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2.
Rev. ANACEM (Impresa) ; 14(2): 29-42, 2020. ilus, tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1128982

ABSTRACT

En el sector de Quintero, desde los últimos 50 años han existido diversos hitos relacionados con la contaminación medioambiental. Iniciando con la instauración de la termoeléctrica "Ventanas" en 1950, Chilectra en 1958. En el año 1993 el ministerio de Agricultura de Chile declaró a Puchuncaví y Quintero como una "zona saturada de contaminación" por dióxido de azufre (SO2) y material particulado (MP10). En el año 2011, 135 trabajadores del complejo Ventana fallecieron producto del cáncer. Durante el 2014 hubo un derrame de petróleo en la Bahía de Quintero, 2015 un informe del Instituto de Fomento Pesquero (IFOP) arrojó cifras de arsénico que superan 23 veces la norma establecida por el Código Sanitario de Alimentos. Frente a dicho escenario, se hace evidente la necesidad de comprender cómo es la situación de los pobladores de dichas comunas. La presente investigación busca asociar los niveles de contaminación de las comuna de Quintero y el número de hospitalizaciones durante los años 2012 hasta el 2018.


In Quintero, since the last 50 years there have been various milestones related to environmental pollution. Starting with the installation of the "Ventanas" thermoelectric plant in 1950, Chilectra in 1958. In 1993, the Chilean Ministry of Agriculture declared Puchuncaví and Quintero as a "zone saturated with contamination" by sulfur dioxide (SO2) and particulate matter (MP10). In 2011, 135 workers at the Ventana complex died of cancer. During 2014 an oil spill emerged in Quintero Bay, 2015 a report by the Institute for Fisheries Development (IFOP) showed arsenic figures that exceed 23 times the norm established by the Sanitary Food Code. Faced with this scenario, the need to understand what the situation of the residents of said communes is like is evident. The present investigation seeks to associate the levels of contamination of the commun of Quintero and the number of hospitalizations during the years 2012 to 2018.


Subject(s)
Air Pollution , Environmental Exposure/statistics & numerical data , Environmental Pollutants/analysis , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Ozone/analysis , Sulfur Dioxide/analysis , Chile , Regression Analysis , Risk Factors , Government Regulation , Methane/analysis , Nitrogen Dioxide/analysis
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777621

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#The association between concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO), nitrogen dioxide (NO), carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O), and emergency ambulance dispatches (EADs) for asthma was explored in the central Sichuan Basin of southwestern China for the first time.@*METHODS@#EADs for asthma were collected from the Chengdu First-Aid Command Center. Pollutant concentrations were collected from 24 municipal environmental monitoring centers and including SO, NO, CO, daily 8-h mean concentrations of O (O-8 h), and particulate matter less than 2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM). The climatic data were collected from the Chengdu Municipal Meteorological Bureau. All data were collected from years spanning 2013-2017. A time-stratified case-crossover design was used to analyze the data.@*RESULTS@#After controlling for temperature, relative humidity, and atmospheric pressure, IQR increases in SO (13 μg/m), NO (17 μg/m), and CO (498 μg/m) were associated with 18.8%, 11.5%, and 3.1% increases in EADs for asthma, respectively. The associations were strongest for EADs and SO, NO, and CO levels with 3-, 5-, and 1-day lags, respectively.@*CONCLUSIONS@#This study provides additional data to the limited body of literature for potential health risks arising from ambient gaseous pollutants. The results of the study suggest that increased concentrations of SO, NO, and CO were positively associated with emergency ambulance dispatches for asthma in Chengdu, China. Further studies are needed to investigate the effects of individual air pollutants on asthma.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Toxicity , Asthma , Epidemiology , Carbon Monoxide , Toxicity , China , Epidemiology , Cities , Cross-Over Studies , Emergency Medical Dispatch , Environmental Monitoring , Humans , Nitrogen Dioxide , Toxicity , Ozone , Toxicity , Particle Size , Particulate Matter , Toxicity , Risk , Sulfur Dioxide , Toxicity
4.
Natural Product Sciences ; : 103-110, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760557

ABSTRACT

We investigated the anti-inflammatory effect of Pyunkang-tang extract (PGT), a complex herbal extract based on traditional Chinese medicine that is used in Korea for controlling diverse pulmonary diseases, on cigarette smoke-induced pulmonary pathology in a rat model of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The constituents of PGT were Lonicerae japonica, Liriope platyphylla, Adenophora triphilla, Xantium strumarinum, Selaginella tamariscina and Rehmannia glutinosa. Rats were exposed by inhalation to a mixture of cigarette smoke extract (CSE) and sulfur dioxide for three weeks to induce COPD-like pulmonary inflammation. PGT was administered orally to rats and pathological changes to the pulmonary system were examined in each group of animals through measurement of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) at 21 days post-CSE treatment. The effect of PGT on the hypersecretion of pulmonary mucin in rats was assessed by quantification of the amount of mucus secreted and by examining histopathologic changes in tracheal epithelium. Confluent NCI-H292 cells were pretreated with PGT for 30 min and then stimulated with CSE plus PMA (phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate), for 24 h. The MUC5AC mucin gene expression was measured by RT-PCR. Production of MUC5AC mucin protein was measured by ELISA. The results were as follows: (1) PGT inhibited CSE-induced pulmonary inflammation as shown by decreased TNF-α and IL-6 levels in BALF; (2) PGT inhibited the hypersecretion of pulmonary mucin and normalized the increased amount of mucosubstances in goblet cells of the CSE-induced COPD rat model; (3) PGT inhibited CSE-induced MUC5AC mucin production and gene expression in vitro in NCI-H292 cells, a human airway epithelial cell line. These results suggest that PGT might regulate the inflammatory aspects of COPD in a rat model.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid , Campanulaceae , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Epithelial Cells , Epithelium , Gene Expression , Goblet Cells , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Inflammation , Inhalation , Interleukin-6 , Korea , Lonicera , Lung Diseases , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Models, Animal , Mucins , Mucus , Necrosis , Pathology , Pneumonia , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Rats , Rehmannia , Selaginellaceae , Smoke , Sulfur Dioxide , Tobacco Products
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763314

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The effects of air pollutants on upper airway disease development have been seldom studied. In this study, we evaluated the effects of air pollution on the prevalence of ENT diseases. METHODS: We identified cases of ENT disease occurring in 2009, as recorded by the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, and explored their associations with the levels of five air pollutants: sulfur dioxide (SO₂), nitrogen dioxide (NO₂), ozone (O₃), carbon monoxide (CO), and particulate matter (PM₁₀ particles; particulates ≤10 μm in aerodynamic diameter). Subjects diagnosed with at least one of the five studied ENT diseases were included in analysis, but those aged under 19 years were excluded. Linear associations between ENT disease frequency and pollutant levels were evaluated by calculating Spearman correlations. After adjusting for age, gender, and geographic region, multivariate logistic regression was used to obtain odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: A total of 7,399 subjects with ENT diseases were identified. A linear association was evident between PM₁₀ concentration and the frequency of septal deviation (Spearman coefficient, 0.507; P=0.045). After adjustment, the PM₁₀ level was associated with high odds ratios for chronic rhinosinusitis (1.22; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.46) and septal deviation (1.43; 95% CI, 1.22 to 1.67). Both of these conditions were more prevalent in males. CONCLUSION: We found that increased ambient concentrations of PM₁₀ particles were clearly associated with increased the risk of chronic rhinosinusitis and septal deviation; the exposure-response relationship was definitive.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , Carbon Monoxide , Ear , Health Impact Assessment , Humans , Korea , Logistic Models , Male , Nitrogen Dioxide , Nose , Nutrition Surveys , Odds Ratio , Otorhinolaryngologic Diseases , Ozone , Particulate Matter , Pharynx , Prevalence , Respiratory Tract Infections , Sulfur Dioxide
6.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 243-256, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742537

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The effects of air pollution on health can vary regionally. Our goal was to comprehensively review previous epidemiological studies on air pollution and health conducted in Korea to identify future areas of potential study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We systematically searched all published epidemiologic studies examining the association between air pollution and occurrence of death, diseases, or symptoms in Korea. After classifying health outcomes into mortality, morbidity, and health impact, we summarized the relationship between individual air pollutants and health outcomes. RESULTS: We analyzed a total of 27 studies that provided 104 estimates of the quantitative association between risk of mortality and exposure to air pollutants, including particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 10 µm, particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 µm, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, and carbon monoxide in Korea between January 1999 and July 2018. Regarding the association with morbidity, there were 38 studies, with 98 estimates, conducted during the same period. Most studies examined the short-term effects of air pollution using a time series or case-crossover study design; only three cohort studies that examined long-term effects were found. There were four health impact studies that calculated the attributable number of deaths or disability-adjusted life years due to air pollution. CONCLUSION: There have been many epidemiologic studies in Korea regarding air pollution and health. However, the present review shows that additional studies, especially cohort and experimental studies, are needed to provide more robust and accurate evidence that can be used to promote evidence-based policymaking.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , Carbon Monoxide , Cohort Studies , Environmental Medicine , Epidemiologic Studies , Korea , Mortality , Nitrogen Dioxide , Ozone , Particulate Matter , Sulfur Dioxide
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776396

ABSTRACT

The traditional sulfur fumigation processing method has been widely used in the initial processing and storage of traditional Chinese medicinal materials due to its economy, efficiency, convenience, high operability and effect on mold and insect prevention. However, excessive sulfur fumigation of traditional Chinese medicinal materials would lead to the changes in chemical compositions, and even endanger human health. This study showed that traditional Chinese medicinal materials were sulfur fumigated directly after being harvested for quick drying, or fumigated after being weted in the storage process for preventing mold and insects. We found that the sulfur dioxide limits for traditional Chinese medicinal materials were stricter than those for foods. Based on the existing limit standards, we obtained the data of sulfur dioxide residues for 35 types of traditional Chinese medicinal materials in a total of 862 batches. According to the limit standard in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia (150, 400 mg·kg⁻¹), the average over-standard rate of sulfur dioxide was as high as 52.43%, but it was reduced to 29.47% if calculated based on the limit for vegetable additive standard (500 mg·kg⁻¹). Sulfur fumigation issue shall be considered correctly: sulfur dioxide is a type of low toxic substance and less dangerous than aflatoxin and other highly toxic substances, and a small amount of residue would not increase the toxicity of traditional Chinese medicinal materials. However, sulfur fumigation might change the content of chemical substances and affect the quality of traditional Chinese medicinal materials. Furthermore, the exposure hazards of toxic substances are comprehensively correlated with exposure cycle, exposure frequency, and application method. In conclusion, it is suggested to strengthen the studies on the limit standard of traditional Chinese medicinal materials, formulate practical and feasible limit standard for sulfur dioxide residues in traditional Chinese medicinal materials that are consistent with the medication characteristics of traditional Chinese medicinal materials and can guarantee people's demand for safe medication.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Reference Standards , Fumigation , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Sulfur , Sulfur Dioxide , Reference Standards
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776393

ABSTRACT

To study the effect of different storage time on the chemical compositions and sulfur dioxide residues of sulfur-fumigated Gastrodiae Rhizoma (GR), and provide scientific basis for solving the quality and safety issues of sulfur-fumigated traditional Chinese medicinal materials. GR, sulfur-fumigated GR and its medicinal slices were stored under the same conditions, and then 8 active ingredients and sulfur dioxide residues were measured respectively. The results showed that the content of gastrodins in sulfur-fumigated GR and its medicinal slices was significantly lower than that in the non-fumigated GR. Moreover, the content of sulfur dioxide residue in sulfur-fumigated GR was significantly higher than that in its medicinal slices. That is to say, sulfur fumigation degree had significantly higher effect on GR quality as compared with its medicinal slices. During the whole storage time (8 months), the content of the eight chemical components in GR was not changed greatly in general. However, after the storage for 4 months, the content of 8 components and sulfur dioxide residues in all of GR samples were significantly changed. In particular, the content of sulfur dioxide residue in GR medicinal materials decreased up to 50% or more.


Subject(s)
Drug Storage , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Fumigation , Gastrodia , Chemistry , Rhizome , Chemistry , Sulfur , Sulfur Dioxide
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762533

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Ambient air pollution has a negative effect on many diseases, such as cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. Recent studies have reported a relationship between air pollution and renal function, but the results were limited to exposure to particulate matter (PM). This study was to identify associations between various air pollutants and renal function among Korean adults. METHODS: Nationwide survey data for a total of 24,407 adults were analyzed. We calculated the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) for each individual to assess their renal function and used this to categorize those with chronic kidney disease (CKD). To evaluate exposure to ambient air pollution, we used the annual mean concentrations of four ambient air pollutants: PM with an aerodynamic diameter ≤ 10 μm (PM10), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and carbon monoxide (CO). RESULTS: We identified significant inverse relationships between the air pollutants PM10 and NO2 and eGFR in all statistical adjustment models (all p  0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Exposures to PM10 and NO2 were significantly associated with decreases in eGFR levels, but not CKD, in Korean adults.


Subject(s)
Adult , Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , Carbon Monoxide , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Humans , Nitrogen Dioxide , Particulate Matter , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Sulfur Dioxide
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718260

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: A positive association between air pollution and both the incidence and prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) has been reported in some epidemiologic and animal studies, but little research has evaluated the relationship between air pollution and diabetic coma. Diabetic coma is an acute complication of DM caused by diabetic ketoacidosis or hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state, which is characterized by extreme hyperglycemia accompanied by coma. We conducted a time-series study with a generalized additive model using a distributed-lag non-linear model to assess the association between ambient air pollution (particulate matter less than 10 μm in aerodynamic diameter, nitrogen dioxide [NO2], sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, and ozone) and emergency department (ED) visits for DM with coma in Seoul, Korea from 2005 to 2009. METHODS: The ED data and medical records from the 3 years previous to each diabetic coma event were obtained from the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service to examine the relationship with air pollutants. RESULTS: Overall, the adjusted relative risks (RRs) for an interquartile range (IQR) increment of NO2 was statistically significant at lag 1 (RR, 1.125; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.039 to 1.219) in a single-lag model and both lag 0-1 (RR, 1.120; 95% CI, 1.028 to 1.219) and lag 0-3 (RR, 1.092; 95% CI, 1.005 to 1.186) in a cumulative-lag model. In a subgroup analysis, significant positive RRs were found for females for per-IQR increments of NO2 at cumulative lag 0-3 (RR, 1.149; 95% CI, 1.022 to 1.291). CONCLUSIONS: The results of our study suggest that ambient air pollution, specifically NO2, is associated with ED visits for diabetic coma.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , Animals , Carbon Monoxide , Coma , Diabetes Mellitus , Diabetic Coma , Diabetic Ketoacidosis , Emergencies , Emergency Service, Hospital , Female , Humans , Hyperglycemia , Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar Nonketotic Coma , Incidence , Insurance, Health , Korea , Medical Records , Nitrogen Dioxide , Nonlinear Dynamics , Prevalence , Seoul , Sulfur Dioxide
11.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716016

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the major cause of acute lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) in infants and children. We investigated the association of meteorological conditions and air pollution with the prevalence of RSV infection. METHODS: Between January 2005 and December 2012, a total of 9,113 nasopharyngeal swab specimens from children under 3 years of age who were admitted to the hospital with acute LRTI were tested for RSV antigens using a direct immunofluorescence kit. Meteorological data (mean temperature, precipitation, wind speed, and relative humidity) and air pollutant levels including PM₁₀ (particulate matter with a median aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to 10 µm in diameter), nitrogen dioxide (NO₂), sulfur dioxide (SO₂), and carbon monoxide (CO) in Seoul during the study period were collected from the national monitoring system. The correlations of the monthly incidence of RSV infection with climate factors and air pollutant levels were analyzed. RESULTS: RSV infection mainly occurred between October and February, and showed the peak in November. The prevalence of RSV infection had a moderate negative correlation with mean temperature (r=−0.60, P < 0.001), a weak negative correlation with relative humidity (r=−0.26, P=0.01), and precipitation (r=−0.34, P=0.001). Regarding air pollutants, RSV activity moderately correlated with NO₂ (r=0.40, P < 0.001), SO₂ (r=0.41, P < 0.001), and CO (r=0.58, P < 0.001). In the RSV peak season in Korea (between October and February), RSV epidemics showed a weak positive correlation with relative humidity (r=0.35, P=0.03) and precipitation (r=0.38, P=0.02). CONCLUSION: Meteorological factors and air pollutant levels may be associated with RSV activity. Therefore, further nationwide large-scaled intensive evaluations to prove factors affecting RSV activity are warranted.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , Carbon Monoxide , Child , Climate , Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Direct , Humans , Humidity , Incidence , Infant , Korea , Meteorological Concepts , Nitrogen Dioxide , Prevalence , Respiratory Syncytial Viruses , Respiratory Tract Infections , Seasons , Seoul , Sulfur Dioxide , Wind
12.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1030-1033, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-686987

ABSTRACT

<p><b>Background</b>Asthma is a common chronic respiratory disease and is related to air pollution exposure. However, only a few studies have concentrated on the association between air pollution and adult asthma. Moreover, the results of these studies are controversial. Therefore, the present study aimed to analyze the influence of various pollutants on hospitalization due to asthma in adults.</p><p><b>Methods</b>A total of 1019 unrelated hospitalized adult asthma patients from Northeast China were recruited from 2014 to 2016. Daily average concentrations of air pollutants (particulate matter <2.5 μm [PM], particulate matter <10 μm [PM], sulfur dioxide [SO], nitrogen dioxide [NO], and carbon monoxide [CO]) were obtained from the China National Environmental Monitoring Centre website from 2014 to 2016. Cox logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the relationship between air pollutants and hospital admissions in adult asthma.</p><p><b>Results</b>The maximum odds ratio (OR) value for most air pollutants occurred on lag day 1. Lag day 1 was chosen as the exposure period, and 8 days before onset was chosen as the control period. Three pollutants (PM, CO, and SO) were entered into the regression equation, and the corresponding OR (95% confidence interval) was 0.995 (0.991-0.999), 3.107 (1.607-6.010), and 0.979 (0.968-0.990), respectively.</p><p><b>Conclusions</b>A positive association between hospital admissions and the daily average concentration of CO was observed. CO is likely to be a risk factor for hospital admissions in adults with asthma.</p>


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Toxicity , Air Pollution , Asthma , Epidemiology , Carbon Monoxide , Toxicity , China , Environmental Monitoring , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Odds Ratio , Particulate Matter , Toxicity , Risk Factors , Sulfur Dioxide , Toxicity
13.
Rev. saúde pública ; 51: 55, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-845871

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE Predict the number of hospitalizations for asthma and pneumonia associated with exposure to air pollutants in the city of São José dos Campos, São Paulo State. METHODS This is a computational model using fuzzy logic based on Mamdani’s inference method. For the fuzzification of the input variables of particulate matter, ozone, sulfur dioxide and apparent temperature, we considered two relevancy functions for each variable with the linguistic approach: good and bad. For the output variable number of hospitalizations for asthma and pneumonia, we considered five relevancy functions: very low, low, medium, high and very high. DATASUS was our source for the number of hospitalizations in the year 2007 and the result provided by the model was correlated with the actual data of hospitalization with lag from zero to two days. The accuracy of the model was estimated by the ROC curve for each pollutant and in those lags. RESULTS In the year of 2007, 1,710 hospitalizations by pneumonia and asthma were recorded in São José dos Campos, State of São Paulo, with a daily average of 4.9 hospitalizations (SD = 2.9). The model output data showed positive and significant correlation (r = 0.38) with the actual data; the accuracies evaluated for the model were higher for sulfur dioxide in lag 0 and 2 and for particulate matter in lag 1. CONCLUSIONS Fuzzy modeling proved accurate for the pollutant exposure effects and hospitalization for pneumonia and asthma approach.


RESUMO OBJETIVO Prever o número de internações por asma e pneumonia associadas à exposição a poluentes do ar no município em São José dos Campos, estado de São Paulo. MÉTODOS Trata-se de um modelo computacional que utiliza a lógica fuzzy baseado na técnica de inferência de Mamdani. Para a fuzzificação das variáveis de entrada material particulado, ozônio, dióxido de enxofre e temperatura aparente foram consideradas duas funções de pertinência para cada variável com abordagem linguísticas: bom e ruim. Para a variável de saída número internações por asma e pneumonia, foram consideradas cinco funções de pertinências: muito baixo, baixo, médio, alto e muito alto. O número de internações no ano de 2007 foi obtido do Datasus e o resultado fornecido pelo modelo foi correlacionado com os dados reais de internação com defasagem (lag) de zero a dois dias. A acurácia do modelo foi estimada pela curva ROC para cada poluente e nestas defasagens. RESULTADOS No ano de 2007 foram registradas 1.710 internações por pneumonia e asma em São José dos Campos, SP, com média diária de 4,9 internações (dp = 2,9). Os dados de saída do modelo mostraram correlação positiva e significativa (r = 0,38) com os dados reais; as acurácias avaliadas para o modelo foram maiores para o dióxido de enxofre nos lag 0 e 2 e para o material particulado no lag 1. CONCLUSÕES Modelagem fuzzy se mostrou acurada para a abordagem de efeitos da exposição aos poluentes e internação por pneumonia e asma.


Subject(s)
Humans , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Asthma/etiology , Forecasting/methods , Fuzzy Logic , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia/etiology , Air Pollutants/adverse effects , Asthma/therapy , Brazil , Computer Simulation , Hospitalization/trends , Ozone/adverse effects , Particulate Matter/adverse effects , Pneumonia/therapy , Predictive Value of Tests , Reproducibility of Results , Risk Assessment/methods , ROC Curve , Sulfur Dioxide/adverse effects , Time Factors
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-104368

ABSTRACT

We investigated relationships between outdoor air pollution and pterygium in Korean adults. This study includes 23,276 adults in population-based cross-sectional data using the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008–2011. Pterygium was assessed using slit lamp biomicroscopy. Air pollution data (humidity, particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 10 μm [PM₁₀], ozone [O₃], nitrogen dioxide [NO₂], and sulfur dioxide levels [SO₂]) for 2 years preceding the ocular examinations were acquired. Associations of multiple air pollutants with pterygium or pterygium recurrence after surgery were examined using multivariate logistic models, after adjusting for several covariates. Distributed lag models were additionally used for estimating cumulative effects of air pollution on pterygium. None of air pollution factors was significantly associated with pterygium or pterygium recurrence (each P > 0.05). Distributed lag models also showed that air pollution factors were not associated with pterygium or pterygium recurrence in 0-to-2 year lags (each P > 0.05). However, primary pterygium showed a weak association with PM₁₀ after adjusting for covariates (odds ratio [OR] 1.23; [per 5 μg/m³ PM₁₀ increase]; P = 0.023). Aging, male sex, and greater sun exposure were associated with pterygium, while higher education level and myopia were negatively associated with pterygium (each P ≤ 0.001). Male sex and myopia were negatively associated with pterygium recurrence (each P < 0.05). In conclusion, exposure to higher PM10 levels was associated with primary pterygium, although this study observed no significant association between air pollution and overall pterygium or pterygium recurrence in Korean adults.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aging , Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , Education , Humans , Korea , Logistic Models , Male , Myopia , Nitrogen Dioxide , Nutrition Surveys , Ozone , Particulate Matter , Pterygium , Recurrence , Slit Lamp , Solar System , Sulfur Dioxide
15.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-114710

ABSTRACT

Asthma is a common, chronic respiratory disease which is a serious issue for healthcare worldwide. When treating asthma, the main therapeutic goals are to achieve good control of symptoms and to prevent exacerbation. The interaction between genetic predisposition and environmental triggers contributes to the pathophysiology of asthma. In this regard, there is growing public awareness of the risk associated with poor indoor air quality. Because people spend considerable amounts of time every day indoors, it is important to identify and control risk factors in the indoor environment impacting individuals susceptible to asthma for successful treatment and prevention. Along with particulate matter, ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds, and second-hand smoke are the most common types of air pollutants encountered indoors. This review highlights epidemiological and experimental data on the role of indoor air pollution in the development and aggravation of asthma. Despite some studies showing significant associations between exposure to indoor air pollution and asthma morbidity, conflicting conclusions are drawn in the literature because of limitations in study design, variation in the methods for assessing exposure, possible confounding factors, and other issues. This review will improve our understanding and facilitate the establishment of a better strategy for asthma management and prevention.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , Air Pollution, Indoor , Asthma , Carbon Monoxide , Delivery of Health Care , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Nitrogen Dioxide , Ozone , Particulate Matter , Risk Factors , Smoke , Sulfur Dioxide , Volatile Organic Compounds
16.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 47(1): 181-190, Jan.-Mar. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-775120

ABSTRACT

Abstract In the present work we isolated and identified various indigenous Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains and screened them for the selected oenological properties. These S. cerevisiae strains were isolated from berries and spontaneously fermented musts. The grape berries (Sauvignon blanc and Pinot noir) were grown under the integrated and organic mode of farming in the South Moravia (Czech Republic) wine region. Modern genotyping techniques such as PCR-fingerprinting and interdelta PCR typing were employed to differentiate among indigenous S. cerevisiae strains. This combination of the methods provides a rapid and relatively simple approach for identification of yeast of S. cerevisiae at strain level. In total, 120 isolates were identified and grouped by molecular approaches and 45 of the representative strains were tested for selected important oenological properties including ethanol, sulfur dioxide and osmotic stress tolerance, intensity of flocculation and desirable enzymatic activities. Their ability to produce and utilize acetic/malic acid was examined as well; in addition, H2S production as an undesirable property was screened. The oenological characteristics of indigenous isolates were compared to a commercially available S. cerevisiae BS6 strain, which is commonly used as the starter culture. Finally, some indigenous strains coming from organically treated grape berries were chosen for their promising oenological properties and these strains will be used as the starter culture, because application of a selected indigenous S. cerevisiae strain can enhance the regional character of the wines.


Subject(s)
Saccharomyces cerevisiae/classification , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/isolation & purification , Vitis/microbiology , Acetic Acid/metabolism , Bacterial Adhesion , Czech Republic , DNA Fingerprinting , Drug Tolerance , Ethanol/toxicity , Hydrogen Sulfide/metabolism , Molecular Typing , Mycological Typing Techniques , Malates/metabolism , Osmotic Pressure , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Stress, Physiological , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genetics , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/physiology , Sulfur Dioxide/toxicity
17.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2226-2232, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-307437

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>Clarifying the mechanisms underlying vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation is important for the prevention and treatment of vascular remodeling and the reverse of hyperplastic lesions. Previous research has shown that the gaseous signaling molecule sulfur dioxide (SO2) inhibits VSMC proliferation, but the mechanism for the inhibition of the angiotensin II (AngII)-induced VSMC proliferation by SO2has not been fully elucidated. This study was designed to investigate if SO2inhibited VSMC proliferation in mice with hypertension induced by AngII.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Thirty-six male C57 mice were randomly divided into control, AngII, and AngII + SO2groups. Mice in AngII group and AngII + SO2group received a capsule-type AngII pump implanted under the skin of the back at a slow-release dose of 1000 ng·kg-1·min-1. In addition, mice in AngII + SO2received intraperitoneal injections of SO2donor. Arterial blood pressure of tail artery was determined. The thickness of the aorta was measured by elastic fiber staining, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and phosphorylated-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (P-ERK) were detected in aortic tissues. The concentration of SO2 in serum and aortic tissue homogenate supernatant was measured using high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence determination. In the in vitro study, VSMC of A7R5 cell lines was divided into six groups: control, AngII, AngII + SO2, PD98059 (an inhibitor of ERK phosphorylation), AngII + PD98059, and AngII + SO2 + PD98059. Expression of PCNA, ERK, and P-ERK was determined by Western blotting.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>In animal experiment, compared with the control group, AngII markedly increased blood pressure (P < 0.01) and thickened the aortic wall in mice (P < 0.05) with an increase in the expression of PCNA (P < 0.05). SO2, however, reduced the systemic hypertension and the wall thickness induced by AngII (P < 0.05). It inhibited the increased expression of PCNA and P-ERK induced by AngII (P < 0.05). In cell experiment, PD98059, an ERK phosphorylation inhibitor, blocked the inhibitory effect of SO2on VSMC proliferation (P < 0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>ERK signaling is involved in the mechanisms by which SO2inhibits VSMC proliferation in AngII-induced hypertensive mice via ERK signaling.</p>


Subject(s)
Angiotensin II , Pharmacology , Animals , Cell Proliferation , Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases , Metabolism , Hypertension , Drug Therapy , Male , Mice , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular , Cell Biology , Signal Transduction , Sulfur Dioxide , Therapeutic Uses
18.
National Journal of Andrology ; (12): 838-842, 2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-262284

ABSTRACT

The contractile and diastolic function of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) is closely related to penile erection and erectile dysfunction (ED). In addition to nitric oxide (NO), carbon monoxide (CO), and hydrogen sulfide (H2S), sulfur dioxide (SO2), estrogen receptor (ER), P2Y receptor, perivascular tissue (PVT), and calcium activated potassium channel (Kca) are found to be involved in the relaxation of SMCs. This review updates the mechanisms of the relaxation of SMCs and its relationship with ED.


Subject(s)
Carbon Monoxide , Physiology , Erectile Dysfunction , Humans , Hydrogen Sulfide , Metabolism , Male , Muscle Contraction , Muscle, Smooth , Myocytes, Smooth Muscle , Physiology , Nitric Oxide , Physiology , Penile Erection , Physiology , Potassium Channels, Calcium-Activated , Physiology , Receptors, Estrogen , Physiology , Receptors, Purinergic P2Y , Physiology , Sulfur Dioxide , Metabolism
19.
Acta Medica Philippina ; : 158-165, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-632836

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The study evaluated the quality of indoor air in households surrounding a coal-fired power plant in Pagbilao, Quezon and its impact to the residents in these communities.  METHODS: The researchers used a quantitative approach and gathered both primary and secondary data from the Province of Quezon, Municipalities of Pagbilao and Padre Burgos and 12 other barangays from January to June 2008. A household survey was conducted to obtain the health and socio-demographic characteristics of the respondents. Likewise, indoor air quality surveys, respiratory health profiling and pulmonary function tests were done. Indoor air quality monitoring measured eight hour levels of particulate matter -10 (PM10) in "near" and "far" barangays and sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in two primary impact barangays as indicated in the environmental impact assessment of the power plant.RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Results showed that there is no significant difference (p=


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Middle Aged , Adult , Young Adult , Adolescent , Child , Air Pollutants , Coal , Gases , Air Pollution, Indoor , Coal , Environmental Exposure , Nitrogen Dioxide , Risk Factors , Smoking , Sulfur Dioxide , Environmental Illness , Tobacco Smoke Pollution
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-9511

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to investigate the short-term effect of ambient air pollution on emergency department (ED) visits in Seoul for asthma according to patients’ prior history of allergic diseases. METHODS: Data on ED visits from 2005 to 2009 were obtained from the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service. To evaluate the risk of ED visits for asthma related to ambient air pollutants (carbon monoxide [CO], nitrogen dioxide [NO₂], ozone [O₃], sulfur dioxide [SO₂], and particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter <10 μm [PM₁₀]), a generalized additive model with a Poisson distribution was used; a single-lag model and a cumulative-effect model (average concentration over the previous 1-7 days) were also explored. The percent increase and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated for each interquartile range (IQR) increment in the concentration of each air pollutant. Subgroup analyses were done by age, gender, the presence of allergic disease, and season. RESULTS: A total of 33 751 asthma attack cases were observed during the study period. The strongest association was a 9.6% increase (95% CI, 6.9% to 12.3%) in the risk of ED visits for asthma per IQR increase in O₃ concentration. IQR changes in NO₂ and PM₁₀ concentrations were also significantly associated with ED visits in the cumulative lag 7 model. Among patients with a prior history of allergic rhinitis or atopic dermatitis, the risk of ED visits for asthma per IQR increase in PM₁₀ concentration was higher (3.9%; 95% CI, 1.2% to 6.7%) than in patients with no such history. CONCLUSIONS: Ambient air pollutants were positively associated with ED visits for asthma, especially among subjects with a prior history of allergic rhinitis or atopic dermatitis.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , Asthma , Dermatitis, Atopic , Emergencies , Emergency Service, Hospital , Humans , Insurance, Health , Korea , Nitrogen Dioxide , Ozone , Particulate Matter , Rhinitis, Allergic , Seasons , Seoul , Sulfur Dioxide
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