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1.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1368489

ABSTRACT

RESUMO: Modelo de estudo: Estudo observacional, descritivo e transversal. Objetivo: Avaliar o uso de substâncias psicoativas entre estudantes de medicina de uma universidade pública do semiárido brasileiro. Metodologia: Estudo realizado com 101 estudantes através de questionário contendo aspectos do perfil sociodemográfico e econômico dos participantes e do questionário sobre triagem do uso de álcool e outras sete substâncias psicoativas (ASSIST). Resultados: O perfil dos participantes se caracterizou pelo predomínio do sexo masculino (52,5%), etnia branca (44,6%), faixa etária entre 18 e 29 anos (88,1%), estado civil solteiro (91,1%). Observa-se prevalência para uso de bebidas alcoólicas 80,2%(81), maconha 32,67%(33) e derivados do tabaco 31,7%(32). As bebidas alcoólicas se destacam majoritariamente no desejo ou fissura 36,6%(37), dentre os demais indicadores/motivações. Obteve-se associação com o sexo masculino para uso de álcool (p=0,025), tabaco (p=0,001), maconha (p=0,016) e inalantes (p=0,018); e maiores de 30 anos para derivados do tabaco (p=0,034), maconha (p=0,005), cocaína/crack (p=0,004), inalantes (p=0,001) e alucinógenos (p=0,012). Conclusão: Evidenciou-se alta taxa de prevalência no uso de bebidas alcoólicas entre os estudantes de medicina em relação às demais substâncias psicoativas consumidas. Reconhece-se a necessidade do desenvolvimento de estratégias voltadas a saúde mental e bem-estar para os estudantes de medicina. (AU)


ABSTRACT: Study model: Observational, descriptive, and cross-sectional study. Objective: Evaluate the use of psychoactive substances among medical students at a public university in the Brazilian semiarid region. Methodology: Study conducted with 101 students using a questionnaire containing socio-demographic aspects and economic profile of the participants, and the questionnaire on screening of the use of alcohol and seven other psychoactive substances (ASSIST). Results: The profile of the participants was characterized by a predominance of males (52.5%), white ethnicity (44.6%), aged between 18 and 29 years (88.1%), single marital status (91.1 %). There is a prevalence for the use of alcoholic beverages 80.2% (81), marijuana 32.67% (33), and tobacco derivatives 31.7% (32). Alcoholic beverages stand out mainly in the desire or craving 36.6% (37), among the other indicators/motivations. An association with the male gender was obtained for the use of alcohol (p = 0.025), tobacco (p = 0.001), marijuana (p = 0.016) and inhalants (p = 0.018); and over 30 years old for tobacco products (p = 0.034), marijuana (p = 0.005), cocaine/crack (p = 0.004), inhalants (p = 0.001), and hallucinogens (p = 0.012). Conclusion: There was a high prevalence rate in the use of alcoholic beverages among medical students in relation to other psychoactive substances consumed. It is necessary to develop strategies aimed at mental health and well-being for medical students. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Students, Medical , Health Profile , Surveys and Questionnaires , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology
2.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 27(1): 123-132, jan. 2022.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356038

ABSTRACT

Resumo Mediante o processo de estigmatização existente sobre a População em Situação de Rua que faz uso de drogas e a reprodução de violências nos serviços de saúde, refletiu-se neste artigo sobre esse público e o espaço da rua para além da visão de decrepitude com que costumeiramente são vistos. Nesse sentido, a pesquisa tomou contornos a partir do objetivo de conhecer práticas e saberes construídos nos processos de cuidado entre a População em Situação de Rua usuária de drogas. Para isso, delineou-se um estudo qualitativo, utilizando-se da triangulação das técnicas de observação participante, a partir da inserção de uma das pesquisadoras em um Consultório na Rua, em uma cidade no interior de Pernambuco, e duas modalidades de entrevistas individuais em profundidade: a entrevista episódica e a entrevista narrativa. A partir dos dados obtidos, delineou-se três categorias temáticas: "Sujeitos, territorialidades e contextos", "Drogas, medicalização de problemas sociais e controle" e "Redução de danos, singularidades e produção de cuidado no território". Construíram-se, assim, compreensões sobre as normativas e dicotômicas que atravessam a visão sobre a População em Situação de Rua, pretendendo contribuir para a consolidação da oferta de cuidado orientada pela perspectiva da Redução de Danos.


Abstract Through the stigmatization of drug-using People Living on the Streets (PLS) and the reproduction of violence in health services, this paper reflected on this community and the street space beyond the view of decrepitude with which they are usually seen. In this sense, the research contours were shaped from the objective of knowing practice and knowledge constructed in the care processes among the drug-using PLS. A qualitative study was designed, using the triangulation of participant observation techniques, from the inclusion of one of the researchers in a "Street Clinic" (Consultório na Rua), in an inland city of the state of Pernambuco, Brazil, and two types of in-depth individual interviews: the episodic interview and the narrative interview. Three thematic categories were outlined from the data retrieved, as follows: "subjects, territorialities and contexts", "drugs, social problem medicalization, and control", and "harm reduction, singularities and care production in the territory". Thus, understandings about the norms and dichotomies that cross the view of PLS were constructed to consolidate the care offer guided by the perspective of harm reduction.


Subject(s)
Humans , Homeless Persons , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Harm Reduction , Qualitative Research
3.
SMAD, Rev. eletrônica saúde mental alcool drog ; 17(2): 64-71, abr.-jun. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1290026

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: verificar a prevalência do Transtorno Depressivo Maior em pessoas com dependência química. MÉTODO: estudo transversal com a aplicação da entrevista estruturada para os transtornos do DSM-V em 183 indivíduos internados em comunidades terapêuticas de acolhimento para dependentes químicos, localizadas no sul de Santa Catarina, durante o de ano de 2019. RESULTADOS: todos os participantes não realizaram consulta psiquiátrica ao ingressar na instituição e a maioria não realizou consulta psiquiátrica regular (94,5%). Constatou-se que 89 participantes (55,3%) possuíam critérios diagnósticos para o Transtorno Depressivo Maior e 59,1% destes possuíam adicção ao álcool (p<0,028). CONCLUSÃO: o diagnóstico do transtorno depressivo deve-se consolidar como uma variável importante para a eficácia do tratamento, visto que sua prevalência é elevada e possui repercussões sobre a qualidade do tratamento e tempo de institucionalização.


OBJECTIVE: to verify the prevalence of Major Depressive Disorder in people with chemical dependence. METHOD: cross-sectional study with the application of the structured interview for the DSM-V disorders in 183 individuals admitted to therapeutic communities for chemical dependents, located in the south of Santa Catarina, during the year 2019. RESULTS: All participants did not have a psychiatric consultation when entering the institution and the majority did not have a regular psychiatric consultation (94.5%). It was found that 89 participants (55.3%) had diagnostic criteria for Major Depressive Disorder and 59.1% of these had alcohol addiction (p<0.028). CONCLUSION: the diagnosis of depressive disorder should be consolidated as an important variable for the effectiveness of treatment, since its prevalence is high and has repercussions on the quality of treatment and time of institutionalization.


OBJECTIVO: verificar la prevalencia del transtorno depressivo major en personas con adicción. METODO: estudio transversal con aplicación de la entrevista estructurada para los transtornos del DSM-V en 183 personas internadas en comunides de tratamiento de adicción en el departamento de Santa Catarina durante el ano de 2019. RESULTADOS: la totalidad de los pacientes no realizaron cita con psiquiatra al ingressar en las instituiciones y la mayoria no realiza visitas regulares al psiquiatra (94,5%). Se observó que 89 participantes (55,3%) tenian critérios diagnósticos para depressión y 59,1% de ellos eram adictos al álcohol (p<0,028). CONCLUSIÓN: el diagnóstico del transtorno depressivo debe consolidarse como una variable importante para la eficácia del tratamiento, pues su prevalencia es elevada y pose repercursiones sobre la calidad del tratamiento y el tiempo de permanencia en las comunidades.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Rehabilitation Centers , Surveys and Questionnaires , Health Surveys , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Depressive Disorder, Major
4.
J. bras. psiquiatr ; 70(2): 108-116, abr.-jun. 2021. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1279300

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: Medir a prevalência do uso na vida, no último ano e no último mês de duas club drugs ­ o ecstasy e o LSD ­, bem como as características associadas ao uso dessas substâncias, no último mês, entre estudantes de graduação de uma universidade no Sul do Brasil. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de um estudo transversal conduzido no ano de 2015 com amostragem aleatória sistemática por conglomerados. Participaram 1.423 estudantes de graduação. Foi utilizado um modelo de análise multivariável em três níveis hierárquicos por meio da regressão de Poisson com ajuste robusto da variância. RESULTADOS: As prevalências de uso na vida, no último ano e no último mês de club drugs foram de 12,7%, 7,8% e 3,8%, respectivamente. Indivíduos do sexo masculino, com orientação sexual homossexual ou bissexual, mais jovens, que moravam com seus pares, solteiros, e que relataram uso no último mês de tabaco e maconha apresentaram maior probabilidade de ter feito uso no último mês de alguma club drug. Entretanto, a variável mais fortemente associada a esse desfecho foi ter algum amigo que já fez uso de alguma droga ilícita na vida (RP = 19,54). CONCLUSÕES: O ambiente universitário parece ser um terreno fértil para a difusão do uso de club drugs. O fortalecimento de uma rede de apoio institucional da universidade, capaz de propor atividades de prevenção, bem como de identificar, acolher e encaminhar casos em que haja abuso e dependência dessas substâncias, pode ser uma estratégia importante para lidar com essa problemática.


OBJECTIVE: To measure the prevalence of lifetime, last-year, and last-month use of two club drugs ­ ecstasy and LSD ­, as well as the characteristics associated with the last-month use of these substances among undergraduate students at a university in southern Brazil. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study conducted in 2015 with a clustered systematic sampling strategy. Overall, 1,423 undergraduate students participated. A three-level hierarchical multivariate analysis model was used through Poisson regression with robust adjustment of variance. RESULTS: Prevalence of lifetime, last-year, and lastmonth use of club drugs were 12.7%, 7.8% and 3.8%, respectively. Male participants, with homosexual or bisexual sexual orientation, younger, who lived with their peers, who were single, and who reported last-month use of tobacco and marijuana had higher probability of last-month use club drugs. However, the variable most strongly associated with this outcome was having a friend with lifetime use of illicit drugs (PR = 19.54). CONCLUSIONS: University environment seems to be a fertile ground for the spread of the use of club drugs. The strengthening of the university's institutional assistance network, capable of proposing prevention activities, as well as identifying, supporting and referring cases where there is abuse and dependence on these substances can be an important strategy to deal with this problem.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Young Adult , Students/psychology , Universities , Illicit Drugs/toxicity , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Peer Influence , Illicit Drugs/adverse effects , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Multivariate Analysis , Surveys and Questionnaires/standards , Drug-Seeking Behavior
5.
Psicol. reflex. crit ; 34: 17, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1340492

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: One of the most serious socio-educational measures for children and adolescents in conflict with the law in Brazil is their internment. This measure may represent an additional source of stress to this population and present significant impacts in the mental health context. This study aims to describe anxiety levels, depression, and addictive consumption, as well as to estimate the causalities and interactions of these variables. Methods: Herein, we report a study in which 175 male juveniles from youth detention institutions of the Federal District voluntarily completed the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), and a short self-rating questionnaire asking whether and how often they had experienced cannabis, alcohol, and other "hard" psychotropic drugs (e.g., crack, cocaine, amphetamine) 1 year prior to institutionalization. Results: Of the total participants, 28.00% showed moderate to severe depression scores and 34.28% showed moderate to severe anxiety scores. In addition, the vast majority of participants also reported some antecedent drug abuse, including cannabis, alcohol, and other "hard drugs." The BDI scores moderately correlated with BAI, but none of these parameters considerably correlated with the antecedent drug abuse. Conclusions: The data indicate potentially concerning levels of emotional distress in these institutionalized juveniles which seem to be independent of addictive behaviors. These data deserve attention and further investigation. Thus, a need for preventative mental health for the general population and socio-educational intervention aimed at interned youth which can decrease levels of emotional stress is emphasized.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , Adolescent, Institutionalized/psychology , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Brazil , Mental Health , Adolescent, Institutionalized/statistics & numerical data
6.
Rev. enferm. UFSM ; 11: e45, 2021. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1247756

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: investigar a prevalência do uso de substâncias psicoativas em gestantes e puérperas atendidas no ambulatório de um Hospital Escola. Método: pesquisa transversal, descritiva, com amostra de 174 gestantes e puérperas. Na coleta de dados, utilizou-se o instrumento padronizado Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) e um questionário sociodemográfico e gineco-obstétrico. A análise de dados foi realizada por meio da estatística descritiva. Resultados: a prevalência de uso de substâncias psicoativas entre as gestantes foi de 28,7 % e 1,1% entre as puérperas, com destaque para o álcool e tabaco. O tabaco constitui a substância com maior frequência de uso; que desencadeia maior desejo/urgência de consumo; maior taxa de tentativas de diminuição. Conclusão: o uso de substâncias psicoativas na gestação e puerpério constitui-se um desafio à saúde pública e para os profissionais de saúde, suscitando o desenvolvimento de ações educativas, bem como a captação precoce dessas mulheres.


Objective: to investigate the prevalence of psychoactive substance use in pregnant and puerperal women attended at an outpatient clinic in a teaching hospital. Method: A descriptive transversal research with a sample of 174 pregnant and puerperal women. The Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) and a sociodemographic and obstetric-gynecologic survey were utilized in data collection. Data analysis was performed through descriptive statistics. Results: the prevalence of psychoactive substance use among pregnant women was of 28.7% and 1.1% among puerperal women, with alcohol and tobacco as highlights. Tobacco constitutes the substance with greater frequency of use, triggering greater desire/urgency of consummation and a higher rate of intake lowering attempts. Conclusion: the use of psychoactive substances among pregnant and puerperal women constitutes a challenge to public health and for health professionals, eliciting the development of educational actions as well as early identification of these women.


Objetivo: investigar la prevalencia del uso de sustancias psicoactivas en mujeres embarazadas y puérperas atendidas en el ambulatorio de un Hospital Escuela. Método: investigación transversal, descriptiva, con una muestra de 174 mujeres embarazadas y puérperas. En la recopilación de datos, se utilizó el instrumento estandarizadoAlcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) y un cuestionario sociodemográfico y gineco-obstétrico. El análisis de los datos se realizó mediante estadísticas descriptivas. Resultados: la prevalencia del consumo de sustancias psicoactivas entre las embarazadas fue del 28,7%, mientras que entre las puérperas fuel del 1,1%, con destaque para el alcohol y el tabaco. El tabaco constituye la sustancia de mayor frecuencia de uso; que desencadena mayor deseo/urgencia de consumo; mayor tasa de tentativas de disminución. Conclusión: el uso de sustancias psicoactivas en elembarazo y el puerperio constituye un reto para la salud pública y para los profesionales de la salud, suscitando el desarrollo de acciones educativas, así como la captación temprana de estas mujeres.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Pregnancy, High-Risk , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Postpartum Period , Drug Users/statistics & numerical data , Socioeconomic Factors , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies
7.
Rev. eletrônica enferm ; 23: 1-10, 2021. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1146863

ABSTRACT

Objetivou descrever o perfil de problemas associados ao uso de substâncias entre adolescentes, estudantes de ensino fundamental de uma escola situada em território de intensa circulação de drogas, e verificar as relações com uso e características sociodemográficas. Estudo transversal e correlacional preditivo, com 109 estudantes do nono ano, que responderam ao questionário contendo informações sociodemográficas e o Drug Use Screening Inventory (DUSI). Os dados foram analisados por estatísticas descritivas, testes de associação e cálculo de densidades de problemas investigadas pelo DUSI. Houve maior densidade de problemas para todas as áreas de vida investigadas dentre os escolares que já haviam feito uso de substâncias psicoativas. "Praticar a religião" foi identificado como fator de proteção para o uso de substâncias psicoativas e "trabalhar" como fator de risco para o uso de álcool. Evidenciou-se a necessidade de estratégias preventivas direcionadas ao uso de substâncias e orientadas a esse público.


It aimed to describe the profile of problems associated with substance use among adolescents, elementary school students from a school located in a territory with a high circulation of drugs, and to verify the relationships between use and sociodemographic characteristics. Cross-sectional and predictive correlational study, with 109 ninth-year students, who answered the questionnaire containing sociodemographic information and the Drug Use Screening Inventory (DUSI). The data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, association tests, and calculation of problem densities investigated by the DUSI. There was a greater density of problems for all areas of life investigated among students who had already used psychoactive substances. "Practice religion" was identified as a protective factor for the use of psychoactive substances and "work" as a risk factor for the use of alcohol. The need for preventive strategies directed to the use of substances and directed to this public was evidenced.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Students , Illicit Drugs , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Underage Drinking , Religion , Socioeconomic Factors , Work , Logistic Models , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Substance-Related Disorders/prevention & control
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922204

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Substance abuse is a worldwide problem that primarily affects adolescents, resulting in chronic health complications as well as psychosocial challenges and economic losses. However, the magnitude of the problem and the factors that contribute to it are not well studied in Ethiopia, particularly in the study area. As a result, this study was carried out to determine the prevalence and associated factors of substance use among preparatory school students in the Kolfe-Keraniyo sub-city of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.@*METHODOLOGY@#An institution-based cross-sectional study of 383 randomly selected preparatory school students in the Kolfe-Keraniyo sub-city was conducted. The data were gathered using a pretested self-administered structured questionnaire. Multivariable binary logistic regression analysis was employed to identify factors associated with substance use based on the adjusted odds ratio (AOR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) with p values less than 0.05.@*RESULT@#This study revealed that the lifetime prevalence of substance use among preparatory students in Kolfe-Keraniyo sub-city, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, was 26.5% (95% CI, 22.2, 30.7%). Specifically, 16% drunk alcohol, 9.6% smoked cigarette, and 9.4% chewed khat. The 16.3% were current users, of which 8.3% were drinkers, 6.4% were smokers, and 5.9% were khat chewers. Substance use was significantly associated with being male (AOR, 3.3; 95% CI, 1.284, 8.613), having alcohol drinking family member (AOR, 4.0; 95% CI, 1.704, 9.196), having khat chewing family member (AOR, 2.87; 95% CI, 1.161, 7.070), poor school substance use controlling rule (AOR, 6.64; 95% CI, 1.863, 23.687), availability of substance retailing shops in residential areas (AOR, 2.9; CI, 1.303, 6.606), strong relationship with parents (AOR, 0.005; 95% CI, 0.001, 0.026), and being member of school mini-media (AOR, 0.177; 95% CI, 0.048, 0.657).@*CONCLUSION@#According to the findings of this study, one-quarter of the study participants were substance users. Alcohol, khat, and cigarettes were all commonly used substances. Gender, parent-child relationship, family member substance use history, school substance use controlling rules, school mini-media and pro-social involvement, and the availability of substance retailing shops were all strongly associated with substance use. Strengthening school rules on substance use, controlling substance retailing shops near schools and residential areas, and providing students with health education are all strategies for reducing substance use among students.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ethiopia/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Schools , Students/statistics & numerical data , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
9.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 25(10): 3713-3721, Out. 2020.
Article in Portuguese | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1132986

ABSTRACT

Resumo O objetivo do estudo foi analisar como as pessoas em situação de rua vivenciam o uso de drogas e seus entrelaçamentos com suas culturas e estilos de vida. Realizou-se um estudo etnográfico, que identificou as estruturas macrossociais através do acompanhamento do Movimento Nacional da População de rua, e as microssociais, por meio das trajetórias individuais dos interlocutores. Os dados foram coletados mediante observação participante, registrada em diário de campo e entrevistas semiestruturadas. A análise foi realizada pela síntese da geração dos dados durante todo o processo de trabalho. Os resultados apontam uma cultura da rua, em que a droga surge como um estilo de vida coletivo, construindo relações e identidades de resistência aos estigmas. As histórias de vida revelaram o sofrimento social, a exclusão e a não adaptação ao sistema convencional e formal. Assim, as pessoas em situação de rua possuem uma organização social que ajuda a suportar as dificuldades de aceitação da sociedade e a inadequação dos serviços que as atendem. A droga faz parte dessa cultura, enquanto mais um modo de vida, que precisa ser compreendido e trabalhado de forma aberta e consciente pelos profissionais de saúde.


Abstract This research aimed to analyse how homeless people experience drug use and the intertwining between it and their cultural environment and life style. An etnographic study has been conducted which identified the macrosocial structures through the National Movement of the Homeless (Movimento Nacional da População de Rua) monitoring and the microsocial ones by means of its interlocutors' individual trajectories. Data were collected upon participant observation, registered in a research field journal and in semi-structured interviews. The analysis was carried out by data generation synthesis over the whole working process. Results reveal a street culture in which drug builds a collective life style that sets relationships and identities which withstand stigmas. Life stories unveil social suffering and exclusion besides non-adaptation to society conventional and formal aspects. Therefore, homeless people have their own social organisation that helps them to endure the difficulties in being accepted by society as well as the inadequacy of the social services that should assist them. Drug is part of this culture as a way of living and it needs to be understood and worked with by health professionals through a conscious and open approach.


Subject(s)
Humans , Homeless Persons , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Social Stigma , Life Style
10.
Acta toxicol. argent ; 28(2): 45-52, Sept. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1278222

ABSTRACT

Resumen El consumo de Sustancias psicoactivas (SPs) es un problema de salud mundial que afecta particularmente a los adolescentes. Por lo tanto, el conocimiento del contacto que los jóvenes tienen con las SPs, permitirá el desarrollo de políticas de prevención. El objetivo del trabajo fue evaluar el contacto con SPs de estudiantes secundarios de Rosario y alrededores. Entre el 2013 y el 2016, contestaron de forma anónima un cuestionario 1064 estudiantes, observándose un aumento significativo del consumo de SPs en el año 2016. Cuando se excluyen el consumo de tabaco y alcohol (SPs legales) el porcentaje permanece constante. El aumento observado se debe al consumo de SPs tales como alcohol y tabaco. Se observó una disminución de la edad de inicio así como un cambio en los porcentajes y patrones de consumo. La SP más consumida fue el alcohol seguida de tabaco o marihuana. Los cambios observados podrían estar relacionados con las edades y los años de cursado de los estudian tes encuestados.


Abstract. Adolescence is characterized by anxiety, peer-pressure, identity search, etc. All these features contribute to experiment with Psychoactive Drugs (P.D.). P.D. use is a global health problem that has its onset during adolescence. The developing of prevention policies according to a specific population needs the knowledge of the levels and patterns of P.D. use. The goal of the present work was to evaluate P.D.'s level of contact and patterns of use among high school students in Rosario (Argentina). Between 2013 and 2016, a total of 1064 students were surveyed. The results showed that P.D. use (at least once in a lifetime) was significantly higher in 2016 compared to previous years. However, when the use of legal vs illegal P.D. was discriminated we found that such increase was due to higher use of alcohol and tobacco; while the illegal P.D. use remained constant. Moreover, in 2016 we found a decrease in the age of onset as well as a change in the patterns of P.D use. However, all these results must be analyzed taking into account intrinsic differences of the sample.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adolescent , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Argentina/epidemiology , Drug Users/statistics & numerical data
11.
An. bras. dermatol ; 95(3): 289-297, May-June 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1130878

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Tattooing is among identified risk factor for blood-borne diseases. Objective: This study aims to determine the prevalence of tattooing during lifetime and in prisons and its related factors among Iranian prisoners. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study. The required data was obtained from hepatitis B and C surveillance surveys in prisons in 2015-2016 that was collected through face-to-face interview. 12,800 prisoners were selected by multi-stage random sampling from 55 prisons of 19 provinces in Iran. Weighted prevalence and associated factors (using Chi-Square test and multivariate logistic regression) were determined by Stata/SE 14.0 survey package. Results: Out of 12,800 prisioners, 11,988 participated in the study (93.6% participation rate). The prevalence of tattooing in lifetime and in prisons was 44.7% and 31.1% respectively. The prevalence of tattooing during lifetime was significantly associated with age < 35 years, being single, illiteracy, history of imprisonment, drug use, piercing during lifetime, extramarital sex and history of STI; the prevalence of tattooing in prison had a significant association with history of imprisonment, drug use, piercing in prison, and history of extramarital sex (p < 0.05). Study limitations: Information and selection bias was one of the study limitations. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that the prevalence of tattooing during lifetime and in prison among prisoners was significantly high especially in high-risk groups such as drug users and sexually active subjects. Given the role of tattooing, drug injection and sex in the transmission of blood-borne diseases, harm reduction programs are recommended to reduce these high-risk behaviors in prisons.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Prisoners/statistics & numerical data , Tattooing/statistics & numerical data , Risk-Taking , Socioeconomic Factors , Tattooing/adverse effects , Time Factors , Logistic Models , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Multivariate Analysis , Surveys and Questionnaires , Risk Factors , Sex Distribution , Age Distribution , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Body Piercing/statistics & numerical data , Iran/epidemiology , Middle Aged
12.
Rev. Méd. Clín. Condes ; 31(2): 174-182, mar.-abr. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1223625

ABSTRACT

La comorbilidad entre trastornos del ánimo (TA) y trastornos por uso de sustancias (TUS) es frecuente, empeora el pronóstico de ambos cuadros y dificulta su tratamiento. El reconocimiento y manejo de síntomas anímicos en usuarios de sustancias significa un desafío en la práctica clínica. Si bien existen los trastornos anímicos secundarios a la patología por consumo, la evidencia muestra que la mayor parte de las veces en que ambas patologías coexisten, el trastorno anímico es primario, por lo tanto, el uso de sustancias activo no debiese impedir un tratamiento oportuno del TA, sin descuidar el manejo específico del uso de sustancias, ya que el tratamiento del cuadro afectivo por sí sólo no resuelve el TUS. Existe acuerdo en la necesidad de realizar un tratamiento integrado de ambos trastornos, que incorpore intervenciones farmacológicas y psicoterapéuticas ya validadas para el tratamiento de ambos trastornos por separado, y especialmente aquellas que han mostrado efectividad en la comorbilidad. El tratamiento debe tener un enfoque en la recuperación, que promueva la adherencia y reinserción social. Se requiere mayor investigación sobre el pronóstico y el tratamiento de la comorbilidad entre Trastorno anímicos y por uso de sustancias, y el fortalecimiento de la red de salud general y salud mental en la pesquisa y manejo de estos cuadros.


Comorbidity between Mood Disorders (MD) and Substance Use Disorders (SUD) are common and it worsens the prognosis of both conditions. The recognition and management of mood symptoms in SUD patients is a usual challenge in clinical practice. As opposed to the usual belief, most mood disorders in TUS patients are primary disorders and therefore the use of active substances should not prevent timely treatment of MD, without neglecting the specific management of substance use, since that the treatment of the affective condition alone does not resolve your SUD. There is agreement on the need to perform an integrated treatment of both disorders, which incorporates pharmacological and psychotherapeutic interventions already validated for the treatment of both disorders, and especially those that have shown effectiveness in comorbidity. Treatment should have a focus on recovery, which promotes adherence and social reintegration. More research is required on the prognosis and treatment of comorbidity between mood and substance use disorders, and the strengthening of the general health and mental health network in the research and management of these conditions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Mood Disorders/epidemiology , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Diagnosis, Dual (Psychiatry) , Mood Disorders/diagnosis , Mood Disorders/therapy , Substance-Related Disorders/diagnosis , Substance-Related Disorders/therapy
13.
Rev. chil. obstet. ginecol. (En línea) ; 85(1): 24-35, feb. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1092772

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVOS: Determinar la asociación entre el consumo de sustancias y características de salud sexual y reproductiva de mujeres jóvenes en Chile. MÉTODOS: Estudio transversal analítico en mujeres entre 15 a 24 años. Se formaron 3 grupos: Sin consumo de sustancias (SCS), Consumo no problemático de sustancias (CNPS) y Consumo problemático de sustancias (CPS). Se realizó análisis descriptivo y de asociación entre las variables. Se ajustaron modelos de regresión logística múltiple y ordinal múltiple. RESULTADOS: Muestra de 2.589 jóvenes, el 37,8% correspondió al grupo SCS, 46,3% al grupo CSNP y 15,9% al grupo CPS. En promedio la edad de inicio de actividad sexual fue menor en el grupo CPS (15,9 años p = 0,001) mostrando mayor porcentajes de sexo oral, anal, no uno de condón, relaciones sexuales con parejas menos estables, mayor número de parejas sexuales y violencia en la pareja, (p =0,001). En este grupo se incrementa 5,84 el riesgo de tener la última relación sexual con pareja menos estable (IC95%: 3,90 - 12,01) y 8,35 veces el riesgo de tener 2 o más parejas sexuales (últimos 12 meses) (IC95%: 5,35 - 16,34). En el grupo CNPS se incrementa 1,11 veces el riesgo de tener la última relación sexual con pareja menos estable (IC95%: 1,43 - 3,12), 1,01 veces tener 2 y más parejas sexuales (últimos 12 meses) (IC95%: 1,20 - 3,36). CONCLUSIONES: Reconociéndose que la sexualidad es multifactorial, las mujeres con consumo de sustancias viven situaciones que facilitan riesgos para su salud sexual. El consumo en mujeres jóvenes es un problema de salud pública que presenta desafíos para su abordaje.


OBJECTIVES: To determine the association between substance use and characteristics of sexual and reproductive health of young women in Chile. METHODS: Analytical cross-sectional study in women between 15 and 24 years. Three groups were formed: No substance use (SCS), Non-problematic substance use (CNPS) and Problem substance use (CPS). Descriptive and association analysis was performed between the variables. Multiple logistic regression and multiple ordinal models were adjusted. RESULTS: Sample of 2,589 young people, 37.8% corresponded to the SCS group, 46.3% to the CSNP group and 15.9% to the CPS group. On average the age of onset of sexual activity was lower in the CPS group (15.9 years p = 0.001) showing higher percentages of oral, anal sex, not a condom, sex with less stable partners, greater number of sexual partners and violence in the couple, (p = 0.001). In this group the risk of having the last sexual relationship with a less stable partner is increased 5.84 (95% CI: 3.90 - 12.01) and 8.35 times the risk of having 2 or more sexual partners (last 12 months) (95% CI: 5.35-16.34). In the CNPS group the risk of having the last sexual relationship with a less stable partner is increased 1.11 times (95% CI: 1.43 - 3.12), 1.01 times having 2 and more sexual partners (last 12 months) (95% CI: 1.20-3.36). CONCLUSIONS: Recognizing that sexuality is multifactorial, women with substance use experience situations that facilitate risks to their sexual health. Consumption in young women is a public health problem that presents challenges for its approach.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Young Adult , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Reproductive Health/statistics & numerical data , Sexual Health/statistics & numerical data , Sexual Behavior , Socioeconomic Factors , Logistic Models , Chile , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Sexuality , Substance-Related Disorders/psychology , Reproductive Health
15.
Salud colect ; 16: e2509, 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1139519

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN El consumo problemático de sustancias legales e ilegales en las mujeres embarazadas y puérperas es un tema de creciente preocupación sociosanitaria, que ha sido escasamente estudiado desde una perspectiva de género. Este artículo presenta los resultados obtenidos a partir de un estudio multicéntrico cualicuantitativo y transversal llevado a cabo entre mayo 2018 y junio 2019. El objetivo fue describir los patrones y representaciones del consumo de sustancias psicoactivas, así como el acceso a la atención en mujeres embarazadas y puérperas. La muestra fue intencional, conformada por 62 mujeres que asistían a hospitales generales de Bariloche, Concordia y La Matanza, que participaron de entrevistas semiestructuradas. Entre los resultados se destaca el tabú asociado a los consumos de sustancias psicoactivas en mujeres embarazadas y lactantes, la discriminación que estas mujeres experimentan en los servicios de salud y la falta de apoyo material que enfrentan las mujeres a la hora de realizar las tareas de cuidado, lo cual limita para ellas la posibilidad de cuidar de sí mismas.


ABSTRACT The problematic consumption of legal and illegal substances in pregnant and postpartum women is a growing socio-sanitary concern that has infrequently been studied from a gender perspective. This article presents the results of a multi-center, cross sectional study employing a mixed qualitative-quantitative approach that was conducted between May 2018 and June 2019. The aim of this research was to describe the patterns of psychoactive substance use as well as access to healthcare services among pregnant and postpartum women. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of 62 women attending Bariloche, Concordia, and La Matanza General Hospitals. Results showed evidence of the taboo associated with psychoactive substance use among pregnant and postpartum women, the discrimination that these women experience in healthcare services, and their lack of material support, which makes it difficult for them to take care of themselves.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Hospitals, General , Cross-Sectional Studies , Postpartum Period , Social Stigma
16.
Summa psicol. UST ; 17(1): 11-19, 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1129383

ABSTRACT

El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo detectar el nivel de riesgo por consumo de sustancias psicoactivas (SPA) en una muestra de 324 universitarios ingresantes a Psicología en Arequipa ­ Perú, siendo el 73.15% de sexo femenino y 26.85% masculino, con edades que fluctúan entre los 18 y 25 años. Se empleó para ello la prueba ASSIST elaborada por la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS), hallando que el 33.02%, 22.53% y 10.49% alcanza un nivel de riesgo moderado en el consumo de tabaco, bebidas alcohólicas y marihuana correspondientemente. Además, el 2.78% presentó un nivel de riesgo alto en el consumo de bebidas alcohólicas. Se concluye que las SPA más consumidas por dichos universitarios son bebidas alcohólicas y tabaco, y que aproximadamente 1 de cada 4 tiene un riesgo moderado a alto de tener problemas por el consumo de alcohol y tabaco


The objective of this study was to detect the level of risk due to consumption of psychoactive substances in a sample of 324 undergraduates entering Psychology in Arequipa - Peru, with 73.15% female and 26.85% male, and ages between 18 and 25 years. The ASSIST test prepared by the World Health Organization (WHO) detected that 33.02%, 22.53% and 10.49% reach a moderate level of risk in the consumption of tobacco, alcoholic beverages and marijuana correspondingly. Besides, 2.78% of a high level of risk in the consumption of alcoholic beverages, concluding that the SPA most consumed by these university students are alcoholic beverages and tobacco; that approximately 1 in 4 has a moderate to high risk of having problems with alcohol and tobacco consumption.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Students/psychology , Universities , Risk Assessment/methods , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Peru , Cannabis , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Substance-Related Disorders/diagnosis , Tobacco Use , Alcohol Drinking in College
17.
Odontoestomatol ; 22(36): 44-54, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BNUY, BNUY-Odon | ID: biblio-1143364

ABSTRACT

Resumen Objetivo general: conocer la percepción de adolescentes y adultos jóvenes vinculados al consumo abusivo de drogas a partir de la situación de dependencia. Material y método: se planteó un modelo de investigación cualitativo. La muestra teórica por saturación fue población adolescente y adulta joven que se asistió en régimen de internación en el Portal Amarillo. Criterios de inclusión: a) tener entre 15 y 24 años, b) estar en tratamiento por consumo de drogas. Criterios de exclusión: a) pacientes no lúcidos, b) pacientes no colaboradores. Resultados: los participantes refieren como salud bucal tener los dientes limpios, blancos y alineados; como enfermedad caries, sangrado de encías y enfermedades transmisibles; y como funciones alteradas la masticación, la estética y el gusto. Antes de la situación de dependencia la higiene bucal era regular, después de las comidas y con instrucción recibida, a partir de la dependencia la higiene fue muy irregular, si se acordaban y sin refuerzo de la instrucción. Previo al consumo eran individuos integrados al estudio o al trabajo, con vida familiar ordenada, con pareja o en procura de tenerla; posteriormente al consumo relatan automarginación con pérdida de contacto con la pareja e hijos, aislamiento de la familia y discriminación social. El consumo dificulta el acceso a la atención odontológica, excepto en situaciones de urgencia. Conclusiones: Las personas jóvenes en tratamiento por dependencia a las drogas perciben el deterioro de su salud bucal a partir de la situación de consumo, alterando la estética, las funciones orales, la autoestima y la calidad de vida.


Abstract General objective: To determine the perception of adolescents and young adults regarding drug abuse as a result of drug dependence. Materials and methods: a qualitative research model was proposed. The theoretical sample by saturation included adolescents and young adults treated at Portal Amarillo. Inclusion criteria: a) aged between 15 and 24, b) in treatment for drug use. Exclusion criteria: a) non-lucid patients, b) non-collaborating patients. Results: Participants viewed oral health as having clean, white and aligned teeth; and caries, bleeding gums and communicable diseases as disease; chewing, aesthetics and taste were seen as altered functions. Before drug dependence, their oral hygiene was regular, after meals, and following the instructions received. With addiction, hygiene became irregular, only if they remembered to do it and without instruction reinforcement. Before drug consumption, participants were students or held a job; they had a good family life, with a partner, or in search of one. After consumption, they report self-marginalization, loss of contact with partners and children, isolation from the family, and social discrimination. Consumption makes it difficult for them to seek dental care, except in emergency situations. Conclusions: Young people in treatment for drug dependence are aware that addiction damages oral health, deteriorating aesthetics, affecting oral functions, self-esteem, and quality of life.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Oral Health , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Uruguay , Adolescent , Young Adult
18.
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 54: 82, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1127255

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To characterize recent HIV infections among newly diagnosed men who have sex with men and transgender women in Tijuana. METHODS Limiting Antigen (LAg)-Avidity testing was performed to detect recent HIV infection within a cohort of newly-diagnosed men who have sex with men and transgender women in Tijuana. Logistic regression was used to determine characteristics associated with recent infection. A partial transmission network was inferred using HIV-1 pol sequences. Tamura-Nei 93 genetic distances were measured between all pairs of sequences, and the network was constructed by inferring putative transmission links (genetic distances ≤ 1.5%). We assessed whether recent infection was associated with clustering within the inferred network. RESULTS Recent infection was detected in 11% (22/194) of newly-diagnosed participants. Out of the participants with sequence data, 60% (9/15) with recent infection clustered compared with 31% (43/139) with chronic infection. Two recent infections belonged to the same cluster. In adjusted analyses, recent infection was associated with years of residence in Tijuana (OR = 1.5; 95%CI 1.01-1.09), cocaine use (past month) (OR = 8.50; 95%CI 1.99-28.17), and ever experiencing sexual abuse (OR = 2.85; 95%CI 1.03-7.85). DISCUSSION A total of 11% of men newly diagnosed with HIV who have sex with men and transgender women in Tijuana were recently infected. The general lack of clustering between participants with recent infection suggests continued onward HIV transmission rather than an outbreak within a particular cluster.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Homosexuality, Male , Transgender Persons , Brazil/epidemiology , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology
19.
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 54: 57, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1101861

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe drug consumption and the co-occurrence use of more than one illegal drug as well as associated factors in freshmen at a public university in Southern Brazil. METHODS Cross-sectional study with census of students entering undergraduate courses in 2017. A total of 1,788 university students answered questions about illicit drug use. For analysis, ordinal logistic regression was used. RESULTS Marijuana was the most consumed drug (lifetime: 42.1%; 30-day use: 22.7%), followed by hallucinogens (lifetime: 13.1%, 30-day use: 2.8%). Rates for lifetime use of 0, 1 and 2 or more drugs were 56.2%, 23.3% and 20.4%, respectively, and were associated with men (OR = 2.2; 95%CI:1.4-3.5), being at least 23 years old (OR = 2.7; 95%CI: 1.4-5.1), under 18 years old first experimentation with drugs (OR = 2.3; 95%CI: 1.3-3.9) and living with friends (OR = 2.0; 95%CI: 1.2-3.4). Rates for 30-day use of 0, 1 and 2 or more drugs were 76.8%; 18.1% and 5.1%, respectively, and were associated with being single, separated or widowed (OR = 3.2; 95%CI: 1.4-7.0), lower socioeconomic classes (OR = 0.3; 95%CI: 0.1-1.1; p = 0.001), under 18 years old first experimentation with drugs (OR = 1.8; 95%CI: 1.1-2.9) and living with friends (OR = 1.8 95%CI: 1.2-2.8). CONCLUSION Results indicate that students are at greater risk of illicit drug-related health problems. Thus, a better understanding of this consumption should be pursued, as well as the development of a prevention plan.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Students/statistics & numerical data , Universities/statistics & numerical data , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Socioeconomic Factors , Time Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Sex Factors , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Risk Factors , Age Factors , Sex Distribution , Age Distribution
20.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1094405

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To determine the prevalence of cigarette use among adolescents and to identify associated health risk behaviors. METHODS This is a cross-sectional study with a representative sample, composed of 1059 adolescents between 13 and 19 years old, enrolled in primary and secondary public schools of Olinda, Pernambuco, in 2014. Information was obtained through self-administered questionnaires (validated version of YRBS 2007). Cigarette experimentation was defined as smoking at least once in life. Adolescents who smoked at least one day within 30 days prior to the survey were considered current smokers. Most students were female and 16 years old or older. RESULTS Almost 30% used it in life and about 10% smoked within the 30 days before the survey. Suicidal ideation (PR = 1.51, 95%CI 1.25-1.82), alcohol use (PR = 1.41, 95%CI 1.03-1.92), marijuana (PR = 1.64, 95%CI 1.37-1.96), excessive alcohol consumption (PR = 1.57, 95%CI 1.15-2.16) and sexual experience (PR = 1.78, 95%CI 1.43-2.21) have increased the risk of using cigarettes. Feelings of sadness (PR = 1.70, 95%CI 1.22-2.36), alcohol use (PR=2.40, 95%CI 1.12-5.12), excessive alcohol consumption (PR = 2.5, 95% CI 1.24-5.38), marijuana (PR = 2.31, 95%CI.57-3.39) and cocaine (PR = 1.99, 95%CI.32-3.01) increased the risk of cigarette use within the 30 days before the survey. CONCLUSIONS Cigarette use among adolescents from Olinda was high, being considered higher than the national prevalence. Possible factors associated with cigarette use were drug use (alcohol, marijuana, and cocaine) and behaviors related to sexual experience, feelings of sadness and suicidal ideation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Smoking/epidemiology , Adolescent Behavior/psychology , Health Risk Behaviors , Sexual Behavior , Socioeconomic Factors , Time Factors , Violence/statistics & numerical data , Brazil/epidemiology , Smoking/psychology , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Risk Factors , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Suicidal Ideation , Sadness
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