and optic tract demonstrated that continued to the optic lobes. The cerebellum was represented by central vermis that had numerous transverse fissures and two small lateral floccules on its lateral surface. The medulla oblongata with clear pontine flexure and no obvious pons or trapezoid body appeared. The histological results revealed that the cerebral cortex formed of several ill-defined layers of neurons. The most common appearance characterized by few small neurons supported by neuroglia. The cerebellar cortex consists of three layers namely molecular layer, Purkinje cells layer and internal granular layer, the layer of Purkinje cells characterized by a very large cell body. The medulla oblongata was covered by pia mater of loose connective tissue that covered with simple squamous epithelium and vascular supply extended beneath the pia mater. The cell nuclei of the medulla oblongata were formed from few multipolar neurons, supported by few neuroglia. The fourth ventricle was lined by pseudo stratified columnar ciliated ependymal cells.


El objetivo fue describir las características morfológicas del cerebro de la avestruz africana. El cerebro se estudió macroscópica y microscópicamente, y las mediciones de todas las partes del cerebro fueron registradas. El cerebro tuvo una forma romboidal, con cerebelo grande triangular obtuso con una protuberancia dorsomedial sagital. El bulbo olfatorio era pequeño, con un lóbulo olfativo sin desarrollar. El diencéfalo dio lugar a la glándula pineal, que es una estructura en forma de tubo invertida con un triángulo obtuso en su parte inferior. Un gran quiasma y tracto óptico demostraron ser continuos con los lóbulos ópticos. El cerebelo estaba caracterizado por la vermis central que tenía numerosas fisuras transversales y dos pequeños flóculos laterales en su superficie lateral. La médula oblongada mostró en algunos casos una flexión pontina evidente, en otros ausencia de puentes o la aparición de un cuerpo trapezoide. Los resultados histológicos revelaron que la corteza cerebral está formada de varias capas de neuronas mal definidas. El aspecto más común se caracterizó por unas pequeñas neuronas soportadas por neuroglias. La corteza cerebelosa consistió en tres capas, molecular, de células de Purkinje y granular interna; las células de Purkinje se caracterizaron por un cuerpo celular grande. La medula oblongada estaba cubierta por pia madre de tejido conectivo laxo, revestida por epitelio escamoso simple y un suministro vascular extenso bajo la piamadre. Los núcleos de las células de la médula oblongada se formaron a partir pocas neuronas multipolares, soportados por algunas neuroglias. El cuarto ventrículo estaba revestido un epitelio pseudo-estratificado de células ependimarias columnares ciliadas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Brain/anatomy & histology , Struthioniformes/anatomy & histology
6.
Int. j. morphol ; 33(2): 666-672, jun. 2015. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-755526

ABSTRACT

El término puente de miocardio es atribuido al conjunto de fibras musculares cardiacas, que a veces se sobreponen a un segmento subepicárdico de una determinada rama de las arterias coronarias derecha e izquierda. Polacek (1959) fue el primero en enfocar esta entidad desde el punto de vista muscular, de aquí nace el nombre de "puente de miocardio" siendo actualmente la más usada en clínica. La presencia de estos puentes, ha sido identificada tanto en humanos como en animales y basados en ello, se estudiaron 50 corazones de avestruz, de la clase African Black, cuyo objetivo fue determinar presencia de puentes de miocardio, número, longitud y principales arterias en donde se ubican. Hubo presencia de puentes de miocardio en 20 (40,0%) de los 50 corazones estudiados; el número total de puentes de miocardio fue de 34, de los cuales 30 (88,2%) se ubicaron sobre la arteria coronaria izquierda y sus ramas y 4 (11,8%) sobre la arteria coronaria derecha y sus ramas. El número de puentes varió de 1 a 4 por corazón. Los vasos donde se observaron con mayor frecuencia fueron: ramas ventriculares de la rama interventricular paraconal con 22 (64,7%) puentes y rama interventricular paraconal con 8 (23,5%) puentes. Los registros métricos de la extensión de los puentes de miocardio variaron entre 1,6 mm y 73,1 mm.


The term myocardial bridge is attributed to all cardiac muscle fibers, which sometimes overlap a subepicardial segment of a particular branch of the right and left coronary arteries. Polacek in 1959 was the first to approach this entity from the standpoint of muscle. From this arises the name of "myocardial bridge" and is currently the term most widely used clinically. The presence of these bridges, has been identified in humans and in animals and based on that, 50 African Black class ostrich hearts were studied, with the aim to determine the presence of myocardial bridges, number, length and main arteries where they are located. There was presence of myocardial bridges in 20 (40.0%) of the 50 hearts studied, the total number of myocardial bridges was 34, of which 30 (88.2%) were located on the left coronary artery and its branches and 4 (11.8%) over the right coronary artery and its branches. The number of bridges ranged from 1 to 4 by heart. The vessels most frequently observed were: ventricular branches paraconal interventricular branch with 22 (64.7%) and interventricular branch paraconal bridges with 8 (23.5%) bridges. Metrical records of the extent of myocardial bridges ranged between 1.6 mm and 73.1 mm.


Subject(s)
Animals , Myocardial Bridging/pathology , Struthioniformes/anatomy & histology
7.
Int. j. morphol ; 32(4): 1325-1336, Dec. 2014. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-734679

ABSTRACT

Debido al creciente interés actual en la industria del avestruz (Struthio camelus var. domesticus) y al escaso material bibliográfico referente a la morfología del aparato respiratorio, se ha propuesto analizar comparativamente el segmento laringo traqueo siringeo pulmonar de esta especie, con el objeto de contribuir en esta área. El estudio se realizó con seis avestruces clínicamente sanos, de los cuales se obtuvieron muestras representativas del segmento laringo traqueo siringeo pulmonar. Las muestras fueron procesadas de acuerdo a las técnicas histológicas de rutina para luego realizar un análisis morfológico comparativo con la gallina (Gallus gallus). En el avestruz el cartílago aritenoides es par y está situado en posición dorsal y craneal a la laringe. El cartílago cricoides es único, situado en posición ventral y caudal a la laringe. Al igual que en la gallina, presenta un cartílago procricoides. La tráquea presenta un número mayor de anillos que el observado en la gallina. A nivel de la siringe, el pessulus está constituido por un doble pliegue dorsoventral de la membrana mucosa, con una lámina propia de tejido conectivo denso sobre una gruesa capa de tejido adiposo. A diferencia de la gallina, el pessulus del avestruz no presenta tejido cartilaginoso ni óseo. La mucosa situada desde la laringe hasta los bronquios secundarios, posee un epitelio seudoestratificado prismático ciliado con células caliciformes, con criptas y glándulas túbulo-alveolares simples de secreción mucosa. En el caso de los bronquios primarios extrapulmonares esta característica histológica se observa sólo en la región medial, donde se encuentran los extremos de los semianillos de cartílago hialino. La mucosa restante de éstos, sólo posee un epitelio seudoestratificado prismático ciliado con células caliciformes. Los sacos aéreos presentan esta característica histológica en algunos sectores.


Due to the growing interest of the ostrich industry (Struthio camelus var. domesticus) and the scarce bibliographic material related to morphology of the respiratory system of the ostrich, we carried out a comparative analysis of the laryngotracheal pulmonary segment of this bird. The research was conducted in six clinically healthy ostriches from which representative samples of the laryngotracheal pulmonary segment were obtained. Samples were processed using standard histological technique and a comparative morphological analysis between ostriches and chicken (Gallus gallus) was performed. In the ostrich, the arytenoid cartilage is double and placed in a dorsal and cranial position in relation to the larynx while the cricoid cartilage is single and situated in a ventral and caudal position. Like the chicken, the procricoid cartilage is also present. The trachea exhibits a greater number of rings compared to the chicken. At the syrinx level, the pessulus is made up of a dorso-ventral double-fold of mucous membrane with a lamina propria of dense connective tissue over a thick adipose layer. Unlike the chicken the ostrich pessulus does not contain any ossified or cartilaginous tissues. The mucosa between the larynx and secondary bronchi has a pseudostratified prismatic ciliated epithelium with mucous goblet cells with crypts and simple tubuloalveolar mucosal glands for mucous secretion. In the extrapulmonary primary bronchi this histological feature is observed only in the medial aspect where the ends of the cartilaginous rings are found. The remaining mucosa of these bronchi has a pseudostratified prismatic ciliated epithelium with mucous goblet cells. Aerial sacs show this histological feature in some sectors.


Subject(s)
Animals , Respiratory System/anatomy & histology , Struthioniformes/anatomy & histology , Trachea/anatomy & histology , Chickens/anatomy & histology , Larynx/anatomy & histology , Lung/anatomy & histology
8.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 65(5): 1573-1576, out. 2013. ilus, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-689779

ABSTRACT

The objective of the experiment was to verify, through ultrasonography, the follicular activity of ostriches in different seasons of the year, correlating them with photoperiod, number of rainy days in each month and egg laying. Eight females were evaluated monthly, during 12 consecutive months in an ostrich farm located in the Center-West of Minas Gerais, Brazil. It was found that the time of the year for egg laying lasts for eight months, from June to January. The egg laying was positively correlated (r = 0.48; P<0.01) with photoperiod. However, there was no correlation between the egg laying and the follicular activity with the amount of rain. Considering the technique adopted, the right antimere offered better ultrasonographic access. The method was efficient for ovary follicular evaluation in the ostrich, offering adequate subsidies for the evaluation of the reproductive activity of the female.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Ovarian Follicle , Struthioniformes/anatomy & histology , Struthioniformes/embryology , Photoperiod , Ultrasonography/veterinary
9.
Int. j. morphol ; 30(3): 1013-1018, Sept. 2012. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-665517

ABSTRACT

Consideramos importante conocer la irrigación cardíaca del avestruz, debido a la poca investigación realizada; por lo cual se ha hecho un estudio descriptivo del patrón de distribución de las arterias coronarias y sus ramas ventriculares determinando la presencia, origen, longitud y distribución de ellas. Identificamos ramas ventriculares, las anastomosis, tipo de dominancia y realizamos una comparación del corazón del avestruz con mamíferos y humanos. Se estudiaron 50 corazones de avestruz, de la clase African Black, fueron preparados e inyectadas las coronarias con Látex Neopreno, con distinto color, y tratadas en formol al 10 por ciento por 10 a 12 días para la disección de las arterias y las ramas ventriculares. Las arterias coronarias del corazón de avestruz se originan en los senos aórticos derecho e izquierdo. La derecha se encuentra en un 98 por ciento, con una longitud promedio de 127,1 mm, recorre el surco coronario llegando al interventricular subsinuoso donde origina la rama interventricular subsinuosa en el 92 por ciento además origina la rama del cono en un 98 por ciento y ramas ventriculares. La izquierda está presente en el 100 por ciento, presenta una longitud promedio de 40,19 mm, las ramas que se originan de ella, son la arteria interventricular paraconal en un 100 por ciento, la arteria circunfleja en un 100 por ciento, la arteria del cono en el 96 por ciento, una rama diagonal presente solo en el 2 por ciento, la arteria interventricular subsinuosa presente en un 8 por ciento, y además presenta ramas ventriculares. De las anastomosis, en el 6 por ciento no se encontró, con una un 42 por ciento, con dos un 22 por ciento con tres un 30 por ciento. La más frecuente es entre la arteria interventricular subsinuosa y la circunfleja presente en un 42,1 por ciento, La dominancia derecha, es un 56 por ciento, el balance en un 36 por ciento, y la dominancia izquierda solo en un 8 por ciento. Se observó que la irrigación sanguínea superficial...


We consider it important to know the heart of the ostrich irrigation due to the paucity of research, for which there has been a descriptive study of the distribution pattern of the coronary arteries and their branches ventricular determining the presence, origin, length and distribution of these. We identified ventricular branches, anastomoses, type of dominance and perform a comparison of ostrich heart of mammals and humans. Fifthy hearts were studied ostrich, African Black class, were prepared and injected the coronary arteries with neoprene, with a different color, and treated in 10 percent formalin for 10 to 12 days for dissection of the arteries and ventricular branches. Coronary arteries of the heart of ostrich originate in the right and left aortic sinuses. The right is at 98 percent, with an average length of 127.1 mm, runs reaching the coronary sulcus which originates subsinuoso interventricular septal branch in 92 percent subsinuous also causes the cone branch by 98 percent and branches ventricular. The left is present in 100 percent, has an average length of 40.19 mm, branches originating from it are the septal artery paraconal 100 percent, the circumflex artery 100 percent, the artery of the cone 96 percent, a diagonal branch present only in 2 percent, interventricular artery subsinuous present in 8 percent, and also presents ventricular branches. Of the anastomosis, at 6 percent was not found, with 42 percent, 22 percent two to three 30 percent. The most common is between the artery and circumflex interventricular subsinuous present in 42.1 percent, right dominance, is 56 percent, the balance of 36 percent and left dominance only by 8 percent. It was observed that the surface blood supply at the heart of ostrich, the type of dominance and the large number of superficial anastomosis was resembling the human heart and mammals...


Subject(s)
Animals , Struthioniformes/anatomy & histology , Coronary Vessels/anatomy & histology , Heart Ventricles/anatomy & histology
10.
Braz. j. vet. res. anim. sci ; 49(2): 122-129, 2012. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-687584

ABSTRACT

A criação de avestruz (Struthio camelus, Linnaeus 1758) é uma atividade de grande potencial, porém não existem padrões definidos sobre a histologia do seu fígado, que é um órgão de grande importância no metabolismo. O conhecimento de sua histologia pode contribuir para a detecção de doenças e deficiências nutricionais no animal. Para este estudo foram utilizados 24 avestruzes com idades entre 12 e 18 meses (com peso médio em torno de 80 a 100 kg), provenientes do abatedouro Don Pig, em Botucatu no estado de São Paulo. Os animais foram abatidos com pistola pneumática e, após a sangria, as amostras do fígado foram processadas e observadas em microscopia de luz e microscopia eletrônica de transmissão (MET). A hematoxilina e eosina (H.E), picrossírius, Gordon e Sweets, Sudan black e o ácido peródico de Schiff (PAS) são colorações usadas respectivamente para observar a morfologia do fígado, colágeno, fibras reticulares, gordura e glicogênio. Foram encontrados os espaços portahepáticos.O glicogênio mostrou média de 5,68%, o conteúdo lipídico, média de 9,83%, o colágeno média de 14,71% e as fibras reticulares média de 5,96%. Quanto à MET notou-se no citoplasma dos hepatócitos, numerosas mitocôndrias, glicogênio, muitas gotas de gordura, alguns lisossomos, retículo endoplasmático granular ao redor das mitocôndrias, algumas células estreladas, célula em degeneração e o canalículo biliar ao centro. Provavelmente o quadro sugestivo de esteatose é resultante do estado nutricional dos animais. Estes resultados demonstraram que os hepatócitos dos avestruzes são muito similares às outras aves, como também muito semelhantes à estrutura e ultraestrutura das células do fígado de mamíferos.


are not distinct patterns about the histology of its liver, which is an organ of key importance in terms of metabolism. The knowledge of its histology can help the detection of diseases and nutritional deficiencies of this bird. Twenty four ostriches with an average age of 12-18 months and average weight of 80-100 Kg, proceeding from Don Pig Abatteur, located at Botucatu, São Paulo, were used. The birds were slaughtered with and to bleeding. Liver samples were processed for light and electron transmission microscopic studies. Hematoxilin and eosin (HE), picrosirius, Gordon and Sweets, Sudan black and Schiff periodic acid (PAS) were respectively used to observe the liver morphology, collagen, reticular fibers, lipids and glycogen. The liver portal spaces were determined. An average of 5.68% of glycogen was observed. The lipidic content with an average of 9.83%. Collagen fibers at an average of 14.71%. Reticular fibers with an average of 5.96%. Through transmission electron microscopy we noticed in the hepaticyte cytoplasm the presence of numerous mithocondria, glycogen, several lipidic droplets, some lysosomes, granular endoplasmatic reticulum around the mithocondria, some stellate cells, erythrocytes, nucleus and degenerating cells, besides the central biliary canaliculus. The suggestive steatotic results might result from the animals nutritional status Our results demonstrated that ostrich and other birds hepatocytes are very similar.


Subject(s)
Animals , Liver/anatomy & histology , Hepatocytes , Struthioniformes/anatomy & histology
11.
Int. j. morphol ; 28(2): 353-356, June 2010. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-577119

ABSTRACT

La disposición de las fibras del miocardio ventricular del corazón del avestruz (Struthio camelus) fue estudiada macro y mesoscópicamente en 14 corazones de avestruz, disecados mediante una adaptación del método de Pettigrew. Se identificaron tres capas musculares: superficial, media y profunda, de acuerdo a la orientación de las fibras del miocardio ventricular. Las fibras de la capa superficial son comunes a ambos ventrículos, en cambio las fibras de las capas media y profunda son propias de cada ventrículo. El ventrículo izquierdo presenta una gruesa capa muscular media, que también constituye mayoritariamente el septo interventricular y el ápex del corazón.


The arrangement of the ventricular myocardial fibers of the ostrich heart (Struthio camelus) was macro and mesoscopically studied in 14 ostrich hearts, dissected by an adaptation of the Pettigrew method. Three different myocardial layers superficial (subepicardial), middle and deep (subendocardial) have been identified according to the ventricular myocardial fibers orientation. The superficial fibers are common for both ventricles, however, the fibers of the middle and deep layers, are unique to each ventricle. The left ventricle presents a thick middle muscular layer, which also constitutes the main part of the interventricular septum and the heart apex.


Subject(s)
Animals , Struthioniformes/anatomy & histology , Coronary Vessels/anatomy & histology , Heart Ventricles/anatomy & histology
12.
Int. j. morphol ; 27(2): 435-440, June 2009. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-563090

ABSTRACT

El corazón del avestruz (Struthio camelus), al igual que el corazón de las aves domésticas, tiene una valva atrioventricular derecha muscular sin cuerdas tendinosas, y una valva atrioventricular izquierda membranosa con cuerdas tendinosas que se extienden entre las cúspides y 3 músculos papilares. El objetivo del estudio fue describir los músculos papilares, número, ubicación y algunas características morfológicas. Se utilizaron 50 corazones de avestruz (Struthio camelus), que fueron disecados y fijados en formalina tamponada al 10%, y se obtuvieron cortes histológicos de 7 mieras los cuales fueron teñidos con Van Gieson y H-E. El estudio macroscópico mostró ausencia de músculos papilares en el ventrículo derecho y en el ventrículo izquierdo 3 masas musculares formadas por trabéculas carnosas longitudinales que dan inserción a las cuerdas tendinosas. En los cortes histológicos se observó que los puntos de inserción dorsal y ventral de la valva atrioventricular derecha a la pared ventricular, son prolongaciones del músculo que forma la valva y presentan fibras conductoras cardíacas. En el ventrículo izquierdo, las trabéculas carnosas longitudinales también presentan fibras conductoras cardíacas las que se extienden hasta la zona de inserción de las cuerdas tendinosas. Los resultados muestran que el corazón del avestruz (Struthio camelus) no tiene músculos papilares de forma cónica como en el corazón humano, son formaciones musculares más desarrolladas que en el corazón de las aves domésticas y funcionalmente actúan como músculos papilares al presentar fibras conductoras cardíacas.


The heart of the ostrich (Struthio camelus), just like the domestic birds's heart, has a muscular right atrioventricular valve without chordae tendinae and a membranous left atrioventricular valve with chordae tendinae than extends between the cusps and 3 papillary muscles. The aim of the study was to describe the papillary muscles, number, position and some morphologic characteristics. Fifty ostrich hearts (Struthio camelus), were dissected and fixed in 10% formalin and which got histological slices from 7 microns themselves they were stained with Van Gieson and H E. The macroscopic study evidenced absence of papillary muscles in the right ventricle and in the left ventricle 3 muscular masses formed by longitudinal trabeculae carneae that give insertion to the chordae tendinae. It was observed in the histological slices that the dorsal and ventral insertion points of the right atrioventricular valve to the ventricular wall, are prolongations of the muscle that forms the valve and shows conductive cardiac fibers. In the left ventricle, the longitudinal trabeculae carneae also show conductive cardiac fibers the ones that extend to the zone of insertion of the chordae tendinae. The results evidence that the heart of the ostrich (Struthio camelus) does not have papillary muscles of conical form like in the human heart, are more developed muscular formations than in the domestic birds's heart and functionally acts like papillary muscles to show conductive cardiac fibers.


Subject(s)
Adult , Animals , Heart/anatomy & histology , Papillary Muscles/anatomy & histology , Struthioniformes/anatomy & histology , Anatomy, Comparative/methods , Dissection/methods , Dissection/veterinary
13.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 60(4): 1014-1016, ago. 2008.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-489849

ABSTRACT

Several young ostrich, including nestlings, with lassitude and inappetence followed by death or victim of sudden death were immediately brought to diagnosis at an Animal Health Laboratory. At necropsy, animals presented hemorrhage and altered content of the vitelline sac, and necrotic foci in the small intestine; one animal showed necrotic pleuropneumonia with psammomatosus bodies in the lung parenchyma. The cultures from different samples revealed Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Serratia marcescens, Enterobacter aglomerans, and Pseudomonas mendocina. It was suggested one case of septicemia in an animal with exclusive growth of K. pneumoniae isolated from samples of small intestine, lung, and liver.


Subject(s)
Animals , Diagnosis , Histology , Microbiology , Pathology , Struthioniformes/anatomy & histology , Struthioniformes/microbiology
14.
Iranian Journal of Veterinary Research. 2008; 9 (4): 316-323
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-87322

ABSTRACT

There are significant structural differences between the mouth and pharyngeal cavity of birds and mammals. It is usual to refer to a common oropharyngeal cavity of birds because the soft palate, which forms such an obvious delineation between the mouth and pharyngeal cavity, is absent. Six male adult ostriches were used to study the oropharyngeal cavity and its components including the beak, hard palate, pharynx, tongue and the larynx macroscopically. This study revealed that these components in ostrich have different features from other birds. In the ostrich, the beaks are spoon-shaped and the tongue is characterized by a short, broad and semicircular form. The hard palate is concave with a prominent median mucosal fold in its 2/3 rostral area and two oblique choanal slits in its caudal third area. The roof of pharynx presents infundibular slit in midline, a deep concave notch in caudal border and pharyngeal tonsils on its dorsal surface. The larynx protrudes from the floor of pharynx and consists of the unpaired cricoid cartilage and the paired arytenoid cartilages


Subject(s)
Male , Animals , Struthioniformes/anatomy & histology , Mouth/anatomy & histology , Pharynx/anatomy & histology , Birds , Palate, Hard , Tongue , Larynx
15.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 58(5): 959-960, out. 2006.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-441551

ABSTRACT

A ocorrência de Struthiopterolichus bicaudatus é assinalada em uma criação de avestruz no estado de Minas Gerais. Os principais sinais associados com a presença dos ácaros foram penas quebradas com a falta de barbas no vexilo, principalmente nas penas das asas, e prurido. Esses sinais foram observados em todas as aves do plantel (285 animais) com idade acima de 13 meses. As aves com idade abaixo de 13 meses (60 animais) não apresentaram qualquer sinal, tampouco ácaros.


Subject(s)
Acari/parasitology , Epidemiology , Struthioniformes/anatomy & histology , Struthioniformes/parasitology
16.
Int. j. morphol ; 24(3): 297-302, sept. 2006. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-474587

ABSTRACT

En la última década, la crianza del avestruz en Chile ha ido aumentando sustancialmente, por lo cual se ha hecho necesario incrementar los estudios para mejorar la producción de esta especie. La literatura señala sólo estudios sobre la fisiología y anatomía de esta especie. Nuestro objetivo es aportar al conocimiento de la histología normal de las glándulas anexas al aparato digestivo. Esta investigación se realizó con 6 avestruces clínicamente sanas, de las que se obtuvieron muestras representativas del hígado, pro ventrículo y páncreas. Se realizaron cortes histológicos, los que fueron teñidos y montados para su análisis comparativo bajo microscopio de luz, entre avestruz y gallina. La histología de las glándulas anexas del aparato digestivo es semejante a la descrita en la gallina. Sin embargo, en el hígado los cordones de hepatocitos se disponen en forma radial, tanto alrededor de la vena central como de los espacios porta, característica no observada en otras especies. Con respecto al pro ventrículo, en la mucosa se observan glándulas tubulares simples o ramificadas, semejantes a las glándulas fúndicas de los mamíferos. En la submucosa se observan glándulas túbuloalveolares compuestas con células parietales. El páncreas no presenta diferencias destacables.


In the last decade the upbringing of the ostrich in Chile has increased substantially, for this reason it is necessary to increase the studies to improve the production of this species. The literature only points out studies on the physiology and anatomy of this species. The purpose of this work is to contribute to the knowledge of the normal histology from the annexed glands to the digestive system. This study was carried out clinically using 6 healthy ostriches, of which representative samples of the liver, proventricle and pancreas. Histological sections were realized, mounted and stained for their comparative analysis under low light microscope to describe with those cited in the hen. The histology of the annexed glands from the digestive system is similar to the described in the hen. However, in the liver the arrangement hepatic cords so is in the central vein such as the portal spaces is radial, characteristic not observed in other species. In relation to the histology of the proventricle, the tubular glands are quite, similar to the fundic glands of the mammals. In the submucosa compound tubulosacular glands are observed, with parietal cells. The pancreas doesn't present prominent differences.


Subject(s)
Animals , Digestive System/anatomy & histology , Struthioniformes/anatomy & histology , Anatomy, Veterinary , Chile/epidemiology , Histology, Comparative
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