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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939533

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the changes of skin temperature, blood infusion and inflammatory cytokines of cutaneous tissue in the sensitized area of colitis model rats, as well as the relationship between sensory and sympathetic nerves and the formation of sensitized area, and to initially reveal the partial physical-chemical characteristics of the sensitized area in the colitis model rats.@*METHODS@#Thirty-five male SD rats were randomly divided into a control group (n=10), a model group (n=18) and a guanethidine group (n=7). 5% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) was adopted for 6-day free drinking to establish colitis model in the model group and the guanethidine group. On day 6 and 7, in the guanethidine group, guanethidine solution (30 mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally for sympathetic block. On day 7, after injection of evans blue (EB) solution, the EB extravasation areas on the body surface were observed to investigate the distribution and physical-chemical characteristics of the sensitized area. The control area was set up, 0.5 cm away from the sensitized area, and with the same nerve segment innervation. Disease activity index (DAI) score of rats was compared between the normal group and the model group, and the morphological changes in the colon tissue were investigated with HE method. Using infrared thermal imaging technology and laser speckle flow imaging technology, skin temperature and blood infusion were determined in the sensitized area and the control area of the rats in the model group. Immunofluorescence technique was adopted to observe the expression levels of the positive nerve fibers of substance P (SP), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), and the correlation with blood vessels; as well as the expression levels of SP positive nerve fibers/tryptase+ mast cells, and tryptase+ mast cells/5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) in skin tissue in the sensitized area and the control area of the rats in the model group. MSD multi-level factorial method and ELISA were applied to determine the contents of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines (e.g. TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-4 and IL-10) and anti-inflammatory substance corticosterone (CORT).@*RESULTS@#Sensitization occurred at the T12-S1 segments of the colitis model rats, especially at L2-L5 segments. Compared with the normal group, DAI score was increased in the rats of the model group (P<0.05), and the colonic mucosal damage was obvious, with the epithelial cells disordered, even disappeared, crypt destructed, submucosal edema and a large number of inflammatory cells infiltrated. In comparison with the control area, the skin temperature and blood infusion were increased in the sensitized area of the model group (P<0.05, P<0.01); as well as the expression levels of the positive nerve fibers of SP, CGRP and TH of skin tissue (P<0.05), which was specially distributed in peripheral vessels, the expression levels of SP positive nerve fibers/tryptase+ mast cells, and tryptase+ mast cells/5-HT of the skin tissue were all expanded (P<0.05) in the sensitized area of the model group. Compared with the model group, the number of sensitized areas was reduced in the guanethidine group (P<0.05). In comparison with the control area of the model group, in the sensitized area, the contents of pro-inflammatory cytokines, e.g. TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6, and the anti-inflammatory substance CORT of skin tissue were all increased (P<0.05); and the contents of IL-6 and TNF-α were negatively correlated with CORT (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#The sensitized areas on the body surface of colitis rats are mainly distributed in the L2-L5 segments. Sensory and sympathetic nerves are involved in the acupoint sensitization, and the sensitized areas may have the dynamic changes in pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory substances.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide/metabolism , Colitis/metabolism , Cytokines/metabolism , Guanethidine , Interleukin-6 , Male , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Serotonin , Skin Temperature , Substance P/genetics , Tryptases , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
2.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 78(10): 617-623, Oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131689

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Acupuncture has been widely used for alleviating pain. However, its mechanisms remain largely enigmatic. Objective: In the present study, we focused on whether the analgesic effect of electroacupuncture is related to its regulation on adenosine and substance P expression. Methods: We established chronic inflammatory pain model in rats through a single injection of Complete Freund's Adjuvant, and then we treated animals using daily electroacupuncture. We applied seven bilateral sessions of electroacupuncture (ST36 and BL60, 0.5 to 1.5 mA, initial strength of 0.5 mA, increased by 0.5 mA every 10 minutes, for 30 minutes per session, one section per day) to Complete Freund's Adjuvant rats for seven days. The analgesic effect of electroacupuncture was evaluated by measuring paw withdrawal threshold in rats that received mechanical and thermal stimulation. Results: Daily electroacupuncture stimulation effectively increased paw withdrawal threshold in Complete Freund's Adjuvant rats. Electroacupuncture increased the adenosine level in zusanli. A further study showed that electroacupuncture could decrease substance P, neurokinin-1 receptor, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1β, interleukin-6 and CD68 levels in dorsal root ganglion. Interestingly, direct injection of adenosine A1 or substance P receptor antagonists, or dorsal nerve root transection could significantly impair electroacupuncture induced analgesic actions in Complete Freund's Adjuvant rats could and reduce the levels of substance P, neurokinin-1 receptor, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1β, interleukin-6 and CD68. Finally, we confirmed that direct injection of adenosine A1 receptor agonist replicated the analgesic effect of electroacupuncture. Conclusion: Our results indicate regulation of adenosine-mediated substance P secretion. Substance P-mediated pathway may be involved in the analgesia process by electroacupuncture in rats.


RESUMO Introdução: A acupuntura tem sido amplamente utilizada para alívio de dor. No entanto, seus mecanismos são muito pouco conhecidos. Objetivo: Investigar a relação entre o efeito analgésico da eletroacupuntura e a regulação da expressão de adenosina e de substância P. Métodos: Utilizou-se um modelo de dor inflamatória crônica em ratos por injeção única do Adjuvante Completo de Freund e, em seguida, os animais foram tratados com eletroacupuntura diariamente. Foram aplicadas sete sessões bilaterais de eletroacupuntura (ST36 e BL60, 0,5 a 1,5 mA, força inicial de 0,5 mA, aumentada em 0,5 mA a cada 10 minutos, 30 minutos por sessão, uma sessão por dia) em ratos com Adjuvante Completo de Freund, por sete dias. O efeito analgésico da eletroacupuntura foi avaliado pela medida do limiar de retirada da pata em ratos que receberam estimulações mecânica e térmica. Resultados: A estimulação diária com eletroacupuntura aumentou efetivamente o limiar de retirada da pata em ratos com Adjuvante Completo de Freund. A eletroacupuntura aumentou o nível de adenosina na região zusanli. Estudos posteriores mostraram que a eletroacupuntura poderia diminuir os níveis de substância P, receptor de neurocinina-1, fator de necrose tumoral-alpha, interleucina-1β, interleucina-6 e CD68 nos gânglios da raiz dorsal. Curiosamente, a injeção direta de antagonistas do receptor de adenosina A1 ou de substância P, ou a transecção da raiz do nervo dorsal, podem prejudicar significativamente as ações analgésicas induzidas pela eletroacupuntura em ratos com Adjuvante Completo de Freund e reduzir os níveis de substância P, receptor de neurocinina-1, fator de necrose tumoral-alfa, interleucina-1β, interleucina-6 e CD68. Por fim, confirmamos que a injeção direta de um agonista do receptor da adenosina A1 reproduziu os efeitos analgésicos da eletroacupuntura. Conclusão: Nossos resultados indicam a regulação da secreção da substância P mediada pela adenosina. A via mediada pela substância P pode estar envolvida no processo de analgesia por eletroacupuntura em ratos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Substance P/chemistry , Electroacupuncture , Adenosine/chemistry , Pain , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
3.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 86(4): 450-455, July-Aug. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132625

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction Mucosal contact headache is a referred pain that arises from contact between the nasal septum and the lateral nasal wall. Evidence supports the role of substance P in a contact headache such that release of substance P from sensory nerve endings causes inflammation and allergy. Objectives This study aimed to determine possible differences in substance P levels in inferior turbinate hypertrophy creating a contact headache. Methods 28 patients who had contact headaches (study group) and 16 volunteers with no complaints were included in the study. Substance P levels in the inferior turbinate tissue samples were quantified using a commercially available substance P EIA kit. Results In the study group average substance P levels were 2.65 ± 0.27 pg/mg tissue (range: 0.61-5.44) and in the control group it was 1.77 ± 0.27 pg/mg tissue (range: 0.11-4.35). The difference was statistically significant between the two groups (p = 0.0215). Average preoperative headache group visual analog scale scores was 5.93 ± 0.38 (2-9) and the turbinate volume was 6.56 ± 0.35 cm3 (3.50-10.30). The control group turbinate volume was 4.71 ± 0.39 cm3 (2.50-7.70). We found a correlation between the visual analog scale scores and substance P levels such that substance P levels were higher in visual analog scale scores above 5 (p = 0.001). Conclusion This study demonstrates the relationship between intranasal contact headaches and increased mucosal substance P levels. We also found that there is no correlation with substance P levels and volume of the inferior turbinate.


Resumo Introdução A cefaleia por ponto de contato da mucosa é uma dor direcionada que surge do contato entre o septo nasal e a parede nasal lateral. Evidências corroboram o papel da substância P na cefaleia de contato, de tal forma que a liberação da mesma a partir de terminações nervosas sensoriais possa causar inflamação e alergia. Objetivo Determinar possíveis diferenças nos níveis da substância P na hipertrofia de conchas inferiores em relação à cefaleia de contato. Método Foram incluídos no estudo 28 pacientes que apresentaram cefaleia por ponto de contato (Grupo Estudo) e 16 voluntários sem queixas. Os níveis de substância P nas amostras de tecido da concha inferior foram quantificados com um kit substância P EIA, comercialmente disponível. Resultados No grupo do estudo, os níveis médios de substância P foram 2,65 ± 0,27 pg/mg de tecido (variação: 0,61-5,44) e no grupo controle foram de 1,77 ± 0,27 pg/mg de tecido (variação: 0,11-4,35) e a diferença foi estatisticamente significante entre os dois grupos (p = 0,0215). O escore médio da escala visual analógica do grupo de cefaleia pré-operatória foi de 5,93 ± 0,38 (2-9) e o volume das conchas foi de 6,56 ± 0,35 cm3 (3,50-10,30). O volume da concha do grupo controle foi de 4,71 ± 0,39 cm3 (2,50 ± 7,70). Encontramos uma correlação entre o escore da escala visual analógica e os níveis de substância P, de modo que os níveis de substância P foram maiores nos escores da escala visual analógica acima de 5 (p = 0,001). Conclusão Este estudo demonstra a relação entre cefaleias por contato intranasais e níveis aumentados de substância P nas mucosas. Também observamos que não há correlação com os níveis de substância P e o volume da concha inferior.


Subject(s)
Humans , Headache , Turbinates , Substance P , Nasal Obstruction , Hypertrophy , Nasal Septum
5.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 65(9): 1188-1192, Sept. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041067

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE We aimed to explore the effects of neuropeptides ghrelin, obestatin, and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) on seizures and plasma concentrations of neuroinflammation biomarkers including calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), substance-P (SP), and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) in pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures in rats. METHODS Ghrelin (80 µg/kg), obestatin (1 µg/kg), VIP (25 ng/kg) or saline were administered to rats intraperitoneally 30 min before pentylenetetrazole (PTZ, 50 mg/kg) injections. Stages of epileptic seizures were evaluated by Racine's scale, and plasma CGRP, SP, and IL-1β concentrations were measured using ELISA. RESULTS Both obestatin and VIP shortened onset-time of generalized tonic-clonic seizure, respectively, moreover VIP also shortened the onset-time of first myoclonic-jerk induced by PTZ. While PTZ increased plasma CGRP, SP and IL-1β concentrations, ghrelin reduced the increases evoked by PTZ. While VIP further increased PTZ-evoked CGRP levels, it diminished IL-1β concentrations. However, obestatin did not change CGRP, SP, and IL-1β concentrations. CONCLUSION Our results suggest that ghrelin acts as an anticonvulsant, obestatin acts as a proconvulsant, and VIP has dual action on epilepsy. Receptors of those neuropeptides may be promising targets for epilepsy treatment.


RESUMO OBJETIVO Nosso objetivo foi explorar os efeitos dos neuropeptídeos grelina, obestatina e peptídeo intestinal vasoativo (VIP) nas convulsões e concentrações plasmáticas de biomarcadores neuroinflamatórios, incluindo peptídeo relacionado ao gene da calcitonina (CGRP), substância-P (SP) e interleucina-1 beta (IL-1β) em convulsões induzidas por pentilenotetrazol em ratos. MÉTODOS Grelina (80 µg/kg), obestatina (1 µg/kg), VIP (25 ng/kg) ou solução salina foram administrados a ratos intraperitonealmente 30 minutos antes de injeções de pentilenotetrazol (PTZ, 50 mg/kg). Os estágios das crises epilépticas foram avaliados pela escala de Racine e as concentrações plasmáticas de CGRP, SP e IL-1β foram medidas usando Elisa. RESULTADOS Tanto a obestatina quanto o VIP encurtaram o tempo de início da crise tônico-clônica generalizada, respectivamente. Além disso, o VIP também encurtou o tempo de início do primeiro impulso mioclônico induzido por PTZ. Enquanto o PTZ aumentou as concentrações plasmáticas de CGRP, SP e IL-1β, a grelina reduziu os aumentos evocados por PTZ. Enquanto o VIP aumenta ainda mais os níveis de CGRP evocados por PTZ, diminui as concentrações de IL-1β. No entanto, a obestatina não alterou as concentrações de CGRP, SP e IL-1β. CONCLUSÃO Nossos resultados sugerem que a grelina tem anticonvulsivante, a obestatina tem proconvulsivante e o VIP tem ação dupla na epilepsia. Receptores desses neuropeptídeos podem ser alvos promissores para o tratamento da epilepsia.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Pentylenetetrazole/adverse effects , Seizures/chemically induced , Neuropeptides/adverse effects , Convulsants/adverse effects , Peptide Hormones/pharmacology , Seizures/metabolism , Time Factors , Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide/pharmacology , Biomarkers/blood , Random Allocation , Substance P/adverse effects , Substance P/blood , Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide/adverse effects , Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide/blood , Rats, Wistar , Disease Models, Animal , Interleukin-1beta/adverse effects , Interleukin-1beta/blood , Ghrelin/pharmacology , Inflammation , Myoclonus
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762158

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the impact of short-term haze exposure on nasal inflammation in healthy volunteers. METHODS: Thirty-three healthy university students were assessed for nasal symptoms, nasal patency, upper and lower respiratory tract nitric oxide (NO) as well as inflammatory mediators and neuropeptides in nasal secretions before and after a 5-day haze episode. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were stimulated with particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of less than 2.5 μm (PM(2.5)), and cytokines in the supernatants were examined. RESULTS: Mild nasal symptoms were reported by some participants during the haze episode. Objective measures of nasal patency demonstrated that nasal airway resistance was significantly increased from baseline levels, while nasal cavity volume and minimum cross-sectional area were significantly decreased. Similarly, the levels of nasal and exhaled NO, eotaxin, interleukin (IL)-5, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 17, IL-8, substance P, nerve growth factor and vasoactive intestinal peptides in nasal secretions were significantly increased from baseline values following the haze episode. In contrast, the levels of interferon-γ, IL-10, transforming growth factor-β and neuropeptide Y were significantly decreased. Incubation with 0.1-10 μg/mL PM(2.5) significantly increased release of IL-1β, IL-4, IL-5, IL-8 and IL-10 from PBMCs. CONCLUSIONS: Short-term haze exposure may lead to nasal inflammation and hypersensitivity in healthy subjects predominantly by Th2 cytokine-mediated immune responses.


Subject(s)
Air Pollution , Airway Resistance , Cytokines , Healthy Volunteers , Humans , Hypersensitivity , Inflammation , Interleukin-10 , Interleukin-4 , Interleukin-5 , Interleukin-8 , Interleukins , Nasal Cavity , Nerve Growth Factor , Neuropeptide Y , Neuropeptides , Nitric Oxide , Particulate Matter , Peptides , Respiratory System , Substance P
7.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 51(6): e7065, 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889100

ABSTRACT

Ulcerative colitis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the colon where intestinal motility is disturbed. Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) are required to maintain normal intestinal motility. In the present study, we assessed the effect of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) on viability and apoptosis of ICC, as well as on the expression of stem cell factor (SCF), ghrelin, and substance P. ICC were derived from the small intestines of Swiss albino mice. Cell viability and apoptosis were measured using CCK-8 assay and flow cytometry, respectively. ELISA was used to measure the concentrations of IL-1β, IL-6, ghrelin, substance P, and endothelin-1. Quantitative RT-PCR was used to measure the expression of SCF. Western blotting was used to measure the expression of apoptosis-related proteins, interleukins, SCF, and NF-κB signaling pathway proteins. TNF-α induced inflammatory injury in ICC by decreasing cell viability and increasing apoptosis and levels of IL-1β and IL-6. TNF-α decreased the levels of SCF, ghrelin, and substance P, but had no effect on endothelin-1. TNF-α down-regulated expressions of SCF, ghrelin, and substance P by activating the NF-κB pathway in ICC. In conclusion, TNF-α down-regulated the expressions of SCF, ghrelin, and substance P via the activation of the NF-κB pathway in ICC.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Ghrelin/metabolism , Interstitial Cells of Cajal/drug effects , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Stem Cell Factor/metabolism , Substance P/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/pharmacology , Apoptosis/drug effects , Blotting, Western , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Gastrointestinal Motility/drug effects , Ghrelin/antagonists & inhibitors , Interstitial Cells of Cajal/metabolism , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Signal Transduction/drug effects
8.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740073

ABSTRACT

There exists very little information on the ultrastructure of substance P immunopositive (+) fibers in the human dental pulp, which may help in understanding the mechanism for substance P associated pulpal inflammatory pain. To address this issue, we investigated the presence of substance P+ fibers in the human dental pulp by light- and electron-microscopic immunohistochemistry. Light microscopy revealed that substance P+ fibers ran within neurovascular bundles in the radicular pulp and in the core of coronal pulp. They were also frequently present in the peripheral pulp. Substance P+ fibers showed beads like swellings interconnected by thin axonal strand, in a manner similar to bouton en passants and interconnecting axonal strand in the spinal cord. Electron microscopy revealed that almost all the substance P+ axons were unmyelinated. The axonal swellings of the substance P+ contained numerous clear round vesicles (40–50 nm in diameter) and many large dense-cored vesicles (80–110 nm in diameter) as well as many mitochondria. The vesicles and mitochondria were rarely observed in the thin axonal strand interconnecting the swellings. Intimate interrelationship or synaptic structure between the swellings of substance P+ axon and nearby pulpal cells or axons was not found. These findings suggest co-release of substance P and glutamate from the substance P+ pulpal axons and its action on nearby structures in a paracrine manner.


Subject(s)
Axons , Dental Pulp , Glutamic Acid , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Microscopy , Microscopy, Electron , Mitochondria , Nerve Fibers , Spinal Cord , Substance P
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742171

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To identify a new strategy for postoperative pain management, we investigated the analgesic effects of allopregnanolone (Allo) in an incisional pain model, and also assessed its effects on the activities of the primary afferent fibers at the dorsal horn. METHODS: In experiment 1, 45 rats were assigned to Control, Allo small-dose (0.16 mg/kg), and Allo large-dose (1.6 mg/kg) groups (n = 15 in each). The weight bearing and mechanical withdrawal thresholds of the hind limb were measured before and at 2, 24, 48, and 168 h after Brennan's surgery. In experiment 2, 16 rats were assigned to Control and Allo (0.16 mg/kg) groups (n = 8 in each). The degree of spontaneous pain was measured using the grimace scale after the surgery. Activities of the primary afferent fibers in the spinal cord (L6) were evaluated using immunohistochemical staining. RESULTS: In experiment 1, the withdrawal threshold of the Allo small-dose group was significantly higher than that of the Control group at 2 h after surgery. Intergroup differences in weight bearing were not significant. In experiment 2, intergroup differences in the grimace scale scores were not significant. Substance P release in the Allo (0.16 mg/kg) group was significantly lower than that in the Control group. CONCLUSIONS: Systemic administration of Allo inhibited mechanical allodynia and activities of the primary afferent fibers at the dorsal horn in a rat postoperative pain model. Allo was proposed as a candidate for postoperative pain management.


Subject(s)
Animals , Extremities , Hyperalgesia , Pain, Postoperative , Pregnanolone , Rats , Receptors, Neurokinin-1 , Spinal Cord , Spinal Cord Dorsal Horn , Substance P , Weight-Bearing
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-691378

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVES</b>To investigate the hair growth-promoting effect of Miscanthus sinensis var. purpurascens (MSP) flower extracton on in vitro and in vivo models.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>MSP flower extract was extracted in 99.9% methanol and applied to examine the proliferation of human dermal papilla cells (hDPCs) in vitro at the dose of 3.92-62.50 μg/mL and hair growth of C57BL/6 mice in vivo at the dose of 1000 μg/mL. The expression of transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), β-catenin, substance P was measured by relative quantitative realtime polymerase chain reaction. Histopathological and immunohistochemical analysis were performed.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>MSP (7.81 μg/mL) down-regulated TGF-β1 and up-regulated HGF and β-catenin in hDPCs (P<0.01). MSP (1000 μg/mL)-treated mice showed the earlier transition of hair follicles from the telogen to the anagen phase. The number of mast cells was lower in the MSP-treated mice than in other groups (P<0.05 vs. NCS group). Substance P and TGF-β1 were expressed in hair follicles and skin of the MSP group lower than that in negative control. Stem cell factor in hair follicles was up-regulated in the MSP-treated mice (P<0.01).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>The MSP flower extract may have hair growth-promotion activities.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Antioxidants , Pharmacology , Cell Count , Cell Proliferation , Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases , Metabolism , Female , Flowers , Chemistry , Hair Follicle , Cell Biology , Hepatocyte Growth Factor , Metabolism , Humans , Mast Cells , Cell Biology , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Phosphorylation , Plant Extracts , Pharmacology , Poaceae , Chemistry , RNA, Messenger , Genetics , Metabolism , Skin , Metabolism , Stem Cell Factor , Metabolism , Stress, Psychological , Pathology , Substance P , Metabolism , Transforming Growth Factor beta , Genetics , Metabolism , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A , Genetics , Metabolism , beta Catenin , Metabolism
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716168

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The fabrication of microchannels in hydrogel can facilitate the perfusion of nutrients and oxygen, which leads to guidance cues for vasculogenesis. Microchannel patterning in biomimetic hydrogels is a challenging issue for tissue regeneration because of the inherent low formability of hydrogels in a complex configuration. We fabricated microchannels using wire network molding and immobilized the angiogenic factors in the hydrogel and evaluated the vasculogenesis in vitro and in vivo. METHODS: Microchannels were fabricated in a hyaluronic acid-based biomimetic hydrogel by using “wire network molding” technology. Substance P was immobilized in acrylated hyaluronic acid for angiogenic cues using Michael type addition reaction. In vitro and in vivo angiogenic activities of hydrogel with microchannels were evaluated. RESULTS: In vitro cell culture experiment shows that cell viability in two experimental biomimetic hydrogels (with microchannels and microchannels + SP) was higher than that of a biomimetic hydrogel without microchannels (bulk group). Evaluation on differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) in biomimetic hydrogels with fabricated microchannels shows that the differentiation of hMSC into endothelial cells was significantly increased compared with that of the bulk group. In vivo angiogenesis analysis shows that thin blood vessels of approximately 25–30 µm in diameter were observed in the microchannel group and microchannel + SP group, whereas not seen in the bulk group. CONCLUSION: The strategy of fabricating microchannels in a biomimetic hydrogel and simultaneously providing a chemical cue for angiogenesis is a promising formula for large-scale tissue regeneration.


Subject(s)
Angiogenesis Inducing Agents , Biomimetics , Blood Vessels , Cell Culture Techniques , Cell Survival , Cues , Endothelial Cells , Fungi , Humans , Hyaluronic Acid , Hydrogels , Hydrogels , In Vitro Techniques , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Oxygen , Perfusion , Regeneration , Substance P
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716160

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The interplay between neurogenesis and angiogenesis is crucial during the development mediated by neuro-angiogenic morphogens. In particular, the angiogenic activity of neuropeptides and their role in tissue regeneration have long been investigated for better understanding of their biological mechanisms and further applications. However, there have been few studies for direct comparison of angiogenic activities of neuropeptides for in vitro and in vivo models. In this study, we report that direct comparison of the angiogenic activities of neuropeptide Y, secretoneurin, and substance P (SP) immobilized on hydrogels in in vitro and in vivo experiments. METHODS: A hyaluronic acid-based hydrogel is prepared by utilizing acrylated hyaluronic acid and thiolated peptides as a crosslinker and angiogenic factors, respectively. Angiogenic activities of three neuropeptides are evaluated not only by in vitro angiogenic and gene expression assays, but also by an in vivo chronic myocardial infarction model. RESULTS: The comparison of in vitro angiogenic activities of three peptides demonstrates that the SP-immobilized hydrogel shows a higher degree of cell network formation and angiogenic-specific genes than those of the other peptides and the control case. In addition, a three-dimensional angiogenic assay illustrates that more sprouting is observable in the SP group. Evaluation of regenerative activity in the chronic myocardial infarction model reveals that all three peptideimmobilized hydrogels induce increased cardiac function as well as structural regeneration. Among all the cases, the SP group provided the highest regenerative activity both in vitro and in vivo. CONCLUSION: In our comparison study, the SP-immobilized hydrogel shows the highest angiogenic activity and tissue regeneration among the test groups. This result suggests that nerve regeneration factors help angiogenesis in damaged tissues, which also highlights the importance of the neuro-angiogenic peptides as an element of tissue regeneration.


Subject(s)
Angiogenesis Inducing Agents , Gene Expression , Hyaluronic Acid , Hydrogels , Hydrogels , In Vitro Techniques , Myocardial Infarction , Nerve Regeneration , Neurogenesis , Neuropeptide Y , Neuropeptides , Peptides , Regeneration , Substance P
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-160705

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to investigate the analgesic effect of substance P (SP) in an animal model of neuropathic pain. An experimental model of neuropathic pain, the chronic constriction injury (CCI) model, was established using ICR mice. An intravenous (i.v.) injection of SP (1 nmole/kg) was administered to the mice to examine the analgesic effects of systemic SP on neuropathic pain. Behavioral testing and immunostaining was performed following treatment of the CCI model with SP. SP attenuated mechanical allodynia in a time-dependent manner, beginning at 1 h following administration, peaking at 1 day post-injection, and decaying by 3 days post-injection. The second injection of SP also increased the threshold of mechanical allodynia, with the effects peaking on day 1 and decaying by day 3. A reduction in phospho-ERK and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) accompanied the attenuation of mechanical allodynia. We have shown for the first time that i.v. administration of substance P attenuated mechanical allodynia in the maintenance phase of neuropathic pain using von Frey’s test, and simultaneously reduced levels of phospho-ERK and GFAP, which are representative biochemical markers of neuropathic pain. Importantly, glial cells in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord (L4–L5) of SP-treated CCI mice, expressed the anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-10, which was not seen in vehicle saline-treated mice. Thus, i.v. administration of substance P may be beneficial for improving the treatment of patients with neuropathic pain, since it decreases the activity of nociceptive factors and increases the expression of anti-nociceptive factors.


Subject(s)
Administration, Intravenous , Animals , Behavior Rating Scale , Biomarkers , Constriction , Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein , Humans , Hyperalgesia , Interleukin-10 , Mice , Mice, Inbred ICR , Models, Animal , Models, Theoretical , Neuralgia , Neuroglia , Spinal Cord , Spinal Cord Dorsal Horn , Substance P
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-226334

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The earwax (cerumen) that covers external auditory canal (EAC) skin contains a mixture of ceruminous and sebaceous gland substances, such as lipids, peptides, and proteins. The components secreted from the ceruminous gland that is a modified sweat gland form cerumen and contain several antimicrobial factors. Since substance P (SP) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), known as a secretagogue, have been found in sweat glands, our purpose was to determine the expression of SP and CGRP in the glands of EAC skin. METHODS: Sections of normal human EAC skins were immunostained for the presence of SP and CGRP using polyclonal antibodies. Immunoreactivity was detected using an avidin-biotin peroxidase complex method. RESULTS: SP staining was found in ceruminous gland acini and myoepithelial cells. But the SP staining was not found in the sebaceous glands and epidermal region. CGRP was strongly stained in the ceruminous gland and weakly in the sebaceous gland cells. Interestingly, most prominent staining of SP and CGRP was noted in the myoepithelial cells of the ceruminous gland. CONCLUSION: The findings in this study suggest that SP and CGRP are expressed in the glands of the EAC skin and secreted in the process of ceruminous gland secretion.


Subject(s)
Antibodies , Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide , Calcitonin , Cerumen , Ear Canal , Humans , Methods , Peptides , Peroxidase , Sebaceous Glands , Skin , Substance P , Sweat Glands
15.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-76828

ABSTRACT

Botulinum toxin (BoNT) injections have been used not only in the field of cosmetic surgery such as forehead and eye wrinkle treatment but also in the treatment of chronic migraine, dystonia, spasticity, temporomandibular disorders (TMD). BoNT injections are the only approved therapies to date for prophylactic treatment of chronic migraine patients. Unlike the previously known paralysis of motor neurons, the mechanism of action for migraine is to block the release of non-cholinergic neurotransmitters such as substance P, CGRP, and glutamate, which are associated with peripheral sensitization and neurogenic inflammation in the sensory nerve, it is hypothesized that the signal is blocked. This review focuses on the analgesic effects of BoNT and suggests the direction for the development of injection methods for chronic migraine patients.


Subject(s)
Botulinum Toxins , Dystonia , Forehead , Glutamic Acid , Headache Disorders , Humans , Migraine Disorders , Motor Neurons , Muscle Spasticity , Neurogenic Inflammation , Neurotransmitter Agents , Paralysis , Substance P , Surgery, Plastic , Temporal Lobe , Temporomandibular Joint Disorders
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-204561

ABSTRACT

The inhibitory effects of Asparagus cochinchinensis against inflammatory response induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), substance P and phthalic anhydride (PA) treatment were recently reported for some cell lines and animal models. To evaluate the hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity of A. cochinchinensis toward the livers and kidneys of ICR mice, alterations in related markers including body weight, organ weight, urine composition, liver pathology and kidney pathology were analyzed in male and female ICR mice after oral administration of 150, 300 and 600 mg/kg body weight/day saponin-enriched extract of A. cochinchinensis (SEAC) for 14 days. The saponin, total flavonoid and total phenol levels were found to be 57.2, 88.5 and 102.1 mg/g in SEAC, respectively, and the scavenging activity of SEAC gradually increased in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, body and organ weight, clinical phenotypes, urine parameters and mice mortality did not differ between the vehicle and SEAC treated group. Furthermore, no significant alterations were measured in alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and the serum creatinine (Cr) in the SEAC treated group relative to the vehicle treated group. Moreover, the specific pathological features induced by most toxic compounds were not observed upon liver and kidney histological analysis. Overall, the results of the present study suggest that SEAC does not induce any specific toxicity in the livers and kidneys of male and female ICR mice at doses of 600 mg/kg body weight/day.


Subject(s)
Administration, Oral , Alanine Transaminase , Alkaline Phosphatase , Animals , Aspartate Aminotransferases , Blood Urea Nitrogen , Body Weight , Cell Line , Creatinine , Female , Humans , Kidney , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase , Liver , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred ICR , Models, Animal , Mortality , Organ Size , Pathology , Phenol , Phenotype , Saponins , Substance P
17.
National Journal of Andrology ; (12): 602-607, 2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-262347

ABSTRACT

<p><b>Objective</b>To investigate the expressions of substance P (SP) and neurokinin-1 receptor (NK-1R) in the posterior horn of the L5-S2 spinal cord in the rat model of chronic nonbacterial prostatitis (CNP) at different time points of modeling.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Forty adult male SD rats were randomly divided into four groups of equal number, control, 45 d model, 60 d model, and 90 d model, and proteins were obtained from the prostatic tissue of another 30 rats. The CNP model was made by intraperitoneal injection of 0.5 ml DPT vaccineand intradermal injection of mixed solution of 1 ml prostatein extract and complete adjuvant at a 1∶1 ratio, while the control rats were injected with the same volume of normal saline. At 45, 60, and 90 days after modeling, we measured the paw withdrawal threshold (PWT) of the rats, determined the levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-2, and IL-10 in the prostate tissue by ELISA, observed the histomorphological changes in the prostate by transmission electron and light microscopy, and detected the expressions of SP and NK1-R in the L5-S2 spinal cord by immunohistochemistry.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The model rats showed significantly increased sensitivity to pain, with remarkably lowered PWT at 45, 60, and 90 days after modeling. The levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-2, and IL-10 in the prostate tissue were markedly elevated in the CNP models as compared with those in the controls (all P<0.05), most significantly at 90 days (all P<0.05). Immunohistochemistry showed that the expressions of SP and NK-1R were remarkably higher in the CNP model groups than in the control (all P<0.05), the highest at 90 days. Light microscopy revealed no inflammatory cell infiltration in the prostate tissue of the control rats, and obvious edema and increased lymphocytes were observed with the prolonged time of modeling.Transmission electron microscopy showed inflammatory changes in the prostate tissue of the model rats and that peritubular interstitial edema was most obvious at 90 days, with widened intervals between peritubular cells and the epithelial base and increased numbers of fibroblasts and collagen fibrils.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>The synthesis of SP and the level of NK-1R were increased in the posterior horn of the L5-S2 spinal cord in the rat model of CNP.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Interleukin-10 , Metabolism , Interleukin-1beta , Metabolism , Interleukin-2 , Metabolism , Male , Pain , Prostatitis , Metabolism , Random Allocation , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Receptors, Neurokinin-1 , Metabolism , Spinal Cord , Metabolism , Substance P , Metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Metabolism
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-646904

ABSTRACT

Impaired angiogenesis is a common pathological characteristic of chronic wounds. Therefore, the regulation of angiogenesis is important for proper tissue repair. It was reported that substance P (SP) accelerates wound healing in a skin injury model. SP is degraded by neutral endopeptidase (NEP). Our study shows that systemic co-treatment of SP and thiorphan, an inhibitor of NEP synergically increased the number of α-smooth muscle actin positive-blood vessels in skin wounds. However, there was no synergic improvement in wound contraction and extracellular matrix deposition. Therefore, inhibition of endogenous NEP activity by thiorphan treatment might modulate the effects of SP treatment specifically on accelerating angiogenesis during wound healing. However, the molecular mechanism(s) of the synergic increase in angiogenesis by SP and thiorphan treatment is still unknown.


Subject(s)
Actins , Extracellular Matrix , Neprilysin , Skin , Substance P , Thiorphan , Wound Healing , Wounds and Injuries
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-646903

ABSTRACT

Dermal fibroblasts play essential roles in wound healing. However, they lose their normal regenerative functions under certain pathologic conditions such as in chronic diabetic wounds. Here, we show that substance P (SP) rescues the malfunctions of dermal fibroblasts in diabetes. SP increased the proliferation of diabetic dermal fibroblasts dose-dependently, although the effect was lower compared to the SP-stimulated proliferation of normal dermal fibroblasts. In contrast to normal dermal fibroblasts, SP increased the expression level of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) in diabetic dermal fibroblast hence, rescuing their angiogenic potential. The cellular characteristics of diabetic dermal fibroblasts modulated by SP would be able to accelerate the wound healing process through faster wound contraction and improved angiogenesis in diabetic chronic wounds. Moreover, SP pretreatment into dermal fibroblasts isolated from diabetic patients would be a promising strategy to develop autologous cell therapy for treating diabetic chronic wounds.


Subject(s)
Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy , Fibroblasts , Humans , Substance P , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A , Wound Healing , Wounds and Injuries
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-254962

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To study the effects of sacral nerve root electrostimulation (SNS) on the colon function and its mechanisms in rats with spinal cord injury (SCI).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>One hundred and four Wistar rats were divided into three groups: A, B and C. A group ( n = 24) was divided into three subgroups (n = 8) for studying the bioelectricity: Normal group (NG), SCI group (SCI) and SCI group with SNS(SNS); B group( n = 24) was divided into three subgroups( n = 8) for studying the colon motility: NG, SCI and SNS. C group( n = 56) were divided into three groups for studying the change of morphology and neurotransmitters(SP and VIP): NG (n = 8), SCI (n = 24), and SNS (n = 24) . In SCI and SNS, included of three subgroups: 24, 48, 72 h after spinal cord injury (n = 8).</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>In SCI group, the activity of bioelectricity in proximal and distal colon was reduced; the colon motility was lessened, and colon mucosa appeared different degree of damage; cell-cell connections between intestinal epithelial cells were destroyed. The expressions of substance P(SP) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) in colon were decreased obviously. SNS was found to activate the bioelectricity, promote the colon motility, improve the intestinal mucosal, and increase the expressions of SP and VIP. Conclusion: SNS can activate the peristalsis, rehabilitate the motility of denervated colon, protection of the intestinal mechanical barrier between intestinal epithelial cells and tight junction, rebuild the colon function through activating the bioelectricity and increase the expressions of SP and VIP.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Colon , Electric Stimulation Therapy , Epithelial Cells , Intestinal Mucosa , Lumbosacral Region , Neurotransmitter Agents , Metabolism , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Spinal Cord Injuries , Therapeutics , Substance P , Metabolism , Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide , Metabolism
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