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1.
Rev. Hosp. Ital. B. Aires (En línea) ; 43(4): 191-199, dic. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1551197

ABSTRACT

Introducción: la pandemia de COVID-19 indujo un cambio en nuestro sistema de salud y de educación. Los programas formativos también tuvieron que adaptarse y exigieron un cambio rápido. Objetivos: describir una experiencia educativa de enseñanza virtual/híbrida en investigación clínica, entre docentes del Servicio de Clínica de un hospital universitario y estudiantes de Medicina de una institución privada, que participaron del Programa ESIN (EStudiantes en INvestigación). Metodología: los contenidos y las estrategias educativas incluyeron las clases teóricas audiograbadas o videograbadas (asincrónicas y autoadministradas), el aprendizaje basado en proyectos, los talleres prácticos (encuentros sincrónicos virtuales y grupales), mediante la adopción de modelos de aprendizaje como el aula invertida, y la tutoría individual entre docente-estudiante. Los datos se recopilaron mediante la observación en contextos académicos, y basándonos en elementos de encuestas anónimas de satisfacción, previo consentimiento informado de los participantes. Resultados: participaron 14 estudiantes, 6 durante el año 2021 y 8 durante 2022. Todas mujeres y estudiantes de medicina (50% de cuarto año, 35% de sexto año y 15% de quinto año). Las técnicas implementadas favorecieron la participación y promovieron el aprendizaje activo, basado en proyectos. Mencionaron aspectos positivos como el enfoque académico práctico, la disponibilidad del equipo docente para atender cualquier duda, el tiempo y el entusiasmo por enseñar y fomentar la participación. Los videos teóricos resultaron útiles como herramientas de repaso, y los encuentros grupales fueron especialmente valorados, si bien los encuentros individuales fueron destacados como ayuda y apoyo previo a los congresos científicos. En general, manifestaron que fue una experiencia enriquecedora que demostró que se puede lograr lo que se creía imposible. Todas participaron activamente de al menos un congreso científico, y el 50% resultó coautora de una publicación académica. Conclusión: los estudiantes asumieron compromisos y responsabilidades, e incorporaron competencias y habilidades en la implementación y en la difusión de los proyectos. Esta experiencia educativa facilitó que el tiempo de clase pudiera optimizarse para intercambio, discusión y dudas. Los recursos producidos, las actividades desarrolladas y los contenidos abordados quedan disponibles a nivel institución. (AU)


Introduction: the COVID-19 pandemic brought about a change in our health and education system. Training programs also had to adapt and required rapid change. Objectives: to describe an educational experience of virtual/hybrid teaching in clinical research between teachers of the Clinical Service of a university hospital and medical students of a private institution who participated in the ESIN Program (Students in Research). Methodology: the contents and educational strategies included audio or videotaped lectures (asynchronous and self-administered), project-based learning, practical workshops (virtual and group synchronous meetings) by adopting learning models such as the inverted classroom, and individual tutoring between teacher and student. We gathered the data through observation in academic contexts and based on elements of anonymous satisfaction surveys, with prior informed consent of participants. Results: fourteen students participated, six in 2021 and eight in 2022. All were women and medical students (50% fourth year, 35% sixth year, and 15% fifth year). The techniques implemented favored participation and promoted active, project-based learning. They mentioned positive aspects such as the practical academic approach, the availability of the teaching team for any doubts, the time and enthusiasm for teaching, and encouraging participation. The theory videos were a valuable review tool, and team meetings received high praise even if the one-on-one meetings received much attention as help and support before the scientific congresses. In general, they stated that it was an enriching experience that showed that you can achieve what you thought impossible. All of them actively participated in at least one scientific congress, and 50% were co-authors of an academic publication. Conclusion: the students assumed commitments and responsibilities and incorporated competencies and skills in project implementation and dissemination. This educational experience helped to optimize class time for exchange, discussion, and doubts. The resources produced, the activities developed, and the contents addressed are now available at the institutional level. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Research/education , Students, Medical/psychology , Education, Distance/methods , Education, Medical/methods , Learning , Personal Satisfaction , Self Concept , Clinical Protocols , Surveys and Questionnaires , Educational Measurement/methods , Formative Feedback , COVID-19
2.
Rev. latinoam. enferm. (Online) ; 31: e3902, ene.-dic. 2023. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1441991

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: verificar las implicaciones de las actividades prácticas en el Laboratorio de Habilidad y Simulación relacionadas con la motivación y los sentimientos expresados por los estudiantes universitarios cuando regresan a las actividades presenciales luego del aislamiento social ocasionado por la pandemia del COVID-19. Método: estudio cuasiexperimental, con un solo grupo y del tipo pre y postest, realizado mediante una intervención educativa basada en el entrenamiento de habilidades en administración de medicamentos y venopunción, con estudiantes de medicina de una universidad pública brasileña. La muestra estuvo conformada por 47 estudiantes. Para la recolección de datos se utilizaron los instrumentos de caracterización y autopercepción de los individuos y la Escala de Motivación Situacional. Resultados: en la muestra, el 98% mencionó la falta de actividades prácticas durante la pandemia. El sentimiento descrito con mayor frecuencia fue la ansiedad. Después de realizar la actividad, hubo un cambio en la frecuencia de los sentimientos expresados, aunque no hubo un cambio significativo en los niveles de motivación. Regulación Externa (5,1 - 5,6), Regulación Identificada (6,1 - 6,4) y Motivación Intrínseca (5,6 - 6,0) presentaron resultados altos, demostrando similitud con los sentimientos relatados por los estudiantes. Conclusión: la motivación es fundamental para un aprendizaje efectivo y el uso de metodologías activas refuerza de manera efectiva las habilidades construidas en los estudiantes frente al proceso de aprendizaje.


Objective: to verify the implications of practical activities in the Skills and Simulation Laboratory on the motivation and feelings expressed by undergraduate students when returning to face-to-face activities after the social isolation caused by COVID-19 pandemic. Method: a quasi-experimental study, with a single group and of the pre- and post-test type, carried out through an educational intervention based on skills training on medication administration and venipuncture, with medical students from a Brazilian public university. The sample was comprised by 47 students. The instruments of students' characterization and self-perceived feelings and the Situational Motivation Scale were used for data collection. Results: in the sample, 98% mentioned the lack of practical activities during the pandemic. The most frequently described feeling was anxiety. After carrying out the activity, there was a change in the frequency of expressed feelings, although there was no significant change in motivational levels. External Regulation (5.1 - 5.6), Identified Regulation (6.1 - 6.4) and Intrinsic Motivation (5.6 - 6.0) presented high results, showing similarity to the feelings reported by the learners. Conclusion: motivation is essential for effective learning and the use of active methodologies reinforces skills built in an affective way in the students facing the learning process.


Objetivo: verificar as implicações das atividades práticas no Laboratório de Habilidade e Simulação relacionado à motivação e os sentimentos expressos pelos estudantes universitários quando regressam às atividades presenciais após o isolamento social causado pela pandemia da COVID-19. Método: estudo quase-experimental, com um único grupo, do tipo pré e pós-teste, realizado por meio de uma intervenção educacional baseada no treino de habilidades de administração de medicamentos e punção venosa, com estudantes de medicina de uma universidade pública brasileira. A amostra foi composta por 47 estudantes. Para a coleta de dados, foram utilizados os instrumentos de caracterização dos sujeitos e sentimentos autopercebidos pelos estudantes e a Escala de Motivação Situacional. Resultados: na amostra, 98% referiram falta de atividades práticas durante a pandemia. O sentimento mais frequentemente descrito foi a ansiedade. Após a realização da atividade, observou-se uma mudança na frequência dos sentimentos expressos, embora não se tenha verificado uma mudança significativa nos níveis motivacionais. A Regulação Externa (5,1 - 5,6), a Regulação (6,1 - 6,4) e a Motivação Intrínseca (5,6 - 6,0) apresentaram resultados elevados, demostrando semelhança com os sentimentos relatados pelos alunos. Conclusão: a motivação é essencial para uma aprendizagem eficaz e a utilização de metodologias ativas reforça as habilidades construídas de uma forma efetiva nos estudantes frente ao processo de aprendizagem.


Subject(s)
Humans , Students, Medical/psychology , Education, Medical , Simulation Training , COVID-19 , Learning , Motivation
3.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(3): 705-710, jun. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1514283

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: The COVID-19 pandemic caused several changes in the teaching of human anatomy, among them the use of different teaching methodologies based on E-learning. However, studies evaluating electronic tools have not provided clear evidence of effective student learning. Thus, this was the first study to evaluate medical students after completing human anatomy courses in the E- learning modality. We recruited first term (Group A, n=25) and second term (Group B, n=13) medical students. We applied a practical assessment based on 50 human anatomy markingson real anatomical specimens and cadavers, to be completed in Questionnaire 01 (Phase I). After detecting low scores on Questionnaire 01 by both groups, we applied a practical and face-to-face tutoring system for 14 days (Phase II). Afterwards, we re-evaluated both groups by repeating the same scores (Questionnaire 02, Phase III). According to the paired analysis of questionnaires 01 and 02 by Student's T-test, both groups showed significant increase in the final scores obtained in questionnaire 02 (Phase III). The evidence showed that the remote format lecture system weakened the learning and retention process of basic anatomical knowledge by medical students. On the other hand, in-person practical teaching proved to be efficient in the formative process of the students, a fact proven by the significant increase in the scores of the students in the 02 questionnaire, for both groups.


La pandemia por COVID-19 provocó varios cambios en la enseñanza de la anatomía humana, entre ellos el uso de diferentes metodologías de enseñanza basadas en E-learning. Sin embargo, los estudios que evalúan las herramientas electrónicas no han proporcionado evidencia clara de un aprendizaje efectivo de los estudiantes. Este fue el primer estudio que evaluó a estudiantes de medicina luego de cursar cursos de anatomía humana en la modalidad E-learning. Reclutamos estudiantes de medicina de primer término (Grupo A, n=25) y segundo término (Grupo B, n=13). Se aplicó una evaluación práctica basada en 50 marcas de anatomía humana sobre especímenes anatómicos reales y cadáveres, para ser completado en el Cuestionario 01 (Fase I). Tras detectar puntuaciones bajas en el Cuestionario 01 por parte de ambos grupos, se aplicó un sistema de tutorías prácticas y presenciales durante 14 días (Fase II). Posteriormente, reevaluamos ambos grupos repitiendo las mismas puntuaciones (Cuestionario 02, Fase III). Según el análisis apareado de los cuestionarios 01 y 02 por la prueba T de Student, ambos grupos mostraron aumento significativo en los puntajes finales obtenidos en el cuestionario 02 (Fase III). La evidencia mostró que el sistema de conferencias en formato remoto debilitó el proceso de aprendizaje y retención de conocimientos anatómicos básicos por parte de los estudiantes de medicina. Por otro lado, la docencia práctica presencial demostró ser eficiente en el proceso formativo de los alumnos, hecho que demuestra el aumento significativo de las puntuaciones de los alumnos en el cuestionario 02, para ambos grupos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Students, Medical/psychology , Education, Medical, Undergraduate/methods , COVID-19 , Anatomy/education , Teaching , Cadaver , Surveys and Questionnaires , Education, Distance , Learning
4.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(2): 456-460, abr. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1440324

ABSTRACT

El material cadavérico (MC) humano en la cursada de Anatomía de la carrera de Medicina es el recurso didáctico más antiguo y completo para la enseñanza. Este elemento conlleva importantes significaciones y múltiples atravesamientos (legales, éticos, procedimentales, culturales) que, a partir de la mitad del siglo XX tuvo cuestionamientos y posicionamientos pedagógicos antagónicos en cuanto a su uso. Su utilización genera reacciones emocionales en los estudiantes, a veces negativas, que son procesadas por los mecanismos de defensa y las estrategiasde afrontamiento con que el sujeto cuente. Cuando éstos son sobrepasados puede aparecer un cortejo sindromático que constituye el afrontamiento cadavérico negativo, el cual es un factor que ubica al alumno en un estado de vulnerabilidad con alteraciones en lo académico. Consideramos necesario para este grupo de estudiantes, como para aquellos en su proceso de afrontamiento, estrategias didácticas que los secunden en el proceso y tiendan a una educación inclusiva para que el afrontamiento cadavérico negativo no sea causal de deserción o riesgosidad.


SUMMARY: The human cadaveric material (CM) in the course of Anatomy of the Medicine career is the oldest and most complete didactic resource for teaching. This element carries important meanings and multiple crossings (legal, ethical, procedural, cultural) that, from the middle of the 20th century, had questions and antagonistic pedagogical positions regarding its use. Its use generates emotional reactions in students, often negative, which are processed by the defense mechanisms and coping strategies available to the subject. When these are exceeded, a syndromic courtship may appear that constitutes negative cadaveric coping, which is a factor that places the student in a state of vulnerability with academic alterations. We consider it necessary for this group of students, as well as for those in their coping process, didactic strategies that support them in the process and tend to an inclusive education so that negative cadaverous coping is not a cause of desertion or risk.


Subject(s)
Humans , Students, Medical/psychology , Cadaver , Adaptation, Psychological , Self-Injurious Behavior , Depression , Psychological Distress
5.
Rev. ADM ; 80(2): 101-103, mar.-abr. 2023. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1516447

ABSTRACT

Introducción: los alumnos a nivel profesional pueden llegar a presentar diferentes cambios en su estilo de vida, ya que se modifican factores como su estado de ánimo y sus hábitos alimenticios, esto como consecuencia de la saturación de tareas y actividades a realizar en su día a día. Objetivo: con esta investigación se quiere llegar a conocer el nivel de ansiedad en los estudiantes, ante la realización de exámenes y cómo esto afecta su estancia en la universidad, tanto académica como socialmente. Material y métodos: se realizó un estudio observacional y transversal, se comparó el nivel y afrontamiento al estrés entre alumnos de una universidad pública y una privada, se incluyeron 25 alumnos de cada universidad, de la Universidad Instituto Universitario del Estado de México (IUEM) 13 mujeres y 12 hombres, mientras de la Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México (UAEM) 10 mujeres y 15 hombres. El rango de edad fue de 18 a 23 años. Resultados: quince (60%) alumnos de la IUEM presentaron ansiedad de acuerdo al análisis de los resultados, en tanto que 10 (40%) no indicaron ningún problema de estrés ante la realización de exámenes. En cuanto a la UAEM, se obtuvieron los siguientes resultados, 20 (80%) presentaron estrés ante la realización de exámenes, en cambio cinco (20%) no tuvieron síntomas de estrés. Conclusión: existe una situación de alerta que indica que los estudiantes no están utilizando de forma adecuada las estrategias para afrontar el estrés, lo que puede traer consecuencias negativas tanto en el desempeño académico como en la salud (AU)


Introduction: students at the professional level may present different changes in their lifestyle, since their mood and eating habits are modified as a result of the saturation of tasks and activities to be performed in their day to day. Objective: with this research we want to get to know the level of anxiety in students, before taking exams and how this affects their stay at the university, both academically and socially. Material and methods: an observational and cross-sectional study was carried out to compare the level and coping with stress between students of a public and a private university, 25 students from each university were included, 13 women and 12 men from the Universidad Instituto Universitario del Estado de México (IUEM) and 10 women and 15 men from the Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México (UAEM). The age range was 18 to 23 years old. Results: fifteen (60%) IUEM students presented anxiety according to the analysis of the results, while 10 (40%) did not indicate any stress problem when taking exams. As for the UAEM, the following results were obtained: 20 (80%) presented stress when taking exams, while five (20%) had no symptoms of stress. Conclusion: there is a warning situation that indicates that students are not adequately using strategies to cope with stress, which can have negative consequences on both academic performance and health (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Anxiety/psychology , Stress, Psychological , Students, Medical/psychology , Adaptation, Psychological , Test Anxiety , Mexico/epidemiology
6.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(2): 482-490, abr. 2023. ilus, tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1440337

ABSTRACT

En estudios preliminares objetivamos alta prevalencia de uso de sustancias psicoactivas (SP) entre alumnos de Anatomía, con mayor impacto entre los recursantes o aquellos con actividades laborales. La causa del uso es multifactorial, pero se destacan factores de riesgo y precipitantes como la carga horaria de la currícula, exigencias de estudio, el distrés por el afrontamiento cadavérico negativo, el nuevo contexto educativo y la cantidad de horas de sueño. El objetivo fue comparar la prevalencia de uso de SP entre las cohortes de 2011-2019, con focalización en los factores determinantes conductuales. Estudio observacional, transversal y comparativo mediante encuesta estandarizada y anónima en 945 alumnos (año 2011= 122; año 2013= 158; año 2015=204; año 2017= 228; año 2019= 233). Se aplicaron parámetros estadísticos, se definió la significación como p -0.84; AA: r> -0.71). En el caso de ansiolíticos benzodiacepínicos, se asoció con falta de sueño y distrés por el afrontamiento negativo al estudio con cadáveres. En las cohortes comparadas por el lapso de 9 años hallamos alta prevalencia de uso de sustancias psicoactivas con tendencia al incremento. Las variables actividad laboral y recursante fueron determinantes para el uso de sustancias, y se asociaron cuestiones relativas a la adaptabilidad universitaria y afrontamiento de estudio negativo con el cadáver; todos con incidencia pedagógica en el proceso de enseñanza y aprendizaje.


SUMMARY: In preliminary studies, we observed a high prevalence of the use of psychoactive substances (PS) among Anatomy students, with a greater impact among recurrent students or those with work activities. The cause of use is multifactorial, but risk and precipitating factors stand out, such as the workload of the curriculum, study demands, distress due to negative cadaveric coping, the new educational context and the number of hours of sleep. The objective was to compare the prevalence of SP use between the 2011-2019 cohorts, with a focus on behavioral determinants. Observational, cross-sectional and comparative study using a standardized and anonymous survey in 945 students (year 2011= 122; year 2013= 158; year 2015=204; year 2017= 228; year 2019= 233). Statistical parameters were applied, significance was defined as p -0.84; AA: r> -0.71). In the case of benzodiazepine anxiolytics, it was associated with lack of sleep and distress due to negative coping with the study with cadavers. In the cohorts compared for a period of 9 years, we found a high prevalence of psychoactive substance use with an increasing trend. The variables work activity and recurrence were determinants for the use of substances, and issues related to university adaptability and negative study coping with the corpse were associated; all with pedagogical impact on the teaching and learning process.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Young Adult , Students, Medical/psychology , Students, Medical/statistics & numerical data , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Anatomy/education , Argentina , Adaptation, Psychological , Attitude to Death , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Risk Factors , Cohort Studies , Dissection/education , Dissection/psychology , Psychological Distress
7.
Rev. Hosp. Ital. B. Aires (2004) ; 43(1): 12-16, mar. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1434187

ABSTRACT

Introducción: la Educación Basada en la Comunidad (EBC) representa una estrategia educativa que acerca la formación médica a la práctica real, y promueve una atención médica de mayor aceptabilidad que contempla la esfera social de los procesos de salud/enfermedad y aborda de forma adecuada las necesidades reales de la población. Existen, a la fecha, escasas publicaciones a nivel regional en las cuales los propios estudiantes reflexionen sobre este tipo de experiencias formativas. Objetivos: identificar y comunicar los principales aprendizajes obtenidos de una experiencia de EBC por parte de estudiantes de grado de Medicina. Metodología: se revisaron las sistematizaciones de experiencias confeccionadas por la primera cohorte que completó esta experiencia en el Instituto Universitario del Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires. Se reflexionó sobre las principales dificultades observadas y los aprendizajes más significativos obtenidos a partir de dicha experiencia. Se establecieron dominios y codificaron los textos de las sistematizaciones generadas durante la cursada. Finalmente, se generó un mapa de conceptos a partir del cual se escribió este artículo. Resultados: esta experiencia tuvo para los estudiantes tres momentos bien definidos: una etapa inicial, caracterizada por incertidumbre y malestar; una intermedia, con aprendizaje estratégico y algo de transformación; y una avanzada, con aprendizaje profundo y situado. Conclusión: es recomendable que a las experiencias de EBC se les asigne el tiempo suficiente en las planificaciones y que finalicen con un proceso de reflexión promovido por el equipo docente. (AU)


Introduction: Community-Based Education (CBE) represents an educational strategy that brings medical training closer to real scenario practice, and promotes medical care of greater acceptability that contemplates the social sphere of health/disease processes and that adequately addresses the real needs of the population. To date, there are few publications at the regional level in which the students themselves reflect on this type of training experience. Objectives: to identify and communicate the main lessons learned from a CBE experience by Medicine-degree students.Methodology: the systematization of experiences made by the first cohort that completed this experience at the Instituto Universitario del Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires was reviewed. We reflected on the main difficulties observed and the most significant lessons learned from this experience. Domains were established, and the texts of the systematization generated during the course were codified. Then, a concept map was generated from which this work was written. Results: this experience had three well-defined moments for the students: an initial stage, characterized by uncertainty and discomfort; an intermediate one, with strategic learning and some transformation; and an advanced one, with deep and situated learning. Conclusion: it is recommended that EBC experiences are assigned enough time in the planning and that they end with a reflection process promoted by the teaching team. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Students, Medical/psychology , Education, Medical, Undergraduate/methods , Social Learning , Health-Disease Process , Professional Training , Value-Based Health Care
8.
Psicol. Estud. (Online) ; 28: e52917, 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1406369

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Considerando as atuais dificuldades enfrentadas em serviços de saúde mental e suas possíveis relações com a formação de profissionais de saúde, este artigo visa discutir como o ensino de medicina foi configurado subjetivamente por uma estudante universitária e as possíveis relações desse processo com alguns dos atuais desafios da reforma psiquiátrica brasileira. Este trabalho baseou-se num estudo de caso realizado ao longo de quatro meses com uma estudante de medicina de uma faculdade pública do Distrito Federal, onde se faz uso de metodologias ativas de aprendizagem. Foram utilizadas como referenciais a Teoria da Subjetividade, a Epistemologia Qualitativa e a metodologia construtivo-interpretativa de González Rey. Os resultados da pesquisa apontam para a organização de uma subjetividade social do ensino de medicina marcada por processos relacionados ao modelo biomédico, apesar das mudanças institucionais que visam promover um ensino pautado num modelo de atenção biopsicossocial. A participante expressa uma configuração subjetiva em que o cuidado articula-se ao controle e à medicalização, cujo desenvolvimento parece ter sido favorecido pela subjetividade social de seu contexto de ensino. Além disso, pode-se dizer que a subjetividade social do ensino de medicina está possivelmente relacionada a uma subjetividade social manicomial, ainda presente em serviços substitutivos, como os Centros de Atenção Psicossocial, dificultando as mudanças propostas pela reforma psiquiátrica. Por fim, este trabalho enfatiza o caráter subjetivo da aprendizagem, por meio do qual se articulam processos relacionados a diferentes âmbitos de vida da pessoa, como o educacional, o familiar e o cultural.


RESUMEN Teniendo en cuenta las dificultades actuales que enfrentan los servicios de salud mental y sus posibles relaciones con la formación de profesionales de la salud, este artículo tiene como objetivo discutir cómo la enseñanza de la medicina fue configurada subjetivamente por un estudiante universitario y las posibles relaciones de este proceso con algunos de los desafíos actuales de reforma psiquiátrica brasileña. Este trabajo se basó en un estudio de caso realizado durante cuatro meses con una estudiante de medicina de una universidad pública del Distrito Federal, donde se utilizan metodologías activas de aprendizaje. La Teoría de la Subjetividad, la Epistemología Cualitativa y la metodología constructivo-interpretativo de González Rey fueron utilizados como referentes. Los resultados de la investigación apuntan a la organización de una subjetividad social en la educación médica marcada por procesos relacionados con el modelo biomédico, a pesar de los cambios institucionales que tienen como objetivo promover una enseñanza basada en un modelo de atención biopsicosocial. La participante expresa una configuración subjetiva en la que el cuidado está vinculado al control y a la medicalización, cuyo desarrollo parece haber sido favorecido por la subjetividad social de su contexto de enseñanza. Además, se puede decir que la subjetividad social de la educación médica posiblemente esté relacionada con la subjetividad social manicomial, aún presente en servicios comunitarios, como los Centros de Atención Psicosocial, lo que dificulta los cambios propuestos por la reforma psiquiátrica. Finalmente, este trabajo expone el carácter subjetivo del aprendizaje, a través del cual se articulan procesos relacionados con diferentes áreas de la vida de la persona, como la educación, la familia y la cultura.


ABSTRACT Considering the current challenges faced in mental health services and their possible relationships with the training of health professionals, this article aimed to discuss how the teaching of medicine was subjectively configured by an undergraduate and the possible relationships of this process with some of the current challenges of the Brazilian psychiatric reform. This study was based on a case study carried out over four months with a medical student from a public college in the Federal District, where active learning methodologies are used. The Theory of Subjectivity, Qualitative Epistemology and the constructive-interpretative methodology of González Rey were used as framework. The results indicate the organization of a social subjectivity of medicine teaching marked by processes related to the biomedical model, despite institutional changes that aim to promote teaching based on a biopsychosocial care model. The participant expresses a subjective configuration in which care is linked to control and medicalization, whose development seems to have been favoured by the social subjectivity of her teaching context. In addition, it can be said that the social subjectivity of medical education is possibly related to a mental hospital social subjectivity, still present in substitute mental health services, such as Psychosocial Care Centers, making the changes proposed by the psychiatric reform more difficult to be accomplished. Finally, this study emphasizes the subjective aspect of learning, through which processes related to different areas of a person's life are articulated, such as education, family and culture.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Students, Medical/psychology , Case Reports , Education, Medical , Psychiatry , Health Strategies , Knowledge , Medicalization/education , Psychiatric Rehabilitation/psychology , Learning , Mental Health Services
9.
Rev. chil. neuro-psiquiatr ; 60(4): 444-453, dic. 2022. tab, ilus, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1423707

ABSTRACT

Introducción: el Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad, también conocido por sus siglas TDAH, es considerado como un trastorno del neurodesarrollo. Diversos estudios reportan que la persistencia de los síntomas durante la adultez se da en el 50-70% de niños con TDAH. Respecto del área académica, la literatura menciona que esta patología en la población universitaria oscila entre un 10 a 25% de estudiantes, en particular los de Medicina Humana. Materiales y métodos: estudio piloto con diseño Cross-sectional, para explorar las variables mencionadas en los estudiantes de todo el territorio peruano se agruparon los departamentos en cinco macro regiones, se utilizaron los cuestionarios ASRS V1.1 y DASS-21. Resultados: se contó muestra total de 250 participantes para la prueba piloto (50 por cada macro región), respecto del TDAH, 33,6% presentó resultados sugestivos. La prevalencia de trastornos del estado anímico fue del 81,6%, dentro de ellos la ansiedad fue más prevalente (70,4%), seguido por la depresión (62,8%) y el estrés (57,6%). Se encontró asociación entre el TDAH y los siguientes: trastorno anímico (PR=1,3 IC(95%) ), depresión (PR=1,51 IC(95%) ), ansiedad (PR=1,47 IC(95%) ) y estrés (PR=1,87 IC(95%) ). Conclusiones: el presente estudio piloto nos ha permitido probar satisfactoriamente el desempeño del instrumento y la técnica propuesta por el diseño metodológico en el estudio primario, confirmado con la obtención de cifras estimadas coherentes con lo descrito por la literatura, y confirmando la asociación entre las variables de interés.


Introduction: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, also known by its acronym ADHD, is considered a neurodevelopmental disorder. Several studies report that the persistence of symptoms during adulthood occurs in 50-70% of children with ADHD. Regarding the academic area, the literature mentions that this pathology in the university population ranges from 10 to 25% of students, in particular those of human medicine. Materials and methods: pilot study with Cross-sectional design, to explore the variables mentioned in students from all over the Peruvian territory, the departments were grouped into 5 macro regions, the ASRS V1.1 and DASS-21 questionnaires were used. Results: a total sample of 250 participants was counted for the pilot test (50 for each macro region), regarding ADHD, 33.6% presented suggestive results. The prevalence of mood disorders was 81.6%, among them, anxiety was more prevalent (70.4%), followed by depression (62.8%) and stress (57.6%). An association was found between ADHD and the following: Mood disorder (PR=1.3 CI (95%) ). Depression (PR=1.51 CI (95%) ). Anxiety (PR=1.47 CI (95%) ). and Stress (PR=1.87 CI (95%) ). Conclusions: the present pilot study has allowed us to satisfactorily test the performance of the instrument and the technique proposed by the methodological design in the primary study, confirmed by obtaining estimated figures consistent with what is described in the literature, and confirming the association between the variables of interest.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/psychology , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/epidemiology , Students, Medical/psychology , Mood Disorders/epidemiology , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , Peru/epidemiology , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Pilot Projects , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depressive Disorder/epidemiology
10.
Medicina (Ribeirão Preto) ; 55(4)dez. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1417597

ABSTRACT

Medical schools are known to be stressful environments for students, and hence medical students have been believed to experience greater incidences of depression and anxiety than the general population or students from other spe-cialties. The present study investigates the prevalence of anxiety and depressive symptoms together with factors as-sociated with them among medical students in a federal public university in the south of Brazil. A descriptive study was performed using self-administered questionnaires to access socio-demographic, institutional, and health variables in association with two scales - Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI) and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) - designed to assess depressive and anxiety symptoms, respectively. The research sample consisted of 152 subjects. The depres-sive symptoms prevalence was 65.1% (BDI > 9), state-anxiety was 98.6%, and trait-anxiety was 97.4% (STAI > 33). Among women, 37.8% demonstrated moderate/severe depressive symptoms. High levels of state-anxiety symptoms and trait-anxiety symptoms were found in 44.7% of students under the age of 20. In the group with the lowest month-ly income, it was observed the highest distributions for moderate/severe depressive symptoms, high state and high trait-anxiety symptoms, corresponding to 47.4%, 57.9%, and 47.4%, respectively. Students attending the third term of medical school had the highest percentage of moderate/severe depressive symptoms (62.5%) and high state-anxiety symptoms (50%). In addition, students who had both financial aid programs presented the highest percentages of moderate/severe depressive symptoms (46.2%), highstate-anxiety symptoms (61.5%), and high trait-anxiety symptoms (46.2%). We also observed a correlationbetween depression and trait-anxiety symptoms (P = 0.037). In conclusion, it was identified as risk factors for depressive symptoms the previous depression diagnosis, previous search for health service due to psychological symptoms, being in financial aid programs, dissatisfaction with the medical school, and inadequate psychological help offered by it. For state-anxiety symptoms and trait-anxiety outcome, there is an increased risk among low-income or students who have financial help from financial aid programs and younger age students. (AU)


Objetivo: Investigar a prevalência de sintomas de ansiedade e depressão e fatores associados a eles entre es-tudantes de medicina de uma universidade pública do sul do Brasil. Métodos: Foi realizado um estudo descritivo através de questionários autoaplicáveis para avaliar variáveis sociodemográficas, institucionais e de saúde, associa-das a duas escalas - Inventário de Depressão de Beck (BDI) e Inventário de Traço-Estado de Ansiedade (STAI) - para avaliar os sintomas de depressão e ansiedade, respectivamente. Resultados: A prevalência de sintomas depres-sivos foi de 65,1% (BDI > 9), estado de ansiedade foi de 98,6% e traço de ansiedade de 97,4% (STAI > 33). Uma correlação significativa foi encontrada entre depressão e traço de ansiedade. Diagnóstico prévio de depressão, busca prévia por serviços de saúde, insatisfação com o curso de medicina e ter auxílio de baixa renda e bolsa de iniciação científica foram identificados como fatores de risco para depressão. Estudantes com baixa renda mensal e menores de 25 anos apresentaram maior risco para estado de ansiedade. Idade, ano da faculdade de medicina e programa de ajuda financeira provaram ser um fator de risco para traço de ansiedade. Conclusão: Esses resultados mostram fatores significativos relacionados à saúde mental de estudantes de uma faculdade de medicina recém-fundada no interior do Brasil. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Anxiety/diagnosis , Students, Medical/psychology , Prevalence , Surveys and Questionnaires , Depression/diagnosis
11.
Rev. med. Chile ; 150(10): 1386-1395, oct. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1431857

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Undergraduate Pathology training in medicine is based on modalities centered on the teacher and associated with controlled motivation, with low satisfaction with the educational process. According to the Self-determination Theory, an early participation with responsibilities in clinical practice and an educational environment that promotes autonomy and basic psychological needs satisfaction (BPNS), would generate intrinsic motivation. AIM: To develop an educational intervention based on the pathologists' workplace model, which supports a learning environment intended to the satisfaction of BPNS in medical students. To evaluate the results of the intervention on the levels of motivation and satisfaction. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In the first phase of the study, an educational modality focused on the student was planned, consisting of the design of a pathological clinical case (DPC), performing the specialist's steps under minimal supervision and a contextualized environment. In the second phase, the level of satisfaction (Scale of student experience) and intrinsic motivation in 3rd year medical students was evaluated. RESULTS: After the intervention, 99 students showed high levels of satisfaction (94% of agreement) and intrinsic motivation (6.7 of 7 points), including all sub-scales. They considered that their competences had increased and assessed the intervention as useful. CONCLUSIONS: DPC is an innovative, feasible and attractive methodology for Pathology learning, with a high degree of satisfaction and intrinsic motivation. This experience can be extended to similar disciplines.


Subject(s)
Humans , Students, Medical/psychology , Motivation , Personal Satisfaction , Personal Autonomy , Learning
12.
Acta bioeth ; 28(2): 257-267, oct. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1402932

ABSTRACT

Abstract: In recent years, medical students' absenteeism has been investigated in depth. Classroom deviant behavior is a richer concept than truancy behavior, but there are few researchers on this aspect in China. There are still many issues worth discussing about deviant classroom behavior. In this paper, questionnaires were given to 977 medical students to collect relevant data. After classifying the data, correlation analysis and multilevel linear regression analysis were used to conclude that academic performance and group ethical norms have a negative impact on medical students' deviant behaviors in class. Group ethical norms have a significant positive influence on academic performance, and descriptive ethical norms and imperative ethical norms of group ethical norms have a significant influence on academic performance. The four dimensions of academic performance: academic performance, task performance, interpersonal promotion, and social comparison have a negative influence on medical students' deviant behaviors in class. Descriptive ethical norms have an inverse effect on medical students' deviant behaviors, while imperative ethical norms have no significant effect on deviant behaviors in class. Group ethical norms as a category of ethical norms clearly have significant implications for improving academic performance and reducing their transgressions in class. Reinforcing group ethics in medical students will not only contribute to their professional ethics upon graduation, but also to their academic performance.


Resumen: En los últimos años, se ha investigado en profundidad el absentismo de los estudiantes de medicina. El comportamiento desviado en el aula es un concepto más rico que el comportamiento de absentismo escolar, pero hay pocos investigadores sobre este aspecto en China. Todavía hay muchas cuestiones que vale la pena discutir sobre el comportamiento desviado en el aula. En este trabajo, se entregaron cuestionarios a 977 estudiantes de medicina para recoger los datos pertinentes. Tras clasificar los datos, se utilizó el análisis de correlación y de regresión lineal multinivel para llegar a la conclusión de que el rendimiento académico y las normas éticas de grupo tienen un impacto negativo en los comportamientos desviados de los estudiantes de medicina en clase. Las normas éticas de grupo tienen una influencia positiva significativa en el rendimiento académico, y las normas éticas descriptivas y las normas éticas imperativas de las normas éticas de grupo tienen una influencia significativa en el rendimiento académico. Las cuatro dimensiones del rendimiento académico: rendimiento académico, rendimiento de la tarea, promoción interpersonal y comparación social tienen una influencia negativa en los comportamientos desviados de los estudiantes de medicina en clase. Las normas éticas descriptivas tienen un efecto inverso en las conductas desviadas de los estudiantes de medicina, mientras que las normas éticas imperativas no tienen un efecto significativo en las conductas desviadas en clase. Las normas éticas de grupo como categoría de normas éticas tienen claramente implicaciones significativas para mejorar el rendimiento académico y reducir sus transgresiones en clase. Reforzar la ética de grupo en los estudiantes de medicina no sólo contribuirá a su ética profesional al graduarse, sino también a su rendimiento académico.


Resumo: Nos últimos anos, o absenteísmo dos estudantes de medicina tem sido pesquisado em profundidade. O comportamento desviante na sala de aula é um conceito mais rico do que o comportamento de evasão escolar, mas há poucos pesquisadores sobre este aspecto na China. Ainda há muitas questões que vale a pena discutir sobre o comportamento desviante em sala de aula. Neste documento, foram entregues questionários a 977 estudantes de medicina para coletar dados relevantes. Após a classificação dos dados, análise de correlação e análise de regressão linear multinível foram utilizadas para concluir que o desempenho acadêmico e as normas éticas de grupo têm um impacto negativo sobre o comportamento desviante dos estudantes de medicina em sala de aula. Normas éticas de grupo têm uma influência positiva significativa no desempenho acadêmico, e normas éticas descritivas e normas éticas imperativas de normas éticas de grupo têm uma influência significativa no desempenho acadêmico. As quatro dimensões do desempenho acadêmico: desempenho acadêmico, desempenho de tarefas, promoção interpessoal e comparação social têm uma influência negativa sobre os comportamentos desviantes dos estudantes de medicina nas aulas. As normas éticas descritivas têm um efeito inverso sobre os comportamentos desviantes dos estudantes de medicina, enquanto as normas éticas imperativas não têm efeito significativo sobre os comportamentos desviantes nas aulas. Normas éticas de grupo como uma categoria de normas éticas têm claramente implicações significativas para melhorar o desempenho acadêmico e reduzir suas transgressões na classe. O reforço da ética de grupo em estudantes de medicina não só contribuirá para sua ética profissional ao se formarem, mas também para seu desempenho acadêmico.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Students, Medical/psychology , Education, Medical/ethics , Problem Behavior/psychology , China , Surveys and Questionnaires , Regression Analysis , Education, Medical/standards
13.
J. bras. psiquiatr ; 71(2): 83-91, abr.-jun. 2022. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1386078

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a prevalência de comportamento suicida (ideação, plano e tentativa) nos últimos 12 meses e ao longo da vida e fatores associados entre alunos de Medicina da Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ). MÉTODOS: Um estudo seccional foi desenvolvido em uma amostra representativa e aleatória (n = 324) de 1.217 estudantes de Medicina da UFRJ entre abril e novembro de 2019. Os dados foram coletados por cinco pesquisadores em uma entrevista presencial com 296 alunos (taxa de participação de 91,4%), usando um questionário do Estudo Multicêntrico de Intervenção no Comportamento Suicida para avaliar o comportamento suicida, o PHQ-9 (Questionário de Saúde do Paciente-9) para avaliar o episódio depressivo maior e o ASSIST (Teste de Triagem do Envolvimento com Substâncias) para aferir o uso e abuso de substâncias. Para a avaliação das associações, utilizou-se o modelo de regressão logística. RESULTADOS: As prevalências nos últimos 12 meses foram de 18,9% (IC de 95%: 14,9-23,8) para ideação, 6,1% (IC de 95%: 3,9-9,4) para plano e 1,7% (IC de 95%: 0,7- 4,1) para tentativa de suicídio. As prevalências ao longo da vida foram de 27,7% (IC de 95%: 22,9-33,0) para ideação, 12,5% (IC de 95%: 9,2-16,7) para plano e 5,7% (IC de 95%: 3,6-9,0) para tentativa de suicídio. Os resultados encontrados foram maiores que os achados dos estudos nacionais. O episódio depressivo maior e o tratamento psicológico atual foram associados ao comportamento suicida na análise final. CONCLUSÕES: A associação com tratamento em saúde mental e episódio depressivo maior sugere que as universidades deveriam implementar programas para a prevenção do comportamento suicida.


OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper is to analyze the lifetime and past 12-month prevalence rates of suicidal behavior (suicidal ideation, suicide plans and suicidal attempt) and associated factors among medical students at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro. METHODS: Sectional study was applied to a representative and random set (n = 324) of 1,217 medical students between April and November of 2019. The data were collected by five researchers through in-person interviews with 296 of 324 volunteers (participation rate of 91.4%), using the Multisite Intervention Study on Suicidal Behavior interview to assess suicidal behavior, the PHQ-9 (Patient Health Questionnaire-9) to assess major depressive episode, and ASSIST (Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test) to assess substance use and abuse. A logistic regression model was used to calculate associations. RESULTS: The rates of past-12 month were found to be 18.9% (CI 95%: 14.9-23.8) for ideation, 6.1% (CI 95%: 3.9-9.4) for suicide plans and 1.7% (CI 95%: 0.7-4.1) for suicidal attempts. The lifetime prevalence rates were 27.7% (CI 95%: 22,9-33,0) for suicidal ideation, 12.5% (CI 95%: 9.2-16.7) for plans and 5.7% (CI 95%: 3.6-9.0) for suicidal attempts. These rates are higher than the measured results among medical students in Brazil. The factors associated in the final analysis were the major depressive episode and current psychological treatment. CONCLUSIONS: The association between mental health treatment and major depressive episode suggest that the universities should implement suicidal behavior prevention programs.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Students, Medical/psychology , Suicide, Attempted/statistics & numerical data , Suicidal Ideation , Logistic Models , Prevalence , Surveys and Questionnaires , Risk Factors , Depressive Disorder, Major/epidemiology , Sociodemographic Factors
14.
Rev. argent. cir ; 114(2): 145-154, jun. 2022. graf
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1387597

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Antecedentes: la actual pandemia causada por COVID-19 plantea desafíos a la enseñanza clínica al afectar el desarrollo normal de las actividades presenciales. Se necesitan soluciones que ayuden a mitigar esos efectos. Objetivo: el propósito de este estudio es presentar una estrategia de telesimulacion (TS) y analizar la perspectiva del diseño instruccional desde los estudiantes de grado de Cirugía. Material y métodos: 26 estudiantes tuvieron una inmersión en escenarios de alta fidelidad a distancia, a través de una plataforma de videoconferencia que les permitió experimentar y analizar situaciones críticas y tomar decisiones terapéuticas. El análisis de los datos se realizó desde un abordaje cuantitativo-cualitativo poniendo el foco en las vivencias de los participantes a partir de la encuesta de satisfacción, las transcripciones del debriefing (etapa reflexiva) y una pregunta abierta sobre percepción de aprendizaje, con el propósito de analizar la actividad en torno a las oportunidades de aprendizaje de razonamiento clínico y habilidades no técnicas como también los atributos del método percibidos por los estudiantes. Resultados: todos recomendarían la actividad a otro. Durante la etapa de debriefing emergen aspectos del rendimiento en relación con la hipótesis diagnóstica, la investigación complementaria, el tratamiento y las habilidades no técnicas. Además existió una percepción de aprendizaje más allá de la que ofrece la lectura de contenidos. Conclusión: la TS como oportunidad de aprendizaje favorece la enseñanza clínica. Como técnica, si bien puede lograr alta fidelidad, no puede descuidar los aspectos técnicos y tecnológicos que alterarían su curso.


ABSTRACT Background: The current COVID-19 pandemic poses additional challenges to clinical teaching by affecting the normal development of onsite activities. Solutions are necessary to mitigate these effects. Objective: The aim of this study is to present a telesimulation (TS strategy) and analyze the instructional design perspective of undergraduate students of surgery. Material and methods: Twenty-six students participated in the experience, immersed in high-fidelity virtual scenarios through a video conference platform in which they could experience and analyze critical situations and decide a therapeutic plan. Data analysis was carried out using a quantitative-qualitative approach, focusing on the participants' experiences reported in a satisfaction survey, debriefing transcriptions (reflective stage) and an open-ended question about the perception of learning aimed at analyzing the activity in terms of the opportunities to learn clinical reasoning, non-technical skills and the attributes of the method as perceived by the students. Results: All the students would recommend the activity to another peer. During debriefing, the aspects of performance related with the diagnostic hypothesis, complementary investigation, treatment and non-technical skills emerge. Furthermore, there was a perception of learning beyond that offered by content reading. Conclusion : Telesimulation as a learning opportunity favors clinical teaching. Although TS can achieve high fidelity as a technique, it cannot neglect the technical and technological aspects that would alter its course.


Subject(s)
Humans , General Surgery/education , Education, Distance/methods , Simulation Training/methods , Students, Medical/psychology , Models, Educational , Videoconferencing , Clinical Reasoning , COVID-19 , Learning
15.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1402192

ABSTRACT

Purpose: We aimed to assess anxiety among medical interns and to identify changes regarding their perspective about the profession during the pandemic period in Brazil, between November 2020 and February 2021.Methods: This is a cross-sectional descriptive study which medical interns answered an online survey question-naire. The assessment was performed using the validated questionnaire General Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD-7). Results: 162 responses were collected, mean age of 24.9 years, majority female (66.7%); 83.3% had the option of returning to practical assistance. Among these, 35% claimed to have had contact with suspects COVID-19 patients and 13% had a positive test for COVID-19. GAD-7 scores showed that 33.4% were qualified as "Normal", while mild (37%), moderate (22.8%) or severe symptoms of anxiety (6.8%). A GAD-7 score positive for TAG was found in 29.6% of them. Anxiety was significantly associated (p=0.013) with questioning the choice of Medicine as a profession. Conclusions: We found a high frequency of interns with symptoms of anxiety, higher compared to similar studies prior to the pandemic. In addition, medical interns with anxiety were the ones who most questioned the choice of profession (AU)


Objetivo: Objetivou-se avaliar a ansiedade de estudantes de medicina ­ internos e identificar mudanças em relação à perspectiva sobre a profissão durante o período pandêmico no Brasil, entre novembro de 2020 e fevereiro de 2021.Métodos: Trata-se de um estudo transversal descritivo no qual os estudantes internos responderam a um questionário de pesquisa online. A avaliação foi realizada por meio do questionário validado General Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD-7).Resultados: Participaram 162 estudantes, com média de idade de 24,9 anos, maioria do sexo feminino (66,7%); 83,3% tiveram a opção de retornar ao atendimento prático. Destes, 35% afirmaram ter tido contato com pacientes suspeitos para COVID-19 e 13% tiveram teste positivo para COVID-19. Os escores do GAD-7 mostraram que 37% apresentaram sintomas de ansiedade leve, 22,8% moderado, e 6,8% grave. Um escore GAD-7 positivo para TAG foi encontrado em 29,6% deles. A ansiedade associou-se significativamente (p = 0,013) ao questionamento da escolha da Medicina como profissão.Conclusões: Encontramos alta frequência de internos com sintomas de ansiedade, superior à observada em estu-dos semelhantes anteriores à pandemia. Além disso, os acadêmicos com ansiedade foram os que mais questionar-am a escolha da profissão (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Anxiety/diagnosis , Students, Medical/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires , COVID-19/psychology
16.
Int. j. morphol ; 40(1): 102-106, feb. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385561

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: The shift to online learning due to the COVID-19 pandemic sheds light on the need for innovative approaches to medical education, making it more interactive and effective. Histology is a challenging subject because it is known to be image intensive. In this study, we compared two methods of online teaching of practical histology: an interactive method using the Poll Everywhere Audience Response System and a traditional method without the use of Poll Everywhere. We performed a randomized controlled crossover trial. One hundred and forty students were divided into two groups. The first group was taught using the interactive method and the second group was taught using the traditional method. Each group was then taught using the other method for a second subject. Students' performance and preferences were assessed using tests and questionnaires. The examination scores were significantly higher for Poll Everywhere group. All students' responses were overwhelmingly in favor of the use of Poll Everywhere, with regard to their engagement, enjoyment, and morphology understanding, in addition to the applicability of the interactive approach. Interactive sessions of practical histology using applications such as Poll Everywhere can be an effective way to increase students' engagement, enjoyment, and knowledge retention during distance learning.


RESUMEN: El cambio al aprendizaje en línea debido a la pandemia de COVID-19 determinó la necesidad de enfoques innovadores para lograr que este método de educación médica sea más interactivo y efectivo. La histología es un tema desafiante debido a que se considera intensivo en imágenes. En este estudio, comparamos dos métodos de enseñanza en línea, en clases de laboratorio de histología: un método interactivo con el uso de Poll Everywhere Audience Response System y un método tradicional sin el uso de Poll Everywhere. Realizamos un ensayo cruzado (crossover) controlado aleatorio. Se dividieron cientocuarenta estudiantes en clases de laboratorio de histología en línea interactivas o tradicionales. Luego, a cada grupo se le asignó el segundo método para un segundo tema. El rendimiento y las preferencias de los estudiantes se evaluaron mediante pruebas y cuestionarios. Los puntajes de las pruebas fueron significativamente más altos para los grupos de Poll Everywhere, y las respuestas de los estudiantes fueron a favor de usar Poll Everywhere en lo que respecta a su participación, agrado y comprensión de la morfología como también del enfoque interactivo. Las clases de laboratorio de histología interactivas que utilizan aplicaciones como Poll Everywhere pueden ser una forma eficaz de impulsar la interacción de los estudiantes durante el aprendizaje a distancia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Young Adult , Students, Medical/psychology , Education, Distance/methods , COVID-19 , Histology/education , Quarantine , Surveys and Questionnaires , Pandemics
17.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 150(1): 54-61, ene. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1389618

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Emotional Intelligence (EI) in students is related with physical and psychological well-being, personal satisfaction, and better academic performance. Aim: To assess EI in students from eight health careers at the beginning and end of a year of university experience. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Sociodemographic and EI questionnaires were answered by 364 first-year students (74% women) at the beginning and end of the academic year. The EI questionnaire comprised attention, understanding and regulation of emotions subscales. RESULTS: The mean EI score increased at the end of the academic year from 79.5 to 81.2 (p < 0.01). A similar trend was observed in the subscales of emotional attention and emotional clarity. No significant differences between sexes were observed. First-year medical students had higher scores on all subscales, both at the beginning and end of the academic year. In all students, the subscale with the highest score was emotional repair. CONCLUSIONS: Tools to diagnose students' strengths and weaknesses are relevant for higher education institutions. These tools facilitate the implementation of educational and personal improvement strategies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Students, Medical/psychology , Academic Performance , Universities , Surveys and Questionnaires , Delivery of Health Care , Emotional Intelligence
18.
Int. j. morphol ; 40(4): 946-952, 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1405243

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN: Las percepciones físico-emocionales han comprobado connotaciones en la formación y futuro profesional. Se planteó analizar la evidencia sobre los instrumentos de medición para evaluar las percepciones físico-emocionales en estudiantes de Anatomía en medicina, estructurando una evisión sistemática en la que se consultaron estudios observacionales de 2010 a 2020 en las bases de datos Scopus, Ovid, PubMed, Science Direct, Google Scholar, Web of Science y ProQuest, con términos de búsqueda validados. El proceso de selección de estudios se sintetizó en diagrama de flujo. La extracción de datos y evaluación de la calidad se hizo por tres revisores independientes mediante escalas del National Institutes of Health de Estados Unidos; siendo valorada la concordancia entre revisores con el coeficiente kappa Fleiss. Se incluyeron 28 estudios diferenciados en instrumentos de medida validados (n 16) y estudios que usaron otros instrumentos de recolección (n 12). Los tipos de validación más frecuentes fueron consistencia interna, Alfa de Cronbach y constructo, análisis factorial. Se dispone de un número aceptable de instrumentos que evalúan el tema, se requieren nuevos estudios que aporten evidencia en el rigor en los procesos de medición con adaptación transcultural y de diferentes tipos de validación de instrumentos.


SUMMARY: Physical-emotional perceptions have proven connotations in training and professional future. To analyze the evidence on the measurement instruments to evaluate the physical-emotional perceptions in students of Anatomy in medicine. Systematic review in which observational studies from 2010 to 2020 were consulted in the Scopus, Ovid, PubMed, Science Direct, Google Scholar, Web of Science and ProQuest databases, with validated search terms. The study selection process was synthesized in a flow chart. Data extraction and quality assessment were done by three independent reviewers using scales from the National Institutes of Health in the United States; The agreement between reviewers was assessed with the Fleiss kappa coefficient. 28 differentiated studies were included in validated measurement instruments (n 16) and studies that used other collection instruments (n 12). The most frequent types of validation were internal consistency, Cronbach's alpha and construct, factor analysis. There is an acceptable number of instruments that evaluate the subject, new studies are required that provide evidence of the rigor in the measurement processes with cross-cultural adaptation and of different types of instrument validation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Perception , Students, Medical/psychology , Anatomy/education , Dissection/psychology , Education, Medical , Emotions
19.
Interface (Botucatu, Online) ; 26: e210677, 2022. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385951

ABSTRACT

A Medicina permanece majoritariamente branca e elitizada, apesar das cotas universitárias. Esta revisão apresenta e discute a produção científica sobre o racismo vivenciado por estudantes de Medicina negros no Brasil. Foram consultadas as bases de dados Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde, US National Library of Medicine, Scientific Electronic Library Online, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Educational Resources Information Centre, Portal de Periódicos da Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior e Google Acadêmico. Os 11 estudos incluídos são qualitativos e das Ciências Sociais e Humanas. A negação de racismo explícito - apesar dos relatos de discriminação, piadas sobre o cabelo, sensação de não pertencimento, exclusão e baixa representatividade no corpo docente e discente - evidencia a especificidade da construção do racismo no Brasil, que é pouco identificado, mesmo por parte daqueles que o vivenciam cotidianamente nos cursos de Medicina.(AU)


Despite college quotas, medicine remains a predominantly white and elitist profession. This review discusses the literature on racism experienced by black medical students in Brazil. We searched the following databases: Virtual Health Library, US National Library of Medicine, Scientific Electronic Library Online, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Educational Resources Information Centre, periodical portal of the Coordination for the Improvement of the Higher Education Personnel, and Google Scholar. The 11 studies included in the review are qualitative and from the field of social and human sciences. The evident denial of racism, despite reports of discrimination, jokes about hair, feelings of estrangement, exclusion, and low levels of representation among academic staff and students highlight the specificities of the construction of racism in Brazil. The latter tends to go unnoticed, even by those who experience it on a daily basis on medical courses.(AU)


La Medicina permanece mayoritariamente blanca y de élite, a pesar de las cuotas universitarias. Esta revisión presenta y discute la producción científica sobre el racismo vivido por estudiantes de medicina negros y negras en Brasil. Se consultaron las bases de datos: Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde, US National Library of Medicine, Scientific Electronic Library Online, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Educational Resources Information Centre, Portal de Periódicos da Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior y Google Acadêmico. Los 11 estudios incluidos son cualitativos y de las ciencias sociales y humanas. La negación de racismo explícito, a pesar de los relatos de discriminación, chistes sobre el pelo, sensación de no pertenencia, exclusión y baja representativad en el cuerpo docente y discente ponen en evidencia la especificidad de la construcción del racismo en Brasil que es poco identificado, incluso por parte de quienes lo viven cotidianamente en los cursos de Medicina.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Students, Medical/psychology , Black People/psychology , Education, Medical , Racism
20.
Rev. chil. endocrinol. diabetes ; 15(4): 145-151, 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1437509

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: Desde el año 2020 el mundo ha sido afectado por la pandemia por COVID-19, dentro de sus consecuencias se ha descrito la disminución de actividad física realizada por estudiantes universitarios. OBJETIVOS: Determinar el nivel de actividad física y sus motivaciones en estudiantes de medicina de una universidad chilena en el contexto de pandemia por COVID-19. MÉTODOS: Estudio transversal que incluyó a los estudiantes de medicina de primer a séptimo año de la Universidad de Valparaíso en enero del 2021. Se emplearon los cuestionarios International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Short Form (IPAQ-SF) y Motives for Physical Activities Measure - Revised (MPAM-R) de forma online. Se realizó la descripción de las variables y un análisis entre ellas mediante el cálculo de Odds Ratios. RESULTADOS: La muestra fue de 297 estudiantes. Un 53,2% eran mujeres y un 24,2% de los estudiantes eran internos. El 62,3% de los participantes realizaban moderada o alta actividad física. El sexo masculino y el internado fueron factores asociados a un mayor nivel de actividad física. No se demostró una asociación entre la cuarentena y el nivel de actividad física. Las principales motivaciones para realizar actividad física fueron salud y diversión, independiente del sexo de los participantes. CONCLUSIONES: La mayoría de los estudiantes de medicina presentaron al menos un nivel moderado o alto de actividad física, lo que es mayor a lo reportado previamente. Respecto a las motivaciones, el orden de prioridad fue similar entre ambos sexos. Los estudiantes consideran útil tener un horario protegido para realizar actividad física.


INTRODUCTION: The world has been affected by the COVID-19 pandemic since the year 2020, within its consequences it has been described the decrease in physical activity by university students. OBJECTIVES: To determine the level of physical activity and its motivations in medical students from a Chilean university in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We conducted an observational, cross-sectional study that included first to seventh year medical students from the Universidad de Valparaíso in January 2021. We used the International Physical Activity Questionnaire -Short Form (IPAQ-SF) and the Motives for Physical Activities Measure-Revised (MPAM-R) questionnaire, applied online. We described the variables and conducted an analysis by calculating Odds Ratios. RESULTS: The sample was 297 students. 53.2% were women and 24.2% of the students were interns. 62.3% of the participants performed moderate or high physical activity. Being male and interns were factors associated with a higher level of physical activity. An association between quarantine and level of physical activity was not shown. The main motivations for physical activity were Health and Fun, regardless of the sex of the participants. CONCLUSIONS: Most of the medical students presented at least a moderate or high level of physical activity, which is higher than previously reported. Regarding motivations, the priorities were similar between both sexes. Students find it helpful to have reserved hours in the academic schedule for physical activity.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Young Adult , Students, Medical/psychology , Exercise/psychology , COVID-19 , Motor Activity , Quarantine , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Pandemics , Motivation
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