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1.
Rev. enferm. neurol ; 20(1): 66-76, ene.-abr. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1349260

ABSTRACT

Los drenajes cerebrales son dispositivos utilizados como métodos terapéuticos, permitiendo la salida de líquido normal o patológico a personas que cursen por alguna enfermedad neurológica, convirtiéndose en uno de los procedimientos más comunes en el área de la enfermería neurológica. He aquí que los cuidados de enfermería deben ser considerados específicos para poder visualizar resultados satisfactorios en pacientes portadores de estos sistemas en áreas críticas. Por este motivo, las intervenciones especializadas de enfermería en el cuidado a los drenajes cerebrales se basaron en la necesidad de elaborar una guía de intervenciones específicas, y especializadas, para personas con uso de drenajes cerebrales siendo un tema de importancia en enfermería neurológica.


Brain drains are devices used as therapeutic methods, allowing the exit of normal or pathological fluid to people suffering from a neurological disease, becoming one of the most common procedures in the area of neurological nursing. Here, nursing care must be considered specific in order to visualize satisfactory results in patients with these systems in critical areas. For this reason, specialized nursing interventions in the care of brain drains were based on the need to develop a guide for specific and specialized interventions for people with use of brain drains, being a topic of importance in neurological nursing.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage , Intracranial Pressure , Hematoma, Subdural , Persons , Nursing Care , Drainage , Catheters , Neuroscience Nursing
2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880644

ABSTRACT

In recent years, in the absence of venous component, dilated, overlapping, and tortuous arteries forming a mass of arterial loops with a coil-like appearance have been defined as pure arterial malformation (PAM). It is extremely rare, and its etiology and treatment have not yet been fully elucidated. Here, we reported 2 cases of PAM with associated aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage in this paper. Both patients had severe headache as the first symptom. Subarachnoid hemorrhage was found by CT and computed tomography angiography (CTA) and PAM with associated aneurysm was found by digital subtraction angiography (DSA). In view of the distribution of blood and the location of aneurysms, the aneurysm rupture was the most likely to be considered. Based on the involvement of the lesion in the distal blood supply, only the aneurysm was clamped during the operation. It used to be consider that PAM is safety, because of the presentation and natural history of previously reported cases. Through the cases we reported, we have doubted about "the benign natural history" and discussed its treatment. PAM can promote the formation of aneurysms and should be reviewed regularly. The surgical indications for PAM patients with aneurysm formation need to be further clarified. Management of PAM patients with ruptured aneurysm is the same as that of ruptured aneurysm. Whether there are indications needed to treat simple arterial malformations remains to be further elucidated with the multicenter, randomized controlled studies on this disease.


Subject(s)
Aneurysm, Ruptured/surgery , Angiography, Digital Subtraction , Cerebral Angiography , Humans , Intracranial Aneurysm/surgery , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/etiology
3.
Rev. méd. Urug ; 36(4): 156-184, dic. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY | ID: biblio-1144756

ABSTRACT

Resumen: El drenaje lumbar externo es un procedimiento invasivo de extracción de líquido cefalorraquídeo del espacio espinal cuyo uso se ha incrementado en los últimos años en el contexto de la medicina neurocrítica. Si bien no es recomendado por las guías o consensos internacionales, tiene un lugar en el manejo de algunas situaciones clínicas específicas vinculadas a diferentes tipos de neuroinjuria grave. Se realiza una revisión no sistemática de la literatura, a lo que se suma la experiencia de los autores. Se plantean las principales indicaciones actuales, se detallan las características de su manejo en los distintos escenarios clínicos y se señalan las contraindicaciones y complicaciones del procedimiento.


Summary: The placement of an external lumbar drainage (ELD), an invasive procedure to extract cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from the spinal space, has gradually increased in practice in recent years within the context of neurocritical medicine. Despite it not being recommended by international guidelines or consensus, it is used for the handling of a few specific clinical situations in connection with different types of severe brain injury. The study consists of a non-systematic review of the literature, along with the authors' experience, presenting the main current indications and details for its handling in the different clinical scenarios and describing side effects and complications of the procedure.


Resumo: A drenagem lombar externa é um procedimento invasivo para extração do líquido cefalorraquidiano do espaço espinhal, cujo uso tem aumentado nos últimos anos no contexto da medicina neurocrítica. Embora não seja recomendado por consensos ou diretrizes internacionais, tem lugar no manejo de algumas situações clínicas específicas ligadas a diferentes tipos de dano neurológico grave. Realiza-se uma revisão não sistemática da literatura, à qual se soma a experiência dos autores. Apresentam-se as principais indicações atuais, detalham-se as características de seu manejo nos diferentes cenários clínicos e apontam-se as contraindicações e complicações do procedimento.


Subject(s)
Subarachnoid Hemorrhage , Cerebrospinal Fluid , Drainage , Intracranial Hypertension
4.
Rev. argent. neurocir ; 34(3): 235-239, sept. 2020. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1120967

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Las lesiones durales son complicaciones frecuentes en la cirugía de columna. La fuga de liquidocefalorraquideo (LCR) puede originar hemorragia en todos los compartimientos del cerebro. La mayoría ocurre en venas ubicadas en región cerebelosa.Material y método: Se presenta un caso de hemorragia subaracnoidea posterior a una descompresión lumbar mínimamente invasiva asociada a desgarro dural. Resultados: Evoluciona en el postoperatorio con síntomas neurológicos de cefaleas y trastornos del sensorio por lo que se decide evaluarlo con estudios por imágenes vasculares cerebrales identificándose sangrado subaracnoideo.Discusión: El sitio más frecuente de hemorragia intracraneal posterior a una cirugía de columna es el cerebelo. El mecanismo de acción de este tipo de sangrados es desconocido y controversial, hay algunos reportes que sugieren que se trataría de un sangrado venoso. El síntoma más característico de este síndrome es la cefalea. Aunque se desconoce la etiología exacta, se postula que la pérdida de volumen de LCR causa una caída en la presión intracraneal, lo que lleva a un agrandamiento de los senos venosos durales que predisponen al paciente a un hematoma subdural espontáneoConclusión: La fuga de LCR, las alteraciones asociadas al edema cerebral en la hipotensión cerebral podría ser llave del mecanismo que desencadena una hemorragia subaracnoidea.


compartments of the brain. Most occur in veins located in the cerebellar region.Material and method: A case of subarachnoid hemorrhage after a minimally invasive lumbar decompression associated with dural tear is presented.Results: It evolves in the postoperative period with neurological symptoms of headaches and sensory disorders, so it is decided to evaluate it with studies by cerebral vascular images identifying subarachnoid bleeding.Discussion: The most frequent site of intracranial hemorrhage after spinal surgery is the cerebellum. The mechanism of action of this type of bleeding is unknown and controversial, there are some reports that suggest that it would be a venous bleeding. The most characteristic symptom of this syndrome is headache. Although the exact etiology is unknown, it is postulated that the loss of CSF volume causes a drop in intracranial pressure, which leads to an enlargement of the dural venous sinuses that predispose the patient to a spontaneous subdural hematomaConclusion: CSF leakage, alterations associated with cerebral edema in cerebral hypotension could be key to the mechanism that triggers a subarachnoid hemorrhage.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage , General Surgery , Brain Edema , Intracranial Hemorrhages , Hematoma, Subdural
5.
Rev. argent. neurocir ; 34(2): 116-123, jun. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1123373

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Realizar una revisión sistemática comparando dos estrategias de weaning de Derivación Ventricular externa (DVE) en pacientes con hidrocefalia aguda y su asociación con la proporción de derivación definitiva, infección del sistema nervioso central y duración de la estancia hospitalaria en cada una de las estrategias. Diseño: Revisión sistemática de la literatura. Fuentes de datos: Se realizaron búsquedas en PubMed, Embase, Lilacs. Se incluyò literatura gris, realizando búsquedas en Google académico, Dialnet, Open gray, Teseo y Worldcat hasta el 10 de septiembre de 2019. Métodos: Se realizó una búsqueda exhaustiva de estudios de los últimos 20 años en inglés, español y portugués, que compararan dos estrategias de weaning de DVE: rápida (WR) vs gradual (WG) en pacientes con hidrocefalia aguda. El resultado primario para esta Revisión Sistemática fue la proporción de derivación definitiva en cada uno de los regímenes. Se evaluó además, la proporción de infección del sistema nervioso central y la duración de la estancia hospitalaria. Dos investigadores extrajeron de forma independiente la información de los estudios y los resultados en concordancia con la Guía PRISMA. Resultados: La revisión arrojó en total 3 artículos que cumplían con los criterios de inclusión y que se consideraron de calidad metodológica aceptable, con un número de 1198 participantes no superpuestos, 569 que fueron sometidos a weaning rápido (WR), 629 en el grupo de weaning gradual (WG). No se encontró asociación estadisticamente significativa entre las estrategias de weaning y DVP OR 0.78 (Intervalo de confianza del 95% 0.3 a 2.06; P= 0.001; I2=85%), ni para infección del sistema nervioso central OR 0.54 (IC 95% 0,07 a 4.24); P= 0,05; I2= 74%) pero si se encontró diferencia estadísticamente significativa en la duración de la estancia hospitalaria a favor de la estrategia de weaning ràpido, OR -4.34 (IC 95% -5.92 a -2.75, P= <0,00001; I2= 57%). Conclusión: Con la evidencia disponible actualmente no es posible concluir cuál es la mejor estrategia de weaning para DVE con respecto a la proporción de derivación definitiva o infecciones del sistema nervioso central; sin embargo, si se observa una tendencia clara frente a la duración de la estancia hospitalaria en la estrategia de WR. Se requiere establecer criterios claros en cuanto a la definición de WR o WG y a crear estándares en cuanto los tiempos y la definiciòn precisa de falla terapeutica respecto a estas pruebas, para posteriormente integrar y probar estos métodos en estudios idealmente prospectivos y aleatorizados.


Objective: To conduct a systematic review by comparing two strategies of external ventricular drain (EVD) in patients with acute hydrocephalus and its association with the proportion of definite drain, infection of the central nervous system, and duration of hospital stay in each strategy. Design: Systematic review of literature.Data sources: PubMed, Embase, Lilacs. Grey literature was included by conducting searches through Scholar Google, Dialnet, Open Gray, Teseo and Worldcat until the 10th September, 2019. Methods: An exhaustive search of studies was done of the last 20 years in English, Spanish and Portuguese, which compares two strategies of external ventricular drain weaning (EVD): Rapid (WR) Vs Gradual (WG)in patients with acute hydrocephalus. The primary result for this systematic review was the proportion of Ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt placement in each of the regimes. Besides, the proportion of the infection of the central nervous system and the duration of the hospital stay was evaluated. Two researchers extracted in an independent way the information of the studies and results according to the guide PRISMA. Results: The review produced 3 articles in total which followed with the criteria of inclusion and which were considered of acceptable methodological quality, with 1198 non-superimposed participants, 569 who were subjected to rapid weaning (RW), 629 in the group of Gradual Weaning (GW). There were no significant differences between the 2 weaning ́s groups and DVP OR 0.78 (IC 95% 0.3 a 2.06; P= 0.001; I2=85%), for the infection of the Central Nervous System (CNS) OR 0.54 (IC 95% 0,07 a 4.24); P= 0,05; I2= 74%) but a significant differences was found in the duration of the hospital stay in favour of the strategy of RW, OR -4.34 (IC 95% -5.92 a -2.75, P= <0,00001; I2= 57%). Conclusion: With the current available evidence is not possible to conclude which is the best strategy of weaning for EVD regarding to the proportion of definite shunt or infections of the CNS; but if there is a clear trend regarding the length of hospital stay in the WR strategy. It is necessary to establish clear criteria as to the definition of WR or WG and to create standards as to the times and the precise definition of therapeutic failure with respect to these tests, to later integrate and test these methods in ideally prospective and randomized studies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hydrocephalus , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage , Ventriculostomy , Central Nervous System , Central Nervous System Infections
6.
West Afr. j. radiol ; 27(2): 81-88, 2020. ilus
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1273556

ABSTRACT

Background: Lately, there has been an increased utilization of computed tomography angiography (CTA) as the preferred first-line modality for the evaluation and diagnosis of most cerebral vascular lesions.Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate suspected intracranial vascular cases, using CTA at a major referral tertiary hospital in South West Nigeria.Materials and Methods: This was a hospital-based retrospective study of suspected intracranial vascular cases in all ages and both sexes that had CTA from January 2011 to December 2018. Data were analyzed with IBM SPSS version 23.0, and P < 0.005 was considered statistically significant.Results: A total of 128 patients were studied, the mean age was 44.1 ± 17.7 years, and male: female ratio was 1:1.06. The leading clinical diagnoses were as follows: intracranial aneurysms (34/128), subarachnoid hemorrhage (27/128), intracranial vascular tumors (26/128), brain hemorrhage from vascular abnormality (19/128), and arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) (10/128). At CTA, 61 patients had vascular abnormalities: intracranial aneurysm was seen in 63.9% with a peak age range of 41­60 years, and the leading location of aneurysms was posterior cerebral artery (18.8%), followed by posterior communicating artery (16.7%) and the cavernous segment of the internal carotid artery (16.7%). AVMs were more common in patients aged 40 years and below (91.7%) in males (66.7%) and in the parietal lobe. Intracranial aneurysms were 3.25 times as common as brain AVMs.Conclusion: Intracranial aneurysms are the predominant vascular lesions, occurring mostly in the older age group. AVMs occurred mostly in younger people, more in males, and predominantly in the parietal lobes. The hospital incidence of aneurysms to AVMs was 3.25:1


Subject(s)
Aneurysm , Arteriovenous Malformations , Nigeria , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage , Wounds and Injuries
7.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 682-689, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878000

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Although a variety of risk factors of pneumonia after clipping or coiling of the aneurysm (post-operative pneumonia [POP]) in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) have been studied, the predictive model of POP after aSAH has still not been well established. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of using admission neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) to predict the occurrence of POP in aSAH patients.@*METHODS@#We evaluated 711 aSAH patients who were enrolled in a prospective observational study and collected admission blood cell counts data. We analyzed available demographics and baseline variables for these patients and analyzed the correlation of these factors with POP using Cox regression. After screening out the prognosis-related factors, the predictive value of these factors for POP was further assessed.@*RESULTS@#POP occurred in 219 patients (30.4%) in this cohort. Patients with POP had significantly higher NLR than those without (14.11 ± 8.90 vs. 8.80 ± 5.82, P 10 had significantly worse POP survival rate than patients having NLR ≤10. NLR at admission might be helpful as a predictor of POP in aSAH patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Lymphocytes , Neutrophils , Pneumonia/etiology , Prognosis , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage , Treatment Outcome
8.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 77(11): 806-814, Nov. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055184

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage is a condition with a considerable incidence variation worldwide. In Brazil, the exact epidemiology of aneurysmal SAH is unknown. The most common presenting symptom is headache, usually described as the worst headache ever felt. Head computed tomography, when performed within six hours of the ictus, has a sensitivity of nearly 100%. It is important to classify the hemorrhage based on clinical and imaging features as a way to standardize communication. Classification also has prognostic value. In order to prevent rebleeding, there still is controversy regarding the ideal blood pressure levels and the use of antifibrinolytic therapy. The importance of definitely securing the aneurysm by endovascular coiling or surgical clipping cannot be overemphasized. Hydrocephalus, seizures, and intracranial pressure should also be managed. Delayed cerebral ischemia is a severe complication that should be prevented and treated aggressively. Systemic complications including cardiac and pulmonary issues, sodium abnormalities, fever, and thromboembolism frequently happen and may have na impact upon prognosis, requiring proper management.


RESUMO Hemorragia subaracnoidea aneurismática (aHSA) é uma condição com grande variação de incidência mundialmente. No Brasil, não dispomos de números epidemiológicos exatos. A apresentação clínica mais comum da HSA é a cefaleia, usualmente descrita como a pior da vida. A tomografia de crânio, quando feita nas primeiras 6 horas do ictus, tem uma sensibilidade próxima a 100%. É importante classificar a hemorragia utilizando escalas clínicas e radiológicas, como forma de padronizar a comunicação, e também predizer prognóstico. Para prevenção de ressangramento, ainda há controvérsias quanto aos níveis pressóricos ideais e uso de antifibrinolíticos. O tratamento definitivo do aneurisma, por sua vez, é fundamental, seja por meio endovascular ou cirúrgico. Hidrocefalia, crises epilépticas e a pressão intracraniana devem ser manejadas de forma apropriada. Isquemia cerebral tardia é uma complicação grave que deve ser prevenida e tratada agressivamente. Complicações sistêmicas, incluindo cardíacas, pulmonares, anormalidades de sódio, febre e tromboembolismo ocorrem frequentemente e podem ter impacto no prognóstico, necessitando de manejo adequado.


Subject(s)
Humans , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/complications , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/physiopathology , Seizures/etiology , Seizures/physiopathology , Seizures/therapy , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/therapy , Brain Ischemia/etiology , Brain Ischemia/physiopathology , Brain Ischemia/therapy , Risk Factors , Hydrocephalus/etiology , Hydrocephalus/physiopathology , Hydrocephalus/therapy
9.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 69(5): 448-454, Sept.-Oct. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057454

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background and objectives: Subarachnoid hemorrhage is an important cause of morbidity and mortality. The aim of the study was to determine predictors of mortality among patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage hospitalized in an Intensive Care Unit. Methods: This is a retrospective study of patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage admitted to the Intensive of our institution during a 7 year period (2009-2015). Data were collected from the Intensive Care Unit computerized database and the patients' chart reviews. Results: We included in the study 107 patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage. A ruptured aneurysm was the cause of subarachnoid hemorrhage in 76 (71%) patients. The overall mortality was 40% (43 patients), and was significantly associated with septic shock, midline shift on CT scan, inter-hospital transfer, aspiration pneumonia and hypernatraemia during the first 72 hours of Intensive Care Unit stay. Multivariate analysis of patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage following an aneurysm rupture revealed that mortality was significantly associated with septic shock and hypernatremia during the first 72 hours of Intensive Care Unit stay, while early treatment of aneurysm (clipping or endovascular coiling) within the first 72 hours was identified as a predictor of a good prognosis. Conclusions: Transferred patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage had lower survival rates. Septic shock and hypernatraemia were important complications among critically ill patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage and were associated increased mortality.


Resumo Justificativa e objetivos: A hemorragia subaracnoidea é uma causa importante de morbidade e mortalidade. O objetivo do estudo foi determinar os preditivos de mortalidade entre os pacientes com hemorragia subaracnoidea internados em uma Unidade de Terapia Intensiva. Métodos: Estudo retrospectivo de pacientes com hemorragia subaracnoidea internados na Unidade de Terapia Intensiva de nossa instituição de 2009 a 2015. Os dados foram coletados do banco de dados eletrônico da Unidade de Terapia Intensiva e de revisões dos prontuários dos pacientes. Resultados: Incluímos no estudo 107 pacientes com hemorragia subaracnoidea. A ruptura de aneurisma foi a causa da hemorragia subaracnoidea em 76 pacientes (71%). A mortalidade geral foi de 40% (43 pacientes) e esteve significativamente associada ao choque séptico, desvio da linha média na tomografia computadorizada, transferência inter-hospitalar, pneumonia por aspiração e hipernatremia durante as primeiras 72 horas de internação na Unidade de Terapia Intensiva. A análise multivariada dos pacientes com hemorragia subaracnoidea pós-ruptura de aneurisma revelou que a mortalidade esteve significativamente associada ao choque séptico e hipernatremia nas primeiras 72 horas de permanência na Unidade de Terapia Intensiva, enquanto o tratamento precoce do aneurisma (clipagem ou embolização endovascular) nas primeiras 72 horas foi identificado como preditivo de um bom prognóstico. Conclusões: Os pacientes com hemorragia subaracnoidea transferidos apresentaram taxas menores de sobrevivência. Choque séptico e hipernatremia foram complicações importantes entre os pacientes gravemente enfermos com hemorragia subaracnoidea e foram associados ao aumento da mortalidade.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/mortality , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Intensive Care Units , Middle Aged
10.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 147(9): 1210-1216, set. 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058666

ABSTRACT

We report a 39-year-old male with an aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage without hydrocephalus, in whom a right choroidal aneurysm was early excluded by endovascular coil insertion. Intracranial pressure (PIC) and cerebral oxygenation (PtiO2) sensors for neuromonitoring were installed due to a persistent comatose state. From the 3rd day, neuromonitoring became altered. CT angiography and cerebral angiography showed severe proximal and distal vasospasm (VE) of the middle (ACM) and anterior (ACA) right cerebral arteries. VE was treated with angioplasty and intravenous nimodipine. Forty eight hours later, despite hemodynamic maximization, neuromonitoring became altered again, mainly explained by a decrease in PtiO2 below 15 mmHg. A severe VE in ACM and right ACA was confirmed by angiography. Given the presence of an early and recurrent VE, which was associated with a decrease in cerebral oxygenation, internal carotid micro-catheters for continuous nimodipine infusion were installed. This therapy maintained a normal neuromonitoring for 15 days. During this period, attempts were done to decrease or discontinue the infusion, but the patient presented parallel falls of cerebral oxygenation or decreased cerebral perfusion observed with perfusion CT, interpreted as persistent VE. Finally, the infusion was stopped at day 15 without significant complication. We conclude that intra-arterial nimodipine continuous infusion in refractory VE can be useful and safe in selected patients. Multimodal neuromonitoring is essential.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/complications , Nimodipine/therapeutic use , Cerebral Angiography , Coma , Computed Tomography Angiography
11.
Rev. Eugenio Espejo ; 13(1): 19-27, Ene-Jul. 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1006735

ABSTRACT

La hemorragia subaracnoidea puede producirse por un traumatismo cráneo encefálico o cuando el denominado aneurisma (defecto en la estructura de la pared de un vaso sanguíneo) se rompe produciendo flujo de sangre en el espacio subaracnoideo. Al respecto, se desarrolló un estudio con enfoque mixto, de tipo no experimental, descriptivo, longitudinal prospectivo; cuyo fin fue describir la hemorragia subaracnoidea aneurismática en pacientes atendidos en la unidad de cuidados intensivos del Hospital Luis Vernaza, en la ciudad de Santiago de Guayaquil, Ecuador, durante el período comprendido desde enero hasta septiembre de 2016. En el mismo participa-ron 31 pacientes con diagnóstico de hemorragia subaracnoidea aneurismática, los que fueron atendidos en ese servicio de la institución en cuestión. Entre los resultados observados se puede destacar que: 24 de los 31 involucrados eran de género femenino, más del 90% de la población de estudio tenían más de 40 años de edad; la arteria comunicante posterior resultó la más afecta-da en los pacientes estudiados (32,26 %); el 58,33% de los casos tuvo compromiso cerebral con distintos grados de afectación; el 38,71% de la población de estudio desarrolló isquemia cere-bral tardía; se estableció una relación estadísticamente significativa entre esa última complica-ción y la administración de ácido tranexámico como parte del tratamiento para evitar resangra-do, el que se presentó solamente en el 16,13% de los pacientes participantes.


Subarachnoid hemorrhage can be caused by a traumatic brain injury or when the so-called aneu-rysm (defect in the structure of the wall of a blood vessel) ruptures causing blood flow in the subarachnoid space. Based on this, it was developed a study with a mixed approach, of a non-ex-perimental, descriptive, longitudinal, prospective type in order to describe aneurysmal subara-chnoid hemorrhage in patients treated in the intensive care unit of Luis Vernaza Hospital, in the city of Santiago de Guayaquil, Ecuador, during the period from January to September 2016. The study population was constituted by 31 patients diagnosed with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemo-rrhage and treated at the service mentioned above. The results were: 24 of the 31 patients were female, more than 90% of the study population were over 40 years of age. The posterior commu-nicating artery was the most affected in the patients representing 32.26%, 58.33% of the cases had cerebral involvement with different degrees of involvement, 38.71% of the patients develo-ped late cerebral ischemia. A statistically significant relationship was established between this last complication and the administration of tranexamic acid as part of the treatment to avoid rebleeding, which occurred only in 16.13% of the participating patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage , Tranexamic Acid , Cerebral Hemorrhage, Traumatic , Signs and Symptoms , Intracranial Aneurysm , Neurology
12.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 77(6): 404-411, June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011360

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Low- and middle-income countries face tight health care budgets, not only new resources, but also costly therapeutic resources for treatment of ischemic stroke (IS). However, few prospective data about stroke costs including cerebral reperfusion from low- and middle-income countries are available. Objective To measure the costs of stroke care in a public hospital in Joinville, Brazil. Methods We prospectively assessed all medical and nonmedical costs of inpatients admitted with a diagnosis of any stroke or transient ischemic attack over one year, analyzed costs per type of stroke and treatment, length of stay (LOS) and compared hospital costs with government reimbursement. Results We evaluated 274 patients. The total cost for the year was US$1,307,114; the government reimbursed the hospital US$1,095,118. We found a significant linear correlation between LOS and costs (r = 0.71). The median cost of 134 IS inpatients who did not undergo cerebral reperfusion (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale [NIHSS] median = 3 ) was US$2,803; for IS patients who underwent intravenous (IV) alteplase (NIHSS 10), the median was US$5,099, and for IS patients who underwent IV plus an intra-arterial (IA) thrombectomy (NIHSS > 10), the median cost was US$10,997. The median costs of a primary intracerebral hemorrhage, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and transient ischemic attack were US$2,436, US$8,031 and US$2,677, respectively. Conclusions Reperfusion treatments were two-to-four times more expensive than conservative treatment. A cost-effectiveness study of the IS treatment option is necessary.


RESUMO Os países de baixa e media renda enfrentam orçamentos apertados na saúde, não somente devido aos novos recursos terapêuticos, mas relacionado ao custo oneroso do tratamento do acidente vascular cerebral. No entanto, poucos dados prospectivos sobre os custos do AVC, incluindo reperfusão cerebral de países de baixa e média renda estão disponíveis. Objetivo Mensurar os custos do atendimento ao AVC em um hospital público. Métodos Avaliamos prospectivamente todos os custos médicos e não médicos de pacientes internados com diagnóstico de acidente vascular cerebral ou AIT durante 1 ano, analisamos os custos por tipo de AVC e tratamento, tempo de permanência e comparamos os custos hospitalares com o reembolso governamental. Resultados Foram avaliados 274 pacientes. O custo total em um ano foi de US$ 1.307,114; o governo reembolsou o hospital no valor de US$ 1.095.118. Encontramos uma correlação linear significativa entre LOS e custos (r = 0,71). A mediana do custo do AVCI em 134 pacientes que não sofreram reperfusão cerebral (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale [NIHSS] mediana = 3) foi de US$ 2.803; para pacientes submetidos a alteplase intravenosa (IV) (NIHSS 10), a mediana foi de US$ 5.099 e para os pacientes submetidos a trombectomia intra-arterial (IA) (NIHSS > 10), o custo mediano foi de US$ 10.997. A mediana do custo de uma hemorragia intracerebral primária, hemorragia subaracnóidea e AIT foram de US$ 2.436, US$ 8.031 e US$ 2.677, respectivamente. Conclusões Os tratamentos de reperfusão foram duas a quatro vezes mais caros do que o tratamento conservador. Estudo de custo-efetividade para o tratamento do AVC são necessários.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Health Care Costs/statistics & numerical data , Stroke/economics , Hospitals, Public/economics , Length of Stay/economics , Reference Values , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/economics , Time Factors , Brazil , Cerebral Hemorrhage/economics , Ischemic Attack, Transient/economics , Prospective Studies , Statistics, Nonparametric
13.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 77(6): 393-403, June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011354

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Few studies from low- and middle-income countries have assessed stroke and cerebral reperfusion costs from the private sector. Objective To measure the in-hospital costs of ischemic stroke (IS), with and without cerebral reperfusion, primary intracerebral hemorrhage (PIH), subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and transient ischemic attacks (TIA) in two private hospitals in Joinville, Brazil. Methods Prospective disease-cost study. All medical and nonmedical costs for patients admitted with any stroke type or TIA were consecutively determined in 2016-17. All costs were adjusted to the gross domestic product deflator index and purchasing power parity. Results We included 173 patients. The median cost per patient was US$3,827 (IQR: 2,800-8,664) for the 131 IS patients; US$2,315 (IQR: 1,692-2,959) for the 27 TIA patients; US$16,442 (IQR: 5,108-33,355) for the 11 PIH patients and US$28,928 (IQR: 12,424-48,037) for the four SAH patients (p < 0.00001). For the six IS patients who underwent intravenous thrombolysis, the median cost per patient was US$11,463 (IQR: 8,931-14,291), and for the four IS patients who underwent intra-arterial thrombectomy, the median cost per patient was US$35,092 (IQR: 31,833-37,626; p < 0.0001). A direct correlation was found between cost and length of stay (r = 0.67, p < 0.001). Conclusions Stroke is a costly disease. In the private sector, the costs of cerebral reperfusion for IS treatment were three-to-ten times higher than for usual treatments. Therefore, cost-effectiveness studies are urgently needed in low- and middle-income countries.


RESUMO Poucos estudos determinam o custo do AVC em países de baixa e média renda nos setores privados. Objetivos Mensurar o custo hospitalar do tratamento do(a): AVC isquêmico com e sem reperfusão cerebral, hemorragia intracerebral primária (HIP), hemorragia subaracnóidea e ataque isquêmico transitório (AIT) em hospitais privados de Joinville, Brasil. Métodos Estudo prospectivo de custo de doença. Os custos médicos e não médicos dos pacientes admitidos com qualquer tipo de AVC ou AIT foram consecutivamente verificados em 2016-17. Os valores foram ajustados ao índice do deflator do produto interno bruto e à paridade do poder de compra. Resultados Nós incluímos 173 pacientes. A mediana de custo por paciente foi de US$ 3.827 (IQR: 2.800-8.664) para os 131 pacientes com AVC isquêmico; US$ 2.315 (1.692-2.959) para os 27 pacientes com AIT; US$ 16.442 (5.108-33.355) para os 11 pacientes com HIP e US$ 28.928 (12.424-48.037) para os quatro pacientes com HSA (p < 0,00001). Para seis pacientes submetidos à trombólise intravenosa, a mediana do custo por paciente foi de US$ 11.463 (8.931-14.291) e, para quatro pacientes submetidos à trombectomia intra-arterial, a mediana de custo por paciente foi de US$ 35.092 (31.833-37.626; p < 0,0001). Uma correlação direta foi encontrada entre custo e tempo de permanência (r = 0,67, p < 0,001). Conclusão O AVC é uma doença cara. Em ambiente privado, os custos da reperfusão cerebral foram de três a dez vezes superiores aos tratamentos habituais do AVC isquêmico. Portanto, estudos de custo-efetividade são urgentemente necessários em países de baixa e média rendas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Hospitals, Private/economics , Health Care Costs/statistics & numerical data , Stroke/economics , Length of Stay/economics , Reference Values , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/economics , Time Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Brazil , Cerebral Hemorrhage/economics , Ischemic Attack, Transient/economics , Prospective Studies , Statistics, Nonparametric , Stroke/therapy
14.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 69(1): 64-71, Jan.-Feb. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-977413

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage is an important cause of premature death and disability worldwide. Magnesium sulphate is shown to have a neuroprotective effect and it reverses cerebral vasospasm. Milrinone is also used in the treatment of cerebral vasospasm. The aim of the present study was to compare the effect of prophylactic magnesium sulphate and milrinone on the incidence of cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage. Methods: The study included 90 patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage classified randomly (by simple randomization) into two groups: magnesium sulphate was given as an infusion of 500 mg.day-1 without loading dose for 21 days. Group B: milrinone was given as an infusion of 0.5 µg.kg-1.min-1 without loading dose for 21 days. The cerebral vasospasm was diagnosed by mean cerebral blood flow velocity in the involved cerebral artery (mean flow velocity ≥ 120 cm.s-1), neurological deterioration by Glasgow coma scale, or angiography (the decrease in diameter of the involved cerebral artery >25%). Results: The mean cerebral blood flow velocity decreased significantly in the magnesium group compared to milrinone group through Day 7, Day 14 and Day 21 (p < 0.001). The incidence of cerebral vasospasm decreased significantly with magnesium compared to milrinone (p = 0.007). The Glasgow coma scale significantly improved in the magnesium group compared to milrinone group through Day 7, Day 14 and Day 21 (p = 0.036, p = 0.012, p = 0.016, respectively). The incidence of hypotension was higher with milrinone than magnesium (p = 0.012). Conclusions: The incidence of cerebral vasospasm after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage was significantly lower and Glasgow coma scale significantly better with magnesium when compared to milrinone. Milrinone was associated with a higher incidence of hypotension and requirement for dopamine and norepinephrine when compared to magnesium.


Resumo Justificativa: A hemorragia subaracnoidea por aneurisma é uma importante causa de morte prematura e de incapacidade em todo o mundo. O sulfato de magnésio mostra um efeito neuroprotetor e reverte o vasoespasmo cerebral. A milrinona também é usada no tratamento de vasoespasmo cerebral. O objetivo do presente estudo foi comparar o efeito profilático do sulfato de magnésio e da milrinona sobre a incidência de vasoespasmo cerebral após hemorragia subaracnoidea. Métodos: O estudo incluiu 90 pacientes com hemorragia subaracnoidea por aneurisma randomicamente distribuídos (randomização simples) em dois grupos: sulfato de magnésio foi administrado em infusão de 500 mg.dia-1 sem dose de ataque durante 21 dias. O Grupo B recebeu milrinona em infusão de 0,5 µg.kg-1·min-1 sem dose de ataque durante 21 dias. O vasoespasmo cerebral foi diagnosticado pela velocidade média do fluxo sanguíneo cerebral na artéria cerebral envolvida (velocidade média do fluxo ≥ 120 cm.s-1), a deterioração neurológica por escala de coma de Glasgow ou angiografia (diminuição do diâmetro da artéria cerebral envolvida > 25%). Resultados: A velocidade média do fluxo sanguíneo cerebral diminuiu significativamente no grupo magnésio em comparação com o grupo milrinona nos dias 7, 14 e 21 (p < 0,001). A incidência de vasoespasmo cerebral diminuiu significativamente com o magnésio em comparação com milrinona (p = 0,007). A escala de coma de Glasgow melhorou significativamente no grupo magnésio em comparação com o grupo milrinona nos dias 7, 14 e 21 (p = 0,036, p = 0,012, p = 0,016, respectivamente). A incidência de hipotensão foi maior com milrinona do que com magnésio (p = 0,012). Conclusões: A incidência de vasoespasmo cerebral após hemorragia subaracnoidea por aneurisma foi significativamente menor e a escala de coma de Glasgow significativamente melhor com magnésio em comparação com milrinona. A milrinona foi associada a uma maior incidência de hipotensão e necessidade de dopamina e norepinefrina em comparação com o magnésio.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Calcium Channel Blockers/therapeutic use , Milrinone/therapeutic use , Vasospasm, Intracranial/prevention & control , Phosphodiesterase 3 Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Magnesium Sulfate/therapeutic use , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/complications , Double-Blind Method , Incidence , Vasospasm, Intracranial/etiology , Vasospasm, Intracranial/epidemiology , Middle Aged
16.
Journal of Stroke ; : 340-346, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766257

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Prediction of intracranial aneurysm growth risk can assist physicians in planning of follow-up imaging of conservatively managed unruptured intracranial aneurysms. We therefore aimed to externally validate the ELAPSS (Earlier subarachnoid hemorrhage, aneurysm Location, Age, Population, aneurysm Size and Shape) score for prediction of the risk of unruptured intracranial aneurysm growth. METHODS: From 11 international cohorts of patients ≥18 years with ≥1 unruptured intracranial aneurysm and ≥6 months of radiological follow-up, we collected data on the predictors of the ELAPSS score, and calculated 3- and 5-year absolute growth risks according to the score. Model performance was assessed in terms of calibration (predicted versus observed risk) and discrimination (c-statistic). RESULTS: We included 1,072 patients with a total of 1,452 aneurysms. During 4,268 aneurysm-years of follow-up, 199 (14%) aneurysms enlarged. Calibration was comparable to that of the development cohort with the overall observed risks within the range of the expected risks. The c-statistic was 0.69 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.64 to 0.73) at 3 years, compared to 0.72 (95% CI, 0.68 to 0.76) in the development cohort. At 5 years, the c-statistic was 0.68 (95% CI, 0.64 to 0.72), compared to 0.72 (95% CI, 0.68 to 0.75) in the development cohort. CONCLUSIONS: The ELAPSS score showed accurate calibration for 3- and 5-year risks of aneurysm growth and modest discrimination in our external validation cohort. This indicates that the score is externally valid and could assist patients and physicians in predicting growth of unruptured intracranial aneurysms and plan follow-up imaging accordingly.


Subject(s)
Aneurysm , Calibration , Cohort Studies , Discrimination, Psychological , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Intracranial Aneurysm , Risk Factors , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759975

ABSTRACT

Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) usually occurs due to aneurysmal rupture of intracranial arteries and its typical computed tomography (CT) findings are increased attenuation of cisterns and subarachnoid spaces. However, several CT findings mimicking SAH are feasible in diverse conditions. They are so-called as pseudo-SAH, and this report is a case of pseudo-SAH which is misdiagnosed as aneurysm rupture accompanied by bilateral chronic subdural hematoma (cSDH). A 42-year-old male with severe headache visited our institute. Non-contrast brain CT images showed increased attenuation on basal cistern, and cSDH on both fronto-temporo-parietal convexity with midline shifting. Trans-femoral cerebral angiography was done and we confirmed small aneurysm at right M1 portion of middle cerebral artery. Under diagnosis of SAH, we planned an operation in order to clip aneurysmal neck and remove cSDH. cSDH was removed as planned, however, there was no SAH and we also couldn't find the rupture point of aneurysm. Serial follow-up CT showed mild cumulative cSDH recurrence, but the patient was tolerant and had no neurologic deficit during hospitalization. We have checked the patient via out-patient department for 6 months, there are no significant changes in volume and density of cSDH and the patient also have no neurologic complications.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aneurysm , Arteries , Brain , Brain Edema , Cerebral Angiography , Diagnosis , Follow-Up Studies , Headache , Hematoma, Subdural, Chronic , Hemorrhage , Hospitalization , Humans , Intracranial Hypertension , Male , Middle Cerebral Artery , Neck , Neurologic Manifestations , Outpatients , Recurrence , Rupture , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage , Subarachnoid Space
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759974

ABSTRACT

Most cases of spinal subdural hematoma are very rare and result from iatrogenic causes, such as coagulopathy or a spinal puncture. Cases of non-traumatic spinal subdural hematoma accompanied by intracranial hemorrhage are even more rare. There are a few reports of spontaneous spinal subdural hematoma with concomitant intracranial subdural or subarachnoid hemorrhage, but not with intracerebral hemorrhage. Especially in our case, the evaluation and diagnosis were delayed because the spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage accompanying the unilateral spinal subdural and subarachnoid hemorrhages caused hemiplegia. We report a case of spinal subdural and subarachnoid hemorrhage with concomitant intracerebral hemorrhage, for the first time, with a relevant literature review.


Subject(s)
Cerebral Hemorrhage , Diagnosis , Hematoma , Hematoma, Subdural, Spinal , Hemiplegia , Intracranial Hemorrhages , Spinal Puncture , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765396

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Shunt-dependent hydrocephalus (SdHCP) is a well-known complication of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The risk factors for SdHCP have been widely investigated, but few risk scoring systems have been established to predict SdHCP. This study was performed to investigate the risk factors for SdHCP and devise a risk scoring system for use before aneurysm obliteration. METHODS: We reviewed the data of 301 consecutive patients who underwent aneurysm obliteration following SAH from September 2007 to December 2016. The exclusion criteria for this study were previous aneurysm obliteration, previous major cerebral infarction, the presence of a cavum septum pellucidum, a midline shift of >10 mm on initial computed tomography (CT), and in-hospital mortality. We finally recruited 254 patients and analyzed the following data according to the presence or absence of SdHCP : age, sex, history of hypertension and diabetes mellitus, Hunt-Hess grade, Fisher grade, aneurysm size and location, type of treatment, bicaudate index on initial CT, intraventricular hemorrhage, cerebrospinal fluid drainage, vasospasm, and modified Rankin scale score at discharge. RESULTS: In the multivariate analysis, acute HCP (bicaudate index of ≥0.2) (odds ratio [OR], 6.749; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.843–16.021; p=0.000), Fisher grade of 4 (OR, 4.108; 95% CI, 1.044–16.169; p=0.043), and an age of ≥50 years (OR, 3.938; 95% CI, 1.375–11.275; p=0.011) were significantly associated with the occurrence of SdHCP. The risk scoring system using above parameters of acute HCP, Fisher grade, and age (AFA score) assigned 1 point to each (total score of 0–3 points). SdHCP occurred in 4.3% of patients with a score of 0, 8.5% with a score of 1, 25.5% with a score of 2, and 61.7% with a score of 3 (p=0.000). In the receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, the area under the curve (AUC) for the risk scoring system was 0.820 (p=0.080; 95% CI, 0.750–0.890). In the internal validation of the risk scoring system, the score reliably predicted SdHCP (AUC, 0.895; p=0.000; 95% CI, 0.847–0.943). CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that the herein-described AFA score is a useful tool for predicting SdHCP before aneurysm obliteration. Prospective validation is needed.


Subject(s)
Aneurysm , Cerebral Infarction , Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak , Diabetes Mellitus , Hemorrhage , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Hydrocephalus , Hypertension , Multivariate Analysis , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , ROC Curve , Septum Pellucidum , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage , Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765384

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The circadian pattern of the onset time of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) has been reported by various authors. However, the effect of the degree of physical exertion on the circadian pattern has not been studied in detail. Therefore, we conducted this study to investigate the effect of physical exertion on the circadian pattern of aSAH. METHODS: Of the 335 patients presenting with aSAH from January 2012 to December 2017, 234 patients with identifiable onset time and metabolic equivalent (MET) values were enrolled. The onset time of aSAH was divided into 4-hour intervals. The patient’s physical exertion was then assessed on a scale between 1 and 8 METs using generally accepted MET values, and categorized into two groups—light exertion (1 to 4 METs) and moderate to heavy exertion (5 to 8 METs)—to determine the effect of the degree of physical exertion on the onset time distribution of aSAH. Multivariate analysis was used to calculate the odds ratio (OR) between the two groups to determine the effect of the degree of physical exertion on each set of time periods. RESULTS: There was a definite bimodal onset pattern that peaked at 08:00–12:00 hours followed by 16:00–20:00 hours (p <0.001). MET values at all time intervals were found to be significantly higher than the night time (00:00–04:00 hours) values (p<0.031). The MET value distribution showed a unimodal pattern that slightly differed from the bimodal distribution of the onset time of aSAH. There were no significant differences in the ORs of each time interval according to the degree of the MET value. CONCLUSION: This study reaffirmed that aSAH occurs in a bimodal pattern, especially showing the highest prevalence in the morning. Although aSAH could be related to daily activity, there were no significant changes in diurnal variations affected by the degree of physical exertion.


Subject(s)
Aneurysm , Epidemiology , Humans , Metabolic Equivalent , Motor Activity , Multivariate Analysis , Odds Ratio , Physical Exertion , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage
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