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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878442

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#This study aims to investigate the effects of ionizing radiation on the secretion of the paracellular pathway in rat submandibular glands (SMGs) and reveal the changes in the tight junction (TJ) protein claudin-4.@*METHODS@#A total of 24 Wistar rats were randomly divided into control and irradiation groups. The irradiation groups were further divided into 1, 4, and 12 weeks groups after irradiation. One-time 20 Gy irradiation was given to the SMG area on the experimental side of the irradiation group. At 1, 4, and 12 weeks after irradiation, the secretion of SMGs was measured using the Schirmer's test. The pathological changes in the gland tissues were observed under light microscopy after hematoxylin⁃eosin (HE) staining. The changes in the TJ ultrastructure were observed under transmission electron microscopy. The immunofluorescence staining and Western blot were used to detect the expression levels of muscarinic acetylcholine M3 receptor, aquaporin 5 (AQP5), and claudin-4 protein.@*RESULTS@#At 1, 4, and 12 weeks after irradiation, the secretion of SMGs in the irradiation group was significantly decreased and lower than that in the control group (@*CONCLUSIONS@#The changes in the TJ structure, the upregulation of the claudin-4 expression, and the damage in the paracellular pathway were involved in the hyposecretion of SMGs after irradiation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Radiation, Ionizing , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Submandibular Gland , Tight Junctions
2.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1349477

ABSTRACT

Introducción: gran parte de la población sufre procesos relacionados con las glándulas salivales, que, con los avances técnicos, se tiende cada vez más a tratar de una manera mínimamente invasiva. Objetivos: remarcar las indicaciones y las diferencias entre los abordajes comunes y los mínimamente invasivos, guiados por el sialoendoscopio. Además, describir la presentación clínica y el estudio de dichos pacientes. Diseño: realizamos un estudio descriptivo, observacional, longitudinal y retrospectivo sobre un grupo de 67 pacientes diagnosticados con patología obstructiva crónica no tumoral de las glándulas. Material y métodos: revisamos los datos referentes a la edad, sexo, hábitos tóxicos, enfermedades sistémicas o autoinmunes asociadas, radioterapia o tratamiento con yodo radiactivo (I131), síntomas asociados y resultados del examen físico y radiológico efectuados, así como el tratamiento efectuado. En mayo de 2019 incorporamos la técnica de sialoendoscopia al manejo de esta patología. Resultados: desde la incorporación de la sialoendoscopia, los casos de patología litiásica a nivel del tercio distal del conducto de Wharton se abordaron mediante exéresis de la litiasis sobre el suelo de la boca con ayuda del sialoendoscopio. Realizamos una sialoendoscopia diagnóstico-terapéutica en pacientes con clínica obstructiva crónica no litiásica. Discusión: el abordaje mínimamente invasivo permite una recuperación más temprana con una adecuada función glandular tras la cirugía. No solo es útil en la patología litiásica, sino que también presenta buenos resultados en patología autoinmune. Conclusión: las técnicas mínimamente invasivas han hecho que el manejo haya cambiado, limitando la realización de resecciones glandulares.


Introduction: A large part of the population suffers from processes related to the salivary glands, which with new advances in technology tends to be treated in a minimally invasive way. Goals: To highlight the indications and differences between common and minimally invasive approaches, guided by the sialoendoscope. In addition, to describe the clinical presentation and the study of these patients. Design: We carried out a descriptive, observational, longitudinal and retrospective study on a group of 67 patients diagnosed with non-tumorous chronic obstructive pathology of the glands. Material and methods: We review the data regarding age, sex, toxic habits, associated systemic or autoimmune diseases, radiotherapy or treatment with I131 (radioactive iodine), associated symptoms and results of the physical and radiological examination carried out. As well as the given treatment. In May 2019 we incorporated the sialoendoscopy to the management of this pathology. Results: Since the incorporation of sialoendoscopy, cases of lithiasic pathology at the distal 1/3 of Wharton's duct were approached by excision of the stone on the floor of the mouth using sialoendoscopy. We perform diagnostic-therapeutic sialoendoscopy in patients with non-lithiasic chronic obstructive symptoms. Discussion: The minimally invasive approach allows an earlier recovery with adequate glandular function after surgery. It is not only useful in lithiasic pathology, but it also has good results in autoimmune pathology. Conclusion: Minimally invasive techniques have changed management, limiting the neck open surgeries.


Subject(s)
Humans , Endoscopy , Submandibular Gland , Lithiasis
3.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 86(5): 626-631, Sept.-Oct. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132634

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Percutaneous drains can be associated with several complications, including infection, fistula formation, discomfort and prolonged hospitalization. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety of submandibular gland excision without the use of surgical drains. Methods: We analyzed the surgery time, postoperative complications such as bleeding, facial palsy, seroma, and repeat exploration of wounds and duration of the hospital stay. Excision of the submandibular gland via a transcervical approach was undertaken by two surgeons. Prior to wound closure, the skin flap and wound bed were approximated using hemostatic fibrin glue (Greenplast-Q PFS KIT®, GC Greencross, Youngin, Korea). Neither saline irrigation nor insertion of a percutaneous drain were included. Results: A total of 23 patients underwent submandibular gland excision. The study group consisted of 14 men (60.8%) and 9 women (39.2%) (mean age, 47.6 years; range, 24-70 years). There were two patients who had minor complications. One patient showed minor bleeding on the skin incision line immediately postoperatively, and one developed a seroma at 7 days postoperatively. There were no major surgical complications. Total duration of the surgery from skin incision to closure averaged 44.86 minutes. Mean duration of the hospital stay was 3.17 days. Patients were discharged on average at 1.17 days after surgery. Conclusion: The submandibular gland can be safely excised without the use of a surgical drain, therefore allowing early patient discharge.


Resumo Introdução: Os drenos percutâneos apresentam várias complicações associadas, inclusive infecção, formação de fístulas, desconforto e permanência hospitalar prolongada. Objetivo: Avaliar a segurança da excisão da glândula submandibular sem o uso de drenos cirúrgicos. Método: Analisamos o tempo de cirurgia, as complicações pós-operatórias tais como sangramento, paralisia facial, seroma e necessidade de reexploração de ferida operatória, e a duração da internação hospitalar. A excisão da glândula submandibular por via transcervical foi realizada por dois cirurgiões. Antes do fechamento da incisão, o retalho cutâneo e o leito da ferida operatória foram aproximados utilizando cola hemostática de fibrina (Greenplast-Q PFS KIT®, GC Greencross, Youngin, República da Coréia). Não houve irrigação salina nem uso de dreno percutâneo. Resultados: Foram submetidos 23 pacientes à excisão da glândula submandibular. O grupo de estudo consistiu em 14 homens (60,8%) e 9 mulheres (39,2%) (média de 47,6 anos; variação de 24 a 70). Dois pacientes apresentaram complicações menores. Um paciente apresentou pequeno sangramento na incisão da pele no pós-operatório imediato e um deles teve seroma aos 7 dias de pós-operatório. Não houve complicações cirúrgicas importantes. A duração total da cirurgia, desde a incisão na pele até o fechamento, foi de 44,86 minutos. A duração média da internação hospitalar foi de 3,17 dias. Os pacientes receberam alta em média 1,17 dia após a cirurgia. Conclusão: A glândula submandibular pode ser excisada com segurança sem o uso de dreno cirúrgico, permitindo que o paciente tenha alta hospitalar mais precocemente.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Submandibular Gland , Submandibular Gland Diseases , Postoperative Complications , Surgical Flaps , Length of Stay
4.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(3): 570-577, June 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1098289

ABSTRACT

El ratón (Mus musculus) es un buen modelo animal de experimentación, donde sus glándulas salivales han sido utilizadas en estudios, especialmente de tipo preclínico. Sin embargo, las diferencias en la morfología de estas glándulas y, en particular de las submandibulares, entre humanos y roedores no son de conocimiento común. Por lo anterior, el objetivo de este estudio fue conocer las características morfocuantitativos de la glándula submandibular del ratón macho C57BL/6. Se utilizaron cinco ratones macho, cepa C57BL/ 6, de 11 a 13 semanas de nacidos, con un peso promedio de 30 g. Luego de su ambientación, los ratones fueron eutanasiados. Para el análisis histológico, las glándulas fueron extraídas y fijadas en formalina tamponada por 48 horas, procesada para su inclusión en paraplast y teñidas con hematoxilina y eosina, azul alcián pH 2,5, ácido peryódico de Schiff y Picrosirius Red. Se determinaron las características estereológicas de densidad de longitud (LVcond), de volumen (VVcond) y de superficie (SVcond) de los conductos. En las células acinares se evaluó la densidad de número (NVcel) y la densidad de volumen (VVcel). Para cada variable se obtuvo la media ± desviación estándar. La glándula submandibular se encontraba organizada de manera lobulada, cuyo parénquima era de tipo túbuloacinar mixto con predominio seroso, que se conectaba a través de conductos. Las células acinares presentaban reacción positiva para azul alcián y ácido peryódico de Schiff. El estroma de la glándula contenía principalmente colágeno tipo 1. Los resultados de las mediciones estereológicas fueron: LVcond = 220,02 ± 50,51 mm/mm3; VVcond = 50,48 ± 9,55 %; SVcond = 26,39 ± 5,45 mm2/mm3; NVcel = 16,85 x 104 ± 9,13 × 104/mm3; VVcel = 24,98 ± 6,22 %. Con los análisis presentados es posible realizar investigaciones experimentales, considerando las similitudes y diferencias morfocuantitativas que presenta la glándula submandibular de ratón macho, cepa C57BL/6 con la del humano.


The mouse (Mus musculus) is a good experimental animal model, where murine salivary glands have been widely used in research by their similarities with human glands. Stereology is a tool that has to demonstrated to be valuable in biomedical researc h. Therefore, the objective was to realize an analogy between morphology, function and morpho-quantitative characteristics of the C57BL/6 mouse submandibular gland. Five male mice, C57BL/6, from 11 to 13 weeks old were used, with an average weight of 30 g. After seven days, the mice were euthanized and the samples were extracted. Then, these were processed following the conventional histological processing protocol and stained with H&E, Picrosirius Red, AA and PAS. Finally, the histological and stereological analysis of the samples was performed. In the glandular ducts the length density (LVcond), volume density (VVcond) and surface density (SVcond) were determined; whereas, in the acinar cells the density of number (NVcel) and the density of volume (VVcel) were evaluated. For each stereological variable the mean ± standard deviation was obtained. The histological study revealed no discrepancies as previously described. Descriptive statistical analysis revealed the following: LVcond = 220.02 ± 50.51 mm/mm3; VVcond = 50.48 ± 9.55 %; SVcond = 26.39 ± 5.45 mm2/mm3; NVcel = 168467.38 ± 91288.67 /mm3 and VVcel = 24.98 ± 6.22 %. From this study, it will be possible to conduct comparative experimental research analyzing quantitative results from those presented in this research. From this study, it will be possible to carry out comparative experimental research, analyzing quantitative results from those presented in this investigation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Submandibular Gland/anatomy & histology , Mice, Inbred C57BL/anatomy & histology , Salivary Glands/anatomy & histology , Models, Animal
5.
Acta otorrinolaringol. cir. cabeza cuello ; 48(4): 312-314, 20200000. ilus, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1141458

ABSTRACT

Introducción: la patología litiásica de las glándulas salivales forma parte de un grupo de afecciones que perjudica el sistema de drenaje normal de la saliva hacia la cavidad oral, ocasionando lesiones múltiples sobre la glándula afectada. Se realizó el reporte de un caso clínico con esta patología que, por el tamaño del lito, se considera extremadamente rara en nuestro medio. Método: se realizó el reporte de caso y revisión de la literatura (estudios radiológicos, historia clínica y hallazgos clínicos); además, el paciente firmó el consentimiento para esta publicación. Resultados: un paciente masculino de 38 años remitido de consulta externa con un cuadro clínico de 1 semana de dolor, edema y tumefacción en la región submandibular izquierda asociado con una secreción sialopurulenta por la cavidad oral. En la radiografía (Rx) oclusal estricta y en la tomografía axial computarizada (TAC) de cuello contrastado se evidenció una lesión litiásica de más o menos 4,5 x 1,8 cm de diámetro, de característica radiolúcida, a nivel del conducto de wharton. Se dio un manejo quirúrgico por otorrinolaringología maxilofacial, consistente en sialolitotomía y antibioticote- rapia por 10 días, con las cuales se obtuvieron buenos resultados. Conclusiones: la litiasis gigante a nivel del sistema salival (glándula, conductos) es una patología poco común en nuestro medio y está involucrada en el desarrollo de múltiples patología de tipo inflamatorio recurrente de la glándula involucrada, lo cual afecta la calidad de vida de los pacientes. Por esta razón, el diagnóstico y manejo debe ser oportuno para evitar complicaciones, como una infección profunda del cuello; en nuestro caso, el manejo fue oportuno con una extracción quirúrgica por la vía oral del cálculo y la reparación del conducto de wharton del lado izquierdo.


Introduction: the lithiasic pathology of the salivary glands is part of a group of conditions that harms the normal drainage system of the saliva towards the oral cavity, causing multiple lesions on the affected gland, a report of a clinical case with this pathology was made. Due to the size of the stone it is considered extremely rare in our environment. Method: case report and review of the literature (radiological studies, clinical history, clinical findings) patient consent was signed for this publication. Results: a 38-year-old male patient referred from the outpatient clinic with a 1-week clinical picture of pain, swelling and edema in the left submandibular region associated with sialopurulent secretion from the oral cavity in the strict occlusal Rx and a contrast-enhanced neck CT revealed a lithiasic lesion with more or less 4.5 x 1.8 cm in diameter of radiolucent features at the level of the wharton duct, surgical management was given by maxillofacial ENT, consisting of sialolitotomy and antibiotic therapy for 10 days with good results. Conclusions: the giant lithiasis at the level of the salivary system (gland, ducts) is a rare pathology in our environment, is involved in the development of multiple pathologies of recurrent inflammatory type of the affected gland, affecting the quality of life of patients, so the diagnosis and management should be timely and avoid complications, such as deep neck infection; in our case, the management was timely with oral surgical removal of the calculus and repair of the wharton duct on the left side.


Subject(s)
Humans , Salivary Duct Calculi , Submandibular Gland
7.
Rev. ADM ; 76(6): 336-342, nov.-dic. 2019. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1087527

ABSTRACT

Los tumores de las glándulas salivales constituyen alrededor de 5% de las neoplasias de cabeza y cuello. El adenoma pleomorfo es el tumor benigno más frecuente de las glándulas salivales, representa aproximadamente 60% de todas las neoplasias salivales, está compuesto fundamentalmente por una proliferación de células mioepiteliales y por un amplio espectro de componentes de tejido epitelial y mesenquimal, rodeado por una nítida cápsula fibrosa. Alrededor de 80% de los adenomas pleomorfos aparecen en la parótida, 10% en la glándula submandibular y 10% en las glándulas salivales menores de la cavidad oral. La edad media de presentación es a los 46 años, pero la edad oscila entre la tercera y la quinta década de la vida. No obstante, ha sido encontrado en individuos de todas las edades, presentando una ligera predilección por el sexo femenino. Respecto a su sitio de origen, el adenoma pleomorfo es asintomático, de crecimiento lento y consistencia firme. La tomografía axial computarizada (TAC) y la resonancia magnética nuclear (RMN) son de gran utilidad para evaluar la extensión de la lesión, así como el compromiso de estructuras importantes. La biopsia por aspiración con aguja fina (BAAF) es un método útil para el diagnóstico de este tipo de neoplasias. El tratamiento de este tipo de lesiones consiste en la remoción quirúrgica de la tumoración junto con la glándula afectada. Menos de 1% de los casos de adenomas pleomorfos sufren transformación maligna, especialmente los que han presentado múltiples recidivas (AU)


The tumors of the salivary glands constitute about 5% of the neoplasms of the head and neck. The pleomorphic adenoma is the most frequent benign tumor of the salivary glands, represents approximately 60% of all salivary neoplasms, is composed mainly of a proliferation of myoepithelial cells and a wide spectrum of components of epithelial and mesenchymal tissue, surrounded by a sharp fibrous capsule. About 80% of pleomorphic adenomas appear in the parotid, 10% in the submandibular gland and 10% in the minor salivary glands of the oral cavity. The average age of presentation is 46 years, but age ranges between the third and fifth decade of life. However, it has been found in individuals of all ages, presenting a slight female predilection. Regarding its site of origin, the pleomorphic adenoma is asymptomatic, slow growing and firm consistency. Computed tomography (CT) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) are very useful to evaluate the extent of the injury as well as the commitment of important structures. Fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) is a useful method for the diagnosis of this type of neoplasm. The treatment of this type of injuries consists in the surgical removal of the tumor together with the affected gland. Less than 1% of cases of pleomorphic adenomas suffer malignant transformation, especially those that have presented multiple recurrences (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Submandibular Gland/pathology , Adenoma, Pleomorphic , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Histological Techniques , Adenoma, Pleomorphic/diagnostic imaging , Oral Surgical Procedures , Tomography, Spiral Computed , Biopsy, Fine-Needle , Age and Sex Distribution
8.
J. oral res. (Impresa) ; 8(5): 363-369, oct. 31, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1248086

ABSTRACT

Objective: Chemotherapy treatment against cancer produce systemic toxicities, among which are those related to important structures of the stomatognathic system and its functional activity. 5 Fluorouracil (5-FU) and cyclophosphamide (Cf) are drugs widely used in solid tumors and in bone marrow transplantation, respectively. The objective of this work was to evaluate the toxicity of these drugs regarding functional activity of the submandibular glands, by measuring the percentage of glycogen consumption in two experimental models. Material and Methods: 84 male Wistar rats aged three months were used, housed in individual cages, with controlled temperature and lighting and ad libitum diet. They were divided into four experimental groups: 1) Control (C); 2) Treated with 5-FU+leucovorin (LV) at 20 and 10mg/Kg of body weight respectively for five consecutive days; 3) treated with Cf i.p. at 50mg/Kg of body weight for two consecutive days; and 4) rats with paired feeding (PF): for five and two days respectively, the amount administered resulted from the average of the ingested food of groups 2 and 3. Both submandibular glands were excised. The submandibular glycogen concentration was analyzed at initial time (t0) and after 60 minutes of mechanical stimulation (t60). Results: the average variation changed significantly between time 0 and 60 in the groups C and PF. (p-value=0.0001), the 5-FU + LV treatment group had an average concentration higher at t0 than groups C and PF, without significant consumption at T60. While group Cf showed a lower average concentration at time 0 with respect to groups C and PF, without significant consumption at T60. Conclusion: 5-FU+LV and Cf affect the metabolism of carbohydrates, decreasing the use of glycogen as a metabolic substrate. In the present experimental model, the toxicity of these drugs affected the functional activity of the submandibular gland.


Objetivo: el tratamiento de quimioterapia contra el cáncer produce toxicidades sistémicas, entre las que se encuentran las relacionadas con estructuras importantes del sistema estomatognático y su actividad funcional. El 5-fluorouracilo (5-FU) y la ciclofosfamida (Cf ) son fármacos ampliamente utilizados en tumores sólidos y en trasplantes de médula ósea, respectivamente. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la toxicidad de estos fármacos con respecto a la actividad funcional de las glándulas submandibulares, midiendo el porcentaje de consumo de glucógeno en dos modelos experimentales. Material y Métodos: se utilizaron 84 ratas Wistar machos de tres meses de edad, alojadas en jaulas individuales, con temperatura e iluminación controladas y dieta ad libitum. Se dividieron en cuatro grupos experimentales: 1) Control (C); 2) Tratados con 5-FU+leucovorina (LV) a 20 y 10mg/Kg de peso corporal, respectivamente, durante cinco días consecutivos; 3) tratados con Cf i.p. a 50mg/Kg de peso corporal durante dos días consecutivos; y 4) ratas con alimentación por parejas (PF): durante cinco y dos días respectivamente, la cantidad administrada resultó del promedio de los alimentos ingeridos de los grupos 2 y 3. Ambas glándulas submandibulares fueron extirpadas. La concentración de glucógeno submandibular se analizó en el momento inicial (t0) y después de 60 minutos de estimulación mecánica (t60). Resultados: la variación promedio cambió significativamente entre el tiempo 0 y 60 en los grupos C y PF. (p=0,0001), el grupo de tratamiento 5-FU+LV tuvo una concentración promedio más alta en t0 que los grupos C y PF, sin un consumo significativo en T60. Mientras que el grupo Cf mostró una concentración promedio más baja en el tiempo 0 con respecto a los grupos C y PF, sin un consumo significativo en T60. Conclusión: 5-FU + LV y Cf afectan el metabolismo de los carbohidratos, disminuyendo el uso de glucógeno como sustrato metabólico. En el presente modelo experimental, la toxicidad de estos medicamentos afectó la actividad funcional de la glándula submandibular.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Submandibular Gland/physiology , Cyclophosphamide/adverse effects , Fluorouracil/adverse effects , Glycogen/metabolism , Rats, Wistar , Cyclophosphamide/therapeutic use , Fluorouracil/therapeutic use , Antineoplastic Agents
9.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 85(4): 422-426, July-Aug. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019592

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Submandibular glands are exposed to many effects due to diseases and therapeutic interventions. A study evaluating the effect of submandibular gland dysfunction on the parotid gland has not been presented in the literature. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the histopathological changes in the parotid gland following submandibular gland failure. Methods: Three groups of seven randomly selected female New Zealand rabbits weighing 2500-3000 g were studied. Unilateral and bilateral submandibular glands were removed in Groups 1 and 2, respectively. No procedure was performed in Group III, the control group. The parotid glands were removed 30 days later. Histological parameters were evaluated and graded between 0 (none) and 3 (severe). Differences between groups were compared using the Mann-Whitney U test. Results: Mean mucus accumulation in acinar cells was 2.57 ± 0.53 and 1.71 ± 0.75 in Groups 1 and 2, respectively (p < 0.05). This value was 0.57 ± 0.53 in Group 3, which was significantly lower than in Groups 1 and 2 (p < 0.05). Mean dilatation of the intercalated ducts' lumen was 1.28 ± 0.48 and 1.57 ± 0.53 in Groups 1 and 2, respectively (p > 0.05). This value was 0.28 ± 0.48 in Group 3, which was significantly lower than in Groups 1 and 2 (p < 0.05). Mean mucus accumulation in the intercalated ducts' lumen was 2.00 ± 0.81 and 1.00 ± 0.57 in Groups 2 and 3, respectively (p < 0.05). Conclusion: The findings of this study indicate that only 1 month after submandibular gland failure, the parotid glands exhibit significant changes.


Resumo Introdução: As glândulas submandibulares estão expostas a muitos efeitos causados por doenças e intervenções terapêuticas. Estudos que avaliam o efeito da disfunção da glândula submandibular na glândula parótida ainda não foram reportados na literatura. Objetivo: O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar as alterações histopatológicas na glândula parótida após insuficiência da glândula submandibular. Método: Três grupos de sete coelhas fêmeas da raça Nova Zelândia, selecionadas aleatoriamente, pesando entre 2.500 e 3.000 gramas foram estudadas. As glândulas submandibulares unilaterais e bilaterais foram removidas nos Grupos 1 e 2, respectivamente. Nenhum procedimento foi realizado no Grupo III, o grupo controle. As glândulas parótidas foram removidas 30 dias depois. Os parâmetros histológicos foram avaliados e classificados entre 0 (nenhum) e 3 (grave). As diferenças entre os grupos foram comparadas usando o teste U de Mann-Whitney. Resultados: O acúmulo médio de muco nas células acinares foi de 2,57 ± 0,53 e 1,71 ± 0,75 nos Grupos 1 e 2, respectivamente (p < 0,05). Esse valor foi de 0,57 ± 0,53 no Grupo 3, significativamente menor do que nos Grupos 1 e 2 (p < 0,05). A dilatação média do lúmen dos dutos intercalados foi de 1,28 ± 0,48 e 1,57 ± 0,53 nos Grupos 1 e 2, respectivamente (p > 0,05). Esse valor foi de 0,28 ± 0,48 no Grupo 3, significativamente menor do que nos Grupos 1 e 2 (p < 0,05). O acúmulo médio de muco no lúmen dos dutos intercalados foi 2,00 ± 0,81 e 1,00 ± 0,57 nos Grupos 2 e 3, respectivamente (p < 0,05). Conclusão: Os achados deste estudo indicam que apenas um mês após a insuficiência da glândula submandibular as glândulas parótidas apresentam alterações significativas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Rats , Parotid Gland/pathology , Submandibular Gland/surgery , Parotid Gland/surgery , Models, Animal , Acinar Cells/pathology , Mucus
10.
Rev. cir. traumatol. buco-maxilo-fac ; 19(2): 33-36, abr.-jun. 2019. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1254006

ABSTRACT

Introdução: Os sialolitos são calcificações, que ocorrem no interior dos ductos ou nas glândulas salivares. De origem desconhecida, tal afecção constitui uma das mais comuns, que acometem as glândulas salivares, podendo ter tamanhos diversos e localizações. Os sialolitos maiores de 15 mm são considerados raros, podendo gerar uma diminuição da qualidade de vida do paciente em virtude de alterações funcionais da glândula salivar acometida. O diagnóstico de tal afecção é realizado por meio do exame clínico associado a radiografias e, se necessário, tomografia computadorizada na busca de uma maior elucidação do caso. Atualmente, existem diversas modalidades de tratamento para os sialolitos, que irá depender de sua localização e dimensões, variando desde tratamento conservador, com utilização de hidratação e sialogogos à remoção cirúrgica do sialolito. Relato de caso: Este artigo científico tem como objetivo relatar o caso clínico de um raro sialolito de aproximadamente 37 mm, localizado no ducto de Wharton em paciente geriátrico. O caso foi conduzido por remoção cirúrgica do sialolito com a confecção de uma nova desembocadura para o ducto. Considerações Finais: Após 2 anos de proservação, a região de assoalho bucal apresenta sinais de normalidade com relação a fluxo salivar e estruturas anatômicas adjacentes, sem apresentar recidiva da lesão... (AU)


Introduction: Sialoliths are calcifications that occur within the ducts or in the salivary glands. Of unknown origin, this condition is one of the most common that affects the salivary glands and may have different sizes and locations. Sialoliths larger than 15 mm are considered rare, and may lead to a reduction in the quality of life due to functional alterations of the affected salivary gland. The diagnosis of this condition is made through clinical examination associated with radiographs and, if necessary, computed tomography in the search for a better elucidation of the case. Currently, there are several treatment modalities for sialolites, which will depend on their location and dimensions, ranging from conservative treatment with hydration and sialogogs to the surgical removal of sialolite. Case report: This scientific article aims to report the clinical case of a rare sialolite of approximately 37mm, located in the Wharton duct in a geriatric patient. The case was conducted by surgical removal of the sialolite with the creation of a new outlet for the duct. Final considerations: After 2 years of proservation, the buccal floor region shows signs of normality with respect to salivary flow and adjacent anatomical structures and not presenting recurrence of the lesion... (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pathology, Oral , Salivary Glands , Submandibular Gland , Salivary Gland Calculi , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Mouth Floor
11.
Pesqui. bras. odontopediatria clín. integr ; 19(1): 4402, 01 Fevereiro 2019. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-998038

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate of the microstructure of the salivary glands of experimental animals born from of females rats, who were subjected to different modes of motor activity during the pregnancy: limited and compensated by regular moderate training. Material and Methods: The sample was composed 84 three-month-old descendants of Wistar rats which were divided into three groups: G1 (n = 27): posterity of female rats, who during gestation were in standard conditions; G2 (n = 25): posterity of female rats, who during pregnancy were in hypokinesia conditions; G3 (n = 32): which stayed in conditions of hypokinesia, but had running load in running wheel regularly 5 times a week. Results: In adult descendants of G2, morphological structure of the submandibular salivary glands was characterized by decrease size and number of glandular cells; reduction of their cytoplasm; increase in heterochromatin amount and decrease in the intensity of fuchsinophilia. Microstructure of the submandibular salivary glands of the offspring of G3 indicates positive effect of regular short-term physical activity on the morphofunctional state of the specified glands. An increased number of tissue basophils in their stroma is also in favor of greater functional activity of salivary glands. Conclusion: This study indicates deceleration of the metabolic processes in salivary glands of animals under the influence of hypokinesia of their mothers during pregnancy. It was also confirmed that regular physical activity completely eliminates the negative effect of mothers' hypokinesia on morphology the salivary glands of the descendant.


Subject(s)
Animals , Pregnancy , Rats , Salivary Glands , Submandibular Gland , Morphological and Microscopic Findings , Morphogenesis , Motor Activity , Ukraine , Pregnancy , Rats, Wistar , Hypokinesia , Animal Experimentation
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766025

ABSTRACT

Necrobiotic xanthogranulomatous reaction is a multiorgan, non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis with an unknown etiology. Occurrence in the salivary gland is extremely rare. We recently identified a case of necrobiotic xanthogranulomatous sialadenitis in a 73-year-old Korean woman who presented with a painless palpable lesion in the chin. There was no accompanying cutaneous lesion. Partial resection and subsequent wide excision with neck dissection were performed. Pathological examination showed a severe inflammatory lesion that included foamy macrophages centrally admixed with neutrophils, eosinophils, lymphocytes, plasma cells, and scattered giant cells, as well as necrobiosis. During the 12-month postoperative period, no grossly remarkable change in size was noted. Necrobiotic xanthogranulomatous inflammation may be preceded by or combined with hematologic malignancy. Although rare, clinicians and radiologists should be aware that an adhesive necrobiotic xanthogranuloma in the salivary gland may present with a mass-like lesion. Further evaluation for hematologic disease and close follow-up are needed when a pathologic diagnosis is made.


Subject(s)
Adhesives , Aged , Chin , Diagnosis , Eosinophils , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Giant Cells , Hematologic Diseases , Hematologic Neoplasms , Histiocytosis , Humans , Inflammation , Lymphocytes , Macrophages , Neck Dissection , Necrobiotic Disorders , Necrobiotic Xanthogranuloma , Neutrophils , Plasma Cells , Postoperative Period , Salivary Glands , Sialadenitis , Skin , Submandibular Gland
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773993

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the protective effect of Zengye Decoction (, ZYD) on the submandibular glands (SMGs) in nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice.@*METHODS@#Twenty-seven female NOD mice were randomly equally divided into 3 groups: the model group, the hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) group, and the ZYD group. Nine C57/B6 mice served as the normal group. After 1-week acclimation, the HCQ and ZYD groups were intragastrically administered with HCQ and ZYD, respectively, and the normal and model groups were administered with normal saline. Changes in the salivary flow rate were observed. Mice from all 4 groups were sacrificed at the age of 20 weeks. The serum and SMGs were collected. Serum cytokines gamma-interferon (IFN-γ), interleukin-10 (IL-10) were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Histological changes in the submandibular glands were examined by hematoxylin and eosin staining. The mRNA expression of IFN-γ, IL-10 and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) in the submandibular glands were measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the model group, the salivary flow of the ZYD group significantly increased (P<0.05), the extent of the histological changes was ameliorated (P<0.05), and the Th1/Th2 cytokine imbalance was remedied (P<0.05). In the ZYD-treated mice, the VIP mRNA was up-regulated (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#ZYD is beneficial in protecting structure and function of SMGs in NOD mice. The mechanism may be associated with the correction of the Th1/Th2 cytokine imbalance, and with the prevention of a progressive decline of the VIP level.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cytokines , Blood , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacology , Female , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Inbred NOD , Salivation , Sjogren's Syndrome , Drug Therapy , Allergy and Immunology , Submandibular Gland , Pathology , Th1 Cells , Allergy and Immunology , Th2 Cells , Allergy and Immunology , Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide , Genetics
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-772618

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To study the clinical features and treatments of congenital submandibular duct dilatation.@*METHODS@#Seven children with congenital submandibular duct dilatation from January 2008 to March 2018 were included in this study, whose average age was 5 months and 22 days. The clinical manifestations are unilateral swelling of the mouth floor. All seven children underwent sublingual gland resection, submandibular gland dilatation catheter resection, and catheter reroute under general anesthesia. Intraoperatively, the orifice of the submandibular gland was constricted and part of the catheter was dilated.@*RESULTS@#All seven patients had good healing without swelling or cyst formation.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Congenital submandibular duct dilatation occurs at a young age. Early diagnosis and treatment can help prevent further expansion of the catheter and avoid gland atrophy, feeding difficulty, and breathing obstruction. Simultaneous excision of the sublingual gland can avoid the formation of postoperative sublingual cyst.


Subject(s)
Child , Dilatation , Humans , Infant , Ranula , Salivary Ducts , Sublingual Gland , Submandibular Gland
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-772280

ABSTRACT

Corticosteroids are used in the treatment of many diseases; however, they also induce various side effects. Dexamethasone is one of the most potent corticosteroids, and it has been reported to induce the side effect of impaired salivary gland function. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of dexamethasone on mouse submandibular gland function to gain insight into the mechanism of dexamethasone-induced salivary hypofunction. The muscarinic agonist carbachol (CCh) induced salivary secretion and was not affected by short-term dexamethasone treatment but was decreased following long-term dexamethasone administration. The expression levels of the membrane proteins Na-K-2Cl cotransporter, transmembrane member 16A, and aquaporin 5 were comparable between the control and long-term dexamethasone treatment groups. The CCh-induced increase in calcium concentration was significantly lower in the presence of extracellular Ca in the long-term dexamethasone treatment group compared to that in the control group. Furthermore, CCh-induced salivation in the absence of extracellular Ca and Ca ionophore A23187-induced salivation was comparable between the control and long-term dexamethasone treatment groups. Moreover, salivation induced by the Ca-ATPase inhibitor thapsigargin was diminished in the long-term dexamethasone treatment group. In summary, these results demonstrate that short-term dexamethasone treatment did not impair salivary gland function, whereas long-term dexamethasone treatment diminished store-operated Ca entry, resulting in hyposalivation in mouse submandibular glands.


Subject(s)
Acinar Cells , Metabolism , Animals , Calcium , Metabolism , Calcium Signaling , Carbachol , Pharmacology , Dexamethasone , Therapeutic Uses , Mice , Muscarinic Agonists , Pharmacology , Saliva , Metabolism , Salivation , Submandibular Gland , Metabolism
16.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760157

ABSTRACT

Langerhans cell sarcoma is a rare, proliferative tumor of Langerhans cells, which shows cytologic characteristics and clinical features of malignant tumor. Langerhans cell sarcoma primarily occurs in lymph nodes, skin, lung, liver, and spleen. However, very few cases have been reported in the head and neck region. Because of its rarity, an optimal treatment approach is unknown; however, Langerhans cell sarcoma grows aggressively and shows a poor prognosis, such that a more aggressive and multi-modality treatment approach is necessary. Here, we report the case of a 36-year-old male with Langerhans cell sarcoma, who presented with a mass in the submandibular gland area and was treated with wide excision and postoperative radiotherapy.


Subject(s)
Adult , Head , Humans , Langerhans Cell Sarcoma , Langerhans Cells , Liver , Lung , Lymph Nodes , Male , Neck , Prognosis , Radiotherapy , Sarcoma , Skin , Spleen , Submandibular Gland
17.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760149

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: To investigate epidemiological features of patients with sialolithiasis and to evaluate the difference in outcomes depending on its location. SUBJECTS AND METHOD: We included in the test 472 patients, or 534 cases, who were admitted to the Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital between February 2006 and May 2017 with the diagnosis of sialolithiasis. The diagnosis of sialolithiasis was established by CT images; all of the cases were classified by the location of stones (orifice to stone/orifice to hilum: 0–0.25, type I; 0.25–0.5, type II; 0.5–0.75, type III; 0.75–1, type IV). RESULTS: The average size of stone was 7.2±4.8 mm and the mean patient age was 36.1±17.4 years old. According to the method described above, 534 cases were classified into the following: type I consisted of 188 cases (35.2%), type II consisted of 55 cases (10.2%), type III consisted of 92 cases (17.2%) and type IV consisted of 199 (37.2%). When comparing these types, stones in Type I were significantly smaller than other groups. There was a significant difference in the surgical method depending on the location of stones. Different complications such as swelling, bleeding, tongue discomfort, ranula, recurrence, etc. have been reported and, together, they statistically show meaningful differences in the distribution depending on types. CONCLUSION: The position of stone in Wharton's duct is important factor that can determine the method of surgical procedure or postoperative prognosis. We recommend 4 types classification of sialolithiasis and it can provide more specific diagnosis of disease and facilitate approach for treatment.


Subject(s)
Classification , Diagnosis , Heart , Hemorrhage , Humans , Methods , Prognosis , Ranula , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Salivary Ducts , Salivary Gland Calculi , Submandibular Gland , Tongue
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760093

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Generally, the benign mixed tumors of the submandibular gland are successfully removed via transcervical approach. Recently, however, an alternative to the standard transcervical approach, such as an intraoral approach, has been reported. The surgical results of intraoral excisions for submandibular mixed tumors are discussed here. SUBJECTS AND METHOD: A retrospective review was carried out for 24 patients with submandibular mixed tumors who were past 3 years of follow-up. Surgical morbidities and benefits were studied using these data. RESULTS: All patients successfully received an excision of the submandibular gland with tumor via an intraoral approach. Early postoperative complications of temporary lingual sensory paresis were developed in 75% of patients, followed by 54% of patients with temporary limitation of tongue movement. In contrast, there were no permanent paresis. Late complications were developed in two cases of mild deviation of tongue due to scar contracture on the floor of mouth, whereas two cases of tumor recurrence and one case of post-gustatory sweating syndrome were observed after surgery. CONCLUSION: This approach might be safe, if used with proper expertise, for the treatment of submandibular mixed tumors. The main advantages of this approach are that no external scars nor permanent injury are incurred to the related nerves. However, disadvantages are temporary lingual paresis and temporary limitation of tongue movement. Unfortunately, there were two cases showing recurrence after surgery and thus required more follow-up.


Subject(s)
Cicatrix , Contracture , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Methods , Mouth Floor , Paresis , Postoperative Complications , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Submandibular Gland , Sweat , Sweating , Tongue
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787533

ABSTRACT

Oncocytic lipoadenoma is a rare salivary gland tumor composed of adipose tissue and oncocytic epithelial cells in varied proportions. We report a case of an oncocytic lipoadenoma of the submandibular gland, which presented as a submandibular gland mass. The patient was a 65-year-old woman with a right submandibular mass measuring 2 × 2 × 1.6 cm. As a sonographic evaluation and computed tomograph scan gave us the impression of benign submandibular gland tumor such as pleomorphic adenoma, we resected the right side submandibular gland. Grossly, the tumor was well circumscribed with yellow to brown cut surface. Microscopically, the tumor was surrounded by a thin, fibrous capsule and composed of oncocytic epithelial cells admixed with mature adipose tissue. Final diagnosis was an oncocytic lipoadenoma. We discussed here radiologic and pathologic finding of this rare salivary gland tumor.


Subject(s)
Adenoma, Pleomorphic , Adipose Tissue , Aged , Diagnosis , Epithelial Cells , Female , Humans , Salivary Glands , Submandibular Gland , Ultrasonography
20.
Rev. otorrinolaringol. cir. cabeza cuello ; 78(4): 392-398, dic. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-985744

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: Los tumores de la glándula submandibular son poco frecuentes. Representan menos del 1% de todos los tumores de cabeza y cuello. Corresponden al 10% de los tumores de las glándulas salivales. Aproximadamente el 50% son malignos. Objetivos: Analizar la experiencia clínica con las submandibulectomias realizadas en el Servicio de Otorrinolaringología y Cirugía de Cabeza y Cuello del Hospital Guillermo Grant Benavente. Material y método: Estudio descriptivo retrospectivo. Revisión de fichas clínicas de pacientes intervenidos de submandibulectomía entre el 01 de enero de 2011 y el 31 de diciembre de 2016 en nuestro servicio. Resultados: Se realizaron 28 submandibulectomías por patología tumoral. La edad promedio fue de 54 años, siendo el 71% de sexo femenino. 21 tumores fueron benignos (75%), siendo el más frecuente el adenoma pleomorfo (14 casos), y 7 tumores malignos (25%), siendo el más frecuente el carcinoma adenoidequístico. Se reportaron dos complicaciones transitorias (7%), una paresia de la rama marginal del nervio facial y una paresia del nervio hipogloso. El 42% de los tumores malignos presentó recurrencia. Conclusión: Nuestra serie presenta resultados acordes a la literatura en cuanto a edad de presentación, distribución por sexo, tipos histológicos, tasa de complicaciones y recurrencia; sin embargo, difiere en la menor frecuencia de tumores malignos, siendo en nuestra serie de 25%. Patología poco frecuente. La presencia de una masa indolora submandibular debe ser derivada a los centros de referencia para estudio y eventual resolución quirúrgica por el riesgo de malignidad.


ABSTRACT Introduction: Submandibular gland tumors are rare. They represent less than 1% of all head and neck tumors. They correspond to 10% of the tumors of the salivary glands. Approximately 50% are malignant. Aim: To analyze the clinical experience with the submandibulectomies performed in the Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery Service of the Guillermo Grant Benavente Hospital. Material and Method: Retrospective descriptive study. Review of clinical records of patients treated with a submandibulectomy between January 1,2011 and December 31, 2016 in our service. Results: 28 submandibulectomies were performed due to tumor pathology. The average age was 54 years, being 71% female. 21 tumors were benign (75%), being the most frequent the pleomorphic adenoma (14 cases), and 7 malignant tumors (25%), being the most frequent the adenoidequistic carcinoma. Two transient complications (7%) were reported, a paresis of the marginal branch of the facial nerve and a paresis of the hypoglossal nerve. 42% of malignant tumors presented recurrence. Conclusion: Our series presents results according to the literature regarding age of presentation, distribution by sex, histological types, complication rate and recurrence; however, it differs in the lower frequency of malignant tumors, being in our series of 25%. Uncommon pathology. The presence of a submandibular painless mass must be referred to the reference centers for study and possible surgical resolution due to the risk of malignancy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Submandibular Gland/surgery , Submandibular Gland/pathology , Salivary Gland Neoplasms/surgery , Chile , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Head and Neck Neoplasms/surgery
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