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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811147

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is limited information regarding the optimal third-line therapy for managing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) that is inadequately controlled using dual combination therapy. This study assessed the efficacy and safety of pioglitazone or glimepiride when added to metformin plus alogliptin treatment for T2DM.METHODS: This multicenter, randomized, active-controlled trial (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02426294) recruited 135 Korean patients with T2DM that was inadequately controlled using metformin plus alogliptin. The patients were then randomized to also receive pioglitazone (15 mg/day) or glimepiride (2 mg/day) for a 26-week period, with dose titration was permitted based on the investigator's judgement.RESULTS: Glycosylated hemoglobin levels exhibited similar significant decreases in both groups during the treatment period (pioglitazone: −0.81%, P<0.001; glimepiride: −1.05%, P<0.001). However, the pioglitazone-treated group exhibited significantly higher high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (P<0.001) and significantly lower homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance values (P<0.001). Relative to pioglitazone, adding glimepiride to metformin plus alogliptin markedly increased the risk of hypoglycemia (pioglitazone: 1/69 cases [1.45%], glimepiride: 14/66 cases [21.21%]; P<0.001).CONCLUSION: Among patients with T2DM inadequately controlled using metformin plus alogliptin, the addition of pioglitazone provided comparable glycemic control and various benefits (improvements in lipid profiles, insulin resistance, and hypoglycemia risk) relative to the addition of glimepiride.


Subject(s)
Cholesterol, HDL , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Dipeptidyl-Peptidase IV Inhibitors , Drug Therapy, Combination , Glycated Hemoglobin A , Humans , Hypoglycemia , Insulin Resistance , Metformin , Sulfonylurea Compounds , Thiazolidinediones , Treatment Failure
2.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 65(1): 33-37, Jan. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-985003

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE To investigate the clinical efficacy and the possible mechanisms of saxagliptin in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) combined with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). METHODS A total of 95 T2DM and NAFLD patients were randomly divided into group A (saxagliptin group), group B (glimepiride group), and group C (glimepiride combined with polyene phosphatidylcholine group). RESULTS After intervention treatment for 24 w, body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), fasting insulin (FINS), homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), interleukin-6 (IL-6), triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), γ-glutamyltransferase (γ-GT), and quantitative detection of liver steatosis of study subjects were observed, the action of liver steatosis in subjects of groups A and C were significantly different from those of group B; however, there were no differences between groups A and C. The FINS, HOMA-IR, and IL-6 of subjects in group A was lower than those in groups B and C; however, there were no significant differences between the latter two groups. CONCLUSION For T2DM combined with NAFLD patients, the saxagliptin treatment could not only effectively control blood glucose but also attenuate insulin resistance and inflammatory injury of the liver to improve fatty liver further.


RESUMO OBJETIVO Investigar a eficácia clínica e os possíveis mecanismos da saxagliptina no tratamento do diabetes mellitus tipo 2 (DM2) associado à doença hepática gordurosa não alcoólica (DHGNA). MÉTODOS Um total de 95 DM2 combinados com pacientes com DHGNA foram aleatoriamente divididos em grupo A (grupo saxagliptina), grupo B (grupo glimepirida) e grupo C (glimepirida combinado com grupo fosfatidilcolina polienizada). RESULTADOS Após a intervenção tratamento por 24 w, índice de massa corporal (IMC), relação cintura-quadril (RCQ), hemoglobina glicada (HbA1c), glicemia de jejum (FPG), insulina de jejum (Fins), avaliação do modelo homeostático de insulina resistência (Homa-IR), interleucina-6 (IL-6), triglicérides (TG), colesterol total (CT), alanina aminotransferase (ALT), aspartato aminotransferase (AST), γ-glutamiltransferase (γ-GT) e detecção de esteatose hepática dos sujeitos do estudo foram observados. Ação de esteatose hepática de indivíduos nos grupos A e C foram significativamente diferentes do grupo B; no entanto, não houve diferenças entre os grupos A e C. Os grupos Fins, Homa-IR e IL-6 dos participantes do grupo A foram menores que os dos grupos B e C; no entanto, não houve diferenças significativas entre os dois últimos grupos. CONCLUSÃO Para o DM2 combinado com pacientes com DHGNA, o tratamento com saxagliptina pode não apenas controlar efetivamente a glicemia, mas também atenuar a resistência à insulina e a lesão inflamatória do fígado para melhorar ainda mais o fígado gorduroso.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Phosphatidylcholines/administration & dosage , Sulfonylurea Compounds/administration & dosage , Adamantane/analogs & derivatives , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/drug therapy , Hypoglycemic Agents/administration & dosage , Blood Glucose , Insulin Resistance , Adamantane/administration & dosage , Body Mass Index , Treatment Outcome , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Dipeptides/administration & dosage , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/complications , Middle Aged
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763667

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Metformin, sulfonylurea, and dietary fiber are known to affect gut microbiota in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This open and single-arm pilot trial investigated the effects of the additional use of fiber on glycemic parameters, insulin, incretins, and microbiota in patients with T2DM who had been treated with metformin and sulfonylurea. METHODS: Participants took fiber for 4 weeks and stopped for the next 4 weeks. Glycemic parameters, insulin, incretins during mixed-meal tolerance test (MMTT), lipopolysaccharide (LPS) level, and fecal microbiota were analyzed at weeks 0, 4, and 8. The first tertile of difference in glucose area under the curve during MMTT between weeks 0 and 4 was defined as ‘responders’ and the third as ‘nonresponders,’ respectively. RESULTS: In all 10 participants, the peak incretin levels during MMTT were higher and LPS were lower at week 4 as compared with at baseline. While the insulin sensitivity of the ‘responders’ increased at week 4, that of the ‘nonresponders’ showed opposite results. However, the results were not statistically significant. In all participants, metabolically unfavorable microbiota decreased at week 4 and were restored at week 8. At baseline, metabolically hostile bacteria were more abundant in the ‘nonresponders.’ In ‘responders,’ Roseburia intestinalis increased at week 4. CONCLUSION: While dietary fiber did not induce additional changes in glycemic parameters, it showed a trend of improvement in insulin sensitivity in ‘responders.’ Even if patients are already receiving diabetes treatment, the additional administration of fiber can lead to additional benefits in the treatment of diabetes.


Subject(s)
Bacteria , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Dietary Fiber , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Glucose , Humans , Incretins , Insulin , Insulin Resistance , Metformin , Microbiota , Sulfonylurea Compounds
4.
Int. j. med. surg. sci. (Print) ; 5(3): 109-111, sept. 2018.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1254308

ABSTRACT

Overuse of antidiabetic medications is the most common cause of hypoglycemia in diabetic subjects. Here, we report a case of hypoglycemia associated with sulfonylurea administration. An 83-year-old female patient was admitted to the emergency department with complaints of loss of consciousness and fainting. The patient's blood glucose level was of 33 mg/dL, and she received emergency treatment with an intravenous 10% dextrose solution. In conclusion, sulfonylureas in combination with antidiabetic therapy increase the risk of hypoglycemic events in elderly patients with renal failure. Therefore, we suggest that physicians should closely monitor these patients for hypoglycemia and, preferably, use drugs that have less hypoglycemia side effects


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged, 80 and over , Sulfonylurea Compounds/adverse effects , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Hypoglycemia/chemically induced , Hypoglycemic Agents/adverse effects
5.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717148

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have noted that the simultaneous use of sulfonylureas and antimicrobials, which is common, could increase the risk of hypoglycemia. In particular, an age of 65 years or older is a known risk factor for sulfonylurea-related hypoglycemia in hospitalized patients. Therefore, we performed this study to determine the potential risk of hypoglycemia from the concurrent use of antimicrobials and sulfonylureas. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study on the National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort from 2013. The eligibility criteria included patients of 65 years of age or older taking a sulfonylurea with 25 different antimicrobials. Different risk ratings of severity in drug-drug interactions (potential DDIs), level X, D, or C in Lexi-Interact™online, and contraindicated, major, or moderate severity level in Micromedex® were included. SAS version 9.4 was used for data analysis. RESULTS: A total of 6,006 elderly patients with 25,613 prescriptions were included. The largest age group was 70 to 74 (32.7%), and 39.7% of patients were men. The mean number of prescriptions was 4.3 per patient. The most frequently used antimicrobials were levofloxacin (6,583, 25.7%), ofloxacin (6,549, 25.6%), fluconazole (4,678, 18.0%), and ciprofloxacin (2,551, 9.8%). Among sulfonylureas, glimepiride was prescribed most frequently, followed by gliclazide, glibenclamide, and glipizide. CONCLUSION: Of the antimicrobials with a high potential of hypoglycemia, levofloxacin, ofloxacin, fluconazole, and ciprofloxacin were used frequently. Thus, the monitoring of clinically relevant interactions is required for patients concurrently administered sulfonylureas and antimicrobials.


Subject(s)
Aged , Anti-Infective Agents , Ciprofloxacin , Cohort Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Drug Interactions , Fluconazole , Gliclazide , Glipizide , Glyburide , Humans , Hypoglycemia , Korea , Levofloxacin , Male , National Health Programs , Ofloxacin , Prescriptions , Risk Factors , Statistics as Topic , Sulfonylurea Compounds
7.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 48(3): 544-550, July-Sept. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889154

ABSTRACT

Abstract Presence of the relatively new sulfonylurea herbicide monosulfuron-ester at 0.03-300 nmol/L affected the growth of two non-target nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria (Anabaena flos-aquae and Anabaena azotica) and substantially inhibited in vitro Acetolactate synthase activity, with IC50 of 3.3 and 101.3 nmol/L for A. flos-aquae and A. azotica, respectively. Presenting in 30-300 nmol/L, it inhibited protein synthesis of the cyanobacteria with less amino acids produced as its concentration increased. Our findings support the view that monosulfuron-ester toxicity in both nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria is due to its interference with protein metabolism via inhibition of branch-chain amino acid biosynthesis, and particularly Acetolactate synthase activity.


Subject(s)
Pyrimidines/toxicity , Sulfonylurea Compounds/toxicity , Anabaena/drug effects , Anabaena/metabolism , Dolichospermum flos-aquae/drug effects , Dolichospermum flos-aquae/metabolism , Esters/toxicity , Herbicides/toxicity , Nitrogen Fixation/drug effects , Anabaena/genetics , Dolichospermum flos-aquae/genetics , Amino Acids/metabolism , Nitrogen/metabolism
10.
Lima; s.n; jun. 2016. tab.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS, BRISA | ID: biblio-848614

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: Antecedentes: El Instituto de Evaluación de Tecnologías en Salud e Investigación (IETSI) ha recibido la solicitud de evaluar el uso de la seguridad y eficacia de torasemida en el tratamiento de pacientes con diagnóstico de insuficiencia cardiaca congestiva dentro del sistema de EsSalud, indicación actualmente no contemplada en el petitorio de medicamentos. Generalidades: A pesar de los continuos avances en el tratamiento de los pacientes con insuficiencia cardiaca, también llamada insuficiencia cardiaca congestiva (ICC), en las últimas décadas, la casuística de ICC sigue siendo muy importante alrededor del mundo. Sólo en los Estados Unidos se estima que 5.1 millones de adultos padecen de ICC con 825,000 nuevos casos al año, estimándose que para el año 2030 se espera que la prevalencia aumente un 46%, resultando en más de 8 millones de adultos afectados. Tecnología Sanitaria de Interés: Torasemida: Torasemida (torasemide, torsemide) es un diurético de asa que actúa sobre la rama gruesa ascendente del asa de Henle promoviendo una rápida excreción de agua, sodio y cloruro. Como tal fue aprobado por la FDA en agosto de 1993 originalmente como un diurético para el manejo de edema secundario a insuficiencia cardiaca congestiva, insuficiencia renal o enfermedad hepática, así mismo, su uso está aprobado sólo o en combinación con otros agentes antihipertensivos para el manejo de hipertensión. METODOLOGÍA: El protocolo de esta revisión sistemática fue preparado y revisado con el equipo técnico de IETSI. Las siguientes fuentes han sido revisadas y consultadas con la intención de buscar la mejor evidencia disponible que directamente responda a la pregunta PICO de esta evaluación: Medline/Pubmed, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Cochrane Library, Translating Research into Practice (TRIP Database), Institute for Health Technology Assessment Ludwig Boltzmann Gelsellschaft (LBI-HTA) de Austria, American Heart Association (AHA) de los Estados Unidos, American Society of Cardiología (ASC) de los Estados Unidos, European Society of Cardiología (ESC) de Europa, National Guideline Clearinghouse (NCG) de los Estados Unidos, National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) del Reino Unido National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) del Reino Unido Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health (CADTH) Scottish Medicines Consortium (SMC). RESULTADOS: Luego de revisar un total de 485 referencias resultados de nuestra búsqueda bibliográfica, logramos filtrar 98 referencias relevantes para nuestra pregunta PICO de interés (Tabla 1), de los cuales sólo nueve referencias fueron finalmente seleccionadas para nuestro análisis toda vez que constituían referencias que respondían a la pregunta PICO de interés de este dictamen, incluyendo tres guías de práctica clínica, dos meta-análisis, cuatro ensayos clínicos de fase III. CONCLUSIONES: A la fecha no se disponen de evidencias suficientes para recomendar torasemida en comparación con furosemida como una alternativa de tratamiento más eficaz, seguro y costo efectiva en el manejo de pacientes con ICC y clase funcional NYHA III o IV. La evidencia disponible sugiere que torasemida no ofrece mayores beneficios que furosemida en términos de sobrevida, disminución de la clase funcional NYHA, disminución de las tasas de re-hospitalizaciones, mejora de la calidad de vida o disminución de los eventos adversos. De manera aislada algunos estudios dan cuenta de que torasemida puede disminuir las tasas de re-hospitalización y mejorar algunos aspectos de calidad de vida, sin embargo esta evidencia no es consistente con la de otros estudios que no confirman estos hallazgos y lo que es más importante, en general este tipo de evidencias no es extrapolable a la población de interés de este dictamen toda vez que la gran mayoría de participantes por estos estudios fueron enrolados con una clase funcional NYHA II, los menos con una clase funcional NYHA III y sólo en raras ocasiones con una clase funcional NYHA IV. la fecha no se dispone de evidencias que soporten la hipótesis de que torasemida representa una alternativa de tratamiento más costo-efectiva que furosemida en el manejo de los pacientes con ICC. El Instituto de Evaluación de Tecnologías en Salud e Investigación ­ IETSI no aprueba el uso de torasemida como una alternativa a furosemida en el manejo de pacientes con ICC y clases funcionales NYHA III o IV.


Subject(s)
Humans , Heart Failure/drug therapy , Sulfonylurea Compounds/administration & dosage , Diuretics/administration & dosage , Technology Assessment, Biomedical , Treatment Outcome
11.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 59(6): 559-561, Dec. 2015.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-767926

ABSTRACT

Permanent neonatal diabetes (PNDM) can result from activating heterozygous mutations in KCNJ11 gene, encoding the Kir6.2 subunit of the pancreatic ATP-sensitive potassium channels (KATP). Sulfonylureas promote KATP closure and stimulate insulin secretion, being an alternative therapy in PNDM, instead of insulin. Male, 20 years old, diagnosed with diabetes at 3 months of age. The genetic study identified a novel heterozygous mutation in exon 1 of the KCNJ11 gene – KCNJ11:c1001G>7 (p.Gly334Val) – and confirmed the diagnosis of PNDM. Therefore it was attempted to switch from insulin therapy to sulfonylurea. During glibenclamide institution C-peptide levels increased, however the suboptimal glycemic control lead us to restart an intensive insulin scheme. This new variant of KCNJ11 mutation had a phenotypic lack of response to sulfonylurea therapy. Age, prior poor metabolic control and functional change of KATP channel induced by this specific mutation may explain the observed unsuccessful switch to sulfonylurea. Interestingly, C-peptide levels raise during glibenclamide administration support some degree of improvement in insulin secretory capacity induced by the treatment. Understanding the response to sulfonylurea is crucial as successful treatment may be life-changing in these patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Young Adult , Drug Substitution , Diabetes Mellitus/genetics , Glyburide/therapeutic use , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Mutation , Potassium Channels, Inwardly Rectifying/genetics , Sulfonylurea Compounds/therapeutic use , Blood Glucose/analysis , C-Peptide/blood , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy , Treatment Failure
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-50470

ABSTRACT

Permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus refers to diabetes that occurs before the age of 6 months and persists through life. It is a rare disorder affecting one in 0.2-0.5 million live births. Mutations in the gene KCNJ11, encoding the subunit Kir6.2, and ABCC8, encoding SUR1 of the ATP-sensitive potassium (K(ATP)) channel, are the most common causes of permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus. Sulfonylureas close the K(ATP) channel and increase insulin secretion. KCNJ11 and ABCC8 mutations have important therapeutic implications because sulfonylurea therapy can be effective in treating patients with mutations in the potassium channel subunits. The mutation type, the presence of neurological features, and the duration of diabetes are known to be the major factors affecting the treatment outcome after switching to sulfonylurea therapy. More than 30 mutations in the KCNJ11 gene have been identified. Here, we present our experience with a patient carrying a novel p.H186D heterozygous mutation in the KCNJ11 gene who was successfully treated with oral sulfonylurea.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus , Humans , Insulin , Live Birth , Potassium , Potassium Channels , Sulfonylurea Compounds , Treatment Outcome
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-149424

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor add-on therapy is a new option for patients with inadequately controlled type 2 diabetes who are taking combined metformin and sulfonylurea (SU). We evaluated the efficacy and safety of this triple therapy and the characteristics of rapid responders and hypoglycemia-prone patients. METHODS: We included 807 patients with type 2 diabetes who were prescribed a newly added DPP-4 inhibitor to ongoing metformin and SU in 2009 to 2011. Glycemia and other metabolic parameters at baseline, 12, 24, and 52 weeks, as well as episodes of hypoglycemia were analyzed. Rapid responders were defined as patients with > or =25% reduction in glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) within 12 weeks. RESULTS: At baseline, while on the submaximal metformin and SU combination, the mean HbA1c level was 8.4%. Twelve weeks after initiation of DPP-4 inhibitor add-on, 269 patients (34.4%) achieved an HbA1c level < or =7%. Sixty-six patients (8.2%, 47 men) were rapid responders. The duration of diabetes was shorter in rapid responders, and their baseline fasting plasma glucose (FPG), HbA1c, C-peptide, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance were significantly higher. Patients who experienced hypoglycemia after taking DPP-4 inhibitor add-on were more likely to be female, to have a lower body weight and lower triglyceride and FPG levels, and to have higher homeostasis model assessment of beta-cells. CONCLUSION: An oral hypoglycemic triple agent combination including a DPP-4 inhibitor was effective in patients with uncontrolled diabetes. Proactive dose reduction of SU should be considered when a DPP-4 inhibitor is added for rapid responders and hypoglycemia-prone patients.


Subject(s)
Blood Glucose , Body Weight , C-Peptide , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Dipeptidyl-Peptidase IV Inhibitors , Fasting , Female , Glycated Hemoglobin A , Homeostasis , Humans , Hypoglycemia , Insulin Resistance , Metformin , Sulfonylurea Compounds , Triglycerides
14.
Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2015; 28 (5): 1723-1730
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-166666

ABSTRACT

High blood glucose level, lipid profile disturbances and plasma homocysteine [Hey] are important risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in patients with type 2 diabetes. This study was conducted to evaluate and compare effects of glimepiride/metformin combination versus gliclazide/metformin combination on cardiovascular risk factors in type-2 diabetes mellitus [T2DM] patients. One hundred and eighty T2DM patients were randomly allocated for treatment with placebo [control], metformin [500mg twice daily], glimepiride [3mg once daily], gliclazide [80mg once daily], metformin plus glimepiride or metformin plus gliclazide for 3 months. We evaluated plasma levels of glucose [PG], glycated hemoglobin [HbAlC], Hey, vitamin B12, folic acid and lipid profile before treatment and 3 months post treatment. Compared to metformin treated patients, glimepiride plus metformin induced significant reductions in: fasting plasma glucose, postprandial PG level, HbAlC % and Hey level. Conversely, plasma folic acid and vitamin B12 were significantly increased. The levels of total cholesterol and triglyceride were significantly decreased; low-density lipoprotein was markedly decreased, whereas high-density lipoprotein was significantly increased and hence risk ratio was significantly decreased. Similar results but with lower values were obtained using combination of metformin plus gliclazide on glycemic control only. Combination of glimepiride with metformin was superior to gliclazide plus metformin in alleviating the cardiovascular risk factors in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Aged , Adult , Gliclazide/pharmacology , Sulfonylurea Compounds/pharmacology , Cardiovascular Diseases , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Risk Factors , Drug Therapy, Combination , Cardiovascular System
15.
J. bras. med ; 102(3)jul. 2014.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-719968

ABSTRACT

O diabetes mellitus tipo 2 (DM2) apresenta alta prevalência, com aumento inclusive em crianças e adolescentes. A importância de um estrito controle glicêmico pode ser comprovada com a redução das complicações crônicas microvasculares. Já em relação à redução da doença macrovascular, principal causa de mortalidade nestes pacientes, são fundamentais o controle da glicemia, bem como de outros fatores de risco cardiovasculares, tais como hipertensão arterial, dislipidemia, peso, e a manutenção de hábitos saudáveis de vida. Temos vários medicamentos para o tratamento do DM2, sendo que a metformina é ainda a droga de primeira escolha, devido ao seu baixo custo e eficácia comprovada...


Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) is highly prevalent and is increasing even in children and adolescents. The importance of strict glycemic control can be proven to reduce chronic microvascular complications. Regarding the reduction of macrovascular disease, the leading cause of mortality in these patients, it is essential tight glycemic control, as well as other cardiovascular risk factors, such as arterial hypertension, dyslipidemia, weight control, and maintaining healthy lifestyles. We have a lot of drugs for the treatment of DM2, and metformin is still the drug of first choice due to its low cost and proven effectiveness...


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , /drug therapy , Metformin/therapeutic use , Administration, Oral , alpha-Glucosidases , Sulfonylurea Compounds/therapeutic use , Glycemic Index , Hypoglycemic Agents/administration & dosage , Incretins/therapeutic use , Glucagon-Like Peptide 1/agonists , Thiazolidinediones/therapeutic use
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-315859

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To explore the effect of glimepiride on the glucose uptake as well as glucose transporter (GLUT)-1 and GLUT-3 expression levels of rat mandibular osteoblasts in hyperglycemia.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Primary osteoblasts were isolated and cultured. Then, the cells were placed in an osteogenic medium containing two glucose concentrations (5.5 and 16.5 mmol X L(-1)), with or without glimepiride (10 micromol x L(-1)). Glucose uptake was determined by employing 18F-deoxyglucose (18F-FDG) in the cells, and GLUT-1 and GLUT-3 expression levels were evaluated by Western blot analysis.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Glucose at 16.5 mmol x L(-1) significantly inhibited 18F-FDG uptake and downregulated GLUT-3 protein expression in osteoblasts. Hyperglycemia increased GLUT-1 protein expression. Glimepiride significantly increased glucose uptake and upregulated GLUT-1 and GLUT-3.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Glimepiride enhance the glucose transporter in rat osteoblasts at two different glucose concentrations.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 , Glucose , Glucose Transporter Type 1 , Hyperglycemia , Mandible , Osteoblasts , Rats , Sulfonylurea Compounds
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-632928

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Vildagliptin is believed to improve glucose variability by restoring the physiologic pattern of insulin secretion and improving beta and alpha cells' sensitivity to glucose but with less increase in insulin secretion compared to sulfonylureas resulting in similar glucose levels but with less risk of hypoglycemia.OBJECTIVE: To compare the effect of vildagliptin and glimepiride on glucose variability among Type 2 diabetic patients not controlled on metformin alone.METHODS: This investigation is a prospective, interventional, open-labeled, active control, parallel assignment, efficacy study that included patients with inadequate glycemic control on monotherapy with metformin, randomly assigned either to vildagliptin or glimeparide. For one month, one group took vildagliptin 50mg/tablet one tablet twice a day while the other group took glimepiride 1 mg/tablet one tablet once a day. Subjects were asked to monitor their capillary blood glucose at seven points throughout the day for 35 days.RESULTS: A total of 18 patients were recruited for the study and randomly assigned to either of the two treatment arms. However, only 16 patients completed the study. The vildagliptin and glimepiride groups had comparable blood sugars at baseline and at the end of the study although the glimepiride group showed a steeper decline in the blood sugar levels. Subjects in both groups showed a downward trend in the blood glucose values from day one to the 35th day with comparable mean glucose values between treatments and across combinations of day and treatment. Likewise, mean postprandial incremental area under the curve (AUCpp)and mean amplitude of glycemic excursions (MAGE) were comparable across treatments and across combinations of day and treatment, although the Glimepiride group showed relatively higher MAGE values.CONCLUSION: Vildaglipitin and glimepiride both improved glycemia of patients with uncontrolled blood sugar on monotherapy with metformin as both groups showed downward glucose trend, although vildagliptin showed relatively less abrupt glucose lowering effect suggesting lesser risk of hypoglycemia. Mean postprandial glucose excursions of the two groups were also comparable but the vildagliptin arm had lower MAGE and may suggest an improvement in both ?- and ?-cell function.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Middle Aged , Adult , Young Adult , Adolescent , Adamantane , Blood Glucose , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Glucose , Hypoglycemia , Insulins , Metformin , Nitriles , Prospective Studies , Pyrrolidines , Sulfonylurea Compounds
18.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1298-1303, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-322284

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>Diabetic cardiovascular complication is a major cause of mortality in type 2 diabetic patients. Hyperglycemia markedly increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. Endothelial dysfunction is common in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and is an early indicator of diabetic vascular disease. Therefore, it is necessary to identify the effect of different hypoglycemic agents on vascular endothelium. The aim of the study was to examine and compare the effects of metformin and gliquidone on atherosclerotic lesions in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Forty male Sprague-Dawley rats (age, 8 weeks; weight, 180-200 g) were included in this study and fed with a normal chow diet for 1 week. Rats (n = 10) served as the normal control group (NC group) were fed with a normal chow for another 2 weeks and received an injection of saline. The rest 30 rats fed with a high-fat diet for 2 weeks and injected streptozotocin were randomly assigned to three groups (n = 10 rats per group) as follow: type 2 DM group (DM group), DM + gliquidone group (GLI group) and DM + metformin group (MET group). Five weeks later, all rats were fasted overnight and taken tail blood samples for biochemical determinations. Then rats in the NC and DM groups were administrated with normal saline, while rats in the MET and GLI groups were administrated with metformin (100 mg/kg) or gliquidone (10 mg/kg), respectively. All medicines were given via intragastric administration for 8 weeks. After 16 weeks, plasma triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were measured. The aortic arch was isolated from diabetic rats and was assessed by pathological sectioning using H&E staining.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Metformin treatment prevented weight gain ((315.80 ± 52.16) g vs. (318.70 ± 68.48) g, P = 0.773), improved plasma TG, HDL-C and LDL-C levels (P = 0.006, 0.003, 0.001, respectively, all P < 0.05). However, gliquidone showed no significant effects on plasma TG and TC levels (P = 0.819, 0.053, respectively). LDL-C and HDL-C in the GLI group changed ((0.46 ± 0.10) mmol/L vs. (0.36 ± 0.14) mmol/L, P = 0.007; (0.99 ± 0.27) mmol/L vs. (1.11 ± 0.18) mmol/L, P = 0.049). Both metformin and gliquidone treatment lowered blood glucose levels (P = 0.001, 0.004, respectively, P < 0.05). Under light microscopy, no changes were observed in the aortic wall structure of each layer; the intima was smooth and the membrane elastic fibers were normal in the NC group. In the DM group, the aortic wall structure was unclear, the intima was thickened with irregular intima, and membrane elastic fibers collapsed. The aortic intima in the MET and GLI groups was smoother compared with the DM group, but the endothelial structure of the MET group was closer to that of the NC group.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Both metformin and gliquidone have anti-atherosclerotic effects. But the endothelial structure of the MET group was closer to that of the NC group. Metformin and gliquidone therapy can reduce serum level of LDL-C and increase level of HDL-C, whereas gliquidone therapy did not lose weight and decrease serum level of TG. These data may have important implications for the treatment of patients with type 2 DM.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Aorta , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental , Drug Therapy , Diabetic Angiopathies , Hypoglycemic Agents , Therapeutic Uses , Male , Metformin , Therapeutic Uses , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Sulfonylurea Compounds , Therapeutic Uses
19.
In. Mintegui Ramos, María Gabriela. Resúmenes breves de endocrinología. Tomo 1, Diabetes, obesidad y síndrome metabólico. [Montevideo], Clínica de Endocrinología y Metabolismo, impresión 2014. p.47-50.
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY, UY-BNMED | ID: biblio-1390867
20.
Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2014; 27 (6): 1939-1943
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-148841

ABSTRACT

A simple and convenient method was developed for the simultaneous determination of metformin HCl and glimepiride in tablet dosage form of different pharmaceuticals companies. This method was validated and proved to be applicable for assay determination in intermediate and finished staged. More over a single medium dissolution of metformin HCl and glimepiride was established and the media was evaluated for comparative studies for different formulations. Reverse phase HPLC equipped with UV detector was used for the determination of metformin HCl and glimepiride. A mixture of acetonitrile and ammonium acetate buffer 0.05M pH 3.0 was used as mobile phase at flow rate of 1.0 ml/min. Promocil C18 5 micro 100 A° 4.6 x 100 mm C18 silica column was used and detection was carried out at 270 nm. Method was found to be linear over the range of 4 ppm to 16 ppm for glimepiride and 170 ppm to 680 ppm for metformin HCl. Regression co-efficient were found to be 0.9949 and 0.9864 for glimepiride and metformin HCl respectively. Dissolution was performed in 500 ml 0.2% sodium lauryl sulfate at 37°C for 45 min using paddle apparatus. Dissolution of glimepiride was found to be 98.60% and 101.08% in Orinase Met1 tablet and Amaryl M tablet respectively whereas metformin was found 99.41% and 98.59% in Orinase Met 1 tablet and Amaryl M tablet. RSD for all the dissolutions was less than 2.0% after completion


Subject(s)
Sulfonylurea Compounds , In Vitro Techniques , Tablets , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
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