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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763100

ABSTRACT

A 35-year-old female visited emergency department for a sudden onset of headache with vomiting after management for abortion at local department. Neurological examination revealed drowsy mentality without focal neurological deficits. CT showed 3.2×3.4 cm hyperdense intraventricular mass with intraventricular hemorrhage. The intraventricular hemorrhage was found in lateral, 3rd, and 4th ventricles. MRI showed well enhancing intraventricular mass abutting choroid plexus in the trigone of the right lateral ventricle. CT angiography showed tortuous prominent arteries from choroidal artery in tumor. Her neurological status deteriorated to stupor and contralateral hemiparesis during planned preoperative workup. Urgent transtemporal and transcortical approach with decompressive craniectomy for removal of intraventricular meningioma with hemorrhage was done. Grossly total removal of ventricular mass was achieved. Pathological finding was meningotheliomatous meningioma of World Health Organization (WHO) grade I. The patient recovered to alert mentality and no motor deficit after intensive care for increased intracranial pressure. However, visual field defect was developed due to posterior cerebral artery territory infarction. The visual deficit did not resolve during follow up period. Lateral ventricular meningioma with spontaneous intraventricular hemorrhage in pregnant woman is very uncommon. We report a surgical case of lateral ventricular meningioma with rapid neurological deterioration for intraventricular hemorrhage.


Subject(s)
Adult , Angiography , Arteries , Choroid , Choroid Plexus , Critical Care , Decompressive Craniectomy , Emergency Service, Hospital , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Fourth Ventricle , Headache , Hemorrhage , Humans , Infarction , Intracranial Pressure , Lateral Ventricles , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Meningioma , Neurologic Examination , Paresis , Posterior Cerebral Artery , Pregnancy , Pregnant Women , Stupor , Visual Fields , Vomiting , World Health Organization
2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-758481

ABSTRACT

A closed internal degloving injury is a soft tissue injury, in which the subcutaneous tissue is ripped from the underlying fascia. In rare cases, a closed internal degloving injury can lead to hemorrhagic shock. A 79-year-old woman was brought to the emergency department following an auto-pedestrian accident, in which she was hit by a car. She was in a stupor and was hypotensive. The initial evaluation was unremarkable. During management, the patient required the transfusion of a large volume of blood, and vasoactive agent. Abdominal computed tomography revealed a large hematoma in her lower back and gluteal area and she was diagnosed with a closed internal degloving injury. Missed or delayed diagnosis of this type of injury may result in a significant increase in transfusion requirements and irreversible hemorrhagic shock.


Subject(s)
Aged , Contusions , Delayed Diagnosis , Emergency Service, Hospital , Fascia , Female , Hematoma , Humans , Shock, Hemorrhagic , Soft Tissue Injuries , Stupor , Subcutaneous Tissue
3.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766817

ABSTRACT

Extrapontine myelinolysis is a demyelinating disorder usually caused by rapid correction of chronic hyponatremia. We present an 82-year-old female patient with general weakness, and severe hyponatremia (103 mEq/L) which was corrected 14 mEq/L during 21 hours. She was stuporous and presented status epilepticus. Brain T2-weighted image showed high signal intensities of bilateral thalami and electroencephalogram monitoring indicated right hemisphere lateralized periodic discharges, maximal in the right frontal region. This case shows that status epilepticus can occur in a patient of extrapontine myelinolysis involved bilateral thalami without pontine lesions.


Subject(s)
Aged, 80 and over , Brain , Demyelinating Diseases , Electroencephalography , Female , Humans , Hyponatremia , Myelinolysis, Central Pontine , Status Epilepticus , Stupor
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766037

ABSTRACT

We present the case of a 71-year-old man who was diagnosed with amoebic encephalitis caused by Balamuthia mandrillaris. He had rheumatic arthritis for 30 years and had undergone continuous treatment with immunosuppressants. First, he complained of partial spasm from the left thigh to the left upper limb. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed multifocal enhancing nodules in the cortical and subcortical area of both cerebral hemispheres, which were suggestive of brain metastases. However, the patient developed fever with stuporous mentality and an open biopsy was performed immediately. Microscopically, numerous amoebic trophozoites, measuring 20 to 25 µm in size, with nuclei containing one to four nucleoli and some scattered cysts having a double-layered wall were noted in the background of hemorrhagic necrosis. Based on the microscopic findings, amoebic encephalitis caused by Balamuthia mandrillaris was diagnosed. The patient died on the 10th day after being admitted at the hospital. The diagnosis of amoebic encephalitis in the early stage is difficult for clinicians. Moreover, most cases undergo rapid deterioration, resulting in fatal consequences. In this report, we present the first case of B. mandrillaris amoebic encephalitis with fatal progression in a Korean patient.


Subject(s)
Aged , Balamuthia mandrillaris , Biopsy , Brain , Cerebrum , Diagnosis , Encephalitis , Fever , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Necrosis , Neoplasm Metastasis , Rheumatic Fever , Spasm , Stupor , Thigh , Trophozoites , Upper Extremity
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717710

ABSTRACT

We describe the case of a patient with an acute subdural hematoma (SDH) that was removed using urokinase irrigation after burr hole trephination in a limited situation where craniotomy was not possible. A 90-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with a stuporous mental status. Computed tomography (CT) scans revealed a chronic SDH, and a burr hole procedure was performed. The patient's postoperative progression was good until the third day after surgery when we found that the acute SDH had increased on CT scans. The patient's guardian refused further surgery, and thus we drained the blood from the hematoma by injecting urokinase through a drainage catheter. We used urokinase for two days, and removed the catheter after confirming via CT scans that the hematoma was almost alleviated. The patient recovered gradually; she was discharged with few neurological deficits.


Subject(s)
Aged, 80 and over , Catheters , Craniotomy , Drainage , Female , Hematoma , Hematoma, Subdural, Acute , Humans , Stupor , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Trephining , Urokinase-Type Plasminogen Activator
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717709

ABSTRACT

Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) is a rare disease. Early diagnosis and treatment are important, as CVST is potentially fatal. Pregnancy and puerperium are known risk factors for CVST. Here, we report the case of a patient who developed superior sagittal sinus thrombosis after a normal vaginal delivery. A 20-year-old woman presented with a headache and seizures two days after a normal vaginal delivery. Initially, brain computed tomography (CT) showed a subarachnoid hemorrhage in the right parietal lobe and sylvian fissure, together with mild cerebral edema. CT angiography revealed superior sagittal sinus thrombosis. Multiple micro-infarctions were seen on diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance images. An intravenous infusion of heparin and mannitol was administered immediately. Two days after treatment initiation, the patient showed sudden neurological deterioration, with left-sided hemiplegia. Brain CT showed moderate brain edema and hemorrhagic densities. Emergency decompressive craniectomy was performed, and heparin was re-administered on post-operative day (POD) 1. On POD 9, the patient's mental state improved from stupor to drowsy, but the left-sided hemiplegia persisted. CT angiography showed that the superior sinus thrombosis had decreased. Superior sagittal sinus thrombosis is an uncommon complication, with an unfavorable outcome, after delivery. Timely diagnosis and treatment are important for preventing neurological deterioration.


Subject(s)
Angiography , Brain , Brain Edema , Cerebral Infarction , Decompressive Craniectomy , Diagnosis , Early Diagnosis , Emergencies , Female , Headache , Hemiplegia , Heparin , Humans , Infusions, Intravenous , Mannitol , Parietal Lobe , Postpartum Period , Pregnancy , Rare Diseases , Risk Factors , Seizures , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial , Stupor , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage , Superior Sagittal Sinus , Thrombosis , Young Adult
7.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-56979

ABSTRACT

Cases of the cement ingestion are rare. This paper reports the successful management of cement ingestion with gastric lavage and endoscopic washing. A 69-year-old man who had a stuporous mentality and seizures visited the local emergency room. He was found in his room with cement powder and several liquor bottles. He underwent a gastric lavage in the prior emergency room, which showed evidence of cement ingestion. He was transferred to the emergency center after primary care. Cement mixed with water is a strong alkali and acts as a caustic agent in the gastrointestinal tract. In addition, it can become hard in a few hours and sometimes produce gastric bezoars. Generally, gastric lavage is not recommended for caustic agents. On the other hand, gastric lavage and endoscopic washing was performed repeatedly for successful removal despite the physical and chemical characteristics of cement. Therefore, the active removal of ingested cement by both gastric lavage and endoscopic washing is recommended.


Subject(s)
Aged , Alkalies , Bezoars , Eating , Emergencies , Emergency Service, Hospital , Endoscopy , Gastric Lavage , Gastrointestinal Tract , Hand , Humans , Primary Health Care , Seizures , Stupor , Water
8.
Journal of Neurocritical Care ; (2): 126-128, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765881

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Glanzmann thrombasthenia (GT) is a rare disease with severe insufficiency of platelet function. There are no reports of GT associated with a cerebral hemorrhage. CASE REPORT: A 45-year-old woman had a stuporous mentality. Her computed tomographic (CT) angiography revealed a rupture of the posterior cerebral artery aneurysm. Hunt-Hess grade was 4 points and Fisher grade was 3 points. A clipping of the aneurysm was performed and proceeded to external ventricular drainage for hydrocephalus after 6 days. But, a new hemorrhage was detected several times via a follow-up brain CT. Various blood tests were conducted to evaluate the bleeding tendency, and the GT was diagnosed with PFA-200. The ventriculoperitoneal shunt was performed after the platelets transfusion, and she was discharged without other complications. CONCLUSION: With nonspecific and recurrent intracranial hemorrhage, a GT should be included in the differential diagnosis, which is important in controlling bleeding during the surgery.


Subject(s)
Aneurysm , Aneurysm, Ruptured , Angiography , Blood Platelets , Brain , Cerebral Hemorrhage , Diagnosis, Differential , Drainage , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Hematologic Tests , Hemorrhage , Humans , Hydrocephalus , Intracranial Aneurysm , Intracranial Hemorrhages , Middle Aged , Postoperative Hemorrhage , Rare Diseases , Rupture , Stupor , Thrombasthenia , Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-163475

ABSTRACT

Pneumocephalus is commonly seen after craniofacial injury. The pathogenesis of pneumocephalus has been debated as to whether it was caused by ball valve effect or combined episodic increased pressure within the nasopharynx on coughing. Discontinuous exchange of air and cerebrospinal fluid due to “inverted bottle” effect is assumed to be the cause of it. Delayed tension pneumocephalus is not common, but it requires an active management in order to prevent serious complication. We represent a clinical case of a 57-year-old male patient who fell down from 3 m height, complicated by tension pneumocephalus on 5 months after trauma. We recommend a surgical intervention, but the patient did not want that so we observe the patient. The patient was underwent seizure and meningitis after 7 months after trauma, he came on emergency room on stupor mentality. Tension pneumocephalus may result in a neurologic disturbance due to continued air entrainment and it significantly the likelihood of intracranial infection caused by continued open channel. Tension pneumocephalus threat a life, so need a neurosurgical emergency surgical intervention.


Subject(s)
Cerebrospinal Fluid , Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak , Cough , Craniocerebral Trauma , Emergencies , Emergency Service, Hospital , Humans , Male , Meningitis , Middle Aged , Nasopharynx , Pneumocephalus , Seizures , Stupor
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-163472

ABSTRACT

A 15-year-old man presented with stupor following a motorcycle traffic accident. The patient was diagnosed with a traumatic left carotid cavernous fistula (CCF) with pseudoaneurysm of the left internal carotid artery. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed transiently restricted diffusion in the left centrum semiovale white matter and lower temporo-occipital area extending to the splenium of the corpus callosum, with high signal intensity on diffusion-weighted imaging. On the 35th day of admission, the patient had complete neurological recovery and a follow-up brain MRI revealed complete resolution of the lesions in the left centrum semiovale and splenium of the corpus callosum. These clinical and radiological features are highly suggestive of complete reversal of diffusion restriction after successful embolization of traumatic CCF.


Subject(s)
Accidents, Traffic , Adolescent , Aneurysm, False , Brain , Carotid Artery, Internal , Corpus Callosum , Diffusion , Fistula , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Motorcycles , Stupor , White Matter
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-139263

ABSTRACT

Acute hemorrhagic leukoencephalitis (AHLE) is an acute, rapidly progressing, fulminant demyelinating disease. It is a rare disease of the central nervous system with high mortality; survivors commonly present with significant neurological deficit. We report the case of a 16-month-old girl who survived AHLE and presented with the associated neurologic deficit. The patient came into the emergency department with febrile seizure. She showed bilateral pinpoint-sized pupils and hyperactive deep tendon reflexes. Her mental status was initially drowsy and rapidly progressed to stupor. Extensive demyelination and microbleeds were found in the cerebral white matter, thalamus and left cerebellum on Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. Her mental status was improved by intravenous administration of immunoglobulin and methylprednisolone. Five months after being discharged, increased white matter connectivity was found on color-coded follow-up MR diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) as compared to previous MRI. We therefore suggest adding the DTI technique when a follow-up MRI is performed in patients with AHLE. It could be useful to visualize the status of axonal injury and to encourage patients and their parents to continue the rehabilitation program.


Subject(s)
Administration, Intravenous , Axons , Central Nervous System , Cerebellum , Child , Demyelinating Diseases , Diffusion Tensor Imaging , Diffusion , Emergency Service, Hospital , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Immunoglobulins , Infant , Leukoencephalitis, Acute Hemorrhagic , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Methylprednisolone , Mortality , Neurologic Manifestations , Parents , Pupil , Rare Diseases , Reflex, Stretch , Rehabilitation , Seizures , Seizures, Febrile , Stupor , Survivors , Thalamus , White Matter
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-139258

ABSTRACT

Acute hemorrhagic leukoencephalitis (AHLE) is an acute, rapidly progressing, fulminant demyelinating disease. It is a rare disease of the central nervous system with high mortality; survivors commonly present with significant neurological deficit. We report the case of a 16-month-old girl who survived AHLE and presented with the associated neurologic deficit. The patient came into the emergency department with febrile seizure. She showed bilateral pinpoint-sized pupils and hyperactive deep tendon reflexes. Her mental status was initially drowsy and rapidly progressed to stupor. Extensive demyelination and microbleeds were found in the cerebral white matter, thalamus and left cerebellum on Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. Her mental status was improved by intravenous administration of immunoglobulin and methylprednisolone. Five months after being discharged, increased white matter connectivity was found on color-coded follow-up MR diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) as compared to previous MRI. We therefore suggest adding the DTI technique when a follow-up MRI is performed in patients with AHLE. It could be useful to visualize the status of axonal injury and to encourage patients and their parents to continue the rehabilitation program.


Subject(s)
Administration, Intravenous , Axons , Central Nervous System , Cerebellum , Child , Demyelinating Diseases , Diffusion Tensor Imaging , Diffusion , Emergency Service, Hospital , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Immunoglobulins , Infant , Leukoencephalitis, Acute Hemorrhagic , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Methylprednisolone , Mortality , Neurologic Manifestations , Parents , Pupil , Rare Diseases , Reflex, Stretch , Rehabilitation , Seizures , Seizures, Febrile , Stupor , Survivors , Thalamus , White Matter
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-643730

ABSTRACT

A 77-year-old woman was admitted to a local clinic for altered consciousness and presented with a suspected basal ganglion hemorrhage detected on brain computed tomography. The patient was stuporous, but her vital signs were stable. Her initial blood glucose was 607 mg/dL, and a hyperdense lesion was found in the right basal ganglion on brain computed tomography. T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging revealed high signal intensity in the right basal ganglion. Electroencephalography showed no seizure activity. The patient was treated with a fluid infusion, and serum glucose level was controlled with insulin. The patient gradually recovered consciousness and was alert within 24 hours as serum glucose level normalized. The basal ganglion lesion caused by hyperglycemia was not accompanied by involuntary limb movement. This is the first report of a patient presenting with decreased consciousness and typical neural radiographic changes associated with nonketotic hyperglycemia but without movement abnormalities.


Subject(s)
Aged , Basal Ganglia , Blood Glucose , Brain , Consciousness , Electroencephalography , Extremities , Female , Ganglion Cysts , Hemorrhage , Humans , Hyperglycemia , Insulin , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Seizures , Stupor , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Vital Signs
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-122137

ABSTRACT

The sinking skin flap syndrome (SSFS) is a rare complication after a large craniectomy. Hemorrhage infarction after a cranioplasty is a very rare complication with only 4 cases to date. We report a case of the patient who underwent an autologous cranioplasty to treat SSFS that developed intracerebral hemorrhage infarction. A 20-year-old male was admitted to our emergency department with stuporous mentality. Emergent decompressive craniectomy (DC) have done. He had suffered from SSFS and fever of unknown origin (FUO) since DC. After 7 months of craniectomy, cranioplasty was done. After 1 day of surgery, acute infarction with hemorrhagic transformation involved left cerebral hemisphere. We controlled increased intracranial pressure by using osmotic diuretics, steroid and antiepileptic drugs. After 14 day of surgery, he improved neurological symptoms and he had not any more hyperthermia. Among several complication of large cranioplasty only 4 cases of intracerebral hemorrhagic infarction due to reperfusion injury has been reported. In this case, unstable autoregulation system made brain hypoxic damage and then reperfusion and recanalization of cerebral vessels resulted in intracerebral hemorrhagic infarction. 7 month long FUO was resolved by cranioplasty.


Subject(s)
Anticonvulsants , Brain , Cerebral Hemorrhage , Cerebrum , Decompressive Craniectomy , Diuretics, Osmotic , Emergency Service, Hospital , Fever , Fever of Unknown Origin , Hemorrhage , Homeostasis , Humans , Infarction , Intracranial Pressure , Male , Reperfusion , Reperfusion Injury , Skin , Stupor , Young Adult
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-167778

ABSTRACT

We report a case of multiple symptomatic cerebral infarctions from a traumatic vertebral artery dissection (VAD) after cervical fractures. A 73-year-old man was admitted with stuporous mentality and left hemiparesis after a motor-vehicle accident. A brain computed tomography (CT) scan at admission showed a traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage on the left parietal lobe. A cervical CT scan showed left lateral mass fractures on C2, C5, and C6, involving the transverse foramen. Cervical spine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed loss of signal void on the left vertebral artery. Neck CT angiography showed left VAD starting at the C5 level. Brain MRI revealed acute, multiple cerebral infarctions involving the pons, midbrain, thalamus, corpus callosum, and parietal and frontal lobes on diffusion weighted images. The patient was treated conservatively at the intensive care unit in the acute stage to prevent extent of stroke. Aspirin was started for antiplatelet therapy in the chronic stage. The possibility of symptomatic cerebral infarctions due to traumatic VAD following cervical fracture should be considered.


Subject(s)
Aged , Angiography , Aspirin , Brain , Cerebral Infarction , Cervical Vertebrae , Corpus Callosum , Diffusion , Female , Frontal Lobe , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Mesencephalon , Neck , Paresis , Parietal Lobe , Pons , Rabeprazole , Spinal Fractures , Spine , Stroke , Stupor , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage, Traumatic , Thalamus , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Vertebral Artery , Vertebral Artery Dissection
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-26720

ABSTRACT

Pseudohypoxic brain swelling (PHBS) is known to be an uncommon event that may occur during and following an uneventful brain surgery, when negative suction drainage is used. The cerebrospinal fluid loss related to suction drainage can evoke intracranial hypotension that progress to PHBS. The main presentations of PHBS are sudden unexpected circulatory collapses, such as severe bradycardia, hypotension, cardiac arrest, consciousness deterioration and diffuse brain swelling as seen with brain computerized tomography (CT). We present a stuporous 22-year-old patient who underwent cranioplasty under general anesthesia. The entire course of the general anesthesia and operation progressed favorably. However, the time of scalp suture completion, sudden bradycardia and hypotension occurred, followed by cardiac arrest immediately after initiation of subgaleal and epidural suction drainage. After successful resuscitation, the comatose patient was transferred to the neurosurgical intensive care unit and PHBS was confirmed using brain CT.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia, General , Bradycardia , Brain Edema , Brain , Cerebrospinal Fluid , Coma , Consciousness , Heart Arrest , Humans , Hypotension , Intensive Care Units , Intracranial Hypotension , Resuscitation , Scalp , Shock , Stupor , Suction , Sutures , Young Adult
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-124874

ABSTRACT

Cerebral vasospasm associated with hyperthyroidism has not been reported to cause cerebral infarction. The case reported here is therefore the first of cerebral infarction co-existing with severe vasospasm and hyperthyroidism. A 30-year-old woman was transferred to our hospital in a stuporous state with right hemiparesis. At first, she complained of headache and dizziness. However, she had no neurological deficits or radiological abnormalities. She was diagnosed with hyperthyroidism 2 months ago, but she had discontinued the antithyroid medication herself three days ago. Magnetic resonance imaging and angiography showed cerebral infarction with severe vasospasm. Thus, chemical angioplasty using verapamil was performed two times, and antithyroid medication was administered. Follow-up angiography performed at 6 weeks demonstrated complete recovery of the vasospasm. At the 2-year clinical follow-up, she was alert with mild weakness and cortical blindness. Hyperthyroidism may influence cerebral vascular hemodynamics. Therefore, a sudden increase in the thyroid hormone levels in the clinical setting should be avoided to prevent cerebrovascular accidents. When neurological deterioration is noticed without primary cerebral parenchyma lesions, evaluation of thyroid function may be required before the symptoms occur.


Subject(s)
Adult , Angiography , Angioplasty , Blindness, Cortical , Cerebral Infarction , Dizziness , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Headache , Hemodynamics , Humans , Hyperthyroidism , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Paresis , Stroke , Stupor , Thyroid Gland , Vasospasm, Intracranial , Verapamil
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-27925

ABSTRACT

A 63-year-old man complained of intermittent motor weakness of his arm. The magnetic resonance image (MRI) of his brain displayed a high signal lesion in right cingulate gyrus on T2 weighted image. One year later, he showed a stuporous mental status with repeated seizures, and the follow-up brain MRI showed heterogeneously enhanced mass associated with bleeding. He was treated with surgery and radiotherapy for secondary glioblastomas in right cingulate gyrus. One year more later, a mass recurred on the left frontal base, and gliosarcoma was diagnosed. After tumor resection, ventriculoperitoneal shunt, chemotherapy, and re-radiation therapy, all brain lesions were stable. Fourteen months after the diagnosis of gliosarcoma, he complained of dyspnea and back pain. Torso positron emission tomography/computed tomography revealed multiple metastatic lesions in both lungs, pericardium, pleura, liver, lymph nodes, and bones, and metastatic gliosarcoma was diagnosed. One month later, the patient died because of the systemic metastases. We present an unusual case of secondary gliosarcoma with stable brain lesions and extensive systemic metastases.


Subject(s)
Arm , Back Pain , Brain , Brain Neoplasms , Diagnosis , Drug Therapy , Dyspnea , Electrons , Follow-Up Studies , Glioblastoma , Gliosarcoma , Gyrus Cinguli , Hemorrhage , Humans , Liver , Lung , Lymph Nodes , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Metastasis , Pericardium , Pleura , Radiotherapy , Seizures , Stupor , Torso , Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-223559

ABSTRACT

Zolpidem is a non-benzodiazepine drug that has selectivity for the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors. We experienced paradoxical effect of zolpidem in a 48-year-old male patient with hypoxic-ischemic brain injury after cardiac arrest. The patient was in stupor and could not communicate. His Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) was E2M4V2 and Rancho Los Amigos (RLA) was grade III to IV. Zolpidem was prescribed to induce sedation but paradoxically, he became alert (GCS 15, RLA VII) and was able to communicate. The arousal lasted for 2 hours repeatedly following each administration of the medication. While he was alert, electroencephalogram showed the reversal of slow wave into beta range fast activity and F-18 flumazenil positron emission tomography (PET) showed increased GABAergic receptor activity in both frontoparietotemporal cortices. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) also showed increased cerebral perfusion and reversal of cerebellar diaschisis.


Subject(s)
Hypoxia , Arousal , Brain Injuries , Electroencephalography , Electrons , Flumazenil , gamma-Aminobutyric Acid , Glasgow Coma Scale , Heart Arrest , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Perfusion , Positron-Emission Tomography , Stupor , Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-144504

ABSTRACT

Simultaneous or subsequent bilateral thalamic hemorrhagic events have ranged from 12 to 19 in prior reports, with a time lag between bilateral thalamic hemorrhage of up to two days. Herein, we report the first case of delayed (17 days) consecutive contralateral thalamic hemorrhage after spontaneous first thalamic hemorrhage. A 65-year-old female initially presented with a drowsy mentality with a left-side motor weakness (grade II/III). Brain computed tomography (CT) demonstrated right side thalamic and intraventricular hemorrhage. She regained alertness with mild residual motor weakness (grade III/IV) under medical management. Seventeen days later, a sudden and generalized tonic-clonic seizure developed. Brain CT scans revealed a new contralateral thalamic hemorrhage coincident with microbleeds. Neurologic status remained unchanged, consisting of a stuporous mentality with quadriparesis of grade II/II. We report the first case of delayed consecutive contralateral thalamic hemorrhage up to 17 days after first thalamic hemorrhage. The case highlights the need for close monitoring of patients with thalamic hemorrhage who experience microbleeds on the contralateral side, due to the possibility of delayed hemorrhage.


Subject(s)
Aged , Brain , Female , Hemorrhage , Humans , Hypertension , Intracranial Hemorrhages , Quadriplegia , Seizures , Stupor , Thalamus , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
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