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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761733

ABSTRACT

Based on the reactive oxygen species (ROS) regulatory properties of diphenyleneiodonium (DPI), we investigated the effects of DPI on host-infected T. gondii proliferation and determined specific concentration that inhibit the intracellular parasite growth but without severe toxic effect on human retinal pigment epithelial (ARPE-19) cells. As a result, it is observed that host superoxide, mitochondria superoxide and H2O2 levels can be increased by DPI, significantly, followed by suppression of T. gondii infection and proliferation. The involvement of ROS in anti-parasitic effect of DPI was confirmed by finding that DPI effect on T. gondii can be reversed by ROS scavengers, N-acetyl-L-cysteine and ascorbic acid. These results suggest that, in ARPE-19 cell, DPI can enhance host ROS generation to prevent T. gondii growth. Our study showed DPI is capable of suppressing T. gondii growth in host cells while minimizing the un-favorite side-effect to host cell. These results imply that DPI as a promising candidate material for novel drug development that can ameliorate toxoplasmosis based on ROS regulation.


Subject(s)
Acetylcysteine , Ascorbic Acid , Humans , Mitochondria , Parasites , Reactive Oxygen Species , Retinaldehyde , Superoxides , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmosis
2.
Mycobiology ; : 105-111, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760521

ABSTRACT

Many of the fungicides and antibiotics currently available against plant pathogens are of limited use due to the emergence of resistant strains. In this study, we examined the effects of diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPIC), an inhibitor of the superoxide producing enzyme NADPH oxidase, against fungal and bacterial plant pathogens. We found that DPIC inhibits fungal spore germination and bacterial cell proliferation. In addition, we demonstrated the potent antibacterial activity of DPIC using rice heads infected with the bacterial pathogen Burkholderia glumae which causes bacterial panicle blight (BPB). We found that treatment with DPIC reduced BPB when applied during the initial flowering stage of the rice heads. These results suggest that DPIC could serve as a new and useful antimicrobial agent in agriculture.


Subject(s)
Agriculture , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Burkholderia , Cell Proliferation , Flowers , Germination , Head , NADPH Oxidases , Plants , Spores, Fungal , Superoxides
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760470

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although Eriobotrya japonica leaves have been studied as a raw material for various cosmetic products, little is known about the anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-melanogenic activities of Eriobotrya japonica leaf ethanol extract (EJEE). METHODS: This study was conducted to evaluate the anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-melanogenic activities of EJEE using different in vitro models. In addition, we investigated the potential irritation of EJEE to skin and eye using animal alternative tests. RESULTS: The total content of polyphenols, one of the active constituents of EJEE, was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography and found to contain 88.68 mg tannic acid equivalent/g. EJEE showed a concentration-dependent 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity, 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical scavenging activity, and a superoxide dismutase-like activity. The anti-inflammatory effect of 0.5% (w/v) EJEE was demonstrated by a reduction in lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide and tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels in RAW 264.7 cells. EJEE also significantly inhibited melanogenesis in melanocyte stimulating hormone-induced B16F1 cells. EJEE did not show any irritation in skin and eye in animal alternative test. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that the EJEE possesses anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-melanogenic activities, while it did not induce toxicity or irritation in neither skin nor eye. Therefore, EJEE can be used as a cosmetic ingredient for skin improvement.


Subject(s)
Animals , Chromatography, Liquid , Eriobotrya , Ethanol , In Vitro Techniques , Melanocytes , Nitric Oxide , Polyphenols , Skin , Superoxides , Tannins , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765101

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), one of the most widely used brominated flame-retardants, is a representative persistent organic pollutants group. Studies on TBBPA toxicity have been conducted using various target cells; however, few studies have investigated TBBPA toxicity in bone cells. Therefore, this study investigated the in vitro effects of TBBPA on osteoclasts, a cell type involved in bone metabolism. METHODS: RAW264.7 cells were cultured in medium containing 50 ng/mL receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL) and varying concentrations of TBBPA. To evaluate the effects of TBBPA on the differentiation and function of osteoclasts, osteoclast-specific gene expression, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activity, bone resorbing activity, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and mitochondrial superoxide were measured. RESULTS: The presence of 20 μM TBBPA significantly increased TRAP activity in RANKL-stimulated RAW264.7 cells, the bone resorbing activity of osteoclasts, and the gene expression of Akt2, nuclear factor of activated T-cells cytoplasmic 1, and chloride channel voltage-sensitive 7. However, TBBPA treatment caused no change in the expression of carbonic anhydrase II, cathepsin K, osteopetrosis-associated transmembrane protein 1, Src, extracellular signal-related kinase, GAB2, c-Fos, or matrix metalloproteinase 9. Furthermore, 20 μM TBBPA caused a significant decrease in MMP and a significant increase in mitochondrial superoxide production. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that TBBPA promotes osteoclast differentiation and activity. The mechanism of TBBPA-stimulated osteoclastogenesis might include increased expression of several genes involved in osteoclast differentiation and reactive oxygen species production.


Subject(s)
Acid Phosphatase , Carbonic Anhydrase II , Cathepsin K , Chloride Channels , Cytoplasm , Gene Expression , In Vitro Techniques , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 , Membrane Potential, Mitochondrial , Metabolism , Osteoclasts , Phosphotransferases , RANK Ligand , Reactive Oxygen Species , Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor-kappa B , Superoxides , T-Lymphocytes
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764294

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori increases production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which activates inflammatory and carcinogenesis-related signaling pathways in gastric epithelial cells. Therefore, reducing ROS, by upregulating antioxidant enzyme, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), may be a novel strategy to prevent H. pylori-associated gastric diseases. Astaxanthin is an antioxidant carotenoid that prevents oxidative stress-induced cell injury. The present study was aimed to determine whether H. pylori decreases SOD activity by changing the levels of SOD1/SOD2 and whether astaxanthin prevents changes in SOD levels and activity in H. pylori-infected gastric epithelial AGS cells. METHODS: AGS cells were pre-treated with astaxanthin for 3 hours prior to H. pylori infection and cultured for 1 hour in the presence of H. pylori. SOD levels and activity were assessed by Western blot analysis and a commercial assay kit, respectively. Mitochondrial ROS was determined using MitoSOX fluorescence. RESULTS: H. pylori decreased SOD activity and the SOD2 level, but increased mitochondrial ROS in AGS cells. The SOD1 level was not changed by H. pylori infection. Astaxanthin prevented H. pylori-induced decreases in the SOD2 level and SOD activity and reduced mitochondrial ROS in AGS cells. CONCLUSIONS: Consumption of astaxanthin-rich food may prevent the development of H. pylori-associated gastric disorders by suppressing mitochondrial oxidative stress.


Subject(s)
Blotting, Western , Epithelial Cells , Fluorescence , Helicobacter pylori , Helicobacter , Oxidative Stress , Reactive Oxygen Species , Stomach Diseases , Superoxide Dismutase , Superoxides
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786360

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Sixty percent of infants with severe neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy die, while most survivors have permanent disabilities. Treatment for neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy is limited to therapeutic hypothermia, but it does not offer complete protection. Here, we investigated whether hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) promotes cell survival and suggested neuroprotective strategies.PURPOSE: HIF-1α deficient mice have increased brain injury after neonatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI), and the role of HIF-2α in HI is not well characterized. Copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD)1 overexpression is not beneficial in neonatal HI. The expression of HIF-1α and HIF-2α was measured in SOD1 overexpressing mice and compared to wild-type littermates to see if alteration in expression explains this lack of benefit.METHODS: On postnatal day 9, C57Bl/6 mice were subjected to HI, and protein expression was measured by western blotting in the ipsilateral cortex of wild-type and SOD1 overexpressing mice to quantify HIF-1α and HIF-2α. Spectrin expression was also measured to characterize the mechanism of cell death.RESULTS: HIF-1α protein expression did not significantly change after HI injury in the SOD1 overexpressing or wild-type mouse cortex. However, HIF-2α protein expression increased 30 minutes after HI injury in the wild-type and SOD1 overexpressing mouse cortex and decreased to baseline value at 24 hours after HI injury. Spectrin 145/150 expression did not significantly change after HI injury in the SOD1 overexpressing or wild-type mouse cortex. However, spectrin 120 expression increased in both wild-type and SOD1 overexpressing mouse at 4 hours after HI, which decreased by 24 hours, indicating a greater role of apoptotic cell death.CONCLUSION: HIF-1α and HIF-2α may promote cell survival in neonatal HI in a cell-specific and regional fashion. Our findings suggest that early HIF-2α upregulation precedes apoptotic cell death and limits necrotic cell death. However, the influence of SOD was not clarified; it remains an intriguing factor in neonatal HI.


Subject(s)
Animals , Blotting, Western , Brain Injuries , Cell Death , Cell Survival , Humans , Hypothermia, Induced , Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain , Infant , Mice , Spectrin , Superoxide Dismutase , Superoxides , Survivors , Up-Regulation
7.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 62: e19170747, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055406

ABSTRACT

Abstract Cyanobacteria are photoautotrophic prokaryotes capable to grow in diverse ecological habitats, originated 2.5-3.5 billion years ago and were first to produce oxygen. Since then superoxide dismutases (SOD) acquired great significance due to their ability to catalyze detoxification of byproducts of oxygenic photosynthesis i.e. superoxide radicals. In the present study, we extracted information regarding SODs from species of sequenced cyanobacteria and investigated their diversity, conservation, domain structure, and evolution. 144 putative SOD homologs were identified. Unlike other protein families (ex. serine-threonine kinases) SODs are present in all cyanobacterial species reflecting their significant role in survival. However, their distribution varies fewer (0.01%-0.09%) found in unicellular marine strains whereas abundant (0.02%-0.07%) in filamentous nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria. They were classified into three major subfamilies according to their domain structures: Fe/MnSOD, Cu/ZnSOD and NiSOD. Interestingly, they lack additional domains as found in proteins of other families however motifs and invariant amino acids typical in eukaryotic SODs were conserved well in these proteins indicating similar catalytic mechanism as eukaryotic SODs. Phylogenetic relationships correspond well with phylogenies based on 16S rRNA and clustering occurs on the basis of structural characteristics such as domain organization. Gene gain-and-loss is insignificant during SOD evolution as evidenced by the absence of additional domain. This study has not only examined an overall background of sequence-structure-function interactions for the SOD gene family but also revealed variation among SOD distribution based on ecophysiological and morphological characters.


Subject(s)
Superoxide Dismutase , Superoxides , Phylogeny , Genomics
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719642

ABSTRACT

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are widely generated in biological processes such as normal metabolism and response to xenobiotic exposure. While ROS can be beneficial or harmful to cells and tissues, generation of ROS by diverse anti-cancer drugs or phytochemicals plays an important role in the induction of apoptosis. We recently identified a derivative of naphthalene, MS-5, that induces apoptosis of an ovarian cell, CAOV-3. Interestingly, MS-5 induced apoptosis by down-regulating the ROS. Cell viability was evaluated by water-soluble tetrazolium salt (WST-1) assay. Apoptosis was evaluated by flow cytometry analysis. Intracellular ROS (H₂O₂), mitochondrial superoxide, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and effect on cycle were determined by flow cytometry. Protein expression was assessed by western blotting. The level of ATP was measured using ATP Colorimetric/Fluorometric Assay kit. MS-5 inhibited growth of ovarian cancer cell lines, CAOV-3, in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. MS-5 also induced G1 cell cycle arrest in CAOV-3 cells, while MS-5 decreased intracellular ROS generation. In addition, cells treated with MS-5 showed the decrease in MMP and ATP production. In this study, we found that treatment with MS-5 in CAOV-3 cells induced apoptosis but decreased ROS level. We suspect that MS-5 might interfere with the minimum requirements of ROS for survival. These perturbations appear to be concentration-dependent, suggesting that MS-5 may induce apoptosis by interfering with ROS generation. We propose that MS-5 may be a potent therapeutic agent for inducing apoptosis in ovarian cancer cell through regulation of ROS.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Triphosphate , Apoptosis , Biological Phenomena , Blotting, Western , Cell Line , Cell Survival , Flow Cytometry , G1 Phase Cell Cycle Checkpoints , Membrane Potential, Mitochondrial , Metabolism , Ovarian Neoplasms , Phytochemicals , Reactive Oxygen Species , Superoxides
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719637

ABSTRACT

Oxidative stress is considered a major contributor in the pathogenesis of diabetic neuropathy and in diabetes complications, such as nephropathy and cardiovascular diseases. Diabetic neuropathy, which is the most frequent complications of diabetes, affect sensory, motor, and autonomic nerves. This study aimed to investigate whether 7,8-dihydroxyflavone (7,8-DHF) protects SH-SY5Y neuronal cells against high glucose-induced toxicity. In the current study, we found that diabetic patients exhibited higher lipid peroxidation caused by oxidative stress than healthy subjects. 7,8-DHF exhibits superoxide anion and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities. High glucose-induced toxicity severely damaged SH-SY5Y neuronal cells, causing mitochondrial depolarization; however, 7,8-DHF recovered mitochondrial polarization. Furthermore, 7,8-DHF effectively modulated the expression of pro-apoptotic protein (Bax) and anti-apoptotic protein (Bcl-2) under high glucose, thus inhibiting the activation of caspase signaling pathways. These results indicate that 7,8-DHF has antioxidant effects and protects cells from apoptotic cell death induced by high glucose. Thus, 7,8-DHF may be developed into a promising candidate for the treatment of diabetic neuropathy.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants , Autonomic Pathways , Cardiovascular Diseases , Cell Death , Diabetes Complications , Diabetic Neuropathies , Glucose , Healthy Volunteers , Humans , Hydroxyl Radical , Lipid Peroxidation , Neurons , Oxidative Stress , Superoxides
10.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740082

ABSTRACT

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitrogen species (RNS) are involved in cellular signaling processes as a cause of oxidative stress. According to recent studies, ROS and RNS are important signaling molecules involved in pain transmission through spinal mechanisms. In this study, a patch clamp recording was used in spinal slices of rats to investigate the action mechanisms of O₂˙⁻ and NO on the excitability of substantia gelatinosa (SG) neuron. The application of xanthine and xanthine oxidase (X/XO) compound, a ROS donor, induced inward currents and increased the frequency of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSC) in slice preparation. The application of S-nitroso-N-acetyl-DLpenicillamine (SNAP), a RNS donor, also induced inward currents and increased the frequency of sEPSC. In a single cell preparation, X/XO and SNAP had no effect on the inward currents, revealing the involvement of presynaptic action. X/XO and SNAP induced a membrane depolarization in current clamp conditions which was significantly decreased by the addition of thapsigargin to an external calcium free solution for blocking synaptic transmission. Furthermore, X/XO and SNAP increased the frequency of action potentials evoked by depolarizing current pulses, suggesting the involvement of postsynaptic action. According to these results, it was estblished that elevated ROS and RNS in the spinal cord can sensitize the dorsal horn neurons via pre- and postsynaptic mechanisms. Therefore, ROS and RNS play similar roles in the regulation of the membrane excitability of SG neurons.


Subject(s)
Action Potentials , Animals , Calcium , Excitatory Postsynaptic Potentials , Humans , Membranes , Neurons , Nitric Oxide , Nitrogen , Oxidative Stress , Posterior Horn Cells , Rats , Reactive Oxygen Species , Spinal Cord , Substantia Gelatinosa , Superoxides , Synaptic Transmission , Thapsigargin , Tissue Donors , Xanthine , Xanthine Oxidase
11.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740076

ABSTRACT

Resveratrol (3,4′,5,-trihydroxystilbene), a phytoalexin present in grapes, exerts a variety of actions to reduce superoxides, prevents diabetes mellitus, and inhibits inflammation. Resveratrol acts as a chemo-preventive agent and induces apoptotic cell death in various cancer cells. However, the role of resveratrol in odontoblastic cell differentiation is unclear. In this study, the effect of resveratrol on regulating odontoblast differentiation was examined in MDPC-23 mouse odontoblastic cells derived from mouse dental papilla cells. Resveratrol significantly accelerated mineralization as compared with the control culture in differentiation of MDPC-23 cells. Resveratrol significantly increased expression of ALP mRNA as compared with the control in differentiation of MDPC-23 cells. Resveratrol significantly accelerated expression of ColImRNA as compared with the control in differentiation of MDPC-23 cells. Resveratrol significantly increased expressions of DSPP and DMP-1 mRNAs as compared with the control in differentiation of MDPC-23 cells. Treatment of resveratrol did not significantly affect cell proliferation in MDPC-23 cells. Results suggest resveratrol facilitates odontoblast differentiation and mineralization in differentiation of MDPC-23 cells, and may have potential properties for development and clinical application of dentin regeneration materials.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cell Death , Cell Differentiation , Cell Proliferation , Dental Papilla , Dentin , Diabetes Mellitus , Inflammation , Mice , Miners , Odontoblasts , Regeneration , RNA, Messenger , Superoxides , Vitis
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739457

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is a common anxiety disorder. Although lots of research done to reveal neurobiological basis of GAD, it is still unclear. Diagnosis of GAD depends on subjective complaints of patients, thus the need for a biological marker is constantly emerging. In this study, we aimed to investigate diagnostic value of malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in GAD. METHODS: We evaluated MDA, SOD, and CAT levels in peripheral blood of 46 patients and 45 controls. MDA was measured with Ohkawa’s methods, SOD was measured with Fridovich method, and CAT was measured with Beutler’s method. RESULTS: MDA was significantly increased in patients than controls, medians 4.05 nmol/mg and 1.71 nmol/mg respectively, p < 0.001; SOD and CAT activity was significantly decreased in patients than controls, medians of SOD were 159.07 U/mg and 301.87 U/mg, p < 0.001 respectively, medians for CAT were 138.47 U/mg and 160.60 U/mg respectively. We found high correlation between Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale and SOD, MDA r values were 0.723 and 0.715 respectively, p < 0.001 for both. Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve analysis showed high diagnostic performance for MDA and SOD, low diagnostic performance for CAT, areas under curve were 1.0, 1.0, and 0.648 respectively. CONCLUSION: Our results reveal possible diagnostic value of MDA, less likely of SOD but not CAT. Future studies should investigate diagnostic value of oxidants and antioxidantn enzymes in larger samples and include diagnostic value of these parameters.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anxiety Disorders , Anxiety , Biomarkers , Catalase , Cats , Diagnosis , Humans , Malondialdehyde , Methods , Oxidants , Superoxide Dismutase , Superoxides
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-758849

ABSTRACT

Salmonella is an intracellular pathogen with a cellular infection mechanism similar to that of Brucella, making it a suitable choice for use in an anti-Brucella immune boost system. This study explores the efficacy of a Salmonella Typhimurium delivery-based combination vaccine for four heterologous Brucella antigens (Brucella lumazine synthase, proline racemase subunit A, outer-membrane protein 19, and Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase) targeting brucellosis in goats. We inoculated the attenuated Salmonella delivery-based vaccine combination subcutaneously at two different inoculation levels; 5 × 10⁹ colony-forming unit (CFU)/mL (Group B) and 5 × 10¹⁰ CFU/mL (Group C) and challenged the inoculations with virulent Brucella abortus at 6 weeks post-immunization. Serum immunoglobulin G titers against individual antigens in Salmonella immunized goats (Group C) were significantly higher than those of the non-immunized goats (Group A) at 3 and 6 weeks after vaccination. Upon antigenic stimulation, interferon-γ from peripheral blood mononuclear cells was significantly elevated in Groups B and C compared to that in Group A. The immunized goats had a significantly higher level of protection as demonstrated by the low bacterial loads in most tissues from the goats challenged with B. abortus. Relative real-time polymerase chain reaction results revealed that the expression of Brucella antigens was lower in spleen, kidney, and lung of immunized goats than of non-immunized animals. Also, treatment with our combination vaccine ameliorated histopathological lesions induced by the Brucella infection. Overall, the Salmonella Typhimurium delivery-based combination vaccine was effective in delivering immunogenic Brucella proteins, making it potentially useful in protecting livestock from brucellosis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bacterial Load , Brucella abortus , Brucella Vaccine , Brucella , Brucellosis , Goats , Immunoglobulin G , Kidney , Livestock , Lung , Proline , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Salmonella typhimurium , Salmonella , Spleen , Stem Cells , Superoxides , Vaccination
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-758846

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the correlation between oxidative stress status and key canine sperm parameters and the effect of addition of a superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) combination in egg yolk tris-citrate glucose (EYT-G) extender on semen during 10 days of storage at 4℃. Ten Boxer dogs were divided into two groups, fertile (F) and hypofertile (H), depending on pregnancy and live birth rate status in the previous year. Semen evaluation was performed on the day of collection (D0) and after 5 (D5) and 10 (D10) days of cooled storage. Sperm motility, kinetic parameters, and DNA integrity were assessed. A correlation between oxidative status and key semen parameters in both F and H groups was observed. Total and progressive motilities were significantly higher in the treated (SOD, CAT, and GPx addition) versus control groups at D10 in both F and H groups, and at D5 in the H group. DNA integrity was significantly higher in both treated groups (H and F) at D5 and D10. In conclusion, the addition of SOD, CAT, and GPx in the extender allows preservation of semen quality for up to 10 days of storage at 4℃ in both fertile and hypofertile dogs.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antioxidants , Catalase , Cats , DNA , Dogs , Egg Yolk , Fertility , Glucose , Glutathione Peroxidase , Glutathione , Live Birth , Oxidative Stress , Pregnancy , Semen Analysis , Semen Preservation , Semen , Sperm Motility , Spermatozoa , Superoxide Dismutase , Superoxides
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765743

ABSTRACT

Kidney function is highly susceptible to age-related changes, with chronic kidney disease (CKD) serving as an important cause of morbidity and mortality in older patients. The prevalence of CKD in Korea is higher among the elderly, relative to the general population, with the most significant increases seen following the onset of menopause. Under normal conditions, estrogen attenuates renal superoxide production and protects the kidney from oxidative damage. As estrogen levels are known to decrease by as much as 80% during menopause, this represents a significant risk for older women. Postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy (HRT) modulates the renin-angiotensin system, thereby reducing the progressive deterioration of renal function. Use of estrogen-based HRT has been shown to ameliorate renal function in postmenopausal women, and delay CKD progression. Renal expression of klotho, an important suppressor of aging, is markedly decreased in CKD patients, making it a promising candidate for use as a prognostic biomarker in CKD. Here, we review the key links between renal function, sex, age, and estrogen levels during menopause, and discuss the use of postmenopausal HRT in CKD attenuation.


Subject(s)
Aged , Aging , Estrogen Replacement Therapy , Estrogens , Female , Hormone Replacement Therapy , Humans , Kidney , Korea , Menopause , Mortality , Postmenopause , Prevalence , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Renin-Angiotensin System , Superoxides
16.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 366-375, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714674

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation induced by native low-density lipoprotein (nLDL) stimulation is dependent on superoxide production from activated NADPH oxidase. The present study aimed to investigate whether the novel arginase inhibitor limonin could suppress nLDL-induced VSMC proliferation and to examine related mechanisms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Isolated VSMCs from rat aortas were treated with nLDL, and cell proliferation was measured by WST-1 and BrdU assays. NADPH oxidase activation was evaluated by lucigenin-induced chemiluminescence, and phosphorylation of protein kinase C (PKC) βII and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 was determined by western blot analysis. Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was assessed using MitoSOX-red, and intracellular L-arginine concentrations were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in the presence or absence of limonin. RESULTS: Limonin inhibited arginase I and II activity in the uncompetitive mode, and prevented nLDL-induced VSMC proliferation in a p21Waf1/Cip1-dependent manner without affecting arginase protein levels. Limonin blocked PKCβII phosphorylation, but not ERK1/2 phosphorylation, and translocation of p47phox to the membrane was decreased, as was superoxide production in nLDL-stimulated VSMCs. Moreover, mitochondrial ROS generation was increased by nLDL stimulation and blocked by preincubation with limonin. Mitochondrial ROS production was responsible for the phosphorylation of PKCβII. HPLC analysis showed that arginase inhibition with limonin increases intracellular L-arginine concentrations, but decreases polyamine concentrations. L-Arginine treatment prevented PKCβII phosphorylation without affecting ERK1/2 phosphorylation. CONCLUSION: Increased L-arginine levels following limonin-dependent arginase inhibition prohibited NADPH oxidase activation in a PKCβII-dependent manner, and blocked nLDL-stimulated VSMC proliferation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Aorta , Arginase , Arginine , Blotting, Western , Bromodeoxyuridine , Cell Proliferation , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Chromatography, Liquid , Lipoproteins , Luminescence , Membranes , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular , NADP , NADPH Oxidases , Phosphorylation , Phosphotransferases , Protein Kinase C , Rats , Reactive Oxygen Species , Superoxides
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741595

ABSTRACT

An isoform of NADPH oxidase (NOX), NOX2 is a superoxide-generating enzyme involved in diverse pathophysiological events. Although its potential as a therapeutic target has been validated, there is no clinically available inhibitor. Herein, NOX2-inhibitory activity was screened with the constituents isolated from Schisandra chinensis, which has been reported to have antioxidant and reactive oxygen species (ROS)-scavenging effects. Among the partitions prepared from crude methanolic extract, a chloroform-soluble partition showed the highest NOX2-inhibitory activity in PLB-985 cell-based NOX2 assay. A total of twenty nine compounds (1 – 29) were identified from the chloroform fraction, including two first isolated compounds; dimethyl-malate (25) and 2-(2-hydroxyacetyl) furan (27) from this plants. Of these constituents, two compounds (gomisin T, and pregomisin) exhibited an NOX2-inhibitory effect with the IC₅₀ of 9.4 ± 3.6, and 62.9 ± 11.3 µM, respectively. They are confirmed not to be nonspecific superoxide scavengers in a counter assay using a xanthine-xanthine oxidase system. These findings suggest the potential application of gomisin T (6) and other constituents of S. chinensis to inhibit NOX2.


Subject(s)
Chloroform , Fruit , Lignans , Methanol , NADP , NADPH Oxidases , Oxidoreductases , Reactive Oxygen Species , Schisandra , Superoxides
18.
Journal of Integrative Medicine ; (12): 358-366, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-691054

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>Myanmar has a long history of using medicinal plants for treatment of various diseases. To the best of our knowledge there are no previous reports on antiglycation activities of medicinal plants from Myanmar. Therefore, this study was aimed to evaluate the antioxidant, antiglycation and antimicrobial properties of 20 ethanolic extracts from 17 medicinal plants indigenous to Myanmar.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>In vitro scavenging assays of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), nitric oxide (NO), superoxide (SO) radicals were used to determine the antioxidant activities. Folin-Ciocalteu's method was performed to determine the total phenolic content. Antiglycation and antimicrobial activities were detected by bovine serum albumin-fluorescent assay and agar well diffusion method.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Terminalia chebula Retz. (Fruit), containing the highest total phenolic content, showed high antioxidant activities with inhibition of 77.98% ± 0.92%, 88.95% ± 2.42%, 88.56% ± 1.87% and 70.74%± 2.57% for DPPH, NO, SO assays and antiglycation activity respectively. It also showed the antimicrobial activities against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans with inhibition zone of 19, 18, 17, 25 and 15 mm, respectively. Garcinia mangostana Linn. showed the strongest activities for SO and antiglycation assays with inhibition of 93.68% ± 2.63% and 82.37% ± 1.78%. Bark of Melia sp. was the best NO radical scavenger with inhibition rate of 89.39%± 0.60%.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The results suggest that these plants are potential sources of antioxidants with free radical-scavenging and antiglycation activities and could be useful for decreasing the oxidative stress and glycation end-product formation in glycation-related diseases.</p>


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents , Pharmacology , Anti-Infective Agents , Pharmacology , Antioxidants , Pharmacology , Bacteria , Biphenyl Compounds , Metabolism , Candida albicans , Fruit , Garcinia , Chemistry , Glycation End Products, Advanced , Metabolism , Humans , Magnoliopsida , Chemistry , Medicine, Traditional , Melia , Chemistry , Myanmar , Nitric Oxide , Metabolism , Oxidative Stress , Phenols , Pharmacology , Phytotherapy , Picrates , Metabolism , Plant Bark , Plant Extracts , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Plants, Medicinal , Superoxides , Terminalia , Chemistry
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713578

ABSTRACT

Carbon monoxide (CO) is well-known as toxic gas and intrinsic signaling molecule such as neurotransmitter and blood vessel relaxant. Recently, it has been reported that low concentration of CO exerts therapeutic actions under various pathological conditions including liver failure, heart failure, gastric cancer, and cardiac arrest. However, little has been known about the effect of CO in neurodegenerative diseases like Parkinson’s disease (PD). To test whether CO could exert a beneficial action during oxidative cell death in PD, we examined the effects of CO on 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced cell death in C6 glioma cells. Treatment of CO-releasing molecule-2 (CORM-2) significantly attenuated 6-OHDA-induced apoptotic cell death in a dose-dependent manner. CORM-2 treatment decreased Bax/Bcl2 ratio and caspase-3 activity, which had been increased by 6-OHDA. CORM-2 increased phosphorylation of NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) which is a transcription factor regulating antioxidant proteins. Subsequently, CORM-2 also increased the expression of heme oxygenase-1 and superoxide dismutases (CuZnSOD and MnSOD), which were antioxidant enzymes regulated by Nrf2. These results suggest that CO released by CORM-2 treatment may have protective effects against oxidative cell death in PD through the potentiation of cellular adaptive survival responses via activation of Nrf2 and upregulation of heme oxygenase-1, leading to increasing antioxidant defense capacity.


Subject(s)
Blood Vessels , Carbon Monoxide , Carbon , Caspase 3 , Cell Death , Glioma , Heart Arrest , Heart Failure , Heme Oxygenase-1 , Liver Failure , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Neuroprotection , Neurotransmitter Agents , NF-E2-Related Factor 2 , Oxidopamine , Phosphorylation , Stomach Neoplasms , Superoxides , Transcription Factors , Up-Regulation
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716910

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To investigate the pathophysiological role of superoxide anion and total reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by the spermatozoa of men with varicocele and its relationship with varicocele grade and semen parameters. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This prospective study included 34 men with grade II–III varicocele, regardless of their fertility status. The control group consisted of 13 healthy men. Semen characteristics were examined according to the 2010 World Health Organization criteria. The swim-up method was used for sperm preparation. Total ROS and superoxide anion production was assayed by luminol- and lucigenin-dependent chemiluminescence (CL), respectively. RESULTS: The men with varicocele had significantly higher total ROS and superoxide anion levels than the healthy control subjects (2.9±0.4 relative light unit (RLU) vs. 2.4±0.1 RLU, p=0.001 for luminol-dependent CL and 2.8±0.4 RLU vs. 2.3±0.2 RLU, p=0.002 for lucigenin-dependent CL). Cases of grade III varicocele had significantly higher superoxide anion and total ROS levels than grade II cases and control subjects (p < 0.001). Superoxide anion and total ROS levels were negatively correlated with all semen parameters. CONCLUSIONS: The superoxide anion levels produced by spermatozoa were significantly higher in varicocele patients than in control subjects. ROS production was related to increased varicocele grade, impaired semen concentration, and abnormal morphology in men with varicocele. Our findings suggest that superoxide anion overproduction may be an important step in the cascade of ROS-related damage to spermatozoa, resulting in impaired semen parameters in patients with varicocele.


Subject(s)
Fertility , Humans , Luminescence , Male , Methods , Oxidative Stress , Prospective Studies , Reactive Oxygen Species , Semen , Spermatozoa , Superoxides , Varicocele , World Health Organization
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