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1.
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 1172-1178, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-987034

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the expression and localization of metabotropic glutamate receptors 7 and 8 (mGluR7/8) in rat superior cervical ganglion (SCG) and their changes in response to chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH).@*METHODS@#We detected the expressions of mGluR7 and mGluR8 in the SCG of 8-week-old male SD rats using immunohistochemistry and characterized their distribution with immunofluorescence staining. The expression of mGluR7 and mGluR8 in the cytoplasm and nucleus was detected using Western blotting. A 6-week CIH rat model was established by exposure to intermittent hypoxia (6% oxygen for 30 s followed by normoxia for 4 min) for 8 h daily, and the changes in systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure and mean arterial pressure were measured. The effect of CIH on expression levels of mGluR7 and mGluR8 in the SCG was analyzed using Western blotting.@*RESULTS@#Positive expressions of mGluR7 and mGluR8 were detected in rat SCG. mGluR7 was distributed in the neurons and small fluorescent (SIF) cells with positive staining in both the cytoplasm and nuclei, but not expressed in satellite glial cells (SGCs), nerve fibers or blood vessels; mGluR8 was localized in the cytoplasm of neurons and SIF cells, but not expressed in SGCs, nerve fibers, or blood vessels. Western blotting of the nuclear and cytoplasmic fractions of rat SCG further confirmed that mGluR7 was expressed in both the cytoplasm and the nucleus, while mGluR8 exists only in the cytoplasm. Exposure to CIH significantly increased systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure and mean arterial pressure of the rats (all P < 0.001) and augmented the protein expressions of mGluR7 and mGluR8 in the SCG (P < 0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#mGluR7 and mGluR8 are present in rat SCG but with different localization patterns. CIH increases blood pressure of rats and enhanced protein expressions of mGluR7 and mGluR8 in rat SCG.


Subject(s)
Male , Animals , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Superior Cervical Ganglion , Receptors, Metabotropic Glutamate , Hypoxia
2.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Clín. Méd ; 19(1): 51-53, março 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1361751

ABSTRACT

A metastização ganglionar cervical por neoplasia da próstata é rara, sendo ainda menos frequente como manifestação inicial da doença. O presente estudo é um relato de um caso clínico de uma pessoa do sexo masculino, com 72 anos, que apresentava massa cervical esquerda, indolor, com 2 meses de evolução e dores ósseas lombar e torácica. A citologia aspirativa por agulha fina com estudo imuno-histoquímico revelou positividade para o antígeno prostático específico, concluindo se tratar de metástase ganglionar de carcinoma da próstata. Analiticamente, constatou-se que o valor do antígeno prostático específico foi maior que 1.000ng/mL, além da elevação da fosfatase alcalina. A cintilografia óssea de corpo inteiro revelou envolvimento ósseo secundário. Após o diagnóstico, o paciente iniciou hormonoterapia e recusou radioterapia com intuito paliativo. Oito meses após o diagnóstico, constatou-se a recorrência da doença, com elevação do valor do antígeno prostático específico novamente. Dessa forma, relata-se um caso de neoplasia da próstata com metastização óssea e ganglionar cervical esquerda em um indivíduo assintomático do ponto de vista urológico. Salienta-se que, no diagnóstico diferencial de adenopatias cervicais, deve-se considerar a neoplasia da próstata em pessoas do sexo masculino. (AU)


Cervical lymph nodes involvement is rare in prostate cancer and uncommon as an initial manifestation. This study is a clinical case report of a 72-year-old man who presented with a left cervical painless mass of 2-month progression, and bone pain on the lumbar and thoracic regions. Fine-needle aspiration cytology with immunohistochemistry staining was performed and revealed positivity for prostate-specific antigen consistent with prostate adenocarcinoma metastasis. Blood tests revealed a prostate-specific antigen of more than 1,000ng/mL, as well as high alkaline phosphatase. Whole-body bone scan showed secondary bone involvement. Following diagnosis, the patient started hormonal therapy and refused palliative radiotherapy. Eight months after diagnosis, recurrence was observed, with prostate-specific antigen elevation again. Thus, a clinical case of prostate cancer with bone and cervical lymph node metastasis in a patient with no urologic symptoms is reported. It should be noted that prostate cancer shall always be considered in the differential diagnosis of cervical lymphadenopathies in male patients. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Bone Neoplasms/secondary , Adenocarcinoma/pathology , Superior Cervical Ganglion , Lymphadenopathy/etiology , Prostatic Neoplasms/diagnosis , Bone Neoplasms/diagnosis , Adenocarcinoma/diagnosis , Fatal Outcome , Lymphadenopathy/diagnosis , Lymphatic Metastasis
3.
Biol. Res ; 53: 31, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1124214

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In modern societies, sleep deprivation is a serious health problem. This problem could be induced by a variety of reasons, including lifestyle habits or neurological disorders. Chronic sleep deprivation (CSD) could have complex biological consequences, such as changes in neural autonomic control, increased oxidative stress, and inflammatory responses. The superior cervical ganglion (SCG) is an important sympathetic component of the autonomic nervous system. CSD can lead to a wide range of neurological consequences in SCG, which mainly supply innervations to circadian system and other structures. As the active component of Curcuma longa, curcumin possesses many therapeutic properties; including neuroprotective. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of CSD on the SCG histomorphometrical changes and the protective effect of curcumin in preventing these changes. METHODS: Thirty-six male rats were randomly assigned to the control, curcumin, CSD, CSD + curcumin, grid floor control, and grid floor + curcumin groups. The CSD was induced by a modified multiple platform apparatus for 21 days and animals were sacrificed at the end of CSD or treatment, and their SCGs removed for stereological and TUNEL evaluations and also spatial arrangement of neurons in this structure. RESULTS: Concerning stereological findings, CSD significantly reduced the volume of SCG and its total number of neurons and satellite glial cells in comparison with the control animals ( P < 0.05). Treatment of CSD with curcumin prevented these decreases. Furthermore, TUNEL evaluation showed significant apoptosis in the SCG cells in the CSD group, and treatment with curcumin significantly decreased this apoptosis ( P < 0.01). This decrease in apoptosis was observed in all control groups that received curcumin. CSD also changed the spatial arrangement of ganglionic neurons into a random pattern, whereas treatment with curcumin preserved its regular pattern. CONCLUSIONS: CSD could potentially induce neuronal loss and structural changes including random spatial distribution in the SCG neurons. Deleterious effects of sleep deprivation could be prevented by the oral administration of curcumin. Furthermore, the consumption of curcumin in a healthy person might lead to a reduction of cell death.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Sleep Deprivation/pathology , Sleep Deprivation/drug therapy , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/pharmacology , Superior Cervical Ganglion/drug effects , Curcumin/pharmacology , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
4.
Oncología (Guayaquil) ; 29(2): 137-144, 30 de Agosto del 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1015494

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La metástasis de origen desconocido es una entidad clínica relativamente común, que representa del 5% de todos los cánceres invasivos. La búsqueda del origen primario puede resultar desafiante por un patrón atípico metastásico, no obstante el adenocarcinoma y carcinomas indiferenciados representan un 75% siendo el adenocarcinoma el más complicado de determinar su sitio primario ya que sus características citológicas/histológicas generalmente no son específicas. Por esta razón surge la necesidad identificar el origen primario de las lesiones metastásica de origen desconocido en pacientes con y sin antecedentes oncológicos personales, el sexo y edad de mayor prevalencia. Métodos: Investigación observacional descriptiva, retrospectiva tomándose como universo de 100 pacientes con diagnóstico histopatológico de Carcinoma/Adenocarcinoma metastásico en el departamento de Anatomía patológica del Instituto Oncológico Nacional "Dr. Juan Tanca Marengo"­ Solca-Guayaquil en el periodo 2013-2015, con y sin antecedentes oncológicos personales. Resultados: Se obtuvo una muestra de 91 pacientes, donde la localización metastásica más frecuente fue en los ganglios cervicales (27%), seguida del hígado (13%), hueso y epiplón (9%). Además, en 69 de ellos pudo ser posible la identificación del origen primario de la lesión metastásica. Conclusión: La topografía metastásica de neoplasia primaria desconocida tales como los ganglios cervicales y el hígado son los lugares de notable predominio, siendo el ganglio cervical el lugar de biopsia por excelencia debido a su mayor accesibilidad. La metástasis de origen desconocido a pesar de ser más frecuente en el sexo femenino, tiene una gran incidencia en el grupo etario entre 61-70 años.


Introduction: The metastasis of unknown origin is clinical entity relatively common, which represents 5% of all invasive cancer. The research of the primary origin could be difficult because of its atypical pattern, instead that, the undifferentiated adenocarcinoma and carcinoma represents 75% , being adenocarcinoma the most complicated to diagnoses the primary origin because of their unspecific characteristic cytological/histological. For this reason is necessary to identify the primary origin of the metastatic lesion with unknown origin in patients with or without personal oncological background, sex and age with higher prevalence. Methods: Observational, descriptive- retrospective investigation that used the collection 100 patients with histopathologic diagnoses carcinoma/adenocarcinoma metastatic in the Anatomy Pathologic Department of ION-SOLCA period 2013-2015, with and without personal oncological background. Results: Sample of 91 patients, in 69 of them were the most frequently metastatic location was superior cervical ganglion (27%), liver (13%), bone and omentum (9%). Furthermore, 69 patients were possible to identify the primary origin of the metastatic lesion. Conclusion: The metastatic location of the neoplasm unknown primary such as superior cervical ganglion and liver are the places more common, being superior cervical ganglion with most accessibility for biopsies. The neoplasm unknown primary is more frequently in female sex and has a high incidence at the ages of 61-70 years.


Subject(s)
Humans , Neoplasms, Unknown Primary , Neoplasms, Second Primary , Neoplasm Metastasis , Morbid Metastasis , Superior Cervical Ganglion , Lymphatic Metastasis
5.
Journal of Dental Anesthesia and Pain Medicine ; : 105-110, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739955

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A stellate ganglion block (SGB) causes increased blood flow in the maxillofacial region, exhibiting the potential for regenerative effects in damaged tissue. The focus of this study was to understand the efficacy of SGB for regenerative effects against nerve damage. A rat model of the superior cervical ganglion block (SCGB) was created instead of SGB, and facial blood flow, as well as sympathetic nervous system function, were measured. METHODS: A vertical incision was made on the left side of the neck of a Wistar rat, and a 5-mm resection of the superior cervical ganglion was performed at the back of the bifurcation of the internal and external branches of the left common carotid artery. Blood flow in the skin at the mandibular angle and mean facial temperature were measured using a laser-Doppler blood flow meter and a thermographic camera, respectively, over a 5-week period after the block. In addition, the degree of ptosis and miosis were assessed over a period of 6 months. RESULTS: The SCGB rat showed significantly higher blood flow at the mandibular angle on the block side (P < 0.05) for 3 weeks, and significantly higher skin temperature (P < 0.05) for 1 week after the block. In the SCGB rat, ptosis and miosis occurred immediately after the block, and persisted even 6 months later. CONCLUSIONS: SCGB in rats can cause an increase in the blood flow that persists over 3 weeks.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Carotid Artery, Common , Horner Syndrome , Miosis , Models, Animal , Neck , Regional Blood Flow , Skin , Skin Temperature , Stellate Ganglion , Superior Cervical Ganglion , Sympathetic Nervous System , Thermography
6.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 34(6): 589-595, dic. 2017. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-899764

ABSTRACT

Resumen En el siglo XIX se pensaba que la tuberculosis y la tumefacción ganglionar cervical llamada escrófula afectaban a individuos predispuestos por una "constitución diatésica" heredada. En 1882 Robert Koch demostró que lesiones tuberculosas y escrofulosas humanas eran causadas por el bacilo Mycobacterium tuberculosis. A principios del siglo XX se estableció que Mycobacterium bovis, bacilo de la tuberculosis del ganado, podía también causar linfoadenitis cervical en humanos, especialmente en niños, por la ingestión de leche de vacas enfermas. La condición disminuyó después que se controló la infección en el ganado y se introdujo la pasteurización de la leche. En 1956 se describió la linfoadenitis cervicofacial granulomatosa necrosante y supurada causada por micobacterias no tuberculosas. Afecta principalmente a niños bajo los cinco años, especialmente en países sin endemia de tuberculosis. Las linfoadenitis cervicales tuberculosas predominan en adultos jóvenes en países con tuberculosis endémica y en individuos infectados por VIH.


In the 19th century it was widely believed that both tuberculosis and cervical lymph node swelling, known as scrophula, affected individuals predisposed to an inherited "diathetic constitution". In 1882 Robert Koch proved that human tuberculosis and scrophulous lesions were caused by the bacillus Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In the early twentieth century it was stated that Mycobacterium bovis, the bacillus of cattle tuberculosis, could also cause cervical lymphoadenitis in humans, especially in children, by the intake of milk from sick cows. The incidence of this condition decreased after the infection was controlled in cattle and pasteurization of the milk was introduced. A type of granulomatous necrotizing and suppurative cervico-facial lymphadenitis associated to non-tuberculous mycobacteria was described in 1956. It mainly affects children younger than 5 years old, particularly those born in countries with non-endemic tuberculosis. Tuberculous cervical lymphadenitis is prevalent in young adults from tuberculosis-endemic countries and in HIV-infected subjects. Infectious etiology displaced the importance of a personal disposition in the development of scrophula. Nevertheless, mutations that confer susceptibility to mycobacterial infection are currently investigated.


Subject(s)
Humans , History, 19th Century , History, 20th Century , Tuberculosis, Lymph Node/history , Lymphadenitis/history , Tuberculosis, Lymph Node/microbiology , Tuberculosis, Lymph Node/pathology , Superior Cervical Ganglion/microbiology , Superior Cervical Ganglion/pathology , Lymph Nodes/microbiology , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Lymphadenitis/microbiology , Lymphadenitis/pathology , Mycobacterium/pathogenicity
7.
Int. j. morphol ; 34(2): 545-556, June 2016. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-787035

ABSTRACT

A detailed submacroscopic anatomical study of the cranial cervical ganglion (CCG) and its branches with its adjoining structures was carried out by examining 14 halves of seven heads of Holstein cattle under a magnifying lens to provide comprehensive descriptions with color photographs of the location, relation to neighboring structures, morphometry, and morphology of CCG and its branches. Our results were compared with previously nerves including jugular nerve; internal and external carotid nerves extremely, obtained morphological data on CCG in other ungulates to clarify the detailed comparative anatomy of CCG among them. The morphology of CCG and its branches in bovine was significantly and tangibly different from that of in other reported ungulates, especially in the direction of the ventral and dorsal poles of CCG being caudodorsal and rostroventral respectively, being larger and slightly more rostral, covered laterally by the dorsal part of the stylohyoid bone and caudal stylopharyngeus muscle, close relation of CCG to the medial retropharyngeal lymph node, wider distributions of external carotid nerve and its plexus to the adjacent arteries and visceral structures, lacking a communicating branch with the cervical spinal nerve, although all typical branches including the jugular nerve, carotid sinus branch, internal and external carotid nerves, communicating branches to vagus, glossopharyngeal, hypoglossal, cranial laryngeal, pharyngeal branch of vagus nerves, and close relationship between CCG and the longus capitis muscle, vagus nerve, and internal carotid artery were almost consistently present among the ungulates. The site of origin and the number of the major nerves including jugular nerve, internal and external carotid nerves extremely differed among the ungulates.


Se realizó un estudio anatómico submi-croscópico detallado del ganglio cervical craneal (GCC) y sus ramos, con las estructuras adyacentes, mediante el examen de 14 hemicabezas, correspondientes a siete cabezas de ganado Holstein, bajo aumento, para proporcionar descripciones completas; además se tomaron fotografías a color de la ubicación, su relación con estructuras vecinas y la morfometría y morfología del GCC y sus ramos. Se compararon los resultados obtenidos relacionados con los nervios, incluyendo las arterias carótidas interna y externa; los datos morfológicos obtenidos del GCC de otros ungulados tal vez aclaren la anatomía comparativa detallada del GCC entre los ungulados. Encontramos diferencia significativas en la morfología del GCC y sus ramos en comparación con otros ungulados reportados en la literatura, particularmente en la dirección de los polos ventral y dorsal del GCC, siendo estos caudodorsal y rostroventral respectivamente, presentándose más grande y ligeramente más rostral, cubierto lateralmente por la parte dorsal del hueso estilohioídeo y el músculo estilofaríngeo caudal. Se evidenció una estrecha relación del GCC con los nodos linfáticos retrofaríngeos mediales, con distribuciones más amplias del nervio carotídeo interno y el plexo adyacente a las arterias y estructuras viscerales, careciendo de un ramo comunicante con el nervio espinal cervical. En todos los ungulados se encontraron consistentemente todos los ramos nerviosos típicos, incluyendo el nervio yugular, el ramo del seno carotídeo, los nervios carotídeos interno y externos, los ramos comunicantes para el nervio vago, glosofaríngeo, hipogloso, laringeo craneal, ramo faríngea del nervio vago, y la estrecha relación entre el GCC y el músculo largo de la cabeza, el nervio vago y la arteria carótida interna. Se determinaron diferencias importantes en el sitio y origen de la mayoría de los nervios, incluyendo el nervio yugular y los nervios carotídeos interno y externos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle/anatomy & histology , Head/innervation , Neck/innervation , Superior Cervical Ganglion/anatomy & histology , Sympathetic Nervous System/anatomy & histology
8.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-731392

ABSTRACT

El carcinoma del tiroides se caracteriza por su baja mortalidad y poca incidencia. Las formas metastásicas regionales son las formas de metástasis más frecuentes que ocurren generalmente en ganglios cervicales. Se presenta un caso de metástasis inusual y poco frecuente de cáncer de tiroides aunque con caracteres de presentación común en cuanto a sexo y edad en estas lesiones quísticas del cuello


Thyroid carcinoma is characterized by its low mortality and low incidence. The regional metastatic forms are the most common metastases forms that generally occur in cervical ganglia. It is presented a case of unusual and infrequent metastases of thyroid cancer but with common presentation characters in terms of gender and age in these cystic lesions of the neck


Subject(s)
Male , Adult , Carcinoma , Neoplasm Metastasis , Superior Cervical Ganglion , Thyroid Neoplasms
9.
Bogotá; s.n; 2012. 90 p. tab, ilus.
Thesis in Spanish | LILACS, MTYCI | ID: biblio-876980

ABSTRACT

La terapia neural es un sistema médico complejo, el cual presenta una estructura teórica coherente constituida por una morfología, una fisiología, un corpus doctrinario, un sistema diagnóstico y un sistema terapéutico, La terapia neural, por su origen relativamente reciente, se encuentra aún en fortalecimiento de su plataforma teórica y conceptual. De tal manera, que en este trabajo se pretende indagar sobre todas las posibles interconexiones anatómicas de los ganglios simpáticos cervicales y celiacos que puedan enriquecer las fundamentaciones explicativas de muchos de los fenómenos encontrados en la práctica diaria de la terapia neural. Los ganglios simpáticos cervicales y celiacos presentan interconexiones importantes con nervios parasimpáticos, plexos nerviosos, glándulas, vasos sanguíneos y órganos de la región craneal, cervical , torácica y abdominal, estas conexiones nerviosas sustentan teóricamente los efectos segmentarios o a distancia que se puede manifestar al aplicar procaína en uno de estos ganglios, además estos estímulos aplicados en un punto del sistema nervioso se pueden extender a través de reflejos axonales, ganglionares y neuroaxiales, los cuales pueden modificar el trofísmo y función de los tejidos locales y a distancia del sitio de aplicación. Uno de los reflejos de más interés en la terapia neural son los reflejos vísceros cutáneos y los somáticos viscerales, en los cuales demuestran que al aplicar un estímulo o lesión visceral puede tener un efecto a distancia a nivel cutáneo o somático, este reflejo se sustenta anatómicamente por la asociación de la información sensitiva visceral y somática a nivel medular en la lámina V de Rexed del asta posterior.


Subject(s)
Humans , Complementary Therapies , Superior Cervical Ganglion , Ganglia, Sympathetic , Review Literature as Topic
10.
Medisan ; 15(9)sept. 2011. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-616371

ABSTRACT

Se expone el caso clínico de un recluso de 34 años de edad, de procedencia rural, quien fue atendido por especialistas de neumología a causa de cuadro febril crónico, astenia, pérdida de peso, inapetencia y aumento de volumen no doloroso en la región lateral derecha del cuello. Los exámenes complementarios mostraron imágenes de adenomegalias en hilio hepático y epigastrio. La muestra extraída del ganglio cervical para biopsia reveló necrosis caseosa de origen tuberculoso, por lo cual se diagnosticó tuberculosis ganglionar con afectación de cadenas ganglionares superficiales y profundas; enfermedad muy poco frecuente con esas características en el territorio.


The case of 34 year-old prisoner is reported, who lived in a rural area and was attended by pulmonologists because of chronic feverishness, asthenia, weight loss, loss of appetite and painless enlargement in the right lateral region of the neck. Complementary tests revealed lymphadenopathies in porta of liver and epigastrium. Cervical node biopsy revealed tuberculous caseous necrosis, thus diagnosing as lymph node tuberculosis with involvement of superficial and deep lymph node chains; an infrequent disease with these characteristics in the territory.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Necrosis , Pulmonary Medicine , Superior Cervical Ganglion , Tuberculosis, Lymph Node
11.
Int. j. morphol ; 26(3): 665-668, Sept. 2008. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-556729

ABSTRACT

Melatonin secretion from mammalian pineal glands is regulated by light stimulation by means of a complex neuroanatomical pathway that includes the retina, hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus, intermediolateral nucleus of the thoracic spinal cord, and finally, the superior cervical ganglia. The purpose of this study was to analyze the changes in the pinealocytes and the blood vessel density of the pineal gland after eliminating photic stimulation in rats. Thirteen adult Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 2 groups, Group I acted as control, and Group II was subjected to a retinal lesion, by means of alcohol injected bilaterally to both ocular bulbs. After 3 weeks, the glands of both groups were processed with hematoxilin-eosin (HE) and observed with an optic microscope. Group II results presented higher values in the number of pinealocytes and in the blood vessels observed. The differences with Group I was significant at p <0.01. These results give an indirect evidence of the effect that photic stimulation suppression has in the pineal gland in rats.


La secreción de melatonina por parte de glándula pineal de los mamíferos es regulada por la estimulación luminosa mediante complejas vías neuro anatómicas que incluyen la retina, el núcleo supraquiasmático hipotalámico, el núcleo intermediolateral de la médula torácica y finalmente el ganglio cervical superior. El propósito de este estudio fue analizar los cambios en la densidad de pinealocitos y vasos sanguíneos de la glándula pineal, luego de eliminar la estimulación fótica en ratas. Se utilizaron 13 ratas adultas Sprague Dawley divididas en 2 grupos, Grupo I actuó como control, y el Grupo II fue sometido a una lesión retiniana, por medio de alcoholización bilateral de ambos bulbos oculares. Luego de tres semanas las glándulas de ambos grupos fueron procesadas para hematoxilina-eosina y observadas al microscopio óptico. El grupo II presentó valores mayores en el número de pinealocitos y de vasos sanguíneos observados, las diferencias con el Grupo I fueron significativas con p<0.01. Estos resultados entregan una evidencia indirecta del efecto que la supresión de la estimulación fótica tiene en la glándula pineal en ratas.


Subject(s)
Adult , Animals , Female , Rats , Pineal Gland/anatomy & histology , Pineal Gland/metabolism , Pineal Gland , Rats, Sprague-Dawley/anatomy & histology , Rats, Sprague-Dawley/metabolism , Superior Cervical Ganglion/metabolism , Superior Cervical Ganglion , Lighting/methods , Melatonin/metabolism , Melatonin , Retina
12.
The Korean Journal of Pain ; : 119-125, 2008.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-115746

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cerebral blood vessels are innervated by sympathetic nerves from the superior cervical ganglia (SCG), and these nerves may influence the cerebral blood flow. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the neuroprotective effect of superior cervical sympathetic ganglion block in rats that were subjected to focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. METHODS: Eighty male Sprague-Dawley rats (270-320 g) were randomly assigned to one of two groups (the ropivacaine group and a control group). In all the animals, brain injury was induced by middle cerebral artery (MCA) reperfusion that followed MCA occlusion for 2 hours. The animals of the ropivacaine group received 30microl of 0.75% ropivacaine, and their SCG. Neurologic score was assessed at 1, 3, 7 and 14 days after brain injury. Brain tissue samples were then collected. The infarct ratio was measured by 2.3.5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining. The terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated dUTP-biotin nick-end labeled (TUNEL) reactive cells and the cells showing caspase-3 activity were counted as markers of apoptosis at the caudoputamen and frontoparietal cortex. RESULTS: The death rate, the neurologic score and the infarction ratio were significantly less in the ropivacaine group 24 hr after ischemia/reperfusion injury. The number of TUNEL positive cells in the ropivacaine group was significantly lower than those values of the control group in the frontoparietal cortex at 3 days after injury, but the caspase-3 activity was higher in the ropivacaine group than that in the control group at 1 day after injury. CONCLUSIONS: The study data indicated that a superior cervical sympathetic ganglion block may reduce the neuronal injury caused by focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion, but it may not prevent the delayed damage.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Male , Rats , Amides , Apoptosis , Blood Vessels , Brain , Brain Injuries , Caspase 3 , DNA Nucleotidylexotransferase , Ganglia, Sympathetic , In Situ Nick-End Labeling , Infarction , Middle Cerebral Artery , Neurons , Neuroprotective Agents , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Reperfusion , Superior Cervical Ganglion
13.
The Korean Journal of Pain ; : 33-37, 2008.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-100384

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cerebral blood vessels are innervated by sympathetic nerves from the superior cervical ganglion (SCG). The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the neuroprotective effect of superior cervical sympathetic ganglion block in rats subjected to permanent focal cerebral ischemia. METHODS: Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats (270-320 g) were randomly assigned to one of three groups (control, lidocaine and ropivacaine). A brain injury was induced in all rats by middle cerebral artery occlusion with a nylon thread. The animals of the local anesthetic group received 30 microl of 2% lidocaine or 0.75% ropivacaine in the SCG. Neurologic scores were assessed 24 hours after brain injury. Brain samples were then collected. The infarct and edema ratios were measured by 2.3.5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining. RESULTS: There were no differences in the death rates, neurologic scores, or infarction and edema ratios between the three groups. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that superior cervical sympathetic ganglion block may not influence the brain damage induced by permanent focal cerebral ischemia in rats.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Male , Rats , Amides , Blood Vessels , Brain , Brain Injuries , Brain Ischemia , Edema , Ganglia, Sympathetic , Infarction , Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery , Lidocaine , Neuroprotective Agents , Nylons , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Superior Cervical Ganglion
14.
The Korean Journal of Pain ; : 83-91, 2007.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-114839

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cerebral blood vessels are innervated by sympathetic nerves that originate in the superior cervical ganglia (SCG). This study was conducted to determine the effect of an SCG block on brain injury caused by focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion in a rat model. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats (270-320 g) were randomly assigned to one of three groups (lidocaine, ropivacaine, and control). After brain injury induced by middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion/reperfusion, the animals were administered an SCG bloc that consisted of 30 microliter of 2% lidocaine or 0.75% ropivacaine, with the exception of animals in the control group, which received no treatment. Twenty four hours after brain injury was induced, neurologic scores were assessed and brain samples were collected. The infarct and edema ratios were measured, and DNA fragmented cells were counted in the frontoparietal cortex and the caudoputamen. RESULTS: No significant differences in neurologic scores or edema ratios were observed among the three groups. However, the infarct ratio was significantly lower in the ropivacaine group than in the control group (P<0.05), and the number of necrotic cells in the caudoputamen of the ropivacaine group was significantly lower than in the control group (P<0.01). Additionally, the number of necrotic and apoptotic cells in theropivacaine group were significantly lower than inthe control group in both the caudoputamen and the frontoparietal cortex (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Brain injury induced by focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion was reduced by an SCG block using local anesthetics. This finding suggests that a cervical sympathetic block could be considered as another treatment option for the treatment of cerebral vascular diseases.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Male , Rats , Anesthetics, Local , Blood Vessels , Brain Injuries , Brain , DNA , Edema , Ganglia, Sympathetic , Lidocaine , Middle Cerebral Artery , Models, Animal , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Superior Cervical Ganglion , Vascular Diseases
15.
Chinese Journal of Burns ; (6): 208-211, 2007.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-331494

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the influence of cervical sympathetic nerve block (SB) on blood flow volume and barrier function of intestinal mucosa after combined radiation and burn injury in rat.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>SD rats were divided into three groups: control (n = 18), combined injury group (n = 100, rats with Co gamma ray body irradiation with a dose of 5 Gy plus 15% TBSA full-thickness burn injury), and combined injury with SB treatment (n = 100, with the same dose of gamma-ray irradiation and burn injury, treated with SB). Twenty rats were sacrificed on 0, 1, 5, 7 days after combined injuries for various observations. SB was conducted with injection of ropivhydrochloride into the neck bilaterally for the SB group, and same amount of normal saline was injected instead in the combined injury group. Blood flow volume, changes in villus height and crypt depth in jejunum, Na(+)-K+ ATPase activity, permeability of small intestine were measured at different time-points.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The blood flow volume in small intestinal mucosal on 1 post-injury days (PID) [(0.29 +/- 0.07) ml x min(-1) x g(-1)] were obviously decreased than that in normal controls [(1.26 +/- 0.23) ml x min(-1) x g(-1), P < 0.01 ], with serious destruction of pit cells, decrease in intestinal mucosal Na(+)-K+ ATPase activity, and increase in intestinal mucosal permeability. Compared with combined injury group, the blood flow volume was [(0.82 +/- 0.11) ml x min(-1) x g(-1) 1 day after combined injury, P < 0.01], and the Na(+)-K+ ATPase activity was obviously increased, and the permeability of small intestine was ameliorated.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>SB can increase blood flow volume of rat small intestine after combined radiation and burn injury, promote the repair of intestinal epithelium and improve the barrier function of the intestinal wall.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Autonomic Nerve Block , Blood Volume , Physiology , Burns , Intestinal Mucosa , Metabolism , Intestine, Small , Radiation Injuries, Experimental , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Superior Cervical Ganglion
16.
Rev. otorrinolaringol. cir. cabeza cuello ; 66(2): 81-88, ago. 2006. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-475807

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El manejo de los ganglios cervicales es fundamental en el tratamiento y pronóstico de los pacientes con carcinoma escamoso de laringe. Existe consenso en realizar vaciamiento ganglionar cervical en ausencia de adenopatías clínicas (N0) cuando el riesgo de adenopatías metastásicas ocultas supera el 20 por ciento. El carcinoma laríngeo transglótico (CTG) se caracteriza por presentar una incidencia de metástasis cervicales ocultas de 30 por ciento a 40 por ciento. Objetivo: Evaluar los hallazgos histopatológicos en los ganglios cervicales de los pacientes portadores de CTG, analizando la incidencia de metástasis ocultas y su asociación con factores de riesgo. Material y métodos: Estudio retrospectivo mediante la revisión de las fichas clínicas de pacientes portadores de CTG, sin tratamiento previo, manejados quirúrgicamente en el Hospital San Juan de Dios entre los años 1994 y 2002. Resultados: Se evaluaron 20 pacientes, 4 (20 por ciento) se presentaron con adenopatías clínicas, realizándose en 2 casos vaciamiento radical y en los 2 restantes disección funcional. Los pacientes N0 fueron 16 y se les efectuó un vaciamiento funcional bilateral. Se detectaron metástasis ocultas en 12,5 por ciento de los pacientes N0. Conclusión: Los carcinomas de ubicación transglótica N0 no se beneficiarían de un vaciamiento ganglionar cervical.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Drainage , Superior Cervical Ganglion/pathology , Lymphatic Metastasis/diagnosis , Laryngeal Neoplasms/pathology , Neoplasm Staging , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Incidence , Neoplasm Invasiveness , Neoplasm Metastasis , Laryngeal Neoplasms/epidemiology , Laryngeal Neoplasms/therapy , Prognosis
17.
Int. j. morphol ; 21(3): 221-226, 2003. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-388104

ABSTRACT

The present work investigates the corticoid action on the growth of the superior cervical ganglion of the rat and describes the cortisol effect during early stages of development. The study was based on morphometric and stereological analysis of the perikarya. Eight rats were treated intraperitoneally with cortisol (1mg/Kg/day) during 36 days. Treatment was initiated in the 8th day after birth and was withdrawn one day before the sacrifice. There was a significant difference (úP0,05) for the neural mean diameter between the control group (16.78 ± 1.11mm) and treated animals (15.84 ± 0.99mm). The decrease of perikarya neuronal diameter was also demonstrated by stereological methods. Morphometrical findings may suggest alterations in superior cervical ganglion neuronal activity in rats treated for long term with cortisol.


Subject(s)
Rats , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Superior Cervical Ganglion/anatomy & histology , Superior Cervical Ganglion , Hydrocortisone/pharmacology , Imaging, Three-Dimensional , Rats, Wistar
18.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 497-500, 2002.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-318961

ABSTRACT

To compare the difference in action sites between mecamylamine (MEC) and hexamethonium (HEX) on nicotinic receptors of sympathetic neurons, we investigated the effects of MEC and HEX on the nicotine-induced currents in cultured superior cervical ganglion neurons by whole-cell patch clamp technique. The IC(50) of MEC and HEX for antagonizing the effect of 0.08 mmol/L nicotine was 0.0012 and 0.0095 mmol/L, respectively. Both MEC and HEX accelerated the desensitization of nicotinic receptors. Furthermore, by comparing their effects at holding potentials 30, 70 and 110 mV, it was indicated that their suppressing effect on the nicotine-induced currents was voltage-dependent. However, different from that of HEX, the inhibitory effect of MEC increased with administering the mixture of MEC and nicotine at intervals of 3 min, indicating a use-dependent effect of MEC. It is concluded that the action site of MEC on nicotinic receptors of sympathetic neurons is different from that of HEX.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Animals, Newborn , Cells, Cultured , Hexamethonium , Pharmacology , Mecamylamine , Pharmacology , Neurons , Physiology , Nicotinic Antagonists , Pharmacology , Patch-Clamp Techniques , Rats, Wistar , Receptors, Nicotinic , Physiology , Superior Cervical Ganglion , Cell Biology , Physiology
19.
Fortaleza; s.n; 2002. 117 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-759939

ABSTRACT

O gânglio cervical superior, bem como os outros gânglios paravertebrais, se constituem na etapa simpática mais distal da rota de processamento das informações para o controle simpático das funções orgânicas. Esse fato confere muita importância às alterações do funcionamento dos seus neurônios, que apresentam grande probabilidade de se refletir na função do efetor. Por essa razão investigamos os efeitos da ouabaína, em concentrações próximas aquelas encontradas fisiologicamente, sobre parâmetros eletrofisiológicos relacionadas a excitabilidade neuronal do gânglio cervical superior. Células agudamente dissociadas deste gânglio foram, logo após cultivadas 1h em L15 sem (controle) ou com concentração fisiológica (10nM) de ouabaína, superfundidas com solução de Locke contendo 4,7 mM de [K+] e então determinadas suas propriedades passivas: resistências de entrada de membrana (Ri), potencial transmembrana de repouso em presença de clampeamento contínuo de corrente (Emh), corrente de clampeamento basal (Ih), limiar de corrente (Iyh (limiar de corrente para desencadeamento de um potencial de ação)). Avaliaram-se também as mudanças na excitabilidade neuronal, através do número de potenciais de ação produzidos pela célula estimulada com rampa de 0,4 nA de amplitude e duração de 800 ms (nAPramp) e uma onda quebrada de corrente, de duração de 400 ms e de amplitudes, duas vezes o limiar (nAP2xlth) e três vezes o limiar (nAP3xlth)...


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Autonomic Nervous System , Hypertension , Ouabain , Superior Cervical Ganglion
20.
Indian J Physiol Pharmacol ; 2001 Apr; 45(2): 208-14
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-107079

ABSTRACT

Circadian rhythm of body temperature (CRT) is altered in endogenous depression and many psychiatric disorders. Even the sleep pattern is disrupted. Sleep deprivation alleviates symptoms in depression. The present study was conducted to find the role of noradrenergic innervation to the pineal gland in bringing about the effect of REM sleep deprivation (REMSD) on the CRT. Adult male Wistar rats (n = 12) divided into 2 groups were used for the study. The group I rats (n = 6) underwent superior cervical ganglionectomy and the group II rats (n = 6) were sham ganglionectomised. After recovery rats were given REMSD for 48 hours. The CRT was measured in three periods of the study i.e. basal, post operative and post REMSD. The results indicated REMSD increased the Amplitude and Mesor of the CRT in both the groups which was shortlasting and reversible thus suggesting non sympathetic mediation of the pineal in bringing about the circadian rhythm alteration due to REMSD.


Subject(s)
Animals , Body Temperature , Circadian Rhythm , Male , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Sleep Deprivation , Superior Cervical Ganglion/physiology
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