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Pesqui. vet. bras ; 41: e06722, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | ID: biblio-1180873


This study evaluated the effects of injectable trace minerals (ITM) on antioxidant and immune response, resistance to endoparasites, health and growth of newborn Boer kids. Forty-six Boer kids [24 males and 22 females; 3.94±1.03kg of body weight (BW); 6.2±2.4 d of age] were enrolled in the study. Kids were stratified by type of birth (twins or singlet), sex, and BW and assigned to 1 of 2 treatments: one subcutaneous injection (0.1mL/4.5kg of BW) of (1) saline solution or (2) ITM (60, 10, 5, and 15mg/mL of Zn, Mn, Se and Cu, respectively). Blood samples were collected on d 0, 7, 14, 28 and 56. Feces samples were collected on d 56 and BW on d 0, 28 and 56. Kids were checked daily for signs of diarrhea. ITM kids had greater (P<0.01) plasma concentration of superoxide dismutase and tended (P=0.06) to have greater plasma concentration of glutathione peroxidase. ITM kids had greater (P=0.05) concentration of eosinophils, but no differences (P≥0.11) were observed for other hemogram variables. The ITM application did not affect (P≥0.11) the EPG count. However, ITM kids had less (P=0.02) cumulative incidence of diarhea until d 42 (3.85 vs. 25.93±6.8% for ITM vs. Saline kids, respectively) but no differences (P>0.10) were observed after d 42. The ITM application did not affect (P≥0.40) the growth of kids (0.071 vs. 0.065±0.005kg/day for ITM vs. Saline kids, respectively). Thus, the ITM application, increased the plasma concentration of antioxidant enzymes and eosinophils, decreased the incidence of diarrhea only in the middle of the experiment, but did not affected the EPG count and growth of Boer kids.(AU)

Este estudo avaliou os efeitos de microminerais injetáveis (ITM) na resposta antioxidante e imune, resistência a endoparasitas, saúde e crescimento de cabritos Boer recém-nascidos. Quarenta e seis cabritos [24 fêmeas e 22 machos; 3,94±1,03kg de peso corporal (PC); 6,2±2,4 dias de idade] foram incluídos no estudo. Os animais foram estratificados por tipo de nascimento (gêmeos ou singular), sexo e peso ao nascimento (PN) e atribuídas a 1 de 2 tratamentos. Uma injeção subcutânea (0,1ml/4,5 de PC de (1) Solução salina ou (2) ITM (60,10,5 e 15mg/ml de Zn, Mn, Se e Cu, respectivamente). As amostras de sangue foram coletadas nos dias 0, 7, 14, 28 e 56. As amostras de fezes foram coletadas no dia 56 e PC nos dias 0, 28 e 56. Os recém-nascidos foram verificados diariamente quanto a sinais de diarreia. Os cabritos ITM apresentaram maior (P<0.01) concentração de superóxido desmutase no plasma e tenderam (P=0,06) a ter maior concentração de glutationa peroxidase no plasma. Os animais ITM apresentaram maior (P=0,05) concentração de eosinófilos, mas não foram observadas diferenças (P≥0.11) para outras variáveis do hemograma. A aplicação de ITM não afetou (P≥0.11) a contagem de EPG. No entanto, os cabritos ITM apresentaram menor incidência cumulativa de diarreia (P=0,02) ate d 42 (3,85 vs. 25,93±6,8% para animais ITM vs. animais salina, respectivamente), mas nenhuma diferença (P>0.10) foi observada após d 42. A aplicação do ITM não afetou (P≥0.40) o crescimento dos animais (0.071 vs. 0.065±0.005kg/dia para ITM vs. Salina, respectivamente). Assim, a aplicação do ITM aumentou a concentração plasmática de enzimas antioxidantes e eosinófilos, diminuiu a incidência de diarreia somente na metade do experimento, mas não afetou a contagem de OPG e crescimento de cabritos Boer recém-nascidos.(AU)

Animals , Infant, Newborn , Superoxide Dismutase , Goats/immunology , Enzymes , Glutathione Peroxidase , Injections , Antioxidants , Body Weight , Parturition , Diarrhea
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879173


Six month old Cinnamomum cassia seedlings were used to simulate drought stress with polyethylene glycol(PEG 6000). The physiological indicators(osmotic substances, antioxidant enzymes, etc.) and chemical components of seedlings under different drought levels and the correlation between the two were studied. The results showed that the chlorophyll content and relative water content decreased gradually with the increase of PGE 6000(0, 5%, 10%, 15%) concentration and time(3, 5, 7 d), while the soluble protein content, soluble sugar content and catalase(CAT) activity increased, but the rising rate slowed down with the time. The activities of peroxidase(POD), superoxide dismutase(SOD), malondialdehyde(MDA) and proline content increased at first and then decreased. The content of coumarin, cinnamaldehyde, cinnamic acid and dimethoxycinnamaldehyde decreased, while the content of cinnamyl alcohol continued to increase.Under drought stress, the fluorescence signals of reactive oxygen species and no contents in roots of C. cassia seedlings were significantly stronger than those of the control.Further correlation analysis showed that coumarin content, di-methoxycinnamaldehyde content and osmoregulation substance content were significantly negatively correlated(P<0.05), cinnamic acid content was significantly negatively correlated with POD and SOD activities(P<0.01).It was found that C. cassia seedlings showed a certain degree of drought tolerance under short-term or mild drought stress, but if the drought exceeded a certain degree, the physiological metabolism of the seedlings would be unbalanced.

Catalase , Cinnamomum aromaticum , Droughts , Malondialdehyde , Seedlings , Stress, Physiological , Superoxide Dismutase
Clinics ; 76: e2226, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249587


OBJECTIVES: Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is one of the most common malignant tumors in China. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy and volume-modulated arc therapy have become the main treatments for esophageal carcinoma; however, side effects caused by radiotherapy greatly impact the quality of life in these patients. This study aimed to explore the impact of serum superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels on the prognosis of patients with ESCC undergoing radiotherapy. METHODS: Patients aged between 18 and 80 years with lower-middle ESCC who underwent radiotherapy were eligible for this assessment. Adverse events, responses, treatment outcomes, and overall survival (OS) were assessed. Between 2012 and 2014, 195 patients were enrolled, of which 65 were assigned to the low- and high-SOD groups based on their serum SOD values. RESULTS: The baseline characteristics were similar between the two groups, except for the T staging. Adverse events in the low-SOD group were significantly higher than those in the high-SOD group (radiation esophagitis, p=0.007; radiation pneumonitis, p=0.032; leukopenia, p=0.023; thrombocytopenia, p=0.037; anemia, p=0.041). There were no significant differences in response, treatment outcomes, or OS. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, high serum SOD activity improved post-radiotherapy quality of life but did not impact the prognosis of patients with ESCC. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to report that serum SOD activity is associated with radiation-induced toxicity and moderately increased radiotherapeutic response in patients with ESCC undergoing radiotherapy.

Humans , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Esophageal Neoplasms/radiotherapy , Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma/radiotherapy , Prognosis , Quality of Life , Superoxide Dismutase , China , Chemoradiotherapy
Int. j. morphol ; 38(6): 1786-1796, Dec. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134512


SUMMARY: Bisphenol A (BPA) is an industrial chemical widely used to make polycarbonate plastics for packaging and epoxy resins. This study sought to examine how selenium (Se) affects BPA toxicity in terms of albino rats' histological structure, antioxidant enzymes and reproductive organs (seminiferous tubules). Twenty-four adult male rats were divided into four experimental groups: Group 1: Control; Group 2: Orally administered BPA; Group 3: Orally administered sodium selenite; Group 4: Treated daily with BPA followed by selenium (Se). All experiment done for 4 weeks. BPA exposure caused changes in the testicular histological structure, which consists apoptosis, and led to changes in several biochemical markers: Malondialdehyde, catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase. However, these BPA side effects may be ameliorated in rats treated with BPA-plus-Se. These protective effects of Se may attributable to its ability to remove potentially damaging oxidizing agents in living organisms. The results may confirm that Se countered the oxidant effects and increased the BPA-induced stress response in rats. So, Se promotes the healthy growth and development of mammals by protecting them from oxidative stress. As human are greatly exposed to BPA and it can accumulate in tissues, there is concern about human reproductive functions particularly for occupational workers exposed usually to greater levels of BPA. Thus, the use of BPA in multiple industries must be restricted and the inaccurate usage of plastic containers should be avoided to decrease the health hazards. Administration of Se may protect against the adverse effects of BPA on reproductive functions and structures.

RESUMEN: El bisfenol A (BPA) es un químico industrial ampliamente utilizado para fabricar plásticos de policarbonato para envases y resinas epoxi. Este estudio examinó el efecto de selenio (Se) en la toxicidad del BPA en términos de la estructura histológica, enzimas antioxidantes y los órganos reproductivos (túbulos seminíferos) de ratas albinas. Se dividieron veinticuatro ratas macho adultas en cuatro grupos experimentales: Grupo 1: control; Grupo 2: BPA administrado por vía oral; Grupo 3: BPA administrado por vía oral para; Grupo 4: tratado diariamente con BPA seguido de selenio (Se). El experimento se realizó durante cuatro semanas y se observó que la exposición al BPA provocó cambios en la estructura histológica testicular, incluyendo apoptosis, y alteraciones en varios marcadores bioquímicos:malondialdehído, catalasa, superóxido dismutasa y glutatión peroxidasa. Sin embargo, estos efectos secundarios del BPA pueden mejorar en ratas tratadas con BPA-plus-Se. Estos efectos protectores del Se pueden ser atribuidos a la capacidad de eliminar agentes oxidantes potencialmente dañinos en organismos vivos. Los resultados indicaron que se contrarrestaron los efectos oxidantes y aumentó la respuesta al estrés inducido por BPA en ratas, y favorece el crecimiento y desarrollo en los mamíferos al protegerlos del estrés oxidativo. Debido a la exposición al BPA en el ser humano, se puede acumular en los tejidos, por lo que existe una preocupación por el daño a las funciones reproductivas en particular de los trabajadores que generalmente están expuestos a niveles más altos de BPA. Por lo tanto, se debe restringir el uso de BPA en las industrias y evitar el uso incorrecto de envases de plástico para así disminuir los riesgos para la salud. La administración correcta de Se puede proteger contra los efectos adversos del BPA en las funciones y estructuras reproductivas.

Animals , Male , Rats , Phenols/toxicity , Selenium/pharmacology , Testis/drug effects , Benzhydryl Compounds/toxicity , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Phenols/administration & dosage , Superoxide Dismutase/drug effects , Testis/pathology , Benzhydryl Compounds/administration & dosage , Microscopy, Electron , Biomarkers , Catalase/drug effects , Administration, Oral , Apoptosis/drug effects , Oxidative Stress , Glutathione Peroxidase/drug effects
Int. j. morphol ; 38(5): 1217-1222, oct. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134428


SUMMARY: Repeated stress is a risk factor for memory impairment and neurological abnormalities in both humans and animals. We sought to investigate the extent of (i) brain tissue injury; (ii) nitrosative and oxidative stress in brain tissue homogenates; (iii) apoptotic and survival biomarkers in brain tissue homogenates; and (iv) immobility and climbing abilities, induced over a period of three weeks by chronic unpredictable stress (CUS). Wistar rats were either left untreated (Control group) or exposed to a variety of unpredictable stressors daily before being sacrificed after 3 weeks (model group). Assessment of depression-like behavior was performed and animals were then culled and harvested brain tissues were stained with basic histological staining and examined under light microscopy. In addition, brain tissue homogenates were prepared and assayed for these parameters; inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), caspase-3, and B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2). Histology images showed CUS induced profound damage to the cerebral cortex as demonstrated by severe neuronal damage with shrunken cells, disrupted atrophic nuclei, perineuronal vacuolation and swollen glial cells. CUS also significantly (p<0.05) induced iNOS, MDA, and caspase-3, whereas SOD and Bcl-2 brain tissue levels were inhibited by CUS. In addition, data from the depression-like behavior, forced swimming test showed significant (p<0.05) increase in animal immobility and decrease in climbing ability in the model group of rats. Thus, here we demonstrated a reliable rat model of chronic stress-induced brain injury, which can further be used to investigate beneficial drugs or agents used for a period of three weeks to protect against CUS-induced brain damage.

RESUMEN: El estrés crónico es un factor de riesgo para el deterioro de la memoria y las anomalías neurológicas tanto en humanos como en animales. Intentamos investigar el alcance de lesión del tejido cerebral; (ii) estrés nitrosativo y oxidativo en homogeneizados de tejido cerebral; (iii) biomarcadores apoptóticos y de supervivencia en homogeneizados de tejido cerebral; y (iv) inmovilidad y habilidades de escalada, inducidas durante un período de tres semanas por estrés crónico impredecible (ECI). Se dejaron sin tratamiento (grupo control) ratas Wistar, o se expusieron a una variedad de factores estresantes impredecibles diariamente antes de ser sacrificadas después de 3 semanas (grupo modelo). Se realizó una evaluación del comportamiento similar a la depresión y luego se sacrificaron los animales y se tiñeron los tejidos cerebrales con tinción histológica básica y se examinaron con microscopía óptica. Además, se prepararon homogeneizados de tejido cerebral y se analizaron los siguientes parámetros; óxido nítrico sintasa inducible (iNOS), malondialdehído (MDA), superóxido dismutasa (SOD), caspasa- 3 y linfoma de células B 2 (Bcl-2). Las imágenes histológicas mostraron que el CUS indujo un daño profundo en la corteza cerebral como lo demuestra el daño neuronal severo con células encogidas, núcleos atróficos alterados, vacuolación perineuronal y células gliales inflamadas. ECI también indujo significativamente (p <0,05) iNOS, MDA y caspase-3, mientras que los niveles de tejido cerebral SOD y Bcl-2 fueron inhibidos por ECI. Además, los datos del comportamiento similar a la de- presión, la prueba de natación forzada mostró un aumento significativo (p <0,05) en la inmovilidad animal y una disminución en la capacidad de escalada en el grupo modelo de ratas. Por lo tanto, aquí demostramos un modelo confiable de daño cerebral crónico en rata inducido por el estrés, que se puede utilizar para investigar medicamentos o agentes beneficiosos usados durante un período de tres semanas para proteger el daño cerebral inducido por ECI.

Animals , Male , Rats , Stress, Psychological/complications , Brain Damage, Chronic/pathology , Superoxide Dismutase/analysis , Behavior, Animal , Brain Injuries/metabolism , Biomarkers , Cerebral Cortex , Chronic Disease , Analysis of Variance , Rats, Wistar , Apoptosis , Oxidative Stress , Nitric Oxide Synthase/analysis , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 , Depression , Disease Models, Animal , Caspase 3/analysis , Nitrosative Stress , Malondialdehyde/analysis
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 45: 46-52, May 15, 2020. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1177424


BACKGROUND: The present study analyzed the synergistic protective effect of ß-alanine and taurine against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion. Myocardial infarct size, lipid peroxidation, and levels of glutathione peroxidase (Gpx), superoxide dismutase (SOD), reduced glutathione (GSH), catalase, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), reactive oxygen species (ROS), apoptosis, and the mRNA and protein expression of Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) and signal transducer and activator 3 of transcription (STAT3) were determined. The molecular docking was carried out by using AutoDock 4.2.1. RESULTS: Combined treatment with ß-alanine and taurine reduced myocardial infarct size, lipid peroxidation, inflammatory marker, ROS levels, and apoptosis and increased Gpx, SOD activity, GSH, and catalase activity. Furthermore, combined treatment significantly reduced JAK2 and STAT3 mRNA and protein expression compared with the control. The small molecule was docked over the SH2 domain of a STAT3, and binding mode was determined to investigate the inhibitory potential of ß-alanine and taurine. ß-Alanine bound to SH2 domain with ΔG of -7.34 kcal/mol and KI of 1.91 µM. Taurine bound to SH2 domain with ΔG of -7.38 kcal/mol and KI of 1.95 µM. CONCLUSION: Taken together, these results suggest that the combined supplementation of ß-alanine and taurine should be further investigated as an effective therapeutic approach in achieving cardioprotection in myocardial ischemia/reperfusion.

Animals , Male , Rats , Taurine/therapeutic use , Cardiotonic Agents/therapeutic use , Reperfusion Injury/drug therapy , beta-Alanine/therapeutic use , Myocardial Ischemia/drug therapy , Superoxide Dismutase , Immunohistochemistry , Lipid Peroxidation , Reactive Oxygen Species , Rats, Wistar , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Disease Models, Animal , Janus Kinase 2 , Molecular Docking Simulation , Glutathione Peroxidase , Heart Diseases/drug therapy , Inflammation
Int. j. morphol ; 38(1): 48-55, Feb. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056396


This research was designed to investigate the potential protective effect of vitamin C supplementation against hepatocyte ultrastructural alterations induced by artemether (antimalarial drug) administration. Twenty-four adult male albino rats were used in this study and were divided into four groups (n=6). Group I served as a control and rats in group II administrated artemether (4 mg/kg B.W) orally for three consecutive days. Group III administered artemether plus a low dose of vitamin C (2.86 mg/kg/l water) while group IV received artemether plusa high dose of vitamin C (8.56 mg/kg). At the end of the experimental period (14 days), the harvested liver tissues were examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and blood samples were assayed for biomarkers of liver injury and oxidative stress. Artemether significantly (p<0.05) augmented biomarkers of liver injury such as alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and oxidative stress such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), Glutathione Peroxidase (GPX), and caused degeneration and damage of the rough endoplasmic reticulum and disrupted mitochondria. The blood sinusoids were also damaged with distortion of their canaliculi. Administration of vitamin C showed improvement of liver biomarkers, and liver parenchyma, especially in a high dose of vitamin C.We concludes that vitamin C is a partial protective agent against artemether-induced liver injury.

Esta investigación fue diseñada para investigar el posible efecto protector de la vitamina C contra las alteraciones ultraestructurales de los hepatocitos, inducidas por la administración de arteméter (medicamento antipalúdico). En el estudio se utilizaron 24 ratas albinas macho adultas y se dividieron en cuatro grupos (n = 6). El grupo I fue designado como control y las ratas en el grupo II se adminstró Arteméter (4 mg / kg de peso corporal) por vía oral durante tres días consecutivos. En el grupo III se administró arteméter, además de una dosis baja de vitamina C (2,86 mg / kg / l de agua) mientras que el grupo IV recibió arteméter más una dosis alta de vitamina C (8,56 mg / kg). Al final del período experimental (14 días), los tejidos hepáticos recolectados se examinaron por microscopía electrónica de transmisión (MET), y las muestras de sangre se analizaron en busca de biomarcadores de daño hepático y estrés oxidativo. El arteméter aumentó significativamente (p <0,05) los biomarcadores de daño hepático como alanina aminotransferasa (ALT), aspartato aminotransferasa (AST) y estrés oxidativo como superóxido dismutasa (SOD), glutatión peroxidasa (GPX) y causó degeneración y daño de la retículo endoplásmico rugoso y mitocondrias alteradas. Los sinusoides sanguíneos también fueron dañados con la distorsión de sus canalículos. La administración de vitamina C mostró una mejoría de los biomarcadores hepáticos y el parénquima hepático, especialmente en una dosis alta de vitamina C. Concluimos que la vitamina C es un agente protector parcial contra la lesión hepática inducida por arteméter.

Animals , Rats , Ascorbic Acid/administration & dosage , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury, Chronic/drug therapy , Artemether/toxicity , Ascorbic Acid/pharmacology , Superoxide Dismutase/analysis , Biomarkers , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Hepatocytes/drug effects , Hepatocytes/ultrastructure , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Disease Models, Animal , Hepatoprotector Drugs , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/pathology , Glutathione Peroxidase/analysis
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828906


OBJECTIVE@#To evaluate the expression and prognostic value of superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) in breast cancer and explore its possible role in the occurrence and progression of breast cancer.@*METHODS@#We performed bioinformatics analysis of the TCGA data for the expression and clinical relevance of SOD2 in patients with breast cancer. Gene enrichment analysis (GSEA) was performed using the KEGG gene set, the protein interaction network was constructed using the STRING database, and the key genes were screened using Cytoscape software. We also collected 60 pairs of primary breast cancer tissue samples and adjacent samples for detecting SOD2 expressions using immunohistochemistry and RT-qPCR and analyzed the correlation of SOD2 expression with the clinicopathological parameters of the patients.@*RESULTS@#The expression of SOD2 was significantly lower in breast cancer tissue than in adjacent tissues with significant correlation with TNM stage and axillary lymph node metastasis ( < 0.05). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that the recurrence-free survival, distant metastasis-free survival (RFS) and post-progressive survival were significantly shorted in patients with high SOD2 expression than in those with low SOD2 expression ( < 0.05). GSEA enrichment analysis indicated that SOD2 played an important role in the JAK-STAT signaling pathway. IL10 and STAT4 were identified as the key genes in the PPI network, and they were both positively correlated with SOD2. In the 60 pairs of clinical samples, SOD2 was highly expressed in breast cancer tissues with close correlation with axillary lymph node metastasis and the expressions of estrogen receptor and androgen receptor ( < 0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#The expression of SOD2 in breast cancer is significantly correlated with TNM stage and axillary lymph node metastasis. SOD2 may affect the proliferation, invasion and metastasis of breast cancer cells possibly by regulating IL10 and/or STAT4 to affect the JAK/STAT signaling pathway.

Breast Neoplasms , Humans , Lymphatic Metastasis , Prognosis , Superoxide Dismutase
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e190469, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1135243


BACKGROUND Oxidative stress is responsible for generating DNA lesions and the 8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG) is the most commonly lesion found in DNA damage. When this base is incorporated during DNA replication, it could generate double-strand DNA breaks and cellular death. MutT enzyme hydrolyzes the 8-oxoG from the nucleotide pool, preventing its incorporation during DNA replication. OBJECTIVES To investigate the importance of 8-oxoG in Leishmania infantum and L. braziliensis, in this study we analysed the impact of heterologous expression of Escherichia coli MutT (EcMutT) enzyme in drug-resistance phenotype and defense against oxidative stress. METHODS Comparative analysis of L. braziliensis and L. infantum H2O2 tolerance and cell cycle profile were performed. Lines of L. braziliensis and L. infantum expressing EcMutT were generated and evaluated using susceptibility tests to H2O2 and SbIII, cell cycle analysis, γH2A western blotting, and BrdU native detection assay. FINDINGS Comparative analysis of tolerance to oxidative stress generated by H2O2 showed that L. infantum is more tolerant to exogenous H2O2 than L. braziliensis. In addition, cell cycle analysis showed that L. infantum, after treatment with H2O2, remains in G1 phase, returning to its normal growth rate after 72 h. In contrast, after treatment with H2O2, L. braziliensis parasites continue to move to the next stages of the cell cycle. Expression of the E. coli MutT gene in L. braziliensis and L. infantum does not interfere in parasite growth or in susceptibility to SbIII. Interestingly, we observed that L. braziliensis EcMutT-expressing clones were more tolerant to H2O2 treatment, presented lower activation of γH2A, a biomarker of genotoxic stress, and lower replication stress than its parental non-transfected parasites. In contrast, the EcMutT is not involved in protection against oxidative stress generated by H2O2 in L. infantum. MAIN CONCLUSIONS Our results showed that 8-oxoG clearance in L. braziliensis is important to avoid misincorporation during DNA replication after oxidative stress generated by H2O2.

Humans , Animals , Mice , Rats , Pyrophosphatases/genetics , Pyrophosphatases/metabolism , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism , Leishmania braziliensis/drug effects , Leishmania infantum/drug effects , Escherichia coli Proteins/genetics , Escherichia coli , Guanine/analogs & derivatives , Antimony/toxicity , Rabbits , Superoxide Dismutase/genetics , Leishmania braziliensis/enzymology , Leishmania infantum/enzymology , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Oxidative Stress/physiology , Escherichia coli Proteins/metabolism , Guanine/pharmacology , Hydrogen Peroxide/toxicity , Antiprotozoal Agents/pharmacology
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-881039


A contributory role of oxidative stress and protection by antioxidant nutrients have been suspected in cataract formation. Ganoderic acid A (GAA), an effective lanostane triterpene, is widely reported as an antioxidant. The aim of this study is to investigate the potential effects of GAA on cataract formation. After lens epithelial cells (LECs) were exposed to UVB radiation for different periods, cell viability, apoptosis-related protein levels, malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were monitored. We found that cell viability, the Bcl-2/Bax ratio and SOD activity were increased, while Cleaved caspase-3 levels and MDA activity were decreased compared with those in UVB-impaired LECs after GAA treated. Furthermore, GAA activated PI3K/AKT in UVB-impaired LECs and effectively delayed the occurrence of lens opacity in vitro. In conclusion, these findings demonstrated that GAA exhibited protective functions in SRA01/04 cells and rat lenses against UVB-evoked impairment through elevating cell viability and antioxidant activity, inhibiting cell apoptosis, activating the PI3K/AKT pathway and delaying lens opacity.

Animals , Apoptosis , Cataract/prevention & control , Cell Line , Cell Survival , Epithelial Cells/radiation effects , Heptanoic Acids/pharmacology , Humans , Lanosterol/pharmacology , Lens, Crystalline/radiation effects , Malondialdehyde/metabolism , Rats , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism , Ultraviolet Rays/adverse effects
National Journal of Andrology ; (12): 926-933, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880294


Objective@#To investigate the relationship of electromagnetic radiation (EMR) from 900 MHz cellphone frequency with testicular oxidative damage and its influence on the Prdx2 protein expression in the rat testis, and to explore the mechanism of Guilingji Capsules (GC) alleviating oxidative damage to the testis tissue.@*METHODS@#Fifty healthy SD male rats were randomly divided into five groups of equal number, sham-EMR, 4-h EMR, 8-h EMR, 4-h EMR+GC and 8-h EMR+GC and exposed to 900 MHz EMR (370 μW/cm2) for 0, 4 or 8 hours daily for 15 successive days. The rats of the latter two groups were treated intragastrically with GC suspension and those of the first three groups with pure water after exposure to EMR each day. After 15 days of exposure and treatment, all the rats were sacrificed and their testis tissue collected for observation of the histomorphological and ultrastructural changes by HE staining and transmission electron microscopy, measurement of the levels of serum glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) with thiobarbiuric acid and determination of the Prdx2 protein expression by immunohistochemistry and Western blot.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the rats in the sham-EMR group, those in the 4-h and 8-h EMR groups showed different degrees of histomorphological and ultrastructural changes in the testis tissue, significantly decreased levels of GSH ([80.62 ± 10.99] vs [69.58 ± 4.18] and [66.17 ± 8.45] mg/L, P < 0.05) and SOD ([172.29 ± 10.98] vs [158.92 ± 6.46] and [148.91 ± 8.60] U/ml, P < 0.05) and increased level of MDA ([7.51 ± 1.73] vs [9.84 ± 1.03] and [11.22 ± 2.13] umol/ml, P < 0.05), even more significantly in the 8-h than in the 4-h EMR group (P < 0.05). In comparison with the sham-EMR group, the expression of the Prdx2 protein was markedly downregulated in the 4-h and 8-h EMR groups (0.56 ± 0.03 vs 0.49 ± 0.03, 0.21 ± 0.01, P < 0.05), but again upregulated in the 4-h and 8-h EMR+GC groups (0.55±0.03 and 0.37±0.04) (P < 0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Electromagnetic radiation from cellphones can cause ultrastructural damage to the testis tissue of male rats, while Guilingji Capsules can alleviate it, presumably by upregulating the Prdx2 protein expression in the testis tissue and reducing testicular oxidative damage.

Animals , Capsules , Cell Phone , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Electromagnetic Radiation , Glutathione/blood , Male , Malondialdehyde/blood , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Oxidative Stress , Peroxiredoxins/metabolism , Radiation Injuries, Experimental/drug therapy , Rats , Superoxide Dismutase/blood , Testis/pathology , Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances/analysis
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63: e20200059, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132201


Abstract Hypoxia occurs in the splanchnic region during exercise associated with sympathetic activity. In the elderly, vascular insufficiency and low vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression are observed. Compared to young people, sympathetic signals of older individuals are blunted and more resistant to splanchnic blood flow alterations during exercise. VEGF induces vasodilation responses and hence may retain blood in the splanchnic vascular bed. We hypothesized that regular mild-intensity exercise triggers weak VEGF expression in the digestive tract of the elderly. The effects of exercise on the levels of VEGF, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), malondialdehyde (MDA) and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) in the stomach, jejunum, ileum and colon tissues were evaluated. With exercise, the VEGF levels in the stomach and colon increased. Although the SOD, GPx, and MDA levels decreased in the stomach, they increased in the colon. T-AOC increased in the stomach and there was no change in the jejunum, ileum and colon. The hypoperfusion during exercise was not equal in all regions of the gastrointestinal tract in the aged subjects. Hypoxia and other exercise-related mechanisms could have led to this VEGF induction. The stomach, jejunum, and ileum might have developed resistance to ischemia. The induction of VEGF may be beneficial in aging-associated impaired gastrointestinal homeostasis and neovascularization.

Animals , Male , Rats , Superoxide Dismutase/blood , Exercise/physiology , Gastrointestinal Tract/metabolism , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors/metabolism , Glutathione Peroxidase/blood , Malondialdehyde/blood , Vasodilation , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Exercise Test
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(6): 1993-1998, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | ID: biblio-1055109


The effect of three Streptomyces strains (N7, RL8 and V4) and a mixture of Bacillus (BMix) on the growth (Weight, Size) and superoxide dismutase activity (SOD) in hatchery-reared juvenile oysters Crassostrea corteziensis and Crassostrea sikamea was investigated to determine their probiotic potential. Microorganisms were added to culture water at 1×106 CFU/ml once a day during 30 days and all oysters fed daily a microalgae mix. Juveniles of C. sikamea treated with strains N7, RL8 and V4 had a significant weight gain compared to the control group. C. corteziensis juveniles treated with strains RL8 and BMix showed a significantly higher weight gain than the control group. No significant size increase was observed in any treated group for both oyster species. SOD activity significantly increased in C. sikamea treated with RL8 and with RL8, N7 and BMix in C. corteziensis. Streptomyces strains RL8 and N7 emerge as promising probiotic agents to cultivate C. sikamea and C. corteziensis and may also be useful to other molluscs and marine invertebrates .(AU)

O efeito de três culturas Streptomyces (N7, RL8 e V4) e uma mistura de Bacillus (BMix) sobre o cresimento (Peso, Tamanho) e atividade superóxido dismutase (SOD) em ostras jovens Crassostrea corteziensis e Crassostrea sikamea cultivadas artificalmente foi investigado para determinar seu potencial probiótico. Microorganismos foram adicionados à água de cultura a 1×10 6 CFU/ml uma vez por dia durante 30 dias e todas as ostras foram alimentadas diariamente com uma mistura de microalgas. Jovens C. sikamea tratados com culturas N7, RL8 e V4 tiveram ganho de peso significativo quando comparado ao grupo de controle. Jovens C. corteziensis tratados com culturas RL8 e BMix demonstraram peso significativamente mais algo que o grupo de controle. Nenhum aumento em tamanho foi observado em grupos tratados em ambas espécies. A atividade SOD foi significamente aumentada em C. sikamea treatado com RL8 e com RL8, N7 e BMix em C. corteziensis. Culturas Streptomyces RL8 e N7 surgem como agentes probióticos promissores para o cultivo de C. sikamea e C. corteziensis e podem ser úteis para outros moluscos animais marinhos invertebrados.(AU)

Animals , Streptomyces , Superoxide Dismutase/analysis , Probiotics/administration & dosage , Crassostrea/growth & development
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 113(5): 905-912, Nov. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055041


Abstract Background: Arterial hypertension is a precursor to the development of heart and renal failure, furthermore is associated with elevated oxidative markers. Environmental enrichment of rodents increases performance in memory tasks, also appears to exert an antioxidant effect in the hippocampus of normotensive rats. Objectives: Evaluate the effect of environmental enrichment on oxidative stress in the ventrolateral medulla, heart, and kidneys of renovascular hypertensive rats. Methods: Forty male Fischer rats (6 weeks old) were divided into four groups: normotensive standard condition (Sham-St), normotensive enriched environment (Sham-EE), hypertensive standard condition (2K1C-St), and hypertensive enriched environment (2K1C-EE). Animals were kept in enriched or standard cages for four weeks after all animals were euthanized. The level of significance was at p < 0.05. Results: 2K1C-St group presented higher mean arterial pressure (mmHg) 147.0 (122.0; 187.0) compared to Sham-St 101.0 (94.0; 109.0) and Sham-EE 106.0 (90.8; 117.8). Ventrolateral medulla from 2K1C-EE had higher superoxide dismutase (SOD) (49.1 ± 7.9 U/mg ptn) and catalase activity (0.8 ± 0.4 U/mg ptn) compared to SOD (24.1 ± 9.8 U/mg ptn) and catalase activity (0.3 ± 0.1 U/mg ptn) in 2K1C-St. 2K1C-EE presented lower lipid oxidation (0.39 ± 0.06 nmol/mg ptn) than 2K1C-St (0.53 ± 0.22 nmol/mg ptn) in ventrolateral medulla. Furthermore, the kidneys of 2K1C-EE (11.9 ± 2.3 U/mg ptn) animals presented higher superoxide-dismutase activity than those of 2K1C-St animals (9.1 ± 2.3 U/mg ptn). Conclusion: Environmental enrichment induced an antioxidant effect in the ventrolateral medulla and kidneys that contributes to reducing oxidative damage among hypertensive rats.

Resumo Fundamento: A hipertensão arterial é um precursor para o desenvolvimento da insuficiência cardíaca e renal e, além disso, está associada com o aumento dos marcadores oxidativos. O enriquecimento ambiental dos roedores melhora o desempenho em tarefas de memória, e também parece ter um efeito antioxidante sobre o hipocampo dos ratos normotensos. Objetivos: Avaliar o efeito do enriquecimento ambiental sobre o estresse oxidativo no bulbo ventrolateral, coração, e rins de ratos com hipertensão renovascular. Métodos: Quarenta ratos machos, tipo Fischer (6 semanas de idade), foram divididos em quatro grupos: normotensos em condições padrão (Sham-CP), normotensos em ambiente enriquecido (Sham-AE), hipertensos em condições padrão (2R1C-CP), e hipertensos em ambiente enriquecido (2R1C-AE). Os animais foram mantidos em gaiolas enriquecidas ou padrão durante quatro semanas e, por fim, todos os animais foram eutanasiados. O nível de significância foi p < 0,05. Resultados: O grupo 2R1C-CP apresentou pressão arterial média maior (mmHg) 147,0 (122,0; 187,0) quando comparado com os grupos Sham-CP 101,0 (94,0; 109,0) e Sham-AE 106,0 (90,8; 117,8). Observou-se maior atividade das enzimas superóxido dismutase (SOD) (49,1 ± 7,9 U/mg ptn) e da catalase (0,8 ± 0,4 U/mg ptn) no bulbo ventrolateral do grupo 2R1C-AE, em relação à atividade da SOD (24,1 ± 9,8 U/mg ptn) e da catalase (0,3 ± 0,1 U/mg ptn) no grupo 2R1C-CP. No grupo 2R1C-AE, a oxidação lipídica no bulbo ventrolateral foi menor (0,39 ± 0,06 nmol/mg ptn) quando comparado com o grupo 2R1C-CP (0,53 ± 0,22 nmol/mg ptn). Ademais, foi observada maior atividade das enzimas superóxido dismutase nos rins dos animais 2R1C-AE (11,9 ± 2,3 U/mg ptn) em relação aos animais 2R1C-CP (9,1 ± 2,3 U/mg ptn). Conclusão: O enriquecimento ambiental provocou efeito antioxidante no bulbo ventrolateral e nos rins, o que contribuiu para a redução do dano oxidante nos ratos hipertensos.

Animals , Male , Medulla Oblongata/metabolism , Oxidative Stress , Environment , Housing, Animal , Hypertension, Renovascular/metabolism , Antioxidants/metabolism , Rats, Inbred F344 , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism , Medulla Oblongata/enzymology , Lipid Peroxidation , Catalase/metabolism , Protein Carbonylation , Arterial Pressure , Heart Ventricles/enzymology , Hypertension, Renovascular/chemically induced , Kidney/enzymology
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 82(6): 501-506, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038690


ABSTRACT Purpose: To investigate the potential associations between keratoconus and catalase rs1001179, superoxide dismutase 2 rs4880, and glutathione peroxidase 1 rs1050450 gene polymorphisms in a Turkish population. Methods: The study group included 121 unrelated keratoconus patients and 94 unrelated healthy controls. Blood samples (200 ml) were collected from all patients and controls to isolate genomic DNA. Genotyping was performed to identify rs1001179, rs4880, and rs1050450 using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Genotype and allele frequencies were calculated; their associations with keratoconus risk were assayed, and the association with keratoconus risk and demographic factors was examined. Results: Glutathione peroxidase 1 rs1050450 polymorphism was present in 41% cases compared with 29% controls (OR=1.66; 95% CI=1.11-2.50; p=0.014). No association was observed between catalase rs1001179 and SOD2 rs4880 polymorphisms and keratoconus (for all, p>0.05). Conclusions: This study evaluated possible relationships between rs1050450, rs1001179, and rs4880 polymorphisms and keratoconus susceptibility. We found a possible association between glutathione peroxidase 1 rs1050450 polymorphism and an increased risk of keratoconus. However, the genotype and allele frequencies were identical in the catalase rs1001179 and superoxide dismutase 2 rs4880 polymorphisms. Further studies are needed to analyze the effect of such variations in identifying keratoconus susceptibility.

RESUMO Objetivo: Investigar as possíveis associações entre o ceratocone e os polimorfismos rs1001179 da catalase, rs4880 da superóxido-dismutase 2 e rs1050450 da glutationa-peroxidase 1 rs1050450 em uma população turca. Métodos: O grupo de estudo incluiu 121 pacientes com ceratocone não relacionados e 94 controles saudáveis também sem pa rentesco. Amostra de sangue (200 mL) foram coletadas de todos os pacientes e controle para isolar o DNA genômico. A genotipagem foi realizada para identificar rs1001179, rs4880 e rs1050450 utilizando a reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR) em tempo real. As frequências de genótipos e alelos foram calculadas, suas associações com o risco de ceratocone foram avaliadas, e a associação com risco de ceratocone e fatores demográficos foi examinada. Resultados: O polimorfismo da glutationa-peroxidase 1 rs1050450 estava presente em 41% dos casos, comparado com 29% dos controles (OR=1,66, IC 95%=1,11-2,50; p=0,014). Não foi observada associação entre o ceratocone e os polimorfismos rs1001179 e SOD2 rs4880 da catalase (para todos, p>0,05). Conclusões: Este estudo avaliou possíveis relações entre os polimorfismos rs1001179, rs4880 e suscetibilidade a cerato cone. Encontramos uma possível associação entre po limorfis mo da glutationa-peroxidase 1 rs1050450 e um risco aumentado de ceratocone. No entanto, o genótipo e as frequências alélicas foram idênticas nos polimorfismos rs1001179 da catalase e superóxido-dismutase 2 rs4880. Mais estudos são necessários para esclarecer o efeito dessas va riações na detecção da sus cetibilidade ao ceratocone.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics , Glutathione Peroxidase/genetics , Keratoconus/genetics , Reference Values , Superoxide Dismutase/genetics , Turkey , Catalase/genetics , Case-Control Studies , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Risk Factors , Genetic Association Studies , Genotyping Techniques , Gene Frequency
Acta cir. bras ; 34(11): e201901106, Nov. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1054683


Abstract Purpose: To investigate whether GDF11 ameliorates myocardial ischemia reperfusion (MIR) injury in diabetic rats and explore the underlying mechanisms. Methods: Diabetic and non-diabetic rats subjected to MIR (30 min of coronary artery occlusion followed by 120 min of reperfusion) with/without GDF11 pretreatment. Cardiac function, myocardial infarct size, creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) 15-F2tisoprostane, autophagosome, LC3II/I ratio and Belcin-1 level were determined to reflect myocardial injury, oxidative stress and autophagy, respectively. In in vitro study, H9c2 cells cultured in high glucose (HG, 30mM) suffered hypoxia reoxygenation (HR) with/without GDF11, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine (3-MA) treatment, cell injury; oxidative stress and autophagy were assessed. Results: Pretreatment with GDF11 significantly improved cardiac morphology and function in diabetes, concomitant with decreased arrhythmia severity, infarct size, CK-MB, LDH and 15-F2tisoprostane release, increased SOD activity and autophagy level. In addition, GDF11 notably reduced HR injury in H9c2 cells with HG exposure, accompanied by oxidative stress reduction and autophagy up-regulation. However, those effects were completely reversed by H2O2 and 3-MA. Conclusion: GDF11 can provide protection against MIR injury in diabetic rats, and is implicated in antioxidant stress and autophagy up-regulation.

Animals , Male , Autophagy/drug effects , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/metabolism , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/drug therapy , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/metabolism , Growth Differentiation Factors/pharmacology , Reference Values , Superoxide Dismutase/analysis , Cardiotonic Agents/pharmacology , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/pathology , Up-Regulation/drug effects , Cell Line , Blotting, Western , Reproducibility of Results , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Streptozocin , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/metabolism , Hemodynamics/drug effects , Antioxidants/pharmacology
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 112(2): 173-178, Feb. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-983835


Abstract Background: Trimetazidine (TMZ) is an anti-ischemic drug. In spite of its protective effects on cardiovascular system, there is no scientific study on the usefulness of TMZ treatment for prolonged QT interval and cardiac hypertrophy induced by diabetes. Objectives: To evaluate the effects of TMZ on QT interval prolongation and cardiac hypertrophy in the diabetic rats. Methods: Twenty-four male Sprague-Dawley rats (200-250 g) were randomly assigned into three groups (n = 8) by simple random sampling method. Control (C), diabetic (D), and diabetic administrated with TMZ at 10 mg/kg (T10). TMZ was administrated for 8 weeks. The echocardiogram was recorded before isolating the hearts and transfer to a Langendorff apparatus. Hemodynamic parameters, QT and corrected QT interval (QTc) intervals, heart rate and antioxidant enzymes were measured. The hypertrophy index was calculated. The results were evaluated by one-way ANOVA and paired t-test using SPSS (version 16) and p < 0.05 was regarded as significant. Results: The diabetic rats significantly indicated increased hypertrophy, QT and QTc intervals and decreased Left ventricular systolic pressure (LVSP), Left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP), rate pressure product (RPP), Max dp/dt, and min dp/dt (±dp/dt max), heart rate, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase in the heart. Treatment with TMZ in the diabetic animals was significantly improved these parameters in comparison to the untreated diabetic group. Conclusions: TMZ improves QTc interval prolongation and cardiac hypertrophy in diabetes.

Resumo Fundamento: A trimetazidina (TMZ) é uma droga anti-isquêmica. Apesar de seus efeitos protetores sobre o sistema cardiovascular, não há estudos científicos sobre a utilidade do tratamento com TMZ para o intervalo QT prolongado e a hipertrofia cardíaca induzida pelo diabetes. Objetivo: Avaliar os efeitos da TMZ no prolongamento do intervalo QT e na hipertrofia cardíaca em ratos diabéticos. Métodos: Vinte e quatro ratos machos Sprague-Dawley (200-250 g) foram distribuídos aleatoriamente em três grupos (n = 8) pelo método de amostragem aleatória simples. Controle (C), diabético (D) e diabético administrado com TMZ a 10 mg/kg (T10). A TMZ foi administrada por 8 semanas. O ecocardiograma foi registrado antes de isolar os corações e transferir para um aparelho de Langendorff. Foram medidos os parâmetros hemodinâmicos, intervalo QT e intervalo QT corrigido (QTc), frequência cardíaca e enzimas antioxidantes. O índice de hipertrofia foi calculado. Os resultados foram avaliados pelo one-way ANOVA e pelo teste t pareado pelo SPSS (versão 16) e p < 0,05 foi considerado significativo. Resultados: Os ratos diabéticos indicaram hipertrofia aumentada, intervalos QT e QTc e diminuição da pressão sistólica no ventrículo esquerdo (PSVE), pressão desenvolvida no ventrículo esquerdo (PDVE), duplo produto (DP), Max dp/dt e min dp/dt (± dp/dt max), frequência cardíaca, superóxido dismutase (SOD), glutationa peroxidase (GPx) e catalase no coração. O tratamento com TMZ nos animais diabéticos melhorou significativamente esses parâmetros em comparação com o grupo diabético não tratado. Conclusões: A TMZ melhora o prolongamento do intervalo QTc e a hipertrofia cardíaca no diabetes.

Animals , Male , Trimetazidine/pharmacology , Long QT Syndrome/drug therapy , Cardiomegaly/drug therapy , Protective Agents/pharmacology , Diabetes Complications/drug therapy , Superoxide Dismutase/analysis , Time Factors , Long QT Syndrome/enzymology , Long QT Syndrome/physiopathology , Echocardiography , Catalase/analysis , Random Allocation , Reproducibility of Results , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Cardiomegaly/enzymology , Cardiomegaly/etiology , Cardiomegaly/physiopathology , Diabetes Complications/enzymology , Diabetes Complications/physiopathology , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/physiopathology , Glutathione Peroxidase/analysis , Hemodynamics/drug effects
Niger. med. j. (Online) ; 60(3): 133-137, 2019. tab
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1267647


Background: Smoking, which is an important risk factor for periodontitis, induces oxidative stress in the body and causes an imbalance between reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidants, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD). The present study was done to quantify and compare the level of SOD enzyme levels in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and saliva among smokers and nonsmokers. Methodology: One hundred and thirty-five individuals in the age range of 20­55 years, including 45 light smokers, 45 heavy smokers, and 45 nonsmokers (controls), were selected and the clinical parameters recorded were plaque index, probing depth, and attachment loss. Smokers were divided into light smokers (<10 cigarettes/day) and heavy smokers (>10 cigarettes/day) and into three subgroups: healthy, mild periodontitis, and moderate periodontitis. GCF and saliva samples were collected then SOD levels were analyzed using spectrophotometric assay. Results: The mean levels of SOD in the GCF and saliva of smokers were decreased compared to controls. Intra- and inter-group analyses showed a significant reduction in the levels of SOD in the GCF and saliva of heavy smokers compared to light smokers and the control group. Conclusions: There was a progressive reduction in SOD levels from healthy nonsmokers to light smokers to heavy smokers

Antioxidants , Gingival Crevicular Fluid , India , Reactive Oxygen Species , Superoxide Dismutase
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719624


PURPOSE: Testosterone replacement therapy is an effective treatment for late-onset hypogonadism (LOH) despite a few contraindications and side-effects. The aim of this study was to determine whether modified Ojayeonjonghwan (KH-204, Korean herbal formula) improved LOH. KH-204 is a strong antioxidant herbal formula. We evaluated the effect of Korean herbal prescription on androgen receptor (AR) expression in an aged rat model of LOH. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighteen-month-old rats were used as aged LOH rat models. Eighteen Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three equal groups of six animals each and treated with one of the following: 1) normal control group (oral administration with distilled water, n=6), 2) KH-204 200 group (oral administration with 200 mg/kg of KH-204, n=6), and 3) KH-204 400 group (oral administration with 400 mg/kg of KH-204, n=6). After four weeks of treatment (once daily, distilled water or KH-204), serum testosterone levels, changes in testicular and epididymal weight, Western blotting analysis of AR expression and measurement of oxidative stress were examined. RESULTS: Treatment with the herbal formulation KH-204 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg (1) increased the weights of testis and epididymis; (2) increased the level of serum testosterone; (3) increased the level of superoxide dismutase and reduced the level of 8-hydroxy-20-deoxyguanosine; and (4) upregulated AR expression in testicular tissue. CONCLUSIONS: KH-204 might be an effective alternative for LOH. It improves antioxidant mechanisms and increases testicular AR expression without side-effects.

Aging , Animals , Blotting, Western , Epididymis , Hypogonadism , Male , Models, Animal , Oxidative Stress , Phytotherapy , Prescriptions , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Receptors, Androgen , Superoxide Dismutase , Testis , Testosterone , Water , Weights and Measures
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776868


To examine the effects of Populus tomentiglandulosa (PT) extract on the expressions of antioxidant enzymes and neurotrophic factors in the cornu ammonis 1 (CA1) region of the hippocampus at 5 min after inducing transient global cerebral ischemia (TGCI) in gerbils, TGCI was induced by occlusion of common carotid arteries for 5 min. Before ischemic surgery, 200 mg·kg PT extract was orally administrated once daily for 7 d. We performed neuronal nuclear antigen immunohistochemistry and Fluoro-Jade B staining. Furthermore, we determined in situ production of superoxide anion radical, expression levels of SOD1 and SOD2 as antioxidant enzymes and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) as neurotrophic factors. Pretreatment with 200 mg·kg PT extract prevented neuronal death (loss). Furthermore, pretreatment with 200 mg·kg PT extract significantly inhibited the production of superoxide anion radical, increased expressions of SODs and maintained expressions of BDNF and IGF-I. Such increased expressions of SODs were maintained in the neurons after IRI. In summary, pretreated PT extract can significantly increase levels of SODs and protect the neurons against TGCI, suggesting that PT can be a useful natural agent to protect against TGCI.

Animals , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor , Genetics , Metabolism , CA1 Region, Hippocampal , Metabolism , Gerbillinae , Humans , Insulin-Like Growth Factor I , Genetics , Metabolism , Male , Neuroprotective Agents , Plant Extracts , Populus , Chemistry , Pyramidal Cells , Metabolism , Reperfusion Injury , Drug Therapy , Genetics , Metabolism , Superoxide Dismutase , Genetics , Metabolism , Up-Regulation