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1.
J. bras. psiquiatr ; 71(1): 16-23, jan.-mar. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365058

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the association between levels of mindfulness and sociodemographic characteristics and pattern of drug use of individuals seeking treatment in a University Service Specialized in Substance Use Disorders. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study with 164 individuals over 18 years of age seeking treatment for the use of psychoactive substances in the June 2018-December 2019 period, using a questionnaire for sociodemographic data, the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS) self- -reporting instrument, and the Alcohol, Smoking, and Substance Involvement Screening Test. RESULTS: An association was found between low levels of mindfulness mainly with the individual risk of being a medium/high-risk user of sedative-hypnotic drugs (p = 0.020). A borderline association was also found between MAAS and the risk of the individual being a medium/high risk of alcohol (p = 0.053) and with a more severe pattern of substance use (p = 0.065). CONCLUSION: Individuals seeking treatment for substance use presented impairments in the attentional aspect of mindfulness and levels of mindfulness seem to protect against behaviors related to substance use, especially against the use of high/ moderate risk of sedative-hypnotics.


OBJETIVO: Avaliar a associação entre níveis de mindfulness e características sociodemográficas e padrão do uso de drogas de indivíduos que buscam tratamento em Serviço Universitário Especializado em Transtorno por Uso de Substâncias. MÉTODOS: Estudo de corte transversal de 164 indivíduos acima de 18 anos que buscavam tratamento para uso de substâncias psicoativas no período de junho de 2018 a dezembro de 2019, utilizando questionário para dados sociodemográficos, o instrumento de autorrelato Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS) e o Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test. RESULTADOS: Foi encontrada associação entre baixos níveis de mindfulness principalmente com o risco de o indivíduo ser usuário de médio/alto risco de sedativos-hipnóticos (p = 0,020). Também foi encontrada associação limítrofe entre MAAS com risco de o indivíduo ser usuário de médio/alto risco de álcool (p = 0,053) e com padrão mais grave de uso de substâncias (p = 0,065). CONCLUSÃO: Indivíduos que buscavam tratamento para uso de substâncias apresentaram prejuízos no aspecto atencional de mindfulness, e níveis de mindfulness parecem proteger contra comportamentos relacionados ao uso de substâncias, principalmente contra o uso de alto/moderado risco de sedativos-hipnóticos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Cognitive Behavioral Therapy/methods , Substance-Related Disorders/psychology , Substance-Related Disorders/therapy , Mindfulness , Benzodiazepinones/pharmacology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Cohort Studies
2.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1390746

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: describir las conductas y los escenarios de riesgo que adolescentes y sus padres relatan de sus experiencias cotidianas. Metodología: se realizó una investigación cualitativa con enfoque fenomenológico hermenéutico que posibilitó acceder a los relatos de los participantes a través de siete entrevistas semiestructuradas con adolescentes y siete con padres. Los resultados muestran relatos sobre el riesgo en torno a la sexualidad y el consumo de sustancias psicoactivas en escenarios donde se relacionan con otros. Como conclusión se encuentra que hay una delgada línea entre la exploración y la práctica de riesgo y que los adolescentes, sujetos con capacidad de conciencia, pueden vivir las experiencias como una u otra de acuerdo con la presencia y el uso de los recursos con los que cuentan.


The objetive of this article is to describe the behaviors and risk scenarios that adolescents and their parents tell about their daily experiences. A qualitative research with a hermeneutical phenomenological approach was carried out that made it possible to access the participants' stories through seven semi-structured interviews with adolescents and other seven semi-structured interviews with their parents. The results show reports about the risk around sexuality and the consumption of psychoactive substances in contexts where they interact with people. As a conclusion, it is found that there is a little line between the exploration and the risk practice and the adolescents, subjects with the capacity for conscience, can live experiences as exploration or risk according to the presence and use of the resources they have


Subject(s)
Humans , Adolescent , Adult , Risk Factors , Sexual Behavior/psychology , Adolescent , Substance-Related Disorders/psychology , Health Risk Behaviors
3.
Psicol. Estud. (Online) ; 27: e47596, 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1365265

ABSTRACT

RESUMO. Este estudo pretende colocar a clínica psicológica como um espaço de desvelamento das desigualdades sociais a partir da escuta de sujeitos excluídos através de plantões psicológicos. Percebe-se uma lacuna na literatura especializada em psicologia clínica que, geralmente, não vincula processos clínicos e processos psicossociais, mantendo um discurso hegemônico que pouco articula o psicológico, o social e o político. A Teoria Fundamentada nos dados, metodologia de natureza qualitativa, foi adotada nesse estudo. Através da análise qualitativa de diários de campos produzidos a partir de atendimentos do tipo plantão psicológico, foram geradas categorias que apontam para a fragilidade dos laços familiares e comunitários, os sofrimentos de ser tratado como inferior e a necessidade de ampliações de práticas clínicas com pessoas excluídas. As precariedades materiais e simbólicas vividas pelos sujeitos excluídos são reproduzidas nas suas redes relacionais e comunitárias como violências, opressões e vínculos fragilizados. A inclusão no lugar da inadequação e da inferioridade excluem os sujeitos da possibilidade de se perceberem como dignos e capazes de contribuir com a sociedade, gerando um apagamento de si mesmo. Houve a necessidade de uma prática clínica ampliada que levasse em consideração as vivências específicas de pessoas excluídas e que pudesse produzir novos encontros e novos afetos como contraponto às desqualificações cotidianamente recebidas. Na escuta de sujeitos de classes populares a equipe buscou sustentar a complexidade presente nos sofrimentos, focalizando não só suas questões subjetivas, mas também a produção social e histórica de suas vulnerabilidades.


RESUMEN. Este estudio pretende incluir la clínica psicológica como un espacio para desvelar las desigualdades sociales a través de la escucha de sujetos excluidos con planton psicológico. Se percibe una ausencia en la literatura especializada en psicología clínica que, en general, no vincula procesos clínicos y procesos psicosociales, manteniendo un discurso hegemónico que poco articula problemas psicológicos, sociales y políticos. En este estudio se adoptó la Teoría Fundamentada, una metodologia cualitativa. Através del análisis cualitativo de los registros producidos com el material do planton psicológico, se generaron categorias que apuntan a la fragilidad de los lazos familiares y comunitarios, los sufrimientos de ser tratados como inferiores y la necesidad de ampliar las práticas clínicas con personas excluidas. La precariedad material y simbólica vivida por los sujetos excluidos se reproduce en sus redes relacionales y comunitarias como violencia, opresión y vínculos debilitados. La inclusión en lugar de inadecuación e inferioridad excluye a los sujetos de la posibilidad de percibirse a si mismos como dignos y capaces de contribuir a la sociedad, generando un debilitamiento de si mismos. Se notó la necesidad de una prática clínica ampliada que consideran las vivencias específicas de las personas excluidas y que puede producir nuevos encuentros y nuevos afectos como contrapunto a las descalificaciones diarias recibidas. En la escucha de sujetos de clases populares el equipo buscó sostener la complejidad presente en los sufrimientos, enfocando no sólo sus cuestiones subjetivas, sino también la producción social e histórica de sus vulnerabilidades.


ABSTRACT This study intends to place the psychological clinic as a space for unveiling social inequalities by listening to excluded subjects through the psychological on-call sessions. There is a gap in the specialized literature in clinical psychology that, generally, does not link clinical processes and psychosocial processes, maintaining a hegemonic discourse that barely articulates the psychological, social and political issues. The Grounded Theory, as a qualitative-interpretative methodology, was adopted in this study. The qualitative analysis of field diaries produced based on the psychological on-call sessions generated categories that point to the fragility of family and community bonds, the sufferings of being treated as inferior, and the need to expand clinical practices with excluded people. The material and symbolic precariousness experienced by excluded subjects are reproduced in their relational and community networks as violence, oppression and weakened bonds. Inclusion in place of inadequacy and inferiority excludes people from the possibility of perceiving themselves as worthy and capable of contributing to society, generating an erasure of themselves. There was a need for an expanded clinical practice that considered the specific experiences of excluded subjects, which could produce new encounters and affections as a counterpoint to the disqualifications received daily. In listening to popular classes people, the research team sought to sustain the complexity present in sufferings, focusing not only on their subjective issues but also on the social and historical production of their vulnerabilities.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Psychology , Psychology, Clinical , Socioeconomic Factors , Social Isolation/psychology , Violence/psychology , Substance-Related Disorders/psychology , Social Vulnerability , Family Relations/psychology , Drug Users/psychology , Social Marginalization/psychology , Psychological Distress , Mental Health Services
4.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1179996

ABSTRACT

Objetivos: conocer el diferencial actitudinal hacia el consumo de sustancias entre adolescentes y adultos jóvenes de Ambato, Ecuador, y el efecto que tiene la transición evolutiva. Método: estudio descriptivo, comparativo, de incidencia y de corte transversal con el Autoinforme de Sustancias Psicoactivas. Muestra: 711 participantes (50,5 % hombres y 49,5 % mujeres), estudiantes de colegios (70,6 %) y universidades (29,4 %) de la ciudad de Ambato. Resultados: en su mayoría los participantes (85 %) muestran actitudes desfavorables al consumo de sustancias. Se presentan diferencias actitudinales en el rechazo al consumo de sustancias, en la admiración a los no usuarios y en la percepción de madurez que aporta el consumo. La transición de la adolescencia y la adultez tienen efecto en las actitudes favorables hacia el consumo de sustancias. Conclusión: la transición evolutiva incide en el cambio actitudinal, haciendo que se vuelvan más favorables hacia la ejecución del consumo.


Objectives: to know the attitudinal differential towards substance use among adolescents and young adults from Ambato, Ecuador and the effect of their evolutionary transition. Method: descriptive, comparative, incidence and cross-sectional study using the Self-report of Psychoactive Substances. Sample: 711 participants (50.5% men and 49.5% women), students from schools (70.6%) and universities (29.4%) from the city of Ambato. Results: most of the participants (85%) show unfavorable attitudes towards substance use. There are attitudinal differences in the rejection of substance use, in the admiration of non-users and in the perception of maturity that consumption contributes. The transition from adolescence to adulthood has an effect on favorable attitudes towards substance use. Conclusion: Evolutionary transition affects the attitudinal change, making them become more favorable towards the execution of consumption.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adolescent , Drug Users/psychology , Adolescent Behavior/psychology , Psychology, Adolescent , Substance-Related Disorders/psychology
5.
Rev. epidemiol. controle infecç ; 10(2): 113-119, abr.-jun. 2020. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1223276

ABSTRACT

Background and objectives: Hantavirus is a pathogen that causes a viral disease with an acute and severe presentation, and a high mortality rate. In face of a sudden loss, some families may not conceive the complete absence of the deceased relative. Thus, we sought to understand the changes that took place in a family after the death of the provider by Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS). Methods: A descriptive exploratory study with a qualitative approach of the type case report. Data collection took place between October and December 2016 through recorded individual interviews and using questions about family dynamics after family provider's death of HPS, which were assessed by content analysis in the light of Roy's theory. Results: It was observed that the illness and death of the family patriarch weakened the family's strengths and resources, leading to a period of mourning and despair. In addition, unemployment among other family members worsened socioeconomic conditions, seeing drugs as an alternative for support as it became a commercial activity, and the rise of a command in the region that culminated in the arrest of the wife, two daughters and a son of the deceased. Conclusions: In this case, it was evidenced that the family was weakened due to the illness and death of their loved one by HPS, and because of the lack of support and welcome from the reference social services, they chose to act in criminality and it ended up with the arrest of four members.(AU)


Justificativa e objetivos: O hantavírus é um patógeno que causa uma doença viral com caráter agudo e grave e alta taxa de mortalidade. Em face da perda súbita, algumas famílias podem não conceber a completa ausência do parente falecido. Assim, procuramos entender as mudanças que ocorrem em uma família após a morte do provedor pela Síndrome Pulmonar por Hantavírus (SPH). Métodos: Estudo descritivo-exploratório com abordagem qualitativa do tipo estudo de caso. A coleta de dados ocorreu entre outubro e dezembro de 2016 por meio de entrevistas individuais gravadas e com o uso de perguntas sobre a dinâmica familiar após a morte por SPH, sendo analisadas por análise de conteúdo sob a luz da teoria de Roy. Resultados: Observou-se que a doença e a morte do patriarca fragilizaram as forças e recursos da família, levando a um período de luto e desespero. Além disso, o desemprego entre os demais membros da família agravou as condições socioeconômicas, vendo as drogas como uma alternativa para o apoio, o que assumiu o caráter de comércio e a ascensão de um comando na região que culminou com a prisão da esposa, duas filhas e um filho do falecido. Conclusão: Neste caso descrito foi evidenciado que a família ficou fragilizada diante da enfermidade e óbito do seu ente querido por SPH e, em decorrência da falta de apoio e acolhimento dos serviços de referência sociais, optou por atuar na criminalidade e findar com a prisão de quatro membros.(AU)


Justificación y objetivos: El hantavirus es un patógeno que causa una enfermedad viral con un carácter agudo y grave y alta tasa de mortalidad. Ante la pérdida repentina, algunas familias pueden no concebir la ausencia completa del familiar fallecido. Por lo tanto, tratamos de comprender los cambios que se produjeron en una familia después de la muerte del proveedor por Sindrome Pulmonar por Hantavirus (SPH). Métodos: Estudio descriptivo-exploratorio con enfoque cualitativo del tipo estudio de caso. La recopilación de datos ocurrió entre octubre y diciembre de 2016, a través de entrevistas individuales grabadas y con el uso de preguntas sobre la dinámica familiar después de la muerte por SPH, que se analizaron a través del análisis de contenido a la luz de la teoría de Roy. Resultados: Se observó que la enfermedad y la muerte del patriarca familiar debilitaron las fortalezas y los recursos de la familia, lo que llevó a un período de duelo y desesperación. Además, el desempleo entre otros miembros de la familia empeoró las condiciones socioeconómicas, haciéndolos ver a las drogas como una alternativa de renta, lo que asumió el carácter de un comercio y el surgimiento de un comando en la región que culminó con el arresto de la esposa, dos hijas y un hijo del difunto. Conclusiones: En este caso, se evidenció que la familia se debilitó debido a la enfermedad y la muerte de su ser querido por SPH y debido a la falta de apoyo y recepción de los servicios de referencia social, eligieron actuar con criminalidad y por fin terminaron com cuatro miembros detenidos.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Bereavement , Family/psychology , Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome/psychology , Crime/psychology , Death , Fathers , Sex Work/psychology , Public Assistance , Socioeconomic Factors , Violence/psychology , Substance-Related Disorders/psychology , Drug Trafficking/psychology
6.
Aval. psicol ; 19(2): 132-141, abr.-jun. 2020. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1100900

ABSTRACT

O consumo de drogas é elevado entre pessoas com quadros psicopatológicos e pode acarretar diversos prejuízos que se sobrepõem à morbidade psiquiátrica. A rede e o apoio social podem estar associados ao prognóstico desses indivíduos. O objetivo deste estudo foi identificar o uso problemático de drogas em indivíduos em tratamento psiquiátrico e verificar a associação entre o consumo e medidas de rede e do apoio social. A amostra foi composta por 178 participantes. Foram utilizados os instrumentos: Formulário de informações sociodemográficas e clínicas, ASSIST, MOS-SSS e Inventário sobre a Rede Social. Obteve-se que 41,6% dos participantes faziam uso problemático de drogas, sendo álcool, tabaco e maconha as mais utilizadas. Ter sido alvo de discriminação, não residir com parceiro fixo e não ser praticante de religião foram associados ao consumo problemático de drogas. Destaca-se a importância da avaliação de fatores ambientais na co-ocorrência do uso problemático de drogas e quadros clínicos psiquiátricos. AU


The consumption of drugs is high among people with psychopathological diagnoses and can cause harm that overlaps the psychiatric morbidity. The social network and support are associated with the prognosis of this population. The aim of this study was to identify problematic drug use among individuals undergoing psychiatric treatment and to verify the association between this problematic consumption and their social network and support measures. The sample consisted of 178 participants. An instrument composed of sociodemographic and clinical questions; the ASSIST; MOS-SSS; and the Social Networks Inventory were used for the data collection. It was found that 41.6% of the participants presented problematic drug use, the most used substances being alcohol, tobacco and marijuana. Having experienced discrimination, not living with a steady partner and not practicing religion were associated with the problematic drug use. The importance of environmental factors in the co-occurrence of problematic drug use and psychiatric diagnoses is highlighted. AU


El consumo abusivo de las drogas es grande entre las personas con cuadro clínico psicopatológico y puede generar daños que superponen con la morbilidad psiquiátrica. La red y el apoyo social pueden asociarse con el pronóstico de los individuos. El objetivo de este estudio fue identificar el uso problemático de drogas entre los individuos sometidos a tratamiento psiquiátrico y averiguar la relación entre consumo y medidas de la red y el apoyo social. La muestra fue compuesta por 178 participantes. Fueran utilizados los instrumentos: Formulario de Información Sociodemográfica y Clínica, ASSIST, MOS-SSS y el Inventario sobre Red Social. Se encontró que 41,6% de los participantes eran adictos a las drogas, siendo el alcohol, el tabaco y la marihuana las más utilizadas. Se asoció a la adicción a las drogas haber sufrido discriminación, no residir con pareja estable y no ser practicante religioso. Se resaltó la importancia de los factores ambientales en la co-ocurrencia de consumo problemático de las drogas y cuadros clínicos psiquiátricos. AU


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Social Support , Mental Health , Substance-Related Disorders/psychology , Socioeconomic Factors , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Self Report
7.
Rev. chil. enferm. respir ; 36(2): 100-108, jun. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138541

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: La resistencia antibiótica y una inadecuada adherencia terapéutica son fenómenos que favorecen la proliferación de la tuberculosis. Los cambios sociodemográficos nos desafían a conocer la realidad actual de la enfermedad a través de antecedentes que nos permitan contextualizar un nuevo escenario. OBJETIVO: Caracterizar el perfil biopsicosocial del paciente con tuberculosis y su relación con la adherencia terapéutica. MATERIAL Y MÉTODO: Estudio descriptivo, transversal, correlacional. Muestra de 90 pacientes tratados en 35 Centros de Salud Familiar de los Servicios de Salud de Iquique, Metropolitano Norte, Concepción y Reloncaví. RESULTADOS: los componentes biopsicosociales como edad, antecedentes de enfermedad mental, autoestima, situación sentimental, pertenencia a grupos de riesgo, alcoholismo, drogadicción y situación de calle presentaron una relación estadísticamente significación con la adherencia terapéutica. CONCLUSIONES: La caracterización biopsicosocial del paciente con tuberculosis visibiliza nuevos factores relacionados con la adherencia que deben ser considerados para una atención interdisciplinaria.


BACKGROUND: Antibiotic resistance and inadequate therapeutic adherence are phenomena that promote the proliferation of tuberculosis. Sociodemographic changes challenge us to know the real situation of the disease and allows us to contextualize a new scenario. OBJECTIVE: To characterize the biopsychosocial profile of the patient with tuberculosis and its relationship to therapeutic adherence. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Descriptive, cross-sectional, correlational study. Sample of 90 patients treated at 35 Family Health Centers from the following Chilean Public Health Services: Iquique, Metropolitan northern (Santiago), Concepción and Reloncaví. RESULTS: Biopsychosocial components such as age, history of mental illness, self-esteem, sentimental status, belonging to risk groups, alcoholism, drug addiction and homeless situation presented a statistically significant relationship with therapeutic adherence. CONCLUSIONS: The biopsychosocial characterization of the TB patient evidence a new adherence-related factors that should be considered for interdisciplinary care.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Tuberculosis/psychology , Tuberculosis/drug therapy , Medication Adherence/psychology , Treatment Adherence and Compliance/psychology , Self Concept , Socioeconomic Factors , Risk Groups , Homeless Persons , Chile , Family Health , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Substance-Related Disorders/psychology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Alcoholism/psychology , Medication Adherence/statistics & numerical data , Treatment Adherence and Compliance/statistics & numerical data , Correlation of Data , Antitubercular Agents/therapeutic use
8.
Rev. chil. obstet. ginecol. (En línea) ; 85(1): 24-35, feb. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1092772

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVOS: Determinar la asociación entre el consumo de sustancias y características de salud sexual y reproductiva de mujeres jóvenes en Chile. MÉTODOS: Estudio transversal analítico en mujeres entre 15 a 24 años. Se formaron 3 grupos: Sin consumo de sustancias (SCS), Consumo no problemático de sustancias (CNPS) y Consumo problemático de sustancias (CPS). Se realizó análisis descriptivo y de asociación entre las variables. Se ajustaron modelos de regresión logística múltiple y ordinal múltiple. RESULTADOS: Muestra de 2.589 jóvenes, el 37,8% correspondió al grupo SCS, 46,3% al grupo CSNP y 15,9% al grupo CPS. En promedio la edad de inicio de actividad sexual fue menor en el grupo CPS (15,9 años p = 0,001) mostrando mayor porcentajes de sexo oral, anal, no uno de condón, relaciones sexuales con parejas menos estables, mayor número de parejas sexuales y violencia en la pareja, (p =0,001). En este grupo se incrementa 5,84 el riesgo de tener la última relación sexual con pareja menos estable (IC95%: 3,90 - 12,01) y 8,35 veces el riesgo de tener 2 o más parejas sexuales (últimos 12 meses) (IC95%: 5,35 - 16,34). En el grupo CNPS se incrementa 1,11 veces el riesgo de tener la última relación sexual con pareja menos estable (IC95%: 1,43 - 3,12), 1,01 veces tener 2 y más parejas sexuales (últimos 12 meses) (IC95%: 1,20 - 3,36). CONCLUSIONES: Reconociéndose que la sexualidad es multifactorial, las mujeres con consumo de sustancias viven situaciones que facilitan riesgos para su salud sexual. El consumo en mujeres jóvenes es un problema de salud pública que presenta desafíos para su abordaje.


OBJECTIVES: To determine the association between substance use and characteristics of sexual and reproductive health of young women in Chile. METHODS: Analytical cross-sectional study in women between 15 and 24 years. Three groups were formed: No substance use (SCS), Non-problematic substance use (CNPS) and Problem substance use (CPS). Descriptive and association analysis was performed between the variables. Multiple logistic regression and multiple ordinal models were adjusted. RESULTS: Sample of 2,589 young people, 37.8% corresponded to the SCS group, 46.3% to the CSNP group and 15.9% to the CPS group. On average the age of onset of sexual activity was lower in the CPS group (15.9 years p = 0.001) showing higher percentages of oral, anal sex, not a condom, sex with less stable partners, greater number of sexual partners and violence in the couple, (p = 0.001). In this group the risk of having the last sexual relationship with a less stable partner is increased 5.84 (95% CI: 3.90 - 12.01) and 8.35 times the risk of having 2 or more sexual partners (last 12 months) (95% CI: 5.35-16.34). In the CNPS group the risk of having the last sexual relationship with a less stable partner is increased 1.11 times (95% CI: 1.43 - 3.12), 1.01 times having 2 and more sexual partners (last 12 months) (95% CI: 1.20-3.36). CONCLUSIONS: Recognizing that sexuality is multifactorial, women with substance use experience situations that facilitate risks to their sexual health. Consumption in young women is a public health problem that presents challenges for its approach.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Young Adult , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Reproductive Health/statistics & numerical data , Sexual Health/statistics & numerical data , Sexual Behavior , Socioeconomic Factors , Logistic Models , Chile , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Sexuality , Substance-Related Disorders/psychology , Reproductive Health
9.
Rev. gaúch. enferm ; 41(spe): e20190121, 2020.
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1093866

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To know the spiritual care practices of health workers in the context of an inpatient unit for the treatment of addictive disorders, aiming to incorporate an expanded care practice. Method: Qualitative study considering the Convergent Care Research theoretical framework. The data collection occurred using semi-structured interviews, with three rounds of conversations and informal chats with 14 health professionals, from July to November 2017. The analysis followed the steps of apprehension, synthesis, theorization and transference. Results: Four categories emerged: respect for user ethical values; addressing the beliefs and values of professionals; the health professional-user relationship; and collective spiritual care. The main actions highlighted were individual (relaxation and prayer) and collective (meditation, spirituality and the 12 steps). Conclusion: The rounds of conversations carried out in this research allowed workers to talk about spiritual care in addiction, to better understand its relevance to meet the needs of the patient.


RESUMEN Objetivo: Conocer las prácticas de cuidado espiritual de los trabajadores de la salud en el contexto de una unidad de hospitalización para el tratamiento de trastornos adictivos, con el objetivo de incorporar una práctica de atención ampliada. Método: Estudio cualitativo con referencial metodológico de la Investigación Convergente Asistencial. Se realizaron entrevistas semiestructuradas, tres rondas de conversaciones y conversaciones informales con 14 trabajadores de salud en una internación por adición de julio a noviembre de 2017. El análisis de las informaciones siguió las etapas de aprehensión, síntesis, teorización y transferencia. Resultados: Surgieron cuatro categorías: respeto de los valores éticos de los usuarios; creencias y valores de la persona; relaciones profesional de salud-usuario; y cuidado espiritual en grupo. Las principales acciones destacadas fueron individuales (relajación y oración) y colectivas (meditación, espiritualidad y 12 pasos). Conclusión: Las rondas de conversaciones, realizadas en esta investigación, permitieron a los trabajadores conversar sobre el cuidado espiritual en la adición, comprendiendo mejor su relevancia asistencial para atender las necesidades del paciente.


RESUMO Objetivo: Conhecer as práticas de cuidado espiritual de trabalhadores de saúde no contexto de uma unidade de internação para o tratamento de transtornos aditivos, visando incorporar uma prática assistencial ampliada. Método: Estudo qualitativo com referencial metodológico da Pesquisa Convergente Assistencial. Foram realizadas entrevistas semiestruturadas, três rodadas de conversas e conversas informais com 14 trabalhadores de saúde em uma unidade de internação em adição de julho a novembro de 2017. A análise das informações seguiu as etapas apreensão, síntese, teorização e transferência. Resultados: Emergiram quatro categorias: evocação dos valores éticos dos trabalhadores; respeito às crenças e valores do usuário; encontro trabalhador de saúde-usuário e cuidado espiritual em grupo. As principais ações destacadas foram individuais (relaxamento e oração) e coletivas (meditação, espiritualidade e 12 passos). Conclusão: As rodadas de conversas, realizadas nesta pesquisa, permitiram aos trabalhadores conversarem sobre o cuidado espiritual na adição, compreendendo melhor a sua relevância assistencial para atender às necessidades do paciente.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Pastoral Care/ethics , Health Personnel/organization & administration , Health Personnel/psychology , Health Personnel/ethics , Substance Abuse Treatment Centers , Substance-Related Disorders/rehabilitation , Spirituality , Professional-Patient Relations , Psychology , Religion , Meditation , Substance-Related Disorders/psychology , Qualitative Research , Nutritionists/psychology , Respect , Middle Aged , Nursing Staff/psychology
10.
Poiésis (En línea) ; 39(Jul.-Dic.): 53-74, 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1139962

ABSTRACT

El consumo de sustancias psicoactivas, al considerarse una problemática contemporánea que genera alto impacto en la salud pública asociado al costo de la atención, suscita interés sobre Pedroza Molina, D. Y., Taborda Mazo, D. P. y Varela Chacón, J. (2020). La presente revisión bibliográfica, realizada desde el enfoque cualitativo-hermenéutico, plantea el análisis de las conceptualizaciones sobre el consumo de SPA desarrolladas en el ámbito de la terapia familiar, la identificación de la incidencia de las relaciones familiares en el consumo de sustancias psicoactivas y, por último, la descripción de propuestas de intervención desde la terapia familiar para familias en las que hay miembros consumidores de SPA. Dentro de los hallazgos se encuentra evidencia de las conceptualizaciones, implicaciones de la familia y propuestas de intervención en la revisión realizada, a partir de lo cual es posible señalar que, si bien no hay un consenso frente a la denominación del consumo desde esta disciplina ­ya que se usan indistintamente lo términos consumidor, drogodependiente, toxicómano, adicto, drogadicto­, se halla que independientemente de la escuela o modelo teórico existe acuerdo al conceptualizar el consumo como síntoma que emerge para garantizar la homeostasis familiar en un sistema sufriente. De igual forma, la familia tiene una alta incidencia dentro de la etiología de la situación de consumo y el proceso que genera la mantención del mismo, por lo que es claro que su implicación debe ser alta en el tratamiento y la recuperación. Se concluye que desde la terapia familiar existen diversas propuestas de intervención para abordar el tema de la adicción a SPA, que han mostrado ser efectivas y que la familia al estar involucrada en la génesis, mantenimiento y recuperación de la adicción, debe ser un foco central de la intervención.


Consumption of psychoactive substances, being considered a contemporary problem, which generates a high impact on public health associated with the cost of care, arouses interest in Pedroza Molina, Taborda Mazo & Varela Chacón (2020). This bibliographic review, carried out from a qualitative-hermeneutical approach, proposes the analysis of the conceptualizations about the consumption of PAS (Psychoactive Substances) developed in the field of family therapy, the identification of the incidence of family relationships in the consumption of psychoactive substances and, finally, the description of intervention proposals from family therapy for families in which there are members who consume PAS. Among the findings, there is evidence of the conceptualizations, implications of the family and intervention proposals in the review carried out, from which, it is possible to point out that although there is no consensus regarding the denomination of consumption from this discipline, given that the terms consumer, drug addict, addict, drug addict are used interchangeably, it was found that regardless of the school or theoretical model, there is a consensus when conceptualizing consumption as a symptom that emerges to guarantee family homeostasis in a suffering system. Similarly, the family has a high incidence within the etiology of the consumption situation and the process that generates its development, so it is clear that their involvement must be significant during treatment and recovery. It is concluded that from a family therapy perspective there are various intervention proposals to address the issue of PAS addiction, which have been shown to be effective and that the family, being involved in the genesis, development and recovery of addiction, should be a central focus of the intervention.


Subject(s)
Humans , Substance-Related Disorders/psychology , Family Relations/psychology , Family Therapy , Drug Users/psychology
11.
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 54: 134, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1145065

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: This study aims to investigate the prevalence of adolescents and young adults who were victims of sexual violence at some point in their lives and to compare the presence of depressive and anxious symptoms, quality of life, and use of alcohol, tobacco, and illegal drugs among this population and those who were not abused. METHODS: Validated questionnaires and instruments were applied in a group of university students to assess: sexual profile and behavior, socioeconomic status, presence or not of sexual violence (Questionnaire on Exposure to Traumatizing Events), depressive (Beck Depression Inventory) and anxious symptoms (Beck Anxiety Inventory), quality of life (World Health Organization's Quality of Life Assessment) and the use or abuse of tobacco, alcohol, and illegal drugs (Smoking, Alcohol, and Substance Involvement Screening Test). RESULTS: Out of the 858 students who participated, 71 (8.3%) were victims of sexual violence, 52 girls (73.2%). In the victims of violence group there were more students who already had the first sexual intercourse (p = 0.029), students who already had become pregnant (p = 0.001), students with higher scores for depressive (p < 0.001) and anxious symptoms (p = 0.001), students with worse quality of life (p < 0.001), and who used more tobacco (p = 0.008) and marijuana (p = 0.025) as well as abused hypnotics or sedatives (p = 0.048) than in the non-victim group. CONCLUSION: The abuses are presented in several forms and affect, even in long term, the survivors' life. The sexual violence theme should be addressed and widely discussed in all spheres of society in order to mobilize, to sensitize, and provide society with knowledge, demystifying this subject and drawing attention to this important social issue.


RESUMO OBJETIVO: Investigar a prevalência de adolescentes e adultos jovens que foram vítimas de violência sexual em algum momento da vida e comparar a presença de sintomas depressivos e ansiosos, qualidade de vida e uso de álcool, tabaco e drogas ilícitas entre esta população e a que não sofreu abuso. MÉTODOS: Aplicaram-se questionários e instrumentos validados, em uma população de estudantes universitários, para avaliar: perfil e comportamento sexual, nível socioeconômico, presença ou não de violência sexual (Questionário sobre a Exposição a Eventos Traumatizantes), sintomas depressivos (Inventário de Depressão de Beck) e ansiosos (Inventário de Ansiedade de Beck), qualidade de vida (World Health Organization's Quality of Life Assessment) e o uso ou abuso de tabaco, álcool e drogas ilícitas (Teste para Triagem do Envolvimento com Fumo, Álcool e Outras Drogas). RESULTADOS: Dos 858 alunos que responderam à pesquisa, 71 (8,3%) foram vítimas de violência sexual, sendo 52 meninas (73,2%). No grupo vítima de abuso havia mais alunos que já tinham tido a coitarca (p = 0,029), alunas que já engravidaram (p = 0,001), estudantes com maiores escores para sintomas depressivos (p < 0,001) e ansiosos (p = 0,001), alunos com pior qualidade de vida (p < 0,001) e que usavam mais tabaco (p = 0,008) e maconha (p = 0,025) bem como abusavam de hipnóticos ou sedativos (p = 0,048) que no grupo não vítima. CONCLUSÃO: Os impactos causados pelo abuso são diversos e afetam, mesmo no longo prazo, a vida dos sobreviventes. Abordar o tema e o discutir, amplamente, em todas as esferas da sociedade é uma forma de mobilizar, sensibilizar e instrumentalizar o coletivo, desmistificando o assunto e chamando atenção para essa importante questão social.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Pregnancy , Child , Adolescent , Young Adult , Anxiety/psychology , Quality of Life/psychology , Sex Offenses/psychology , Students/psychology , Substance-Related Disorders/psychology , Alcohol-Related Disorders/psychology , Depression/psychology , Adult Survivors of Child Abuse/psychology , Tobacco Smoking/psychology , Anxiety/epidemiology , Sex Offenses/statistics & numerical data , Child Abuse, Sexual/psychology , Child Abuse, Sexual/statistics & numerical data , Brazil/epidemiology , Illicit Drugs , Surveys and Questionnaires , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Alcohol-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Tobacco Smoking/epidemiology
12.
Salud colect ; 16: e2523, 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1139520

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Los servicios de tratamiento para las adicciones suelen priorizar la recuperación del usuario, a pesar de que el consumo problemático implica un malestar en las familias que requiere atención. El objetivo de este estudio es identificar los tipos de narrativas que construyen los familiares de personas con trastornos por dependencia a sustancias, acerca del padecimiento y el proceso de recuperación, así como comprender las condiciones que facilitan u obstaculizan el proceso de recuperación desde la perspectiva de los familiares. Se realizaron siete entrevistas en profundidad con orientación narrativa. Se encontraron narrativas progresivas, estables y regresivas en las que se identificaron diversas etapas en los procesos de adicción y recuperación, y revelaron diferentes formas de malestar, barreras para el tratamiento, y momentos críticos para asistir a los servicios de atención. Las familias representan un recurso valioso para la recuperación del usuario, por lo que deben ser incluidas en el tratamiento.


ABSTRACT Addiction treatment services usually prioritize the recovery of the user, despite the fact that problematic consumption often leads to distress among families that requires attention. The purpose of this study is to identify types of narratives constructed by relatives of people with substance dependence disorders regarding their condition and recovery process. Additionally, we seek to understand the conditions that facilitate or hinder the recovery process from the perspective of family members. Seven in-depth interviews were conducted with a narrative approach. Progressive, stable, and regressive narratives were identified, corresponding to various stages in the addiction and recovery processes. These narratives revealed different forms of distress, obstacles to treatment, and critical junctures with respect to attending care services. Families represent a valuable resource for user recovery, and therefore must be included in the treatment process.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Family/psychology , Substance-Related Disorders/rehabilitation , Narration , Psychological Distress , Self Care , Self-Help Groups , Substance-Related Disorders/psychology , Qualitative Research , Alcoholism/rehabilitation , Family Relations/psychology , Family Therapy , Mexico
13.
Rev. bras. enferm ; 72(6): 1624-1631, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1042184

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: to investigate the criteria used by health professionals to identify the phase of consumption of alcohol and drug users, and actions directed to their care. Method: a qualitative study developed with 14 professionals from a Brazilian Psychosocial Care Center for Alcohol and Drugs (Centro de Atenção Psicossocial Álcool e Drogas) based in the south of the country. Data were collected in June 2017 through semi-structured interviews and then submitted to thematic analysis. Results: the criteria used by the professionals were: periodicity of use; amount and type of drug used; repercussions of misuse; and place that the drug occupies in the person's life. The actions developed were orientation and referral to support groups, therapeutic workshops and individual care. Final considerations: the chronic nature of alcohol/drug use/dependence requires specific care in each phase, and objective criteria to identify and intervene in early phases, aiming at the prevention of chemical dependence.


RESUMEN Objetivo: investigar los criterios utilizados por los profesionales de la salud para identificar la fase del consumo en que se encuentran los usuarios de alcohol y drogas y las acciones que realizan para el cuidado de los mismos. Método: estudio cualitativo, desarrollado con 14 profesionales de un Centro de Atención Psicosocial Alcohol y Drogas, ubicado en el sur del país. Los datos fueron recolectados en junio/2017, a través de entrevistas semiestructuradas y sometidos al análisis temático. Resultados: los criterios utilizados por los profesionales fueron: periodicidad del uso; cantidad y tipo de droga ingerida; repercusiones del uso indebido; y lugar que la droga ocupa en la vida de la persona. Las acciones desarrolladas fueron orientación y encaminamiento para grupos de apoyo, talleres terapéuticos y atendimientos individuales. Consideraciones finales: la naturaleza crónica del uso/dependencia de alcohol y drogas requiere cuidados específicos en cada fase, y criterios objetivos para identificar e intervenir en las fases iniciales, buscando la prevención de la dependencia química.


RESUMO Objetivo: investigar os critérios utilizados pelos profissionais da saúde para identificar a fase do consumo em que se encontram os usuários de álcool e drogas, e as ações que realizam para o cuidado dos mesmos. Método: estudo qualitativo, desenvolvido com 14 profissionais de um Centro de Atenção Psicossocial Álcool e Drogas, localizado no sul do país. Os dados foram coletados em junho/2017, através de entrevistas semiestruturadas e submetidos à análise temática. Resultados: os critérios utilizados pelos profissionais foram: periodicidade do uso; quantidade e tipo de droga ingerida; repercussões do uso indevido; e lugar que a droga ocupa na vida da pessoa. As ações desenvolvidas foram orientação e encaminhamento para grupos de apoio, oficinas terapêuticas e atendimentos individuais. Considerações finais: a natureza crônica do uso/dependência de álcool e drogas requer cuidados específicos em cada fase, e critérios objetivos para identificar e intervir nas fases iniciais, visando à prevenção da dependência química.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Health Personnel/psychology , Substance-Related Disorders/classification , Alcoholism/classification , Mental Health Services/standards , Brazil , Attitude of Health Personnel , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Substance-Related Disorders/psychology , Substance-Related Disorders/therapy , Qualitative Research , Alcoholism/psychology , Alcoholism/therapy , Middle Aged
14.
Rev. bras. enferm ; 72(6): 1692-1698, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1042179

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the relation between the consumption of alcohol and other drugs and school absenteeism in high school students of public schools in the 30 days prior to data collection. Method: Cross-sectional study of quantitative character conducted from May to September 2017, with 282 high school students of public schools of Mossoró-RN. We used a closed questionnaire with questions about drug consumption as our instrument of analysis. We performed hierarchical binary logistic regression by using the SPSS 20.0. Results: In bivariate analysis, the relation between absenteeism and drug consumption patterns proved to be significant to those who engage in heavy episodic drinking of alcohol and in the use of tobacco, inhalants and marijuana. The adjusted regression model only included the variables tobacco and heavy episodic drinking of alcohol. Conclusion: The hierarchical binary logistic regression analysis corroborated with absenteeism outcomes, explaining it in 12.3% of cases.


RESUMEN Objetivo: Evaluar la relación entre el consumo de alcohol y de otras drogas y el absentismo escolar en estudiantes de la enseñanza media pública durante 30 días anteriores a la recolección de datos. Método: Estudio transversal, cuantitativo, realizado entre mayo y septiembre de 2017, en el cual participaron 282 adolescentes, estudiantes de escuelas públicas de enseñanza media de la ciudad de Mossoró (RN, Brasil). Se utilizó un cuestionario cerrado con preguntas sobre el consumo de drogas. Se realizó una regresión logística binaria jerarquizada con el auxilio del SPSS 20.0. Resultados: En el análisis bivariado, la relación entre el absentismo escolar y los patrones de consumo de drogas se mostró significativa para quienes tenían un consumo excesivo episódico de alcohol y un consumo de tabaco, de inhalantes y de marihuana. El modelo de regresión ajustado incluyó solamente las variables consumo excesivo episódico de alcohol y consumo de tabaco. Conclusión: El análisis de la regresión logística binaria jerarquizada se mostró ajustada para el resultado del absentismo escolar, lo que explica el 12,3% de los casos.


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar a relação do consumo de álcool e outras drogas com o absenteísmo escolar em estudantes do ensino médio público nos 30 dias anteriores à coleta. Método: Estudo transversal, quantitativo, realizado de maio a setembro de 2017, com 282 adolescentes, estudantes de escolas públicas de ensino médio de Mossoró-RN. Utilizou-se um questionário fechado com questões sobre o uso de drogas. Realizou-se regressão logística binária hierarquizada com o apoio do SPSS 20.0. Resultados: Na análise bivariada, a relação entre o absenteísmo escolar e os padrões de consumo de drogas se mostrou significativa para aqueles com prática de beber pesado episódico de álcool e uso de tabaco, inalantes e maconha. O modelo de regressão ajustado incluiu apenas as variáveis beber pesado episódico de álcool e tabaco. Conclusão: A análise da regressão logística binária hierarquizada se mostrou ajustada para o desfecho do absenteísmo escolar, explicando-o em 12,3% dos casos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Alcohol Drinking/adverse effects , Substance-Related Disorders/complications , Absenteeism , Schools/organization & administration , Schools/statistics & numerical data , Students/psychology , Students/statistics & numerical data , Brazil , Alcohol Drinking/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Substance-Related Disorders/psychology
15.
Estud. psicol. (Natal) ; 24(4): 402-413, Out.-Dec. 2019. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1098252

ABSTRACT

Estudo transversal, de base escolar, que investigou se vitimização por pares associa-se à policonsumo de substâncias e envolvimento em comportamentos violentos (brigas e/ou porte de armas). Participaram 3.547 escolares do interior do Rio Grande do Sul, com idade média de 14 anos (dp = 1,66). Realizou-se amostragem aleatória, estratificada por sexo, idade, município e rede de ensino. Os dados foram coletados em 2012, através de questionário autoaplicável. Foram realizadas análises descritivas, através do teste Chi Quadrado de Pearson, e modelo de equações estruturais. Evidenciou-se que vitimização associa-se ao policonsumo apenas quando há sofrimento psíquico e relação negativa com pai e/ou mãe, associando-se ao maior envolvimento com comportamentos violentos tanto de forma direta como mediada pela relação com os pais e pela saúde mental dos escolares. Conclui-se que a vitimização parece instigar comportamentos violentos, denunciando a existência de um ciclo vicioso de agressividade, o que reforça a importância do seu enfrentamento.


A cross-sectional, school-based study that evaluated whether victimization by peers is associated with polydrug use and involvement in violent behavior (fights and/or carrying arms). A total of 3,547 students from the interior of Rio Grande do Sul, with a mean age of 14 years (SD = 1.66) participated. Sampling was randomized, stratified by gender, age, municipality and educational network. Data were collected in 2012, through a self-administered questionnaire. Descriptive analyzes were performed using the Pearson's Chi Square test and a Structural Equations Model. It has been shown that victimization is associated with polydrug use only when there is psychological distress and negative relationship with father and/or mother, and is associated with the greater involvement with violent behaviors even directly or mediated by the adolescents' relationship with parents and adolescents' mental health. It is concluded that victimization seems to foster violent behavior, denouncing the existence of a vicious cycle of aggression and reinforcing the importance of being confronted.


Estudio transversal, de base escolar, que investigó si la victimización por pares se asocia al policonsumo de sustancias y la participación en comportamientos violentos (peleas y/o porte de armas). Participaron 3.547 escolares del interior de Rio Grande do Sul, con una edad promedio de 14 años (dp = 1,66). Se realizó muestreo aleatorio, estratificado por sexo, edad, municipio y red de enseñanza. Los datos fueron recogidos en 2012 a través de cuestionario autoadministrado. Se realizaron análisis descriptivos, a través del test Chi cuadrado de Pearson, y el modelo de ecuaciones estructurales. Se evidenció que la victimización se asocia al policonsumo sólo cuando hay sufrimiento psíquico y relación negativa con padre y / o madre, asociándose al mayor involucramiento con comportamientos violentos tanto de forma directa como mediada por la relación de los adolescents con los padres y la salud mental de los adolescentes. Se concluye que la victimización parece instigar los comportamientos violentos, denunciando la existencia de un ciclo vicioso de agresividad, lo que reforza la importancia de su enfrentamiento.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Violence/psychology , Adolescent , Adolescent Behavior/psychology , Substance-Related Disorders/psychology , Family Relations/psychology , Brazil , Surveys and Questionnaires , Interview , Qualitative Research
17.
Braz. J. Psychiatry (São Paulo, 1999, Impr.) ; 41(5): 437-440, Sept.-Oct. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039112

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the prevalence rates of suicidal ideation (SI) and suicide attempts (SA) and their association with substance use in a nationally representative sample of Brazilians. Methods: The Second Brazilian National Alcohol and Drug Survey (II BNADS) is a household cross-sectional survey that investigated the consumption of psychotropic drugs and associated risk factors. This national probability sample survey used a multistage cluster design to select 4,607 participants aged 14 or older and had a total response rate of 77%. Illegal drug use, SI and SA were obtained by confidential self-report assessment. Results: SI and SA were reported by 9.9 and 5.4% of the sample, respectively. This prevalence was 20.8 and 12.4% among individuals with alcohol use disorders (AUD), 31.5 and 16.5% among cannabis users and 40.0 and 20.8% among cocaine users. After adjusting for demographic characteristics, tobacco use, family history of suicide and depression, both SI and SA were positively associated with AUD, cannabis and cocaine use. Conclusion: AUD, cannabis and cocaine use were significantly associated with SI and SA, even after the adjustments. Public health initiatives targeting suicide prevention should consider including assessment and management of substance misuse, and therapeutic approaches to substance misuse should include assessment of suicidality.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Suicide, Attempted/statistics & numerical data , Substance-Related Disorders/psychology , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Drug Users/psychology , Suicidal Ideation , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Poisson Distribution , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Sex Distribution , Age Distribution , Middle Aged
18.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 95(3): 334-341, May-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012605

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives: Programs for parents have been found to have a direct positive impact on reducing the consumption of psychoactive substances by adolescents, as well as having an indirect impact on reducing risk factors and increasing protective factors. The present study aimed to verify if a telehealth prevention program based on a brief motivational intervention helps to reduce parental risk practices and increase parental protective practices for drug use in comparison with psychoeducation. Methods: A pilot randomized controlled trial was performed at the National Service of Guidance and Information on Drug Use (Ligue 132), from September 2014 to December 2015, with the parents of adolescents (n = 26). The outcome measures were parental style, risk, and protective parental practices. Results: The brief motivational intervention was found to be more effective than psychoeducation in reducing the negligent behavior of parents. Furthermore, when comparing pre‐ and post‐intervention data, the brief motivational intervention helped to change parental style and the large majority of parental practices: increasing positive monitoring, as well as decreasing physical abuse, relaxed discipline, inconsistent punishment, and negative monitoring. Conclusions: These results demonstrate that the telehealth intervention is effective in modifying the parental practices known to help in preventing drug use. Studies with more number of subjects are required so that the results can be substantiated and generalized.


Resumo Objetivos: Os programas para pais parecem ter um impacto positivo direto sobre a redução do consumo de substâncias psicoativas por adolescentes, bem como um impacto indireto sobre a redução dos fatores de risco e aumento dos fatores protetores. O presente estudo visou a verificar se um programa telessaúde de prevenção com base em uma intervenção breve motivacional ajuda a reduzir as práticas de risco dos pais e aumentar as práticas protetoras com relação ao uso de drogas, em comparação à psicoeducação. Métodos: Um ensaio piloto controlado randomizado foi feito no Serviço Nacional de Informações e Orientações sobre Drogas (Ligue 132), de setembro de 2014 a dezembro de 2015, com os pais de adolescentes (n = 26). As medições dos resultados foram o estilo dos pais e as práticas de risco e protetoras dos pais. Resultados: A intervenção breve motivacional parece ser mais eficaz do que a psicoeducação na redução dos comportamentos negligentes dos pais. Adicionalmente, quando comparada aos dados pré e pós-intervenção, a intervenção breve motivacional ajudou a mudar o estilo dos pais e a grande maioria das práticas dos pais: aumentou o monitoramento positivo e reduziu o abuso físico, disciplina permissiva, punição não condizente e monitoramento negativo. Conclusões: Esses resultados demonstram que a intervenção telessaúde é eficaz na mudança das práticas dos pais, conhecida por ajudar a prevenir o uso de drogas. Estudos com maior número de indivíduos são necessários para que os resultados possam ser comprovados e generalizados.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Parents/education , Health Education/methods , Adolescent Behavior/psychology , Telemedicine/methods , Substance-Related Disorders/prevention & control , Parents/psychology , Socioeconomic Factors , Case-Control Studies , Pilot Projects , Substance-Related Disorders/psychology , Protective Factors , Motivation
19.
Braz. J. Psychiatry (São Paulo, 1999, Impr.) ; 41(3): 199-207, May-June 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011489

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the prevalence of early childhood maltreatment and associations with later sexual behavior among adult substance users. Methods: A cross-sectional study enrolled 134 substance dependents who sought outpatient care in São Paulo, Brazil. Childhood trauma prevalence was assessed using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). The Sexual Addiction Screening Test (SAST), drug of choice (DOC), and sexual behavior were also investigated. Results: The sample was composed predominantly of single adult males (76.1%), with alcohol as the DOC (73.9%). Experiences of emotional neglect (88.1%), emotional abuse (80.6%), physical neglect (78.4%), physical abuse (64.2%), and sexual abuse (31.3%) were prevalent. Women were more likely to have been sexually abused (OR 2.9, 95%CI 1.15-7.61) and physically abused (OR 3.7, 95%CI 1.31-10.6) in childhood. Those who were sexually abused in adulthood were more likely to have suffered physical abuse in childhood (OR 6.9, 95%CI 1.45-11.8). The odds of having been sexually abused in childhood were higher among subjects who reported to have exchanged sexual favors for drugs (OR 5.7, 95%CI 1.35-9.64) and to have been sexually abused in adulthood (OR 6.1, 95%CI 5.2-12.36). Conclusion: Physical and sexual abuse in childhood are highly prevalent in substance-dependent adults, and are associated with sexual revictimization and high-risk sexual behavior in adulthood.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Sexual Behavior/psychology , Sexual Behavior/statistics & numerical data , Child Abuse/psychology , Child Abuse/statistics & numerical data , Substance-Related Disorders/psychology , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Sex Work/psychology , Sex Work/statistics & numerical data , Sexual Behavior/classification , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Child Abuse/classification , Sex Factors , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Risk Factors , Behavior, Addictive , Substance-Related Disorders/etiology , Middle Aged
20.
Salud pública Méx ; 61(2): 136-146, Mar.-Apr. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058966

ABSTRACT

Resumen: Objetivo: Evaluar la dependencia física y psicológica de los fumadores mexicanos y su asociación con factores físicos, psicológicos y sociales. Material y métodos: A partir de la Encuesta Nacional de Consumo de Drogas, Alcohol y Tabaco 2016 (n=7 331), se analizó la escala de dependencia física a la nicotina de Fagerström (FTND) y la escala corta de dependencia psicológica al tabaco (TAPDSc). Se realizaron análisis bivariados y regresiones logísticas ordinales generalizadas para evaluar los factores asociados. Resultados: 82.3% de fumadores diarios y 98.8% de ocasionales reportaron dependencia física leve, mientras que 47.9 y 37.9%, respectivamente, presentaron dependencia psicológica moderada. La edad de inicio temprana de consumo de tabaco, uso de drogas, consumo alto de alcohol y malestar emocional se asociaron con niveles altos de dependencia psicológica en todos los fumadores. Conclusión: El uso exclusivo de FNTD no permite evaluar adecuadamente a los fumadores mexicanos. La dependencia física y psicológica al tabaco debe ser diagnosticada con escalas independientes y validadas en esta población.


Abstract: Objective: To evaluate the physical and psychological dependence to tobacco of Mexican smokers and its association with physical, psychological and social factors. Materials and methods: The 2016 National Alcohol and Tobacco Drug Consumption Survey (n=7 331) was analyzed using the Fagerström nicotine physical dependence scale (FTND) and the short scale of psychological dependence on tobacco (TAPDSc). Bivariate analyzes and generalized ordinal logistic regressions were performed to evaluate the associated factors. Results: 82.3% of daily smokers and 98.8% of occasional smokers reported mild physical dependence, while 47.9 and 37.9% respectively reported moderate psychological dependence. The age of initiation of tobacco use, drug use, high alcohol consumption and high emotional distress were associated with high levels of psychological dependence in all smokers. Conclusion: The exclusive use of FTND does not allow to adequately evaluate Mexican smokers. The physical and psychological dependence on tobacco should be assessed with independent and validated scales in this population.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Tobacco Use Disorder/psychology , Smokers/psychology , Tobacco Use Disorder/epidemiology , Alcohol Drinking/psychology , Smoking/psychology , Smoking/epidemiology , Logistic Models , Health Surveys/statistics & numerical data , Age of Onset , Nicotinic Agonists , Substance-Related Disorders/psychology , Smokers/statistics & numerical data , Mexico/epidemiology , Nicotine
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