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1.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 51: 28-39, May. 2021. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1343460

ABSTRACT

Science has greatly contributed to the advancement of technology and to the innovation of production processes and their applications. Cleaning products have become indispensable in today's world, as personal and environmental hygiene is important to all societies worldwide. Such products are used in the home, in most work environments and in the industrial sectors. Most of the detergents on the market are synthesised from petrochemical products. However, the interest in reducing the use of products harmful to human health and the environment has led to the search for detergents formulated with natural, biodegradable surfactant components of biological (plant or microbiological) origin or chemically synthesised from natural raw materials usually referred to as green surfactants. This review addresses the different types, properties, and uses of surfactants, with a focus on green surfactants, and describes the current scenario as well as the projections for the future market economy related to the production of the different types of green surfactants marketed in the world.


Subject(s)
Surface-Active Agents , Industry , Biological Products , Detergents
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888010

ABSTRACT

This study explores the emulsifying material basis of Angelicae Sinensis Radix volatile oil (ASRVO) based on partial least squares (PLS) method and hydrophile-lipophile balance (HLB) value.The turbidity of ASRVO emulsion samples from Gansu,Yunnan,and Qinghai was determined and the chemical components in the emulsion were analyzed by GC-MS.The PLS model was established with the chemical components as the independent variable and the turbidity as the dependent variable and evaluated with indexes R~2X and R~2Y.The chemical components which were in positive correlation with the turbidity were selected and the HLB values were calculated to determine the emulsification material basis of ASRVO.The PLS models for the 81 emulsion samples had high R~2X and R~2Y values,which showed good fitting ability.Seven chemical components,2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol,trans-ligustilide,3-butylidene-1(3H)-isobenzofuranone,dodecane,1-methyl-4-(1-methylethylidene)-cyclohexene,trans-beta-ocimene,and decane,had positive correlation with turbidity.Particularly,the HLB value of 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol was 4.4,which was the HLB range of surfactants to be emulsifiers and 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol was positively correlated with turbidity of the ASRVO emulsion samples from the main producing area.Therefore,2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol was the emulsifying material basis of ASRVO.The selected emulsifying substances can lay a foundation for exploring the emulsification mechanism and demulsification solution of ASRVO.


Subject(s)
China , Emulsions , Least-Squares Analysis , Oils, Volatile , Surface-Active Agents
3.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 615-624, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878586

ABSTRACT

To effectively solve the serious impact of high oil in the kitchen wastewater on the downstream treatment process, an excellent oil-degrading strain Aeromonas allosaccarophila CY-01 was immobilized to prepare Chitosan-Aeromonas pellets (CH-CY01) by using chitosan as a carrier. Oil degradation condition and efficiency of CH-CY01 pellets were assessed. The growth of immobilized CH-CY01 was almost unaffected, and the maximum degradation rate of soybean oil was 89.7%. Especially at 0.5% NaCl concentration, oil degradation efficiency of CH-CY01 was increased by 20% compared with free cells. In the presence of a surfactant (sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate) at 1 mg/L, the degradation efficiency of oil by CH-CY01 was increased by 40%. Moreover, using the high-oil catering wastewater as the substrate, more than 80% of the solid oil was degraded with 1% (V/V) CH-CY01 pellets treatment for 7 days, significantly higher than that of free cells. In summary, immobilized CH-CY01 significantly improved the efficiency of oil degradation.


Subject(s)
Aeromonas , Chitosan , Surface-Active Agents , Waste Water
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 80(3): 615-620, July-Sept. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132401

ABSTRACT

Abstract Synthetic dyes, particularly reactive and acid dyes, are commonly used in the textile industry because of their advantages as excellent color fastness and brightness. Also, surfactants are used for an increment of coloring success in the textile industry. One of the major problems concerning textile wastewater is the treatment of the effluents containing both dyes and surfactants. Biological treatment systems are recommended as useful, economic and eco-friendly methods for treatment of industrial wastewater. The purpose of this study was to investigate the binary removal of a textile dye and a surfactant by growing Aspergillus versicolor culture in molasses medium. The effect of dye and surfactant concentration on the removal of dye and surfactant was determined. This study resulted that 100% of the surfactant and dye molecules removed together with the formation of a dye-surfactant complex by fungus. It is concluded that binary removal systems are very efficient for industrial wastewater treatment.


Resumo Os corantes sintéticos, particularmente corantes reativos e ácidos, são comumente usados ​​na indústria têxtil devido às suas vantagens como excelente solidez da cor e brilho. Além disso, os surfactantes são usados ​​para incrementar o sucesso da coloração na indústria têxtil. Um dos principais problemas relativos às águas residuais têxteis são o tratamento dos efluentes contendo corantes e surfactantes. Os sistemas de tratamento biológico são recomendados como métodos úteis, econômicos e ecológicos para o tratamento de efluentes industriais. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a remoção binária de um corante têxtil e um surfactante, cultivando a cultura Aspergillus versicolor em meio de melaço. O efeito das concentrações de corante e surfactante nas remoções de corante e surfactante foi determinado. Este estudo resultou na remoção de 100% das moléculas de surfactante e corante juntamente com a formação de um complexo corante-surfactante por fungos. Conclui-se que os sistemas de remoção binária são muito eficientes no tratamento de efluentes industriais.


Subject(s)
Water Pollutants, Chemical , Waste Water , Surface-Active Agents , Textile Industry , Waste Disposal, Fluid , Color , Coloring Agents , Industrial Waste
5.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 47: 51-58, sept. 2020. tab, ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1253026

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The present study describes the production of biosurfactant (BS) and emulsifier (BE) by the filamentous fungus Mucor hiemalis UCP 0039, as well as the characterization and stability of the both biomolecules for environmental or industrial applications. RESULTS: Biosurfactants and bioemulsifiers are amphiphilic compounds and are produced as extracellular molecules. The results showed that bioproduct obtained by shaker condition reduced the water surface tension of 72 to 32 mN/m and reached an emulsification index of 96%, while the static cultivation resulted in a biomolecule with a surface tension of 40 mN/m and an emulsification index of 96%, suggesting the production of a biosurfactant and bioemulsifier, respectively. The compounds showed glycolipid nature but the biosurfactant presented cationic charge, while the bioemulsifier, anionic charge. Thus, the results confirmed that M. hiemalis produced two distinct biomolecules under different parameters and in the same culture medium. CONCLUSIONS: It is the first time that biosurfactant and emulsifier production has been described in the same medium and under different physical conditions by Mucor hiemalis. Both biomolecules showed thermal stability, as well as have significant effect on the viscosity of hydrophobic compounds, indicating the excellent potential for environmental safety or industrial applications to improve the efficiency of sustainable and economic technologies.


Subject(s)
Surface-Active Agents/metabolism , Emulsifying Agents/metabolism , Mucor/metabolism , Soil , Surface-Active Agents , Soybean Oil
6.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 46: 14-21, jul. 2020. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1223215

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Biosurfactants are biomolecules that have the potential to be applied in food formulations due to their low toxicity and ability to improve sensory parameters. Considering the ability of yeasts to produce biosurfactants with food-friendly properties, the aim of the present study was to apply a biosurfactant produced by Candida utilis in the formulation of cookies. RESULTS: The biosurfactant was obtained with a yield of 24.22 ± 0.23 g/L. The characterization analysis revealed that the structure of a metabolized fatty acid with high oleic acid content (68.63 ± 0.61%), and the thermogravimetric analysis demonstrated good stability at temperatures lower than 200°C, potential for food applications. The biosurfactant also exhibited satisfactory antioxidant activity at concentrations evaluated, without cytotoxic potential for cell strains, L929 and RAW 264.7, according to the (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2- yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The incorporation of the surfactant into the dough of a standard cookie formulation to replace animal fat was carried out, achieving a softer, spongier product without significantly altering the physical and physicochemical properties or energy value. CONCLUSION: The thermal stability and antioxidant activity of the biosurfactant produced by C. utilis were verified, besides the positive contribution in the texture analysis of the cookies. Therefore, this biomolecule presents itself as a potential ingredient in flour-based sweet food formulations.


Subject(s)
Surface-Active Agents/metabolism , Candida/metabolism , Food, Formulated , Cookies , Temperature , Yeasts , Food Industry , Food Additives , Antioxidants
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878861

ABSTRACT

To prepare and optimize the self-microemulsion co-loaded with tenuifolin and β-asarone(TF/ASA-SMEDDS) and evaluate its quality. The prescription compositions of TF/ASA-SMEDDS were screened by solubility test, single factor test and pseudo-tern-ary phase diagram, and the prescriptions were further optimized by Box-Behnken response surface method, with the drug loading and particle size as the evaluation indexes. Then the optimized TF/ASA-SMEDDS was evaluated for emulsified appearance, particle size, morphology and drug release in vitro. The optimized prescription for TF/ASA-SMEDDS was as follows: caprylic citrate triglyceride polyoxyethylene castor oil-glycerol(10.8∶39.2∶50), drug loading of(5.563±0.065) mg·g~(-1) for tenuifolin and(5.526±0.022) mg·g~(-1) for β-asarone; uniform and transparent pan-blue nanoemulsion can be formed after emulsification, with particle size of(28.84±0.44) nm. TEM showed that TF/ASA-SMEDDS can form spherical droplets with a uniform particle size after emulsification; In vitro release test results showed that the drug release rate and cumulative release of tenuifolin and β-asarone were significantly improved. The preparation process of TF/ASA-SMEDDS was simple and can effectively improve in vitro release of tenuifolin and β-asarone.


Subject(s)
Anisoles , Biological Availability , Diterpenes, Kaurane , Drug Delivery Systems , Emulsions , Particle Size , Solubility , Surface-Active Agents
8.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 861-867, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-826890

ABSTRACT

Lignocellulose is a major biomass resource for the production of biofuel ethanol. Due to its abundance, environmental friendliness and renewability, the utilization of lignocellulose is promising to solve energy shortage. Surfactant can effectively promote the enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulose. By discussing the influence and mechanism of different surfactants on the enzymatic hydrolysis, we provide references for finding appropriate surfactants in enzymatic hydrolysis process.


Subject(s)
Biofuels , Biomass , Hydrolysis , Lignin , Metabolism , Sugars , Metabolism , Surface-Active Agents , Pharmacology
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828677

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To evaluate the efficacy and safety of less invasive surfactant administration (LISA) in the treatment of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (NRDS).@*METHODS@#PubMed, Cochrane Library, Embase, China Biology Medicine disc, China Scientific Journal Database, CNKI Database, and Wanfang Database were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on the use of LISA strategy in the treatment of NRDS. Literature screening and quality assessment were performed according to inclusion and exclusion criteria. Review Manager 5.3 software was used to perform the Meta analysis.@*RESULTS@#A total of 9 RCTs were included, with a total of 1 212 children with NRDS. There were 611 children in the experimental group (treated with LISA strategy) and 601 children in the control group [treated with intubation-surfactant-extubation (INSURE) strategy]. The Meta analysis showed that the use of LISA strategy reduced the rate of mechanical ventilation within 72 hours after birth (OR=0.39, 95%CI: 0.29-0.51, P0.05). There was no significant difference in the rate of repeated use of pulmonary surfactant (PS) between the two groups (P>0.05), but there was a higher incidence rate of PS reflux observed by LISA strategy (OR=2.60, 95%CI: 1.64-4.12, P<0.001).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Compared with INSURE strategy, LISA strategy has advantages in reducing the need for mechanical ventilation and the incidence rates of bronchopulmonary dysplasia and pneumothorax in children with NRDS.


Subject(s)
China , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Premature , Pulmonary Surfactants , Therapeutic Uses , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn , Drug Therapy , Surface-Active Agents
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828399

ABSTRACT

In order to improve the supersaturation and maintenance time of drug dispersion in curcumin self-nanoemulsion(CUR-SNEDDS), precipitation inhibitors(PPIs) were introduced to prepare curcumin supersaturated self-emulsion(CUR-SSNEDDS). The composition of CUR-SNEDDS prescriptions was selected through the solubility test, the compatibility of oil phase and surfactant, the investigation of the emulsifying ability of the surfactant and the drawing of the pseudo-ternary phase diagram. Analytic hierarchy process was used in combination with central composite design-response surface method to optimize the prescription. The type and dosage of precipitation inhibitors(PPIs) were selected to maintain the supersaturated concentration and duration of CUR in artificial gastrointestinal fluids. At the same time, polarizing microscope was used to evaluate the crystallization inhibition effect and the quality and in vitro release behavior of CUR-SSNEDDS. The prepared CUR-SSNEDDS prescription was capryol 90-kolliphor RH40-transcutol HP-Soluplus(7.93∶66.71∶25.36∶5), with the drug loading of(65.12±1.25) mg·g~(-1). CUR-SSNEDDS was transparent yellow, and the nanoemulsion droplets were spherical with uniform distribution. The emulsification time was(21.02±0.13) s, the average particle size was(57.03±0.35) nm, the polydispersity index(PDI) was(0.23 ± 0.01), and the Zeta potential was(-18.10±1.30) mV. CUR-SSNEDDS significantly inhibited the generation and growth of crystals after in vitro dilution. The supersaturation could be maintained above 10 within 2 h, and the dissolution rate and degree of CUR in artificial gastrointestinal fluid were significantly increased. Soluplus could effectively maintain the supersaturated state of CUR and enhance CUR dissolution in vitro.


Subject(s)
Biological Availability , Curcumin , Emulsions , Nanoparticles , Particle Size , Solubility , Surface-Active Agents
11.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 113(1): 11-17, July 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011228

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Pericardium tissue allograft can be used for surgical repair in several procedures. One of the tissue engineering strategies is the process of decellularization. This process decreases immunogenic response, but it may modify the natural extracellular matrix composition and behavior. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of cell removal, maintenance of extracellular matrix properties and mechanical integrity of decellularized human pericardium using a low concentration solution of sodium dodecyl sulfate. Methods: Decellularization was performed with sodium dodecyl sulfate and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid. Histological analysis, DNA quantification, evaluation of glycosaminoglycans and collagen were performed. Biomechanical assay was performed using tensile test to compare the decellularization effects on tissue properties of tensile strength, elongation and elastic modulus. P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: There was reduction in visible nuclei present in pericardium tissue after decellularization, but it retained collagen and elastin bundles similar to fresh pericardium. The DNA contents of the decellularized pericardium were significantly reduced to less than 511.23 ± 120.4 ng per mg of dry weight (p < 0.001). The biomechanical assay showed no significant difference for fresh or decellularized tissue. Conclusion: The decellularization process reduces cell content as well as extracellular matrix components without changing its biomechanical properties.


Resumo Fundameto: O enxerto de pericárdio pode ser usado em muitos procedimentos de correção cirúrgica. Uma das estratégias da engenharia tecidual é o processo de descelularização. No entanto, embora esse processo diminua a resposta imunogênica, a descelularização pode modificar tanto o comportamento como a composição da matriz extracelular natural. Objetivos: Avaliar a eficácia da descelularização usando baixa concentração de dodecil sulfato de sódio na remoção celular, na manutenção das propriedades da matriz extracelular e na integridade mecânica do pericárdio humano descelularizado. Métodos: A descelularização foi realizada com dodecil sulfato de sódio e ácido etilenodiamino tetra-acético. Foi realizada análise histológica, quantificação de DNA, e avaliação de glicosaminoglicanos e colágeno. O estudo biomecânico foi conduzido pelo teste de tração para comparar os efeitos da descelularização sobre as propriedades teciduais de resistência à tração, alongamento e módulo de elasticidade. Foi considerado um valor de p < 0,05 como estatisticamente significativo. Resultados: Observou-se uma redução na quantidade de núcleos presentes no pericárdio após a descelularização, apesar de manter quantidades similares de feixes de elastina e de colágeno. As concentrações de DNA do pericárdio descelularizado foram significativamente reduzidas para menos que 511,23 ± 120,4 ng por mg de peso seco (p < 0,001). O teste biomecânico não apontou diferenças entre os tecidos fresco e descelularizado. Conclusão: A descelularização reduziu a concentração de células bem como os componentes da matriz extracelular sem afetar suas propriedades biomecânicas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Pericardium/cytology , Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate/pharmacology , Surface-Active Agents/pharmacology , Cell Separation/methods , Tissue Engineering/methods , Pericardium/drug effects , Biomechanical Phenomena , Regenerative Medicine , Tissue Scaffolds
12.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 38: 40-48, Mar. 2019. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1051342

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The use of agro-industrial wastes to produce high value-added biomolecules such as biosurfactants is a promising approach for lowering the total costs of production. This study aimed to produce biosurfactants using Rhizopus arrhizus UCP 1607, with crude glycerol (CG) and corn steep liquor (CSL) as substrates. In addition, the biomolecule was characterized, and its efficiency in removing petroderivatives from marine soil was investigated. RESULTS: A 22 factorial design was applied, and the best condition for producing the biosurfactant was determined in assay 4 (3% CG and 5% CSL). The biosurfactant reduced the surface tension of water from 72 to 28.8 mN/m and produced a yield of 1.74 g/L. The preliminary biochemical characterization showed that the biosurfactant consisted of proteins (38.0%), carbohydrates (35.4%), and lipids (5.5%). The compounds presented an anionic character, nontoxicity, and great stability for all conditions tested. The biomolecule displayed great ability in dispersing hydrophobic substrates in water, thereby resulting in 53.4 cm2 ODA. The best efficiency of the biosurfactant in removing the pollutant diesel oil from marine soil was 79.4%. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated the ability of R. arrhizus UCP1607 to produce a low-cost biosurfactant characterized as a glycoprotein and its potential use in the bioremediation of the hydrophobic diesel oil pollutant in marine soil


Subject(s)
Rhizopus/metabolism , Surface-Active Agents/metabolism , Gasoline , Soil , Surface-Active Agents/toxicity , Surface Tension , Biodegradation, Environmental , Marine Environment , Zea mays , Agribusiness , Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions , Glycerol , Industrial Waste , Micelles , Mucorales/metabolism
13.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(1): 44-52, jan.-fev. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-989372

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to assess the vitality and lung function of preterm lambs. Twenty seven preterm lambs were divided in four groups. Group I (n=6) preterm lambs/ control; group II (n=9) lambs born to mothers that were treated with dexamethasone antepartum; group III (n=6) lambs treated with surfactant; and group IV (n=6) lambs treated with surfactant and born to mothers that were treated with dexamethasone antepartum. The APGAR score was performed after birth (T0) and 15 minutes later (T1/4) to assess vitality. The vital signs, blood gas analysis, spirometry and capnometry were assessed immediately after birth and continued until 48 hours. Chest radiographs were performed at T0, T24 and T48. Significant rectal temperature interactions occurred at T1 and T6 depending on the type of treatment used. All animals showed low pH values, which were associated with high pCO2 values and HCO3 -values that increased over time from immediately after birth to two days of age. Higher tidal volume values were observed at T1/4, T1 and T24 when the animals were not treated with surfactant. Capnometry showed significant interactions between treatments at T0. Premature animals showed low vitality and impaired pulmonary function.(AU)


O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar a vitalidade e a função pulmonar de cordeiros prematuros. Vinte e sete cordeiros foram divididos em quatro grupos: grupo I (n= 6), cordeiros prematuros/controle; grupo II (n= 9), cordeiros prematuros nascidos de mães tratadas com dexametasona antes do parto; grupo III (n= 6), cordeiros prematuros tratados com surfactante; e grupo IV (n= 6), cordeiros prematuros tratados com surfactante e nascidos de mães tratadas com dexametasona antes do parto. O escore APGAR foi realizado após o nascimento (T0) e 15 minutos depois (T1/4). Os parâmetros vitais, hemogasometria, espirometria e capnometria foram avaliados após o nascimento até 48 horas. As radiografias torácicas foram realizadas em T0, T24 e T48. Interações significativas de temperatura retal ocorreram em T1 e T6, dependendo do tipo de tratamento utilizado. Todos os animais apresentaram valores de pH baixos, que foram associados com altos valores de pCO2 e valores de HCO3 que aumentaram ao longo do tempo. Os maiores valores de volume corrente foram observados em T1/4, T1 e T24, quando os animais não foram tratados com surfactante. A capnometria mostrou interações significativas entre tratamentos em T0. Os animais prematuros apresentaram pouca vitalidade e deficiência da função pulmonar.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Respiratory Function Tests/veterinary , Surface-Active Agents/analysis , Dexamethasone/analysis , Sheep , Cesarean Section/veterinary
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760206

ABSTRACT

Following the first successful trial of surfactant replacement therapy for preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) by Fujiwara in 1980, several animal-derived natural surfactants and synthetic surfactants have been developed. Synthetic surfactants were designed to overcome limitations of natural surfactants such as cost, immune reactions, and infections elicited by animal proteins contained in natural surfactants. However, first-generation synthetic surfactants that are protein-free have failed to prove their superiority over natural surfactants because they lack surfactant protein (SP). Lucinactant, a second-generation synthetic surfactant containing the SP-B analog, was better or at least as effective as the natural surfactant, suggesting that lucinactant could act an alternative to natural surfactants. Lucinactant was approved by the U. S. Food and Drug Administration in March 2012 as the fifth surfactant to treat neonatal RDS. CHF5633, a second-generation synthetic surfactant containing SP-B and SP-C analogs, was effective and safe in a human multicenter cohort study for preterm infants. Many comparative studies of natural surfactants used worldwide have reported different efficacies for different preparations. However, these differences are believed to due to site variations, not actual differences. The more important thing than the composition of the surfactant in improving outcome is the timing and mode of administration of the surfactant. Novel synthetic surfactants containing synthetic phospholipid incorporated with SP-B and SP-C analogs will potentially represent alternatives to natural surfactants in the future, while improvement of treatment modalities with less-invasive or noninvasive methods of surfactant administration will be the most important task to be resolved.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cohort Studies , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Premature , Pulmonary Surfactants , Surface-Active Agents , United States Food and Drug Administration
16.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 55: e18736, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011637

ABSTRACT

The major objective of this study was to investigate the effect of biodegradable polymer type and surfactant concentration on various characteristics viz. particle size, entrapment efficiency and drug release rate constant of aqueous core nanocapsules (ACNs) containing tenofovirdisoproxil fumarate. In this study, the nanocapsules were prepared by modified multiple emulsion technique with biodegradable polymers viz. poly(lactide-co-glycolide) of two different grades (PLGA RG502H and PLGA RG503H) and poly lactic acid (PLA R203H); and the surfactant employed was span 80. The experiments were designed under response surface methodology by employing the Design Expert software. Entrapment efficiency, particle size and drug release rate constant were taken as response variables. The prepared nanocapsules were subjected to characterization studies and the obtained results were statistically analyzed by Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) for response surface 2-Factorial Interaction model. ANOVA studies showed that the influence of both factors on all the response variables were significant at p<0.05. The optimized formulation was found to have the entrapment efficiency of 71.58%, particle size of 252.41 nm and the drug release rate constant of 0.045 h-1; thus, indicating that the ACNs were obtained with finest characteristics. SEM studies showed that the particles were spherical.


Subject(s)
Surface-Active Agents/adverse effects , Analysis of Variance , Nanocapsules/analysis , In Vitro Techniques/instrumentation , Pharmaceutical Preparations
17.
J. appl. oral sci ; 27: e20180157, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-975884

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of surfactants 0.2% or 0.1% cetrimide (Cet) or 0.008% benzalkonium chloride (BAK) on 2.5% calcium hypochlorite (Ca(OCl)2), and compare to sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), regarding the properties of pH, free chlorine content, surface tension, contact angle, pulp dissolution and antimicrobial activity. Material and Methods The pH and free chlorine content were evaluated by digital pHmeter and by titration, respectively. Surface tension was measured by the platinum ring technique with a Du Noüy tensiometer. The solution's contact angle in human dentin surfaces was checked by Drop Shape Analyzer software. Bovine pulps were used for pulp dissolution analysis and the dissolving capacity was expressed by percent weight loss. Antimicrobial activity over Enterococcus faecalis was evaluated by the agar diffusion method. Results Surfactants addition to Ca(OCl)2 and NaOCl did not alter the pH, free chlorine content and pulp dissolution properties. Ca(OCl)2 had the highest surface tension among all tested solutions. When surfactants were added to Ca(OCl)2 and NaOCl, there was a significant reduction of surface tension and contact angle values. The addition of 0.2% or 0.1% Cet enhanced antimicrobial activity of both Ca(OCl)2 and NaOCl. Conclusion Surfactant addition to 2.5% Ca(OCl)2 has shown acceptable outcomes for pH, free chlorine content, surface tension, contact angle, pulp dissolution and antimicrobial activity. Furthermore, the addition of 0.2% Cet showed better results for all tested properties.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Cattle , Root Canal Irrigants/chemistry , Sodium Hypochlorite/chemistry , Surface-Active Agents/chemistry , Benzalkonium Compounds/chemistry , Calcium Compounds/chemistry , Cetrimonium/chemistry , Reference Values , Sodium Hypochlorite/pharmacology , Surface-Active Agents/pharmacology , Surface Properties , Benzalkonium Compounds/pharmacology , Materials Testing , Chlorine/analysis , Reproducibility of Results , Analysis of Variance , Enterococcus faecalis/drug effects , Calcium Compounds/pharmacology , Statistics, Nonparametric , Dental Pulp/drug effects , Dentin/drug effects , Cetrimonium/pharmacology , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
18.
Arq. Inst. Biol ; 85: e1022017, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-999077

ABSTRACT

Bisphenol-A is currently considered an environmental pollutant, capable of interfering in the endocrine system of organisms and causing alterations in its development and reproductive system. An alternative method to the chemical treatment of this pollutant has been the use of oxidative enzymes, especially laccases produced by fungi. In order to reduce production costs, agro-industrial waste can be used in the culture medium composition. Nonionic surfactants, which are only slightly toxic to biological membranes, can be applied, as well as Tween 80, to facilitate the excretion of these enzymes into the culture medium. The objectives of this work were: a) characterize the immersion water of banana straw used in the formulation of the culture medium; b) evaluate laccase production by Pleurotus sajor-caju in culture medium with and without addition of Tween 80, through shaken flasks; c) evaluate the efficiency of the crude enzyme broth in degrading bisphenol-A. The shaken flasks were incubated at 30°C for 12 days. The immersion water had a C:N ratio of 13.8, ash percentage of 28.6%, and pH close to neutrality. The addition of Tween 80 on the culture medium (7.5%, m/v) yielded laccase activity and productivity values equal to 3,016.47 U L-1 and 502.7 U L-1 day-1, respectively. These values were 50 and 33.5 times higher than those obtained in the culture medium without addition of Tween 80 for laccase activity and productivity, respectively. The crude enzyme broth degraded 100% of bisphenol-A after 48 hours, regardless of concentration (500, 750 and 1,000 mg L-1).(AU)


O bisfenol-A é considerado um poluente ambiental capaz de interferir no sistema endócrino dos organismos, ocasionando alterações em seu desenvolvimento e sistema de reprodução. Um método alternativo ao tratamento químico desse tipo de poluente tem sido a utilização de enzimas oxidativas, especialmente as lacases, produzidas por fungos. A fim de diminuir custos de produção, resíduos agroindustriais podem compor o meio de cultivo. Assim, surfactantes não iônicos e pouco tóxicos para as membranas biológicas, como o Tween 80, podem ser utilizados para facilitar a excreção dessas enzimas para o meio de cultivo. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram: caracterizar quimicamente o resíduo água de imersão de palha de bananeira, usado na formulação do meio de cultivo; avaliar a produção de lacase por Pleurotus sajor-caju em meio de cultivo líquido (frascos Erlenmeyer) com e sem adição de Tween 80; e avaliar a eficiência do caldo enzimático bruto em degradar bisfenol-A. Os frascos foram incubados a 30°C, por 12 dias. A água de imersão apresentou relação C:N 13,8, percentual de cinzas 28,6% e pH próximo da neutralidade. O cultivo adicionado de Tween 80 (7,5%, m/v) propiciou valores de atividade e produtividade em lacase iguais a 3.016,47 U L-1 e 502,7 U L-1 dia-1, respectivamente. Esses valores são 50 e 33,5 vezes maiores que os obtidos no cultivo sem adição de Tween 80, para atividade e produtividade em lacase, respectivamente. O caldo enzimático bruto degradou 100% do bisfenol-A após 48 horas, independentemente da concentração (500, 750 e 1.000 mg L-1).(AU)


Subject(s)
Polysorbates , Surface-Active Agents , Pleurotus , Endocrine System , Musa , Laccase , Environmental Pollutants , Enzymes
19.
Arq. Inst. Biol ; 85: e0502017, 2018. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-995684

ABSTRACT

A wide variety of bacteria is far more exploited than fungi as biosurfactants (BS) or bioemulsifiers (BE), using renewable sources. BS are considered to be environmentally safe and offer advantages over synthetic surfactants. However, the BS yield depends largely on the metabolic pathways of the microorganisms and the nutritional medium. The production of BS or BE uses several cultural conditions, in which a small change in carbon and nitrogen sources affects the quantity of BS or BE produced. The type and quantity of microbial BS or BE produced depend mainly on the producer organism, and factors such as carbon and nitrogen sources, trace elements, temperature and aeration. The diversity of BS or BE makes it interesting to apply them in the pharmaceutical and cosmetics industries, agriculture, public health, food processes, detergents, when treating oily residues, environmental pollution control and bioremediation. Thus, this paper reviews and addresses the biotechnological potential of yeasts and filamentous fungi for producing, characterizing and applying BS or BE.(AU)


Uma grande variedade de espécies bacterianas é bem mais explorada que os fungos como agentes biossurfactantes (BS) ou bioemulsificantes (BE), usando fontes renováveis. Os BS são considerados ecologicamente seguros e oferecem vantagens sobre os surfactantes sintéticos. Entretanto o rendimento de BS depende grandemente das vias metabólicas dos micro-organismos e do meio nutricional. A produção de BS ou BE utiliza várias condições culturais, em que uma pequena alteração nas fontes de carbono e nitrogênio afeta a produção de BS. O tipo e a quantidade de BS ou BE microbianos produzidos dependem principalmente do organismo produtor e de fatores como fontes de carbono e nitrogênio, oligoelementos, temperatura e aeração. A diversidade de BS ou BE torna-os interessantes para aplicação nos campos farmacêutico, cosmético, da agricultura, da saúde pública, em processos alimentares, detergentes, no tratamento de resíduos oleosos, no controle de poluição ambiental e na biorremediação. Assim, a presente revisão aborda o potencial biotecnológico de leveduras e fungos filamentosos para produção, caracterização e aplicações de BS ou BE.(AU)


Subject(s)
Surface-Active Agents , Bacteria , Substrates for Biological Treatment
20.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 51(2): e6657, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889026

ABSTRACT

Surfactants are amphipathic compounds containing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic groups, capable to lower the surface or interfacial tension. Considering the advantages of the use of biosurfactants produced by microorganisms, the aim of this paper was to develop and characterize a biosurfactant produced by Streptomyces sp. DPUA1559 isolated from lichens of the Amazon region. The microorganism was cultured in a mineral medium containing 1% residual frying soybean oil as the carbon source. The kinetics of biosurfactant production was accompanied by reducing the surface tension of the culture medium from 60 to values around 27.14 mN/m, and by the emulsification index, which showed the efficiency of the biosurfactant as an emulsifier of hydrophobic compounds. The yield of the isolated biosurfactant was 1.74 g/L, in addition to the excellent capability of reducing the surface tension (25.34 mN/m), as observed from the central composite rotational design when the biosurfactant was produced at pH 8.5 at 28°C. The critical micelle concentration of the biosurfactant was determined as 0.01 g/mL. The biosurfactant showed thermal and pH stability regarding the surface tension reduction, and tolerance under high salt concentrations. The isolated biosurfactant showed no toxicity to the micro-crustacean Artemia salina, and to the seeds of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.). The biochemistry characterization of the biosurfactant showed a single protein band, an acid character and a molecular weight around 14.3 kDa, suggesting its glycoproteic nature. The results are promising for the industrial application of this new biosurfactant.


Subject(s)
Streptomyces/metabolism , Surface-Active Agents/metabolism , Lichens/microbiology , Reference Values , Seeds/drug effects , Temperature , Time Factors , Soybean Oil/chemistry , Colony Count, Microbial , Analysis of Variance , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , Culture Media , Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel , Fermentation , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
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