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2.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 47(1): 23-35, Jan.-Feb. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134321

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of adjunctive medical expulsive therapy (MET) with tamsulosin for the promotion of stone fragments clearance for repeated extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL). Materials and Methods: This meta-analysis was conducted by systematic search for randomized controlled trial (RCT) studies in PubMed/Medline, Scopus, Cochrane Library, Web of Science databases in January 2020, which compared tamsulosin with either placebo or non-placebo control for repeated ESWL. The primary endpoint was stone-free rate (SFR), the second endpoints were stone clearance time and complications. The quality assessment of included studies was performed by using the Cochrane System and Jadad score. Results: 7 RCTs were included in this meta-analysis. Tamsulosin provided higher SFR (for stones larger than 1cm, OR: 5.56, p=0.0003), except for patients with stones less than 1cm. For patients with renal stones (OR: 2.97, p=0.0005) or upper ureteral stones (OR: 3.10, p=0.004), tamsulosin can also provide a higher SFR. In addition, tamsulosin provided a shorter stone clearance time (WMD: −9.40, p=0.03) and lower pain intensity (WMD=-17.01, p <0.0001) and incidences of steinstrasse (OR: 0.37, p=0.0002). Conclusion: Adjunctive MET with tamsulosin is effective in patients with specific stone size or location that received repeated ESWL. However, no well-designed RCT that used computed tomography for the detection and assessment of residual stone fragments was found. More studies with high quality and the comparison between tamsulosin and secondary ESWL are needed in the future.


Subject(s)
Humans , Lithotripsy , Kidney Calculi/therapy , Ureteral Calculi/drug therapy , Sulfonamides/therapeutic use , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Treatment Outcome , Tamsulosin
3.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 3459-3474, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921441

ABSTRACT

Sulfonamides (SAs) are a kind of antibiotics widely used in medical treatment and livestock breeding. However, they have poor degradability in human and animal intestines, and will enter the sewage treatment system through the discharge of feces and urine. The aerobic activated sludge (AAS) in wastewater treatment plant was found to be able to effectively transform SAs. This article summarizes the advances in biodegradation of SAs in aerobic activated sludge system, which includes the biodegradation mechanisms, the main biodegradation pathways, and the environmental factors affecting the degradation efficiency. Challenges encountered in the current research were discussed, with the aim to provide scientific basis for optimizing the biodegradation of SAs in wastewater treatment process.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents , Biodegradation, Environmental , Humans , Sewage , Sulfonamides , Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis
4.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 83(2): 149-152, Mar.-Apr. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1088967

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Gyrate atrophy is a rare metabolic autosomal recessive disorder caused by ornithine aminotransferase enzyme deficiency that leads to characteristic progressive, degenerative chorioretinal findings. Patients complain mostly of low vision, night blindness, and peripheral vision loss. Posterior subcapsular cataract, myopia, choroid neovascularization, and intraretinal cysts may be accompanying factors related to vision loss. We encountered a patient with vision loss secondary to posterior subcapsular cataract and intraretinal cysts. After treatment with topical brinzolamide and nepafenac (and without any diet mo dification and/or supplementation), we observed 143- and 117-mm macular thickness resolutions with 2 and 1 Snellen lines of visual gain in his right and left eyes, respectively. Also, we detected a novel homozygous mutation in the ornithine aminotransferase gene: c.1253T>C (p.Leu418Pro). Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors and/or non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs can control macular edema in patients with gyrate atrophy-associated intraretinal cysts. The genetic variants may also be a determinant in the responsiveness to the therapy type.


RESUMO A atrofia girata é um distúrbio autossômico recessivo metabólico raro causado pela deficiência da enzima ornitina ami notransferase, que leva a achados degenerativos coriorretinianos progressivos característicos. Os pacientes queixam-se principalmente de baixa visão, cegueira noturna e perda de vi são periférica. A catarata subcapsular posterior, a miopia, a neovascularização da coróide e os cistos intrarretinianos podem ser fatores associados à perda da visão. Encontramos um paciente com perda de visão secundária à catarata subcapsular posterior e cistos intrarretinianos. Após o tratamento com brinzolamida tópica e nepafenaco (e sem modificação e/ou suplementação da dieta), observamos resoluções de espessura macular de 143 e 117 mm e com 2 e 1 linhas de Snellen de ganho visual nos olhos direito e esquerdo, respectivamente. Além disso, detectamos uma nova mutação homozigótica no gene da ornitina aminotransfera se: c.1253T>C (p.Leu418Pro). Inibidores da anidrase carbônica e/ou drogas anti-inflamatórias não esteróides podem controlar o edema macular em pacientes com cistos intrarretinianos associados à atrofia girata. As variantes genéticas também podem ser determinantes na responsividade ao tipo de terapia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Phenylacetates/administration & dosage , Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Gyrate Atrophy/genetics , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/administration & dosage , Macular Edema/drug therapy , Benzeneacetamides/administration & dosage , Ornithine-Oxo-Acid Transaminase/genetics , Sulfonamides/administration & dosage , Thiazines/administration & dosage , Fluorescein Angiography , Macular Edema/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, Optical Coherence , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Administration, Ophthalmic , Mutation
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-829052

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To study the effect of apoptotic drug Navitoclax (NTX) combined with chemotherapy drug Daunorubicin (DNR) on apoptosis of erythroleukemia cells.@*METHODS@#K562, HEL and TF-1 cells in logarithmic growth phase were treated with NTX, DNR and combination of the two drugs. CCK-8 test, Annexin V-DAPI double-staining flow cytometry, real-time RT-PCR were used to detect cell growth, cell apoptosis and expression of BAX, BAK, BCL-2, BCL-xl and BIM respectively. The effects of NTX, DNR and combination of the two drugs on apoptosis of K562, HEL and TF-1 cells were compared and analyzed.@*RESULTS@#NTX combined with DNR could significantly inhibit the growth of K562, HEL and TF-1 cells; Apoptosis detection results showed that the apoptotic rate of K562, HEL and TF-1 cells in combination group was significantly higher than that in NTX and DNR single group; the expression level of apoptosis-related genes BAK and BAX in K562 cells in combination group was significantly higher than that in two single drug groups, and the expression level of anti-apoptotic protein genes BCL-2 and BCL-xl was significantly lower than that in two single drug groups (P<0.05); the expression level of BAK in HEL cells treated with combined drugs for 24 hours was higher than that in DNR group (P < 0.05); the expression level of BCL-2 in TF-1 cells treated with combined drugs for 24 hours was lower than that in two single drugs groups while the expression level of BAK in 48 hours was the highest in combined drugs group, and the expression level of BCL-2 and BCL-xl in combined drugs group was lower than that in NTX group (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#NTX combined with DNR can significantly promote the apoptosis of erythroleukemia cell lines K562, HEL and TF-1, and induce the expression of apoptosis-related genes. This study provides a new scheme for the clinical treatment of erythroleukemia.


Subject(s)
Aniline Compounds , Apoptosis , Daunorubicin , Humans , K562 Cells , Leukemia, Erythroblastic, Acute , Sulfonamides
6.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1419-1423, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827101

ABSTRACT

Venetoclax is a selective inhibitor of the anti-apoptotic protein B-cell lymphoma 2(BCL-2)and has great potential in treating a variety of hematological tumors. In recent years, domestic and foreign scholars have tried to use venetoclax singal or in combination with some drugs to treat the patients with hematological tumors, including elderly acute myeloid leukemia(AML)patients un suitable for intensive chemotherapy, relapsed or refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia(CLL), Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma(NHL)and multiple myeloma(MM)patients, these studies have achieved good results.At the same time,some scholars found that the secondary drug-resistance occurred in some patients who continuous treated with Venetoclax, and explored the Venetoclax-resistant mechanism. In this review, the research advance of Venetoclax in hematological tumors and the mechanisms of drug resistance are summarized and discussed briefly.


Subject(s)
Aged , Antineoplastic Agents , Therapeutic Uses , Bridged Bicyclo Compounds, Heterocyclic , Therapeutic Uses , Hematologic Neoplasms , Humans , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell , Drug Therapy , Sulfonamides
8.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 65(12): 1470-1475, Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057090

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE The recent development of direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) has dramatically changed the treatment of chronic hepatitis C, and interferon-based regimes have become a poor treatment choice in clinical practice. Today DAAs offer shorter, well-tolerated, highly effective curative therapies. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of DAAs in patients with end-stage renal disease and HCV genotype 1 infection in real clinical practice. METHODS Thirty-six patients who attended our clinic, were diagnosed with chronic hepatitis C (CHC), undergoing hemodialysis, and fulfilled the criteria of age >18 years, genotype 1 infection, with a detectable HCV RNA level were considered for the study. Patients with GT1a infection received OBV/PTV/r plus DSV plus RBV for 12 weeks; GT1b infected patients received this regimen without RBV for 12 weeks. RESULTS The study was conducted on 33 patients. The mean age was 52.30 ±13.77 years, and 70 % of them were male. By the fourth week of treatment, HCV RNA levels decreased below 15 IU/ml in all patients. Sustained virologic response (SVR) 12 rate was 100%. Nine patients had side effects during treatment. Of the patients with side effects, 89.9% were in group 1a and 11.1% in group 1b. CONCLUSION In this study, treatment with OBV/PTV/r and DSV with or without RBV resulted in high rates of sustained virologic response in HCV GT1-infected patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). SVR was achieved in all patients with few side effects.


RESUMO O recente desenvolvimento de agentes antivirais de ação direta (DAAs) mudou drasticamente o tratamento da hepatite C crônica, e os regimes livres de interferon tornaram-se pobres escolhas para tratamento na prática clínica. Hoje os DAAs oferecem terapias curativas mais curtas, bem toleradas e altamente eficazes. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a eficácia e segurança dos DAAs em pacientes com doença renal em estágio terminal e infecção pelo genótipo 1 do HCV na prática clínica real. MÉTODOS Trinta e seis pacientes, que se inscreveram em nossa clínica com diagnóstico de hepatite C crônica (CHC), inclusive no programa de hemodiálise, e preencheram os critérios de idade >18 anos, foram considerados para infecção pelo genótipo 1 com nível detectável de RNA do HCV. Os pacientes com infecção por GT1a receberam OBV/PTV/r mais DSV mais RBV por 12 semanas. Os pacientes infectados com GT1b receberam este regime sem RBV por 12 semanas. RESULTADOS O estudo foi realizado em 33 pacientes. A idade média foi de 52,30±13,77 anos e 70% deles eram do sexo masculino. Na semana 4 do tratamento, os níveis de ARN do VHC diminuíram para menos de 15 UI/ml em todos os pacientes. A taxa de resposta virológica sustentada (RVS) 12 foi de 100%. Nove pacientes apresentaram efeitos colaterais durante o tratamento. Dos pacientes com efeitos colaterais, 89,9% estavam no grupo 1a e 11,1% no grupo 1b. CONCLUSÃO Neste estudo, o tratamento com OBV/PTV/r e DSV com ou sem RBV resultou em altas taxas de resposta virológica sustentada em pacientes infectados pelo VGC GT1 com doença renal em estágio final (ESRD). A RVS foi alcançada em todos os pacientes com poucos efeitos colaterais.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Young Adult , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy , Kidney Failure, Chronic/virology , Ribavirin/therapeutic use , Sulfonamides/therapeutic use , Time Factors , Uracil/analogs & derivatives , Uracil/therapeutic use , RNA, Viral/blood , Carbamates/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome , Hepacivirus/drug effects , Hepacivirus/genetics , Statistics, Nonparametric , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , Hepatitis C, Chronic/virology , Macrocyclic Compounds/therapeutic use , Drug Therapy, Combination , Sustained Virologic Response , Genotype , Anilides/therapeutic use , Middle Aged
9.
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 51(4): 345-353, dic. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057399

ABSTRACT

Abstract A novel microbiological system in microtiter plates consisting of five bioassays is presented for the detection and classification of antibiotic residues in milk. The bioassays were optimized for the detection of beta-lactams (Bioassay B: Geobacillus stearothermophilus), macrolides (Bioassay M: Bacillus megaterium with fusidic acid), tetracyclines (Bioassay T: B. megaterium with chloramphenicol), quinolones (Bioassay Q: Bacillus licheniformis) and sulfamides (Bioassay QS: B. licheniformis with trimethoprim) at levels near the maximum residue limits (MRL). The response of each bioassay was interpreted visually (positive or negative) after 4-5.5h of incubation. The system detects and classifies beta-lactams (5 pg/l of amoxicillin, 4 pg/l of ampicillin, 36 pg/l of cloxacillin, 22 pg/l of amoxicillin, 3 pg/l of penicillin, 114 pg/l of cephalexin, 89pg/l of cefoperazone and 116 pg/l of ceftiofur), tetracyclines (98 pg/l of chlortetracycline, 92 pg/l of oxytetracycline and 88 pg/l of tetracycline), macrolides (33 pg/l of erythromycin, 44 pg/l of tilmicosin and 50 pg/l of tylosin), sulfonamides (76 pg/l of sulfadiazine, 85 pg/l of sulfadimethoxine, 77 pg/l of sulfamethoxazole and 87pg/l of sulfathiazole) and quinolones (94 pg/l of ciprofloxacin, 98 pg/l of enrofloxacin and 79 pg/l marbofloxacin). In addition, the specificity values were high for B, T, Q (99.4%), M (98.8%) and QS (98.1%) bioassays. The control of antibiotics through this system can contribute to improving the quality and safety of dairy products.


Resumen Se presenta un novedoso sistema microbiológico en placas de microtitulación compuesto por 5 bioensayos para la detección y clasificación de residuos de antibióticos en leche. Los bioensayos fueron optimizados para la detección de betalactámicos (bioensayo B: Geobacillus stearothermophilus), macrólidos (bioensayo M: Bacillus megaterium con ácido fusídico), tetraciclinas (bioensayo T: Bacillus megaterium con cloranfenicol), quinolonas (bioensayo Q: Bacillus licheniformis) y sulfamidas (bioensayo QS: Bacillus licheniformis con trimetoprima), a niveles cercanos a los límites máximos de residuos (LMR). La respuesta de cada bioensayo se interpretó visualmente (positiva o negativa) después de 4 a 5,5 h de incubación. El sistema detecta y clasifica betalactámicos (5 pg/l de amoxicilina, 4 pg/l de ampicilina, 36 pg/l de cloxacilina, 22 pg/l de amoxicilina, 3 pg/l de penicilina, 114 pg/l de cefalexina, 89 pg/l de cefoperazona y 116 pg/l de ceftiofur), tetraciclinas (98 pg/l de clortetraciclina, 92 pg/l de oxitetraciclina y 88 pg/l de tetraciclina), macrólidos (33 pg/l de eritromicina, 44 pg/l de tilmi-cosina y 50 pg/l de tilosina), sulfamidas (76 pg/l de sulfadiacina, 85 pg/l de sulfadimetoxina, 77 pg/l de sulfametoxazol y 87 pg/l de sulfatiazol) y quinolonas (94 pg/l de ciprofloxacina, 98 pg/l de enrofloxacina y 79pg/l de marbofloxacina). Además, los valores de especificidad fueron altos para los bioensayos B, T, Q (99,4%), M (98,8%) y QS (98,1%). El control de residuos de antibióticos mediante este sistema puede contribuir a mejorar la calidad e inocuidad de los productos lácteos.


Subject(s)
Biological Assay/methods , Food Microbiology/methods , Anti-Bacterial Agents/analysis , Sulfonamides/analysis , Tetracycline/analysis , Quinolones/analysis , Macrolides/analysis , Dairy Products , beta-Lactams/analysis
10.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 56(4): 390-393, Oct.-Dec. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055169

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Drug-induced liver injury is still misunderstood in Brazil due to diagnostic difficulties or lack of reporting incidents. OBJECTIVE: To assess the frequency of adverse events related to the use of medicines in a primary healthcare unit, in a city locate southwestern of the state of Bahia, Brazil. METHODS: Prospective study conducted at the Primary Center for Specialized Health (CEMEA), February at August of 2013 in Vitoria da Conquista, Bahia, Brazil. Interviews were conducted with patients over 18 years old, and their clinical and laboratorial data were collected. The CIOMS scale was used to validate the cases. RESULTS: A total of 149 patients, mainly Afro-Brazilian women, received follow-up. Among these patients, three cases of hepatotoxicity were identified, and the medicines associated to drug-induced liver injuries were: nimesulide, budesonide and valacyclovir. CONCLUSION: Drug-induced liver injury is rare in primary healthcare units. It also allowed estimating the incidence of hepatotoxicity induced by allopathic medicines which are standardized by public healthcare authorities.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: As lesões hepáticas induzidas por drogas (DILI), ainda são mal compreendidas no Brasil devido a dificuldades diagnósticas ou à falta de relatos. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a frequência de eventos adversos relacionados ao uso de medicamentos em uma unidade básica de saúde, em uma cidade do sudoeste baiano. MÉTODOS: Estudo prospectivo realizado no período de fevereiro a agosto de 2013 em Vitória da Conquista, Bahia, Brasil. Entrevistas foram realizadas com pacientes maiores de 18 anos; os dados clínicos e laboratoriais foram coletados. A escala do CIOMS foi usada para avaliar causalidade dos casos. RESULTADOS: Um total de 149 pacientes, principalmente mulheres afro-brasileiras, receberam acompanhamento. Entre esses pacientes, três casos de hepatotoxicidade foram identificados e os medicamentos associados à DILI foram: nimesulida, budesonida e valaciclovir. CONCLUSÃO: DILI é raro em unidades básicas de saúde. Os três casos foram todos reversíveis, sem necessidade de internação hospitalar. Políticas de saúde que fomentam a prática da farmacovigilância são extremamente importantes para a prevenção e detecção de DILI.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Sulfonamides/adverse effects , Drug Monitoring/methods , Budesonide/adverse effects , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/epidemiology , Valacyclovir/adverse effects , Primary Health Care , Brazil/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , Middle Aged
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771893

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the effect and possible mechanism of PI3K/mTOR inhibitor XL765 on KG-1 cells in vitro.@*METHODS@#The effect of XL765 on cell proliferation was detected by CCK-8 assay. The colony formation test (200 cells were plated in a plate for 9 days) was used to detect the effect of XL765 on the colony forming ability of KG-1 cells. The apoptosis was assessed by flow cytometry with Annexin V-FITC/PI double staining. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR) was used to detect the expression of cell apoptosis-related genes BCL-2, BAX and caspase-3, Western blot was performed to detect the expression levels of BCL-2, BAX, Caspase-3, and the phosphorylation change of p-PI3K, p-AKT and p-S6K.@*RESULTS@#XL765 effectively inhibited the proliferation and the colony formation of KG-1 cells (P=0.0002). XL765 (150 nmol/L) induced KG-1 cell apoptosis (31.87±1.376%), very statistically significant different from (3.533±0.4179% ) in the control group (P<0.01). Treatment with 150 nmol/L XL765 could in a significantly increase the expression levels of BAX and active caspase-3, and decreases expression level of the BCL-2 (P<0.01). In accordance with these results, the Western blot further confirmed the expression decrease of BCL-2 protein along with the increase BAX and cleaved caspase-3 activity. XL765 statistically significantly down-regulated the phosphorylation levels of PI3K, AKT and S6K.@*CONCLUSION@#PI3K/mTOR inhibitor XL765 substantially suppresses KG-1 cell proliferation and induces apoptosis by inhibiting the activation of PI3K-AKT-mTOR signaling pathway, and regulating the apoptosis-related proteins.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Cell Line, Tumor , Humans , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt , Quinoxalines , Signal Transduction , Sulfonamides , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases
13.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 55: e17032, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019533

ABSTRACT

The aim of the present research work was to investigate the enzyme inhibitory potential of some new sulfonamides having benzodioxane and acetamide moieties. The synthesis was started by the reaction of N-2,3-dihydrobenzo[1,4]-dioxin-6-amine (1) with 4-methylbenzenesulfonyl chloride (2) in the presence of 10% aqueous Na2CO3 to yield N-(2,3-dihydrobenzo[1,4]-dioxin-6-yl)-4-methylbenzenesulfonamide (3), which was then reacted with 2-bromo-N-(un/substituted-phenyl)acetamides (6a-l) in DMF and lithium hydride as a base to afford various 2-{2,3-dihydro-1,4-benzodioxin-6-yl[(4-methylphenyl)sulfonyl]amino}-N-(un/substituted-phenyl)acetamides (7a-l). All the synthesized compounds were characterized by their IR and 1H-NMR spectral data along with CHN analysis data. The enzyme inhibitory activities of these compounds were tested against a-glucosidase and acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Most of the compounds exhibited substantial inhibitory activity against yeast a-glucosidase and weak against AChE. The in silico molecular docking results were also consistent with in vitro enzyme inhibition data.


Subject(s)
Sulfonamides/agonists , Cholinesterase Inhibitors , Glycoside Hydrolase Inhibitors , Spectrum Analysis/instrumentation , Acetamides/analysis
14.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 35(8): e00108218, 2019. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019622

ABSTRACT

Resumo: O câncer renal é a 13ª neoplasia mais frequente no mundo. Entre 2012 e 2016, representou 1,48% das mortes por câncer no Brasil. A terapia de escolha para o tratamento de câncer renal metastático são os inibidores de tirosina quinase (ITK), sunitinibe e pazopanibe. Este artigo avalia o custo-efetividade do pazopanibe comparado ao sunitinibe no tratamento de câncer renal metastático. Foi realizada uma análise de custo-efetividade sob a perspectiva de um hospital federal do Sistema Único de Saúde. No modelo de árvore de decisão foram aplicados os desfechos de efetividade e segurança dos ITK. Os dados clínicos foram extraídos de prontuários e os custos diretos consultados em fontes oficiais do Ministério da Saúde. O custo de 10 meses de tratamento, englobando o valor dos ITK, procedimentos e manejo de eventos adversos, foi de R$ 98.677,19 para o pazopanibe e R$ 155.227,11 para o sunitinibe. Os medicamentos apresentaram efetividade estatisticamente equivalente e diferença estatisticamente significativa para o desfecho de segurança, no qual o pazopanibe obteve o melhor resultado. O pazopanibe, nesse contexto, é a tecnologia dominante quando os custos de tratamento são associados aos de manejo de eventos adversos.


Abstract: Renal cancer is the 13th most frequent neoplasm in the world. From 2010 to 2014, renal cancer accounted for 1.43% of cancer deaths in Brazil. The treatment of choice for metastatic renal cancer is tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) sunitinib and pazopanib. This article assesses cost-effectiveness between pazopanib and sunitinib in the treatment of metastatic renal cancer. A cost-effectiveness study was performed from the perspective of a federal hospital under the Brazilian Unified National Health System (SUS). TKI effectiveness and safety outcomes were applied to the decision tree model. Clinical data were extracted from patient charts, and direct costs were consulted from official Ministry of Health sources. The cost of 10 months of treatment, including the costs of the TKI, procedures and management of adverse events, was BRL 98,677.19 for pazopanib and BRL 155,227.11 for sunitinib. The drugs displayed statistically equivalent effectiveness and statistically different safety outcomes, with pazopanib displaying better results. In this setting, pazopanib is the dominant technology when the treatment costs are analyzed together with the costs of managing adverse events.


Resumen: El cáncer renal es la 13ª neoplasia más frecuente en el mundo. Entre 2010 y 2014, representó un 1,43% de las muertes por cáncer en Brasil. La terapia de elección para el tratamiento de cáncer renal metastásico son los inhibidores de tirosina quinasa (ITK), sunitinib y pazopanib. Este artículo evalúa el costo-efectividad entre pazopanib y sunitinib en el tratamiento de cáncer renal metastásico. Se realizó un análisis de costo-efectividad desde la perspectiva de un hospital federal del Sistema Único de Salud. En el modelo de árbol de decisión se aplicaron los desenlaces de efectividad y seguridad de los ITK. Los datos clínicos se extrajeron de registros médicos, y los costos directos consultados en fuentes oficiales del Ministerio de Salud. El costo de 10 meses de tratamiento, englobando el valor de los ITK, procedimientos y gestión de eventos adversos, fue de BRL 98.677,19 con el pazopanib y BRL 155.227,11 con el sunitinib. Los medicamentos presentaron efectividad estadísticamente equivalente y diferencia estadísticamente significativa para el desenlace de seguridad, en el que el pazopanib obtuvo el mejor resultado. El pazopanib, en este contexto, es la tecnología dominante cuando los costes de tratamiento están asociados a los de la gestión de eventos adversos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Pyrimidines/economics , Sulfonamides/economics , Cost-Benefit Analysis/statistics & numerical data , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/economics , Sunitinib/economics , Kidney Neoplasms/drug therapy , Antineoplastic Agents/economics , Pyrimidines/administration & dosage , Sulfonamides/administration & dosage , Treatment Outcome , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Sunitinib/administration & dosage , Indazoles , Middle Aged , National Health Programs , Neoplasm Metastasis , Antineoplastic Agents/administration & dosage
15.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 44(3): 600-607, May-June 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-954052

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objectives: Apoptosis effect of oral alpha-blockers is known in the prostate. Apoptosis index of silodosin has not been proved, yet. Aims are to present apoptosis index of silodosin in prostate and to compare this with other currently used alpha-blocker's apoptosis indexes together with their clinical effects. Materials and Methods: Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) patients were enrolled among those admitted to urology outpatient clinic between June 2014 and June 2015. Study groups were created according to randomly prescribed oral alpha-blocker drugs as silodosin 8mg (Group 1; n=24), tamsulosin 0.4mg (Group 2; n=30), alfuzosin 10mg (Group 3; n=25), doxazosin 8mg (Group 4; n=22), terazosin 5mg (Group 5; n=15). Pa- tients who refused to use any alpha-blocker drug were included into Group 6 as control group (n=16). We investigated apoptosis indexes of the drugs in prostatic tissues that were taken from patient's surgery (transurethral resection of prostate) and/or prostate biopsies. Immunochemical dyeing, light microscope, and Image Processing and Analy- sis in Java were used for evaluations. Statistical significant p was p<0.05. Results: There were 132 patients with mean follow-up of 4.2±2.1 months. Pathologist researched randomly selected 10 areas in each microscope set. Group 1 showed statisti- cal significant difference apoptosis index in immunochemical TUNEL dyeing and im- age software (p<0.001). Moreover, we determined superior significant development in parameters as uroflowmetry, quality of life scores, and international prostate symptom score in Group 1. Conclusions: Silodosin has higher apoptosis effect than other alpha-blockers in prostate. Thus, clinic improvement with silodosin was proved by histologic studies. Besides, static factor of BPH may be overcome with creating apoptosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Prostate/drug effects , Prostate/pathology , Prostatic Hyperplasia/pathology , Prostatic Hyperplasia/drug therapy , Apoptosis/drug effects , Adrenergic alpha-1 Receptor Antagonists/pharmacology , Quinazolines/pharmacology , Reference Values , Sulfonamides/pharmacology , Time Factors , Biopsy , Prazosin/analogs & derivatives , Prazosin/pharmacology , Immunohistochemistry , Pilot Projects , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Prostate-Specific Antigen/blood , Doxazosin/pharmacology , Tamsulosin , Indoles/pharmacology , Middle Aged
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776688

ABSTRACT

A boy aged 6 years and 3 months developed upper respiratory tract infection and pyrexia 2 months ago and was given oral administration of nimesulide by his parents according to directions. Half an hour later, the boy experienced convulsions and cardiopulmonary arrest, and emergency examination found hypoketotic hypoglycemia, metabolic acidosis, significant increases in serum aminotransferases and creatine kinase, and renal damage. Recovery of consciousness and vital signs was achieved after cardiopulmonary resuscitation, but severe mental and movement regression was observed. The boy had a significant reduction in free carnitine in blood and significant increases in medium- and long-chain fatty acyl carnitine, urinary glutaric acid, 3-hydroxy glutaric acid, isovalerylglycine, and ethylmalonic acid, suggesting the possibility of multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency. After the treatment with vitamin B2, L-carnitine, and bezafibrate, the boy gradually improved, and reexamination after 3 months showed normal biochemical parameters. The boy had compound heterozygous mutations in the ETFDH gene, i.e., a known mutation, c.341G>A (p.R114H), from his mother and a novel mutation, c.1484C>G (p.P495R), from his father. Finally, he was diagnosed with multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency. Reye syndrome and sudden death symptoms were caused by nimesulide-induced acute metabolic crisis. It is concluded that inherited metabolic diseases may be main causes of Reye syndrome and sudden death, and biochemical and genetic analyses are the key to identifying underlying diseases.


Subject(s)
Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase , Administration, Oral , Carnitine , Child , Death, Sudden , Humans , Male , Respiratory Tract Infections , Reye Syndrome , Sulfonamides
18.
Frontiers of Medicine ; (4): 593-599, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771313

ABSTRACT

Conventional combination therapies have not resulted in considerable progress in the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Elderly patients with AML and poor risk factors have grave prognosis. Midostaurin has been recently approved for the treatment of FLT-3-mutated AML. Venetoclax, a BCL-2 inhibitor, has been approved for the treatment of relapsed and/or refractory chronic lymphoid leukemia. Clinical trials on applying venetoclax in combination with cytarabine and other agents to treat various hematological malignancies are currently underway. Here, we present a case of a male patient with poor performance status and who developed AML following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant for high-risk myelodysplasia. The patient with high risk AML achieved complete response to the combined treatment regimen of low-dose cytarabine and venetoclax. Furthermore, we reviewed current clinical trials on the use of venetoclax for hematological malignancies.


Subject(s)
Aged , Bridged Bicyclo Compounds, Heterocyclic , Combined Modality Therapy , Cytarabine , Fatal Outcome , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Humans , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute , Drug Therapy , Genetics , Male , Recurrence , Remission Induction , Sulfonamides
19.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 33(8): e00206516, Aug. 2017. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039365

ABSTRACT

Resumo: O backlog na análise de pedidos de patentes é um problema que persiste desde a promulgação da Lei nº 9.279/1996, quando o Brasil passou a conceder patentes para medicamentos novamente. Os órgãos responsáveis pela concessão dessas patentes, Instituto Nacional da Propriedade Industrial (INPI) e Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária (Anvisa), alegam motivos técnico-administrativos para justificar o atraso. No entanto, os impactos econômicos para a saúde devido à ineficiência do sistema de patentes brasileiro ainda foram pouco investigados. Assim sendo, este trabalho propõe uma metodologia para estimar o quanto as compras públicas de medicamentos são oneradas em função da morosidade na análise dos pedidos de patentes no país. Os resultados mostram que mais de R$ 14 milhões são gastos desnecessariamente anualmente pelo Governo Federal com apenas um medicamento antirretroviral por causa da extensão da vigência das patentes. Conclui-se que medidas governamentais de controle dessa situação são prementes no âmbito dos Três Poderes. Dentre elas, destacam-se a contratação de servidores para o INPI, análise dos projetos de lei que tramitam na Câmara dos Deputados e Senado Federal para a alteração da Lei da Propriedade Industrial, e julgamento das Ações Diretas de Inconstitucionalidade para a supressão do dispositivo legal que possibilita a extensão da vigência das patentes.


Abstract: The backlog in processing patent applications in Brazil has persisted since the enactment of Law 9,279/1996, when the country resumed granting patents on drugs. The agencies responsible for granting such patents, namely the Brazilian National Patent and Trademark Office (INPI) and the Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency (Anvisa) cite technical and administrative reasons for the backlog. However, little research has focused on the economic impacts for health due to the inefficiency of the Brazilian patent system. The current study thus proposes a methodology to estimate the extent to which government procurement of medicines is burdened by the backlog in drug patent applications. According to the results, a total of more than BRL 14 million (USD 4.5 million) is spent unnecessarily per year by the Federal Government on just one antiretroviral drug due to the extension of the respective patent's life. Measures to resolve this situation are urgently needed in the three branches of government. These include hiring more staff for the INPI, analysis of bills of law under review in the two houses of the Brazilian Congress to amend the Industrial Property Law, and ruling on direct class action claims of unconstitutionality to suppress the legal mechanisms that allow extending the life of patents.


Resumen: El atraso en el procesamiento de solicitudes de patentes en Brasil ha persistido desde la promulgación de la Ley 9.279/1996, cuando el país reanudó la concesión de patentes sobre drogas. Los organismos encargados de otorgar las patentes, a saber, la Oficina Nacional de Patentes y Marcas (INPI) y la Agencia Nacional de Vigilancia Sanitaria (Anvisa), alegan motivos técnico-administrativos para justificar el retraso. Sin embargo, poca investigación se ha centrado en los impactos económicos para la salud debido a la ineficiencia del sistema brasileño de patentes. El presente estudio propone una metodología para estimar el grado en que la contratación pública de medicamentos está cargada con el atraso en las solicitudes de patente de medicamentos. De acuerdo con los resultados, el gobierno federal gasta innecesariamente un total de más de BRL 14 millones (USD 4.5 millones) por un solo medicamento antirretroviral debido a la extensión de la vida de la respectiva patente. Las medidas para resolver esta situación son urgentemente necesarias en las tres ramas del gobierno. Estos incluyen la contratación de más personal para la INPI, el análisis de los proyectos de ley en revisión en las dos cámaras del Congreso brasileño para enmendar la Ley de Propiedad Industrial, y la decisión sobre demandas de acción colectiva directa de inconstitucionalidad para suprimir los mecanismos legales que permiten extender la vida de las patentes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Patents as Topic/legislation & jurisprudence , Drugs, Generic/economics , Drug Industry/economics , Organophosphates/economics , Sulfonamides/economics , Brazil , Carbamates/economics , Anti-Retroviral Agents/economics , Drug Industry/legislation & jurisprudence , Health Services Accessibility
20.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 63(5): 422-426, May 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-896345

ABSTRACT

Summary Introduction: In systemic sclerosis (SSc), digital ulcers (DU) are debilitating and recurrent. They are markers of prognosis and are associated with disability and mortality. Treatment strategies have been developed to block the proposed mechanisms of this complication. Objective: Clinical description of a population of SSc patients with DU, treatment, complications and outcome. Method: Analysis of 48 SSc patients meeting 2013 ACR-EULAR criteria, followed between 1999-2015; 13 patients had DU. Treatment protocol applied included cycles of 21 days of alprostadil, which can be repeated in the absence of DU healing. After DU healing, bosentan was initiated. Results: DU healing was achieved with intravenous prostanoid in 12 patients; seven patients required repeated treatment for DU healing. Twelve patients were later treated with bosentan; three of them experienced recurrence of DU, while one was anti-B2-GPI positive. Four patients had soft tissue loss and three other suffered digital amputation, these being late diagnosis. Conclusion: Younger patients and early referrals had better outcomes. Endothelin receptor antagonist toxicity should be monitored, particularly in patients previously exposed to hepatotoxic drugs.


Resumo Introdução: As úlceras digitais (UD) são complicações incapacitantes e recorrentes, associadas a menor qualidade de vida e maior mortalidade na esclerose sistêmica (ES). O tratamento baseia-se em antagonizar os mecanismos fisiopatológicos em causa. Objetivo: Descrever uma amostra de doentes com diagnóstico de ES e UD, o tratamento, as complicações e os resultados clínicos. Método: Série de 48 casos diagnosticados com ES, critérios de classificação ACR-EULAR 2013, seguidos entre 1999 e 2015, dos quais 13 apresentavam UD. O protocolo aplicado incluía ciclos de 21 dias de alprostadil podendo ser repetidos no caso de não existir cicatrização. Nos casos em que houve cicatrização foi iniciado bosentano. Resultados: No tratamento das UD, 12 doentes realizaram prostaciclina endovenosa, com necessidade de tratamentos repetidos em sete doentes. Doze doentes foram posteriormente tratados com bosentano, com recorrência de UD em três doentes, um deles com presença de anti-B2-GPI. Quatro doentes ficaram com cicatrizes e em três houve amputação digital, sendo casos de diagnóstico tardio. Conclusão: Os doentes mais jovens tiveram melhores resultados, possivelmente em razão de melhorias globais nos cuidados de saúde prestados e de referenciação precoce. A toxicidade dos antagonistas dos receptores da endotelina deve ser monitorizada, sobretudo em doentes com exposição prévia a drogas hepatotóxicas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Scleroderma, Systemic/complications , Skin Ulcer/etiology , Skin Ulcer/drug therapy , Sulfonamides/therapeutic use , Vasodilator Agents/therapeutic use , Alprostadil/therapeutic use , Fingers , Endothelin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Skin Ulcer/pathology , Time Factors , Wound Healing/drug effects , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Bosentan , Hand Dermatoses/etiology , Hand Dermatoses/pathology , Hand Dermatoses/drug therapy , Middle Aged
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