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China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 6075-6081, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008806


With the continuous exploration of microemulsions as solvents for traditional Chinese medicine extraction, polyoxyethy-lene(35) castor oil(CrEL), a commonly used surfactant, is being utilized by researchers. However, the problem of detecting residues of this surfactant in microemulsion extracts has greatly hampered the further development of microemulsion solvents. Based on the chemical structures of the components in CrEL and the content determination method of castor oil in the 2020 edition of the Chinese Pharmacopoeia(Vol. Ⅳ), this study employed gas chromatography(GC) and single-factor experiments to optimize the preparation method of methyl ricinoleate from CrEL. The conversion coefficient between the two was validated, and the optimal sample preparation method was used to process microemulsion extracts of Zexie Decoction from three batches. The content of methyl ricinoleate generated was determined, and the content of CrEL in the microemulsion extracts of Zexie Decoction was calculated using the above conversion coefficient. The results showed that the optimal preparation method for CrEL was determined. Specifically, 10 mL of 1 mol·L~(-1) KOH-methanol solution was heated at 60 ℃ for 15 min in a water bath. Subsequently, 10 mL of boron trifluoride etherate-methanol(1∶3) solution was heated at 60 ℃ for 15 min in a water bath, followed by extraction with n-hexane twice. CrEL could stably produce 20.84% methyl ricinoleate. According to this conversion coefficient, the average mass concentration of CrEL in the three batches of Zexie Decoction microemulsion extracts was 11.94 mg·mL~(-1), which was not significantly different from the CrEL mass concentration of 11.57 mg·mL~(-1) during microemulsion formulation, indicating that the established content determination method of this study was highly accurate, sensitive, and repeatable. It can be used for subsequent research on microemulsion extracts of Zexie Decoction and provide a reference for quality control of other drug formulations containing CrEL.

Polyethylene Glycols/chemistry , Castor Oil , Methanol , Surface-Active Agents/chemistry , Solvents , Water/chemistry , Emulsions/chemistry
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 5540-5547, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008750


The effective components of flavonoids in the "Pueraria lobata-Hovenia dulcis" drug pair have low bioavailability in vivo due to their unstable characteristics. This study used microemulsions with amphoteric carrier properties to solve this problem. The study drew pseudo-ternary phase diagrams through titration compatibility experiments of the oil phase with emulsifiers and co-emulsifiers and screened the prescription composition of blank microemulsions. The study used average particle size and PDI as evaluation indicators, and the central composite design-response surface method(CCD-RSM) was used to optimize the prescription; high-dosage drug-loaded microemulsions were obtained, and their physicochemical properties, appearance, and stability were evaluated. The results showed that when ethyl butyrate was used as the oil phase, polysorbate 80(tween 80) as the surfactant, and anhydrous ethanol as the cosurfactant, the maximum microemulsion area was obtained. When the difference in results was small, K_(m )of 1∶4 was chosen to ensure the safety of the prescription. The prescription composition optimized by the CCD-RSM was ethyl butyrate(16.28%), tween 80(9.59%), and anhydrous ethanol(38.34%). When the dosage reached 3% of the system mass, the total flavonoid microemulsion prepared had a clear and transparent appearance, with average particle size, PDI, and potential of(74.25±1.58)nm, 0.277±0.043, and(-0.08±0.07) mV, respectively. The microemulsion was spherical and evenly distributed under transmission electron microscopy. The centrifugal stability and temperature stability were good, and there was no layering or demulsification phenomenon, which significantly improved the in vitro dissolution of total flavonoids.

Polysorbates/chemistry , Flavonoids , Pueraria , Surface-Active Agents/chemistry , Ethanol , Emulsions , Particle Size , Solubility
Hig. aliment ; 33(288/289): 530-534, abr.-maio 2019. tab, ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1481990


Biossurfactantes são compostos com características tensoativas, produzidos por diversas espécies de microrganismos. Nesse estudo, a composição de ácidos graxos de biossurfactantes produzidos por fungos filamentosos endofíticos foram analisados. Para a produção dos biossurfactantes, empregou-se fontes de carbono (óleo vegetal de milho) e nitrogênio (ureia) de baixo custo no meio de cultivo. A composição de ácidos graxos foi determinada a partir da cromatografia gasosa. Foram identificados seis picos de ésteres metílicos de ácidos graxos, com predominância do ácido linoleico (C18:2n-6c) e ácido oleico (C18:1n-9c). Tanto os ácidos graxos saturados quanto os insaturados foram encontrados na estrutura dos biossurfactantes. Estes resultados demonstraram a importância destes compostos para potenciais aplicações em várias áreas industriais.

Fungi , Surface-Active Agents/isolation & purification , Surface-Active Agents/chemistry , Fatty Acids/analysis , Fatty Acids/chemistry , Chromatography, Gas , Urea , Corn Oil
J. appl. oral sci ; 27: e20180157, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-975884


Abstract Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of surfactants 0.2% or 0.1% cetrimide (Cet) or 0.008% benzalkonium chloride (BAK) on 2.5% calcium hypochlorite (Ca(OCl)2), and compare to sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), regarding the properties of pH, free chlorine content, surface tension, contact angle, pulp dissolution and antimicrobial activity. Material and Methods The pH and free chlorine content were evaluated by digital pHmeter and by titration, respectively. Surface tension was measured by the platinum ring technique with a Du Noüy tensiometer. The solution's contact angle in human dentin surfaces was checked by Drop Shape Analyzer software. Bovine pulps were used for pulp dissolution analysis and the dissolving capacity was expressed by percent weight loss. Antimicrobial activity over Enterococcus faecalis was evaluated by the agar diffusion method. Results Surfactants addition to Ca(OCl)2 and NaOCl did not alter the pH, free chlorine content and pulp dissolution properties. Ca(OCl)2 had the highest surface tension among all tested solutions. When surfactants were added to Ca(OCl)2 and NaOCl, there was a significant reduction of surface tension and contact angle values. The addition of 0.2% or 0.1% Cet enhanced antimicrobial activity of both Ca(OCl)2 and NaOCl. Conclusion Surfactant addition to 2.5% Ca(OCl)2 has shown acceptable outcomes for pH, free chlorine content, surface tension, contact angle, pulp dissolution and antimicrobial activity. Furthermore, the addition of 0.2% Cet showed better results for all tested properties.

Humans , Animals , Cattle , Root Canal Irrigants/chemistry , Sodium Hypochlorite/chemistry , Surface-Active Agents/chemistry , Benzalkonium Compounds/chemistry , Calcium Compounds/chemistry , Cetrimonium/chemistry , Reference Values , Sodium Hypochlorite/pharmacology , Surface-Active Agents/pharmacology , Surface Properties , Benzalkonium Compounds/pharmacology , Materials Testing , Chlorine/analysis , Reproducibility of Results , Analysis of Variance , Enterococcus faecalis/drug effects , Calcium Compounds/pharmacology , Statistics, Nonparametric , Dental Pulp/drug effects , Dentin/drug effects , Cetrimonium/pharmacology , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(supl.1): 185-192, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974316


Abstract Biosurfactants have many advantages over synthetic surfactants but have higher production costs. Identifying microorganisms with high production capacities for these molecules and optimizing their growth conditions can reduce cost. The present work aimed to isolate and identify a fungus with high biosurfactant production capacity, optimize its growth conditions in a low cost culture medium, and characterize the chemical structure of the biosurfactant molecule. The fungal strain UFSM-BAS-01 was isolated from soil contaminated with hydrocarbons and identified as Fusarium fujikuroi. To optimize biosurfactant production, a Plackett-Burman design and a central composite rotational design were used. The variables evaluated were pH, incubation period, temperature, agitation and amount of inoculum in a liquid medium containing glucose. The partial structure of the biosurfactant molecule was identified by nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry. F. fujikuroi reduced surface tension from 72 to 20 mN m−1 under the optimized conditions of pH 5.0, 37 °C and 7 days of incubation with 190 rpm agitation. The partial identification of the structure of the biosurfactant demonstrated the presence of an α,β-trehalose. The present study is the first report of the biosynthesis of this compound by F. fujikuroi, suggesting that the biosurfactant produced belongs to the class of trehalolipids.

Surface-Active Agents/metabolism , Trehalose/metabolism , Industrial Microbiology/methods , Fusarium/metabolism , Surface-Active Agents/chemistry , Temperature , Culture Media/metabolism , Fermentation , Fusarium/growth & development , Fusarium/chemistry , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
Braz. j. microbiol ; 48(4): 637-647, Oct.-Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889185


ABSTRACT Role of microbes in bioremediation of oil spills has become inevitable owing to their eco friendly nature. This study focused on the isolation and characterization of bacterial strains with superior oil degrading potential from crude-oil contaminated soil. Three such bacterial strains were selected and subsequently identified by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis as Corynebacterium aurimucosum, Acinetobacter baumannii and Microbacterium hydrocarbonoxydans respectively. The specific activity of catechol 1,2 dioxygenase (C12O) and catechol 2,3 dioxygenase (C23O) was determined in these three strains wherein the activity of C12O was more than that of C23O. Among the three strains, Microbacterium hydrocarbonoxydans exhibited superior crude oil degrading ability as evidenced by its superior growth rate in crude oil enriched medium and enhanced activity of dioxygenases. Also degradation of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) in crude oil was higher with Microbacterium hydrocarbonoxydans. The three strains also produced biosurfactants of glycolipid nature as indicated d by biochemical, FTIR and GCMS analysis. These findings emphasize that such bacterial strains with superior oil degrading capacity may find their potential application in bioremediation of oil spills and conservation of marine and soil ecosystem.

Soil Pollutants/metabolism , Surface-Active Agents/metabolism , Bacterial Proteins/metabolism , Petroleum/microbiology , Actinobacteria/metabolism , Corynebacterium/metabolism , Acinetobacter baumannii/metabolism , Dioxygenases/metabolism , Phylogeny , Soil Microbiology , Surface-Active Agents/chemistry , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Biodegradation, Environmental , Petroleum/analysis , Petroleum Pollution/analysis , Actinobacteria/growth & development , Actinobacteria/enzymology , Actinobacteria/genetics , Corynebacterium/growth & development , Corynebacterium/enzymology , Corynebacterium/genetics , Acinetobacter baumannii/growth & development , Acinetobacter baumannii/enzymology , Acinetobacter baumannii/genetics , Dioxygenases/genetics , India
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 27: 49-54, May. 2017. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1010292


Background: Surfactants are one of the most important raw materials used in various industrial fields as emulsifiers, corrosion inhibitors, foaming agents, detergent products, and so on. However, commercial surfactant production is costly, and its demand is steadily increasing. This study aimed to evaluate the performance of typical strains of Bacillus sp. to produce biosurfactants through fermentation. It also included the investigation of the effect of initial glucose concentration and the carbon to nitrogen ratio. Results: The biosurfactant yield was in the range of 1­2.46 g/L at initial glucose concentrations of 10­70 g/L. The optimum fermentation condition was achieved at a carbon to nitrogen ratio of 12.4, with a decrease in surface tension of up to 27 mN/m. Conclusions: For further development and industrial applications, the modified Gompertz equation is proposed to predict the cell mass and biosurfactant production as a goodness of fit was obtained with this model. The modified Gompertz equation was also extended to enable the excellent prediction of the surface tension.

Surface-Active Agents/metabolism , Bacillus subtilis/metabolism , Surface-Active Agents/chemistry , Surface Tension , Bacillus subtilis/physiology , Carbon/analysis , Kinetics , Fermentation , Glucose/analysis , Micelles , Nitrogen/analysis
Braz. dent. j ; 27(5): 584-588, Sept.-Oct. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-828042


Abstract This study assessed the antimicrobial efficacy and surface tension of established irrigating solutions with a new experimental chelating solution in infected dentin tubes. Twenty-five specimens were randomly assigned to each of the irrigating solutions. Twenty specimens were used as negative and positive controls. After 21 days of contamination with E. faecalis, the irrigating solutions MTAD, QMiX and Tetraclean NA were delivered into each infected root canal. The solutions were removed and dentin samples were withdrawn from the root canals with sterile low-speed round burs with increasing ISO diameters. The dentin powder samples obtained with each bur were immediately collected in separate test tubes containing 3 mL of BHI broth. After that, 100 μL from each test tube was cultured on blood agar. The grown colonies were counted and recorded as colony-forming units (CFU). The surface tension of the irrigants was measured using a Cahn DCA-322 Dynamic Contact Angle Analyzer. A Kruskal Wallis nonparametric ANOVA and a Friedman test were used (p<0.05). Tetraclean NA showed lower surface tension and CFU values than MTAD and QMiX. Better antibacterial action and low surface tension were observed for Tetraclean NA, probably due to the improved penetration into the root canal and dentinal tubes

Resumo Este estudo avaliou a eficácia antimicrobiana e tensão superficial de soluções irrigadoras e uma nova solução quelante em tubos de dentina infectada. Vinte e cinco espécimes foram aleatoriamente distribuídos conforme as soluções irrigantes. Decorrifdos 21 dias de contaminação com E. faecalis, a soluções de irrigação MTAD, QMiX e Tetraclean NA foram distribuídas em cada canal radicular infectado. As soluções foram removidas e as amostras de dentina foram retiradas dos canais radiculares com brocas esféricas de baixa velocidade com diâmetros ISO sucessivamente maiores. As amostras do pó de dentina obtidas com cada broca foram imediatamente colocadas em tubos de ensaio separados contendo 3 mL de caldo BHI. A seguir, 100 μL de cada amostra do tubo de teste foi cultivada em agar de sangue. As colônias crescidas foram contadas e registadas como unidades formadoras de colônias (UFC). A tensão superficial das soluções irrigantes foi medida utilizando o método de Wilhelmy. A análise não paramétrica de Kruskal-Wallis e o teste de Friedman foram utilizados (p<0,05). Tetraclean NA apresentou menor tensão de superfície e menores valores de UFC do que MTAD e QMiX. A melhor ação antibacteriana e baixa tensão superficial foram observadas para Tetraclean NA, provavelmente devido à melhor penetração no canal radicular e túbulos dentinários.

Animals , Cattle , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Chelating Agents/chemistry , Surface Tension , Surface-Active Agents/chemistry , Enterobacter/drug effects , Root Canal Irrigants
Braz. dent. j ; 27(2): 208-216, Mar.-Apr. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-778335


Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of concentration, exposure time and temperature of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) added with surfactants on its penetration into dentinal tubules. Sixty-five extracted human permanent maxillary anterior teeth with single canals were prepared by ProTaper SX hand-operated instruments. The teeth were then sectioned perpendicular to the long axis. The crowns and apical thirds of all the teeth were removed. The remaining roots were processed into 4-mm-long blocks and stained overnight in crystal violet. One hundred and thirty stained blocks were further split into halves and treated by nine different types of NaOCl-based solutions. Three solutions were added with surfactants (Hypoclean, H6, Chlor-Xtra) and the others were regular hypochlorites at increasing concentrations (1%, 2%, 4%, 5.25%, <6%, 6% NaOCl) from different brands. The dentin blocks were exposed to the solutions for 2, 5, and 20 min at 20 °C, 37 °C and 45 °C, respectively. The depth of NaOCl penetration was determined by bleaching of the stain and measured by light microscopy at 20 and 40. Statistical comparisons were made by using a generalized linear model with Bonferroni's post-hoc correction. The shortest penetration (81±6.6 μm) was obtained after incubation in 1% NaOCl for 2 min at 20 °C; the highest penetration (376.3±3.8 μm) was obtained with Chlor-Xtra for 20 min at 45 °C. Varying NaOCl concentration produced a minimal effect while temperature and exposure time had a significant direct relationship with NaOCl penetration into dentinal tubules, especially those with lowered surface tension. The exposure time and temperature of sodium hypochlorite as well as the addition of surfactants may influence the penetration depth of irrigants into dentinal tubules.

Resumo O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito da concentração, tempo de exposição e temperatura de hipoclorito de sódio (NaOCl) acrescidos de tensioativos na penetração nos túbulos dentinários. Sessenta e cinco dentes superiores humanos uniradiculares extraídos foram preparadas usando instrumentos ProTaper SX operados manualmente. Os dentes foram seccionados perpendicularmente ao longo eixo. As coroas e o terço apical foram removidos. Os restantes das raízes foram transformadas em blocos de 4-mm de comprimento e coradas durante em violeta de cristal. Cento e trinta blocos foram posteriormente divididos em metades e tratados por nove tipos diferentes de soluções de NaOCl. Três soluções com tensioativos foram adicionadas (Hypoclean, H6, Chlor-Xtra); e os outros foram os hipocloritos regulares em concentrações crescentes (1, 2, 4, 5,25, <6 and 6% de NaOCl) de diferentes origens. Os blocos de dentina foram expostos às soluções de 2, 5 e 20 min a 20 °C, 37 °C e 45 °C, respectivamente. A profundidade de penetração do NaOCl foi determinada pelo branqueamento da mancha e medido em microscopia de luz com ampliações de 20× e 40×. Comparações estatísticas foram feitas usando um modelo linear generalizado com a correção de Bonferroni (post-hoc). A menor penetração (81±6,6 m) foi medida após incubação com 1% de hipoclorito de sódio durante 2 min a 20 °C; a maior penetração (376,3±3,8 m) foi obtida com Chlor-Xtra durante 20 min a 45 °C. Variando a concentração do NaOCl verificou-se um efeito mínimo, enquanto que a temperatura e o tempo de exposição teve uma relação significativa direta com a penetração de hipocloritos de sódio, especialmente aqueles com tensão superficial reduzido, nos túbulos dentinários. O tempo de exposição e temperatura do hipoclorito de sódio bem como a adição de agentes tensioativos pode influenciar significativamente a profundidade de penetração de soluções irrigantes nos túbulos dentinários.

Humans , Dental Pulp Cavity/chemistry , Dentin/chemistry , Sodium Hypochlorite/chemistry , Surface-Active Agents/pharmacokinetics , Surface-Active Agents/chemistry
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 86(4): 251-256, ago. 2015. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-764081


Introducción: Autoconcepto es el conjunto de ideas y actitudes que se tiene acerca de sí mismo. Nuestro objetivo fue evaluar si existen diferencias en el nivel de autoconcepto de niños de 8-12 años con y sin secuelas de quemaduras, e identificar variables predictoras del autoconcepto en los niños con secuelas. Pacientes y método: Estudio comparativo, transversal de 109 niños con secuelas de quemaduras de 8 a 12 años de edad, con 109 niños sin secuelas de quemaduras, del mismo grupo de edad y nivel socioeconómico. Se utilizó la escala de autoconcepto de Piers-Harris, que entrega medida de autoconcepto general y dimensiones: conductual, estatus intelectual y escolar, apariencia y atributos físicos, ansiedad, popularidad, felicidad y satisfacción. Resultados: No hubo diferencias significativas en el nivel de autoconcepto general ni en sus dimensiones al comparar ambos grupos (p > 0,05). Dentro del grupo con secuelas de quemaduras la variable número de secuelas resultó ser un factor protector para las dimensiones ansiedad, popularidad, felicidad-satisfacción y autoconcepto general. La variable localización surgió como factor de riesgo para la dimensión conductual. Discusión: La ausencia de diferencias en autoconcepto entre niños con secuelas de quemaduras y sin ellas es similar a lo reportado por la literatura. El hallazgo en factores de riesgo y protectores motiva a continuar investigando, incorporando antecedentes premórbidos y familiares.

Introduction: Self-concept is the set of ideas and attitudes that a person has about him/herself. Objective: To evaluate whether there are differences in the level of self-concept in children 8-12 years old with and without burns sequelae. To identify predictive variables of self-concept in children with sequelae. Patients and method: A comparative cross-sectional study of self-concept in 109 children with burns sequelae, from 8 to 12 years old, with 109 children without burns sequelae, and of the same age and socioeconomic status. The Piers-Harris self-concept scale is used, which provides a general measurement of self-concept and behavioural, intellectual and school status, appearance, and physical attributes, anxiety, popularity, happiness and satisfaction dimensions. Results: There were no significant differences in the level of general self-concept or their dimensions (P > .05). In the group with burns sequelae, the protective factor was the variable number of sequels was associated with the dimensions of anxiety, popularity, happiness-satisfaction and general self-concept. The location variable emerged as a risk factor for the behavioural dimension. Discussion: The absence of differences in self-concept between children with burns sequelae and children without them is similar to that reported in the literature. The finding in the risk and protective factors encourages to further research, and perhaps incorporating pre-morbidity and family background.

Humans , DNA , Quaternary Ammonium Compounds/chemistry , Serine/chemistry , Surface-Active Agents/chemistry , Amides/chemistry , Amines/chemistry , Cell Line, Tumor , Chemistry, Pharmaceutical/methods , Esters/chemistry , Gene Transfer Techniques , Genetic Therapy/methods , HeLa Cells , Lipids/chemistry , Transfection/methods
Braz. dent. j ; 26(1): 66-68, Jan-Feb/2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-735832


The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of an alcohol-based caries detector (Kurakay) on the surface tension of a conventional sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) preparation, and a product containing a surface-active agent (Chlor-XTRA). The surface tensions of the following solutions were tested: NaOCl, a mixture of NaOCl and Kurakay 9:1 w/w, Chlor-XTRA, a mixture of Chlor-XTRA and Kurakay 9:1 w/w. Ten measurements per test solution were made at 20 C, using an optical method called the "Pendant drop method", with a commercially available apparatus. The addition of Kurakay reduced the surface tension for NaOCl (p<0.05) whilst no significant difference was detected for Chlor-XTRA (p>0.05). Statistically significant differences between the NaOCl and Chlor-XTRA groups were found (p<0.05). The addition of an alcohol-based caries detector resulted in a reduction of the original surface tension values for NaOCl only. Taking into account the fact that mixtures of NaOCl and Kurakay have been used to assess the penetration of root canal irrigants in vitro, the related changes in surface tension are a possible source of bias.

O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito de um detector de cárie com álcool (Kurakay) sobre a tensão superficial de um preparado convencional de hipoclorito de sódio (NaOCl) e um produto contendo um agente surfactante (Chlor-XTRA). Foram testadas as tensões superficiais das seguintes soluções: NaOCl, uma mistura de NaOCl e Kurakay na proporção de 9:1 em peso, Chlor-XTRA e um mistura de Chlor-XTRA e Kurakay na proporção de 9:1 em peso. Dez medidas foram feitas com cada solução, a 20 °C, utilizando um método óptico chamado "Método da gota pendente" (Pendant drop method) usando aparelhos disponíveis. Adição do Kurakay reduziu a tensão superficial do NaOCl (p<0,05), mas não houve diferença significante para Chlor-XTRA (p>0,05). Foram encontradas diferenças estatisticamente significantes entre os grupos NaOCl e Chlor-XTRA (p<0,05). Adição de um detector de cárie com álcool resultou na diminuição do valor original da tensão superficial apenas para NaOCl. Considerando que as misturas de NaOCl e Kurakay tem sido usadas para estudar a penetração in vitro dos irrigantes radiculares, as diferenças acima são uma possível fonte de desvio nos resultados.

Ethanol/chemistry , Propylene Glycols/chemistry , Rhodamines/chemistry , Root Canal Irrigants/chemistry , Sodium Hypochlorite/chemistry , Surface-Active Agents/chemistry , Solutions , Surface Tension
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 873-883, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-195231


BACKGROUND/AIMS: Most pesticide formulations contain both chief and additive ingredients. But, the additives may not have been tested as thoroughly as the chief ingredients. The surfactant, nonyl phenoxypolyethoxylethanol (NP40), is an additive frequently present in pesticide formulations. We investigated the effects of NP40 and other constituents of a validamycin pesticide formulation on cell viability and on the expression of genes involved in cell damage pathways. METHODS: The effects of validamycin pesticide ingredients on cell viability and of NP40 on the mRNA expression of 80 genes involved in nine key cellular pathways were examined in the human neuroblastoma SK-N-SH cell line. RESULTS: The chemicals present in the validamycin pesticide formulation were cytotoxic to SK-N-SH cells and NP40 showed the greatest cytotoxicity. A range of gene expression changes were identified, with both up- and down-regulation of genes within the same pathway. However, all genes tested in the necrosis signaling pathway were down-regulated and all genes tested in the cell cycle checkpoint/arrest pathway were up-regulated. The median fold-change in gene expression was significantly higher in the cell cycle checkpoint/arrest pathway than in the hypoxia pathway category (p = 0.0064). The 70 kDa heat shock protein 4 gene, within the heat shock protein/unfolded protein response category, showed the highest individual increase in expression (26.1-fold). CONCLUSIONS: NP40 appeared to be particularly harmful, inducing gene expression changes that indicated genotoxicity, activation of the cell death (necrosis signaling) pathway, and induction of the 70 kDa heat shock protein 4 gene.

Aged , Female , Humans , Cell Cycle Checkpoints/drug effects , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Survival/drug effects , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects , Genes, cdc , HSP110 Heat-Shock Proteins/genetics , Inositol/analogs & derivatives , Necrosis , Neurons/drug effects , Nonoxynol/chemistry , Pesticides/chemistry , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Surface-Active Agents/chemistry
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 17(3): 122-125, May 2014. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-719101


Background A biosurfactant produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa cultivated in a low-cost medium formulated with 2.5% vegetable oil refinery residue and 2.5% corn steep liquor and distilled water was employed to stabilize silver nanoparticles in the liquid phase. The particles were initially synthesized using NaBH4 as reducing agent in biosurfactant reverse micelles and were extracted from the micellar solution to disperse in heptane. Results A silver particle size in the range of 1.13 nm was observed. The UV-vis absorption spectra proposed that silver nanoparticles could be formed in the reverse micelles and relatively stabilized for at least 3 months without passivator addition. The Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) shows that the silver nanoparticles are of spherical form and relatively uniform. Conclusions This process provided a simpler route for nanoparticle synthesis compared to existing systems using whole organisms or partially purified biological extracts, showing that the low-cost biosurfactant can be used for nanoparticle synthesis as a non-toxic and biodegradable stabilizing agent.

Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Silver/chemistry , Surface-Active Agents/chemistry , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Absorption , Excipients
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 17(1): 6-6, Jan. 2014. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-706520


Background: Biotechnological processes are costly, especially for the production of biosurfactants. The successful production of a biosurfactant is dependent on the development of processes using low cost raw materials. Considering the importance of the characteristics of a biosurfactant to facilitate its industrial application, the properties of the biosurfactant produced by Candida lipolytica through previously optimized medium have been established. Results: The yeast was grown for 72 h to determine the kinetics of growth and production. The surface tension of the cell-free broth was reduced from 55 to 25 mN/m. The yield of biosurfactant was 8.0 g/l with a CMC of 0.03%. The biosurfactant was characterized as an anionic lipopeptide composed of 50% protein, 20% lipids, and 8% of carbohydrates. Conclusions: The isolated biosurfactant showed no toxicity against different vegetable seeds: Brassica oleracea, Solanum gilo and Lactuca sativa L. and the micro-crustacean Artemia salina. The properties of the biosurfactant produced suggest its potential application in industries that require the use of effective compounds at low cost.

Surface-Active Agents/metabolism , Surface-Active Agents/chemistry , Candida/metabolism , Artemia , Surface-Active Agents/toxicity , Surface Tension , Kinetics , Biomass , Lipopeptides , Fatty Acids/analysis , Fermentation , Micelles
Braz. j. vet. res. anim. sci ; 49(3): 193-201, 2012.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-687618


A aterosclerose é uma doença multifatorial, lenta e progressiva e a hiperlipidemia um dos fatores potenciais no desenvolvimento de doenças cardíacas ateroscleróticas. As vantagens da indução das dislipidemias experimentais são a produção de lesões ateromatosas em curto espaço de tempo; adequado controle dietético e fatores ambientais; a possibilidade de estudos sobre a reversibilidade de lesões ateroscleróticas e ensaios pré-clínicos de substâncias hipolipidêmicas. Este estudo visou avaliar o perfil lipídico sérico de ratos tratados com surfactante. Foram utilizados 28 ratos Wistar, machos, albinos, adultos e hígidos. Estes foram distribuídos em quatro grupos experimentais formados por sete animais cada, a saber: Grupo I – (controle); Grupo II – tratado com tyloxapol, na dose de 500 mg/kg de peso corporal, via intraperitoneal a cada 48 horas, durante duas semanas; Grupo III – tratado com tyloxapol na dose de 500 mg/kg de peso corporal, via intraperitoneal a cada 48 horas, durante três semanas; Grupo IV – tratado com tyloxapol na dose de 500 mg/kg de peso corporal, via intraperitoneal a cada 48 horas, durante quatro semanas. Na avaliação do perfil lipídico, os valores de triacilgliceróis e HDL demonstraram que o grupo III diferiu significativamente do grupo I e os valores de colesterol total e LDL indicaram que o grupo I diferiu significativamente dos grupos II, III e IV. Conclui-se que o surfactante tyloxapol foi efetivo na indução da hiperlipidemia.

Atherosclerosis is a multifactorial, progressive and slow disease, and hyperlipidaemia is one of the potential factors in the development of atherosclerotic cardiac diseases. The experimental dyslipidaemia carrying out advantages are the production of atheromatous lesions in a short period of time, an adequate dietetic control and environmental factors, the possibility of studies concerning reversibility of atherosclerotic lesions, and pre-clinic experiments with hypolipidaemic substances. This study aims at evaluating tyloxapol analyzing serum lipid levels. Twenty-eight healthy Wistar adults’ albino male rats, weighing an average of 200 g were utilized. They were distributed into four experimental groups with seven animals each, as follows: Group I – (control); Group II – treated with tyloxapol at a dose of 500mg/kg of body weight, through intraperitoneal via each 48 hours, for two weeks; Group III - treated with tyloxapol at a dose of 500mg/ kg of body weight, through intraperitoneal via each 48 hours, for three weeks; Group IV - treated with tyloxapol at a dose of 500mg/kg of body weight, through intraperitoneal via each 48 hours, for four weeks. As lipid profile evaluation is concerned, the values of triacylglycerols and HDL have indicated that group III has significantly differed from group I and the values of total cholesterol and LDL have indicated that group I has significantly differed from group II, III and IV. It was concluded that for the studied period the surfactant tyloxapol was effective to inducing hyperlipidaemia.

Animals , Rats , Atherosclerosis/pathology , Coronary Disease/psychology , Surface-Active Agents/chemistry , Cholesterol/analysis
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : 3-9, 2012.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-39075


The cellular toxicities of surfactants, a solvent, and an antifreeze that are included in herbicide formulations were assessed by measuring their effects on membrane integrity, metabolic activity, mitochondrial activity, and total protein synthesis rate in a cell culture. Polyethylene glycol, propylene glycol, and monoethylene glycol exhibited no cellular toxicity even at a high concentration of 100 mM. Sodium lauryl ether sulfate and polyoxyethylene lauryl ether significantly damaged the membrane, disturbed cellular metabolic activity, and decreased mitochondrial activity and the protein synthesis rate; however, their toxicity was far below those of the severely toxic chemicals at comparable concentrations. The severely toxic category included polyoxypropylene glycol block copolymer, polyoxyethylene tallow amine, and polyoxyethylene lauryl amine ether. These surfactants were cytotoxic between 3.125 microM and 100 microM in a dose-dependent manner. However, the toxicity graph of concentration vs toxicity had a point of inflection at 25 microM. The slope of the toxicity graph was gentle when the concentration was below 25 microM and steep when the concentration was greater than 25 microM. In conclusion, our results suggest that the toxicity of surfactants be taken care of pertinent treatment of acute herbicide intoxication.

Animals , Mice , Cell Line , Cell Membrane/drug effects , Herbicides/chemistry , Mitochondria/drug effects , Polyethylene Glycols/toxicity , Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate/toxicity , Surface-Active Agents/chemistry , Toxicity Tests
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : 711-715, 2012.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-7843


We investigated whether glyphosate influences the cellular toxicity of the surfactants TN-20 and LN-10 on the mouse fibroblast-like cells, alveolar epithelial cells, and a heart cell line. The cytotoxicity of TN-20 and LN-10 (0.4-100 microM), in the presence or absence of glyphosate was determined by assessing membrane integrity. TN-20 toxicity was significantly lower in the presence of 50 microM glyphosate for the fibroblast-like cell (6.25 microM; 3.9% +/- 3.4% vs -4.8% +/- 0.7%), for the alveolar cells (0.78 microM; 5.7% +/- 0.9% vs 0.1% +/- 0.6%), and for the heart cell line (25.0 microM; 7.9% +/- 3.0% vs 19.4% +/- 0.7%) compared to that of TN-20 alone. The cellular toxicity of LN-10 towards the fibroblast-like cells was found to be increased in the presence of 50 microM glyphosate when LN-10 concentrations of 50 microM (31.3% +/- 3.9% vs 19.2% +/- 0.9%) and 100 microM (62.1% +/- 3.4% vs 39.0% +/- 0.7%) were compared to that of LN-10 alone. These results suggest that the mixture toxicity may be a factor in glyphosate-surfactant toxicity in patients with acute glyphosate herbicide intoxication.

Animals , Mice , Cell Line , Cell Survival/drug effects , Glycine/analogs & derivatives , Herbicides/chemistry , Polyethylene Glycols/chemistry , Surface-Active Agents/chemistry
Egyptian Journal of Microbiology. 2011; 46: 1-20
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-170482


Optimal conditions for obtaining elevated biosurfactant production by a local strain of Bacillus licheniformis strain No. 5 were investigated. Modified minimal salt medium, pH 7.0, containing crude oil [1%], urea [2 g/l], KH[2]PO[4] + K[2]HPO[4] [2+2 g/l], MgSO[4] [0.2 g/l], yeast extract [1 g/l], and trace elements solution [0.1%] was found to be the most suitable for growth and emulsifying activity by this bacterium. High biosurfactant production was obtained after incubation for 7 days at 30° C. By providing the previous conditions, the emulsion index [E[24]%] was increased 3-fold as compared to that obtained via growth in the original minimal salt medium. In biorcactor batch culture, an agitation speed of 300 rpm attained the highest microbial growth [1.9 g cell dry weight/l] and an E[24]= 50.90% after 7 clays of incubation. In fed-batch culture, the pulsed addition of crude oil during the first 2 - 3 days of incubation enhanced the emulsification activity by 1.3-fold. The greatest E[24] was obtained using black grain oil [89.09%], followed by that obtained against diesel oil [87.27%]. The highest stability of emulsion index was recorded on diesel oil, which remained stable for 10 days [E[240]= 81.81%]. The biosurfactant showed an almost stable surface activity profile over a wide range of pH values [from 6 to 12]. The maximum emulsification activity was obtained at pH 8. The reduction in E[24] after exposure of the biosurfactant to 121°C for 15 min against diesel oil and toluene was 43.7% and 28.6%, respectively. Chemical analyses of the purified biosurfactant showed that it is a lipoprotein. Significant emulsification activity was detected towards different aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons and vegetable oils. The purified biosurfactant contained 41.7% C, 7.4% H and 5.8% N and was comprised of 36.2% proteins, 12.3% lipids and 5.6% carbohydrates

Soil Pollutants , Oils , Surface-Active Agents/chemistry
Braz. j. pharm. sci ; 46(2): 237-243, Apr.-June 2010. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-564890


Saponins are natural compounds able to form abundant foam, a desirable quality required in some chemical, foods, cosmetic and pharmaceutical processes. Ilex paraguariensis A. St. Hil. (Aquifoliaceae) known as mate, is a South American widely cultivated specie due to the preparation of a tea-like beverage from its leaves. Moreover, its green fruits are a rich source of non-toxic and very low haemolytic saponins. In this study, mate saponin fraction (MSF) was evaluated as a foam former, focusing on its foamability, foam lifetime, and film drainage in the presence of different electrolytes (ionic strength I = 0.024 M). Sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) and polysorbate 80 (Poly-80) were used as reference surfactants. The critical micelle concentration (CMC), the minimum attainable surface tension (γCMC), surface excess concentration (Γ) and cross-section molecular surface (A) values of MSF were comparable to those of Poly-80. The foamability of MSF and both reference surfactants was equivalent. The addition of MgCl2 resulted in a negative effect on MSF foamability. The salts NaCl, KBr, and KNO3 exhibited a negative influence on MSF foam lifetime. Similar behavior was observed for MSF film drainage (order of activity: Na2HPO4 > MgCl2 ≈ NaCl ≈ KNO3 > KBr), where a primary fast film drainage rate was followed by film thinning stabilization after around 5 min. The behavior described above seems to be uncorrelated to the solutions' zeta potential.

As saponinas são compostos naturais capazes de formar espuma abundante, qualidade desejável exigida em alguns processos químicos, alimentícios, cosméticos e farmacêuticos. Ilex paraguariensis A. St. Hil. (Aquifoliaceae), mais conhecida como mate, é uma espécie largamente cultivada devido ao consumo do chimarrão. Além disso, seus frutos verdes representam uma fonte rica de saponinas pouco tóxicas e pouco hemolíticas. Nesse trabalho avaliou-se a fração de saponinas de mate (MSF) como formadora de espuma, com ênfase na espumabilidade, permanência da espuma e drenagem do filme na presença de diferentes eletrólitos (I = 0,024 M). Dodecil sulfato de sódio (SDS) e polissorbato 80 (Poly-80) foram utilizados como tensoativos-referência. Os valores de concentração micelar crítica (CMC), tensão superficial na CMC (γCMC), concentração de excesso de superfície (Γ) e área do grupamento polar na interface (A) referente à MSF foram comparáveis ao Poly-80. A espumabilidade da MSF e de ambos os tensoativos-referência foram equivalentes. A adição de MgCl2 resultou em um efeito negativo sobre a espumabilidade de MSF. Os sais NaCl, KBr e KNO3 tiveram influência negativa sobre a estabilidade da espuma. Em relação à drenagem do filme de MSF, após 60 min. seguiu-se a ordem Na2HPO4 > MgCl2 ≈ NaCl ≈ KNO3 > KBr, caracterizando uma drenagem inicial acelerada seguida pelo equilíbrio hidrodinâmico do filme após 5 min. O comportamento observado parece não estar relacionado com o potencial zeta das soluções.

/analysis , Foaming Agents , Fruit , Ilex paraguariensis , Saponins/analysis , Surface-Active Agents/chemistry