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1.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 41(3): 504-530, jul.-set. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345400

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción. Los edulcorantes son aditivos que se consumen en los alimentos. Pueden ser naturales (sacarosa y estevia) o artificiales (sucralosa). Actualmente, se consumen rutinariamente en múltiples productos, y sus efectos en la mucosa y la microbiota del intestino delgado aún son controversiales. Objetivo. Relacionar el consumo de edulcorantes y su efecto en el sistema inmunitario y la microbiota del intestino delgado en ratones CD1. Materiales y métodos. Se utilizaron 54 ratones CD1 de tres semanas de edad divididos en tres grupos: un grupo de tres semanas sin tratamiento, un grupo tratado durante seis semanas y un grupo tratado durante 12 semanas. Se les administró sacarosa, sucralosa y estevia. A partir del intestino delgado, se obtuvieron linfocitos B CD19+ y células IgA+, TGF-ß (Transforming Growth Factor-beta) o el factor de crecimiento transformador beta (TGF-beta), IL-12 e IL-17 de las placas de Peyer y de la lámina propia. De los sólidos intestinales se obtuvo el ADN para identificar las especies bacterianas. Resultados. Después del consumo de sacarosa y sucralosa durante 12 semanas, se redujeron las comunidades bacterianas, la IgA+ y el TGF-beta, se aumentó el CD19+, y además, se incrementaron la IL-12 y la IL-17 en las placas de Peyer; en la lámina propia, aumentaron todos estos valores. En cambio, con la estevia mejoraron la diversidad bacteriana y el porcentaje de linfocitos CD19+, y hubo poco incremento de IgA+, TGF-ß e IL-17, pero con disminución de la IL-17. Conclusión. La sacarosa y la sucralosa alteraron negativamente la diversidad bacteriana y los parámetros inmunitarios después de 12 semanas, en contraste con la estevia que resultó benéfica para la mucosa intestinal.


Abstract Introduction: Sweeteners are additives used in different foods. They can be natural (sucrose and stevia) or artificial (sucralose). Currently, they are routinely consumed in multiple products and their effects on the mucosa of the small intestine and its microbiota are still controversial. Objective: To relate the consumption of sweeteners and their effect on the immune system and the microbiota of the small intestine in CD1 mice. Materials and methods: We used 54 three-week-old CD1 mice divided into three groups in the experiments: 1) A group of three weeks without treatment, 2) a group treated for six weeks, and 3) a group treated for 12 weeks using sucrose, sucralose, and stevia. We obtained CD19+ B lymphocytes, IgA+ antibodies, transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-b), and interleukins 12 and 17 (IL-12 and -17) from Peyer's patches and lamina propria cells while DNA was obtained from intestinal solids to identify bacterial species. Results: After 12 weeks, sucrose and sucralose consumption caused a reduction in bacterial communities with an increase in CD19+, a decrease in IgA+ and TGF-b, and an increase in IL-12 and -17 in the Peyer's patches while in the lamina propria there was an increase in all parameters. In contrast, stevia led to an improvement in bacterial diversity and percentage of CD19+ lymphocytes with minimal increase in IgA+, TGF-b, and IL-12, and a decrease in IL-17. Conclusion: Sucrose and sucralose caused negative alterations in bacterial diversity and immune parameters after 12 weeks; in contrast, stevia was beneficial for the intestinal mucosa.


Subject(s)
Sweetening Agents , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Sucrose , Stevia , Intestine, Small
3.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 45: e21, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1251999

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective. To characterize the design of excise taxes on sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) in Latin America and the Caribbean and assess opportunities to increase their impact on SSB consumption and health. Methods. A comprehensive search and review of the legislation in effect as of March 2019, collected through existing Pan American Health Organization and World Health Organization monitoring tools, secondary sources, and surveying ministries of finance. The analysis focused on the type of products taxed, and the structure and base of these excise taxes. Results. Out of the 33 countries analyzed, 21 apply excise taxes on SSBs. Seven countries also apply excise taxes on bottled water and at least four include sugar-sweetened milk drinks. Ten of these excise taxes are ad valorem with some tax bases set early in the value chain, seven are amount-specific, and four have either a combined or mixed structure. Three countries apply excise taxes based on sugar concentration. Conclusions. While the number of countries applying excise taxes on SSBs is promising, there is great heterogeneity in design in terms of structure, tax base, and products taxed. Existing excise taxes could be further leveraged to improve their impact on SSB consumption and health by including all categories of SSBs, excluding bottled water, and relying more on amount-specific taxes regularly adjusted for inflation and possibly based on sugar concentration. All countries would benefit from additional guidance. Future research should aim to address this gap.


RESUMEN Objetivo. Caracterizar el diseño de los impuestos selectivos al consumo de bebidas azucaradas en América Latina y el Caribe, y evaluar las oportunidades de aumentar su impacto en el consumo y la salud. Métodos. Se llevó a cabo una búsqueda y una evaluación exhaustivas de legislaciones vigentes a marzo del 2019, recopilada mediante las herramientas de seguimiento ya existentes de la Organización Panamericana de la Salud y de la Organización Mundial de la Salud, fuentes secundarias, así como mediante una encuesta a ministerios de finanzas. El análisis se centró en el tipo de productos gravados y la estructura y la base de estos impuestos selectivos. Resultados. De los 33 países evaluados, en 21 se aplican impuestos selectivos al consumo de bebidas azucaradas. En siete países también se aplican impuestos selectivos al consumo de agua embotellada y en al menos cuatro, se incluyen las bebidas lácteas azucaradas. Diez de estos impuestos selectivos al consumo son de tipo ad valorem con algunas bases imponibles fijadas al principio de la cadena de valor, siete son de tipo específico y cuatro son de estructura combinada o mixta. En tres países se aplican impuestos selectivos al consumo en función de la concentración de azúcares del producto. Conclusiones. Si bien el número de países en que se aplican impuestos selectivos al consumo de bebidas azucaradas es prometedor, existe una gran heterogeneidad en su diseño en cuanto a la estructura, la base imponible y los productos gravados. Se podrían aprovechar aún más los impuestos selectivos existentes a fin de que tengan un mayor impacto sobre la salud y el consumo si se incluyen todas las categorías de bebidas azucaradas, excluyendo el agua embotellada, y recurriendo más a impuestos de tipo específico ajustados frecuentemente según la inflación y basados posiblemente en la concentración de azúcares del producto. Todos los países se beneficiarían si hubiera mayor orientación. Las próximas investigaciones deberían abordar esta brecha.


RESUMO Objetivo. Caracterizar o modelo dos impostos especiais de consumo sobre bebidas açucaradas na América Latina e no Caribe e avaliar oportunidades para aumentar o impacto desses impostos no consumo de bebidas açucaradas e na saúde. Métodos. Realizou-se uma pesquisa ampla e a análise de legislações vigentes em março de 2019, com informações obtidas por meio de instrumentos de monitoramento da Organização Pan-Americana da Saúde (OPAS) e da Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS) já existentes, fontes secundárias e levantamento junto aos ministérios da Fazenda. A análise centrou-se no tipo de produtos tributados e na estrutura e base desses impostos especiais de consumo. Resultados. Dos 33 países analisados, 21 aplicam impostos especiais de consumo sobre bebidas açucaradas. Em sete países os impostos especiais de consumo incidem também sobre água engarrafada e, em pelo menos quatro, incluem bebidas lácteas açucaradas. Dez desses tributos especiais são ad valorem com algumas bases tributárias estabelecidas no início da cadeia de valor, sete são de tipo específico e quatro têm uma estrutura combinada ou mista. Em três países os impostos especiais são estabelecidos com base na concentração de açúcares do produto. Conclusões. Apesar do número promissor de países com impostos especiais de consumo sobre bebidas açucaradas, verifica-se grande heterogeneidade nos modelos de tributação em termos de estrutura, base tributária e produtos tributados. Os impostos especiais de consumo vigentes poderiam ser mais bem aproveitados para aumentar o impacto no consumo de bebidas açucaradas e na saúde: incluir todas as categorias de bebidas açucaradas, excluir água engarrafada e recorrer mais a impostos de tipo específico com a correção periódica pela inflação e, possivelmente, com base na concentração de açúcares do produto. Todos os países se beneficiariam em receber mais orientação. Pesquisas futuras devem ter como objetivo abordar essa lacuna.


Subject(s)
Humans , Taxes , Sugar-Sweetened Beverages/economics , Sugar-Sweetened Beverages/legislation & jurisprudence , Sweetening Agents , Caribbean Region , Dietary Sucrose/adverse effects , Latin America
4.
Rev. colomb. cardiol ; 27(2): 103-108, mar.-abr. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1138763

ABSTRACT

Resumen Los edulcorantes son sustancias capaces de sustituir el dulzor característico del azúcar y en la actualidad son muy utilizados por su capacidad edulcorante, superior a la de la sacarosa, lo que hace que se requieran menos cantidades de estos en los alimentos. Esta característica ha despertado el interés de muchos investigadores por sus posibles beneficios para pacientes con diabetes y obesidad, entre otras morbilidades. En este artículo se hace una revisión acerca de la relación de los edulcorantes no calóricos con el control del peso, el síndrome metabólico y la aparición de eventos cardiovasculares.


Abstract Sweeteners are substances capable of replacing the characteristic sweetness of sugar. They are currently widely used for their sweetener capacity, which is greater than that of saccharose, and which means lower quantities are required in foods. This characteristic has aroused the interest of many researchers due to their possible benefits in diabetes and obesity, as well as in other disorders. A review is presented in this article on the relationship between calorie-free sweeteners and weight control, metabolic syndrome, and the appearance of cardiovascular events.


Subject(s)
Metabolic Syndrome , Non-Nutritive Sweeteners , Sweetening Agents , Health , Non-Nutritive Sweeteners
5.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 86(1): 99-104, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089377

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction Isotretinoin (13 cis-retinoic acid) is the most effective treatment for acne vulgaris and is the only treatment option that can provide either remission or a permanent cure. Objective The aim of this study was to use both subjective and objective methods to assess the nasal complaints of patients with severe acne who received oral isotretinoin therapy. Methods Fifty-four subjects were enrolled in the study. All the subjects were assessed with subjective (NOSE and VAS questionnaires) and objective (rhinomanometry and saccharine) tests to determine the severity of their nasal complaints. Results The mean severity scores (min: 0; max: 100) for nasal dryness/crusting and epistaxis were 0.47 ± 1.48 (0-5); 0.35 ± 1.30 (0-5) at admission, 3.57 ± 4.45 (0-10); 2.26 ± 4.71 (0-20) at the first month, and 4.28 ± 6 (0-20); 2.26 ± 4.71 (0-20) at the third month of the treatment respectively. Total nasal resistance of 0.195 ± 0.079 (0.12-0.56) Pa/cm3/s at admission, 0.21 ± 0.084 (0.12-0.54) Pa/cm3/s at the first month, and 0.216 ± 0.081 (0.14-0.54) Pa/cm3/s at the third month. Conclusion Oral isotretinoin therapy can cause the complaint of nasal obstruction. In addition, nasal complaints, such as dryness/crusting and epistaxis, significantly increase in patients during the therapy schedule.


Resumo Introdução A isotretinoína (ácido-13 cis-retinóico) é o tratamento por via oral mais eficaz para acne vulgar e é a única opção de tratamento que pode produzir remissão ou cura permanente. Objetivo Usar métodos subjetivos e objetivos para avaliar as queixas nasais de pacientes com acne grave que receberam terapia com isotretinoína oral. Método Foram incluídos no estudo 54 indivíduos. Todos os indivíduos foram avaliados por meio de testes subjetivos (questionários NOSE e escala EVA) e objetivos (rinomanometria e teste de sacarina) para determinar a gravidade de suas queixas nasais. Resultados Os escores médios de gravidade (min: 0; max: 100) para ressecamento/crostas e epistaxe nasal foram de 0,47 ± 1,48 (0-5); 0,35 ± 1,30 (0-5) no início, 3,57 ± 4,45 (0-10); 2,26 ± 4,71 (0-20) no primeiro mês e 4,28 ± 6 (0-20); 2,26 ± 4,71 (0-20) no terceiro mês do tratamento, respectivamente. A resistência nasal total foi de 0,195 ± 0,079 (0,12 a 0,56) Pa/cm3/s no início, 0,21 ± 0,084 (0,12 a 0,54) Pa/cm3/s no primeiro mês e 0,216 ± 0,081 (0,14 a 0,54) Pa/cm3/s no terceiro mês. Conclusão A terapia com isotretinoína por via oral pode resultar em queixa de obstrução nasal. Além disso, queixas nasais, tais como ressecamento/formação de crostas e epistaxe, aumentam significativamente nos pacientes durante o esquema terapêutico.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Isotretinoin/pharmacology , Dermatologic Agents/pharmacology , Nasal Cavity/drug effects , Saccharin , Sweetening Agents , Severity of Illness Index , Isotretinoin/adverse effects , Isotretinoin/therapeutic use , Nasal Obstruction/diagnosis , Nasal Obstruction/etiology , Epistaxis/etiology , Prospective Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Acne Vulgaris/drug therapy , Rhinomanometry , Dermatologic Agents/adverse effects , Dermatologic Agents/therapeutic use , Symptom Assessment
6.
Repert. med. cir ; 29(2): 84-92, 2020.
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1123698

ABSTRACT

Introducción: se presenta un análisis sobre el derecho al consumo informado en el caso de las bebidas azucaradas, a través del recorrido administrativo y judicial en Colombia. Metodología: se hace desde una perspectiva jurídica, bioética y médica, señalando cómo la protección judicial de este derecho se da gracias al activísimo social y judicial que se enfrenta con el lobby de la industria, cuyos intereses también inciden, no en el ámbito del acceso a la justicia, pero si en el del diseño de políticas públicas en salud para reducir el consumo de bebidas azucaradas. Conclusiones: de la revisión de la literatura se encontró que ciertas enfermedades no transmisibles se asocian con el consumo de estos productos, por lo cual en diferentes regiones del mundo se han replanteado medidas para mitigar su impacto, mientras en Colombia el escenario desde las políticas públicas no ha sido favorable.


Introduction: an analysis of the right to informed sugar-sweetened beverages consumption is herein presented from the administrative and legal background in Colombia. Methodology: a study conducted from the legal, bioethical and medical perspective, pointing out how legal protection of this right is possible thanks to social and legal activism which faces industrial lobby whose interests do not influence the access to justice institutions but does influence the design of health public policy for reducing sugar-sweetened beverages intake. Conclusions: our review of the literature found that certain non-communicable diseases are associated with the intake of these products for which measures to mitigate their impact have been reconsidered in different regions of the world, while in Colombia the public policy scenario has been unfavorable.


Subject(s)
Humans , Access to Information , Sugar-Sweetened Beverages , Sweetening Agents , Bioethics , Consumer Advocacy , Health Law , Sugars
7.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2017-2028, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878462

ABSTRACT

Mogroside V, a component with high content and sweetness in mogrosides, has many pharmacological activities such as relieving cough, reducing sputum, anti-cancer, anti-oxidation, regulating blood sugar, making it a natural nonsugar sweetener with therapeutic functions, and showing a broad market prospect. However, the limited resources and high extraction costs have restricted its widespread use. The rapid development of synthetic biology has provided a new idea for the production of plant natural products. The low-cost and large-scale production will be realized through the construction of a microbial cell factory for mogroside V. Here, we briefly introduce the structure and pharmacological activity of mogroside V, and review progress in applying synthetic biology for its synthesis, and also discuss the challenges faced by the current research, to provide a reference for further studies on the biosynthesis of mogroside V.


Subject(s)
Biological Products/chemistry , Sweetening Agents/chemical synthesis , Synthetic Biology , Triterpenes/chemical synthesis
8.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 24(9): 3237-3246, set. 2019. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019679

ABSTRACT

Resumo Objetivou-se estimar a prevalência de ingestão de açúcares de adição dentro do limite máximo de 5% da energia total da dieta, segundo variáveis demográficas, socioeconômicas, de comportamentos relacionados à saúde e estado nutricional, em adolescentes. Trata-se de estudo transversal de base populacional, com amostra por conglomerados e em dois estágios. A quantidade de açúcar livre da dieta foi estimada por meio do Recordatório de 24 horas. Dos 924 adolescentes avaliados, apenas 20,1% (IC95%: 16,8-23,9) se enquadraram na recomendação de não exceder 5% das calorias totais com açúcares de adição. Maiores prevalências de atendimento à recomendação foram verificadas no sexo masculino (22,0%), nos adolescentes de 15-19 anos (24,3%), nos não naturais do estado de São Paulo (30,4%), nos que tinham menor tempo de tela (27,5%), nos que possuíam menor número de equipamentos domésticos (0-7: 29,5%; 8-15: 20,3%) e naqueles com escores superiores de qualidade da dieta (tercil 2: 17,7%, tercil 3: 37,2%). Os resultados apontam os fatores associados ao consumo de açúcares de adição numa perspectiva epidemiológica, revelando uma simultaneidade de comportamentos inadequados, ou seja, os adolescentes que ingerem mais açúcares também apresentam maior tempo de tela e pior qualidade global da dieta.


Abstract The aim of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of added sugar intake within the maximum limit of 5% of the total energy of the diet and test associations with demographic/socioeconomic characteristics, health-related behaviors and nutritional status in adolescents. A population-based, cross-sectional study was conducted with two-stage cluster sampling. The amount of free sugar in the diet was estimated using a 24-hour dietary recall. Among the 924 adolescents evaluated, only 20.1% (95% CI: 16.8-23.9) met the recommendation of not exceeding 5% of total calories with added sugar. Higher prevalence rates of adherence to the recommendation were found among males (22.0%), adolescents aged 15 to 19 years (24.3%), those born outside the state of São Paulo (30.4%), those with less screen time (27.5%), those with a lower number of household appliances (0-7: 29.5%; 8-15: 20.3%) and those with higher diet quality scores (2nd tertile: 17.7%; 3rd tertile: 37.2%). The findings demonstrate factors associated with added sugar intake from an epidemiological perspective, revealing the simultaneity of inappropriate behaviors, that is, the adolescents who consume more sugar also have longer screen time and worse overall diet quality.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Young Adult , Sweetening Agents/administration & dosage , Energy Intake , Dietary Sugars/administration & dosage , Confidence Intervals , Nutritional Status , Cross-Sectional Studies , Life Style
9.
Int. j. morphol ; 37(3): 1058-1066, Sept. 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012396

ABSTRACT

El consumo de fructosa ha aumentado en los últimos 50 años por la incorporación a la dieta de jarabe de maíz alto en fructosa (JMAF), presente en productos industrializados, como las bebidas azucaradas. Se puede asociar la ingesta de fructosa en altas concentraciones con el aumento de la obesidad y trastornos metabólicos. La fructosa, un azúcar natural que se encuentra en muchas frutas, se consume en cantidades significativas en las dietas occidentales. En cantidades iguales, es más dulce que la glucosa o la sacarosa y, por lo tanto, se usa comúnmente como edulcorante. Debido al incremento de obesidad entre la población joven y general y a los efectos negativos que puede tener a corto y largo plazo es importante considerar de donde provienen las calorías que se ingieren diariamente. Esta revisión describirá la relación entre el consumo de fructosa en altas concentraciones y el riesgo de desarrollar obesidad, resistencia a la insulina, lipogenesis de novo e inflamación.


The consumption of fructose has increased in the last 50 years due to the incorporation into the diet of high fructose corn syrup (HFCS), present in industrialized products, such as sugary drinks. The intake of fructose in high concentrations can be associated with the increase of obesity and metabolic disorders. Fructose, a natural sugar found in many fruits, is consumed in significant quantities in Western diets. In equal amounts, it is sweeter than glucose or sucrose and, therefore, is commonly used as a sweetener. Due to the increase of obesity among the young and general population and the negative effects that can have in the short and long term it is important to consider where the calories that are ingested daily come from. This review will describe the relationship between fructose consumption in high concentrations and the risk of developing obesity, insulin resistance, de novo lipogenesis, nonalcoholic fatty liver, inflammation and metabolic syndrome.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Sweetening Agents/adverse effects , Insulin Resistance , Adipose Tissue/drug effects , Fructose/adverse effects , Obesity/chemically induced , Sweetening Agents/metabolism , Beverages , Body Weight/drug effects , Lipogenesis/drug effects , Fructose/metabolism , Glucose/adverse effects , Inflammation
10.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 63(4): 376-384, July-Aug. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019349

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To test the influence of oral fructose and glucose dose-response solutions in blood glucose (BG), glucagon, triglycerides, uricaemia, and malondialdehyde in postprandial states in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) patients. Subjects and methods The study had a simple-blind, randomized, two-way crossover design in which T1DM patients were selected to receive fructose and glucose solutions (75g of sugars dissolved in 200 mL of mineral-water) in two separate study days, with 2-7 weeks washout period. In each day, blood samples were drawn after 8h fasting and at 180 min postprandial to obtain glucose, glucagon, triglycerides, uric acid, lactate, and malondialdehyde levels. Results Sixteen T1DM patients (seven men) were evaluated, with a mean age of 25.19 ± 8.8 years, a mean duration of disease of 14.88 ± 4.73 years, and glycated hemoglobin of 8.13 ± 1.84%. Fructose resulted in lower postprandial BG levels than glucose (4.4 ± 5.5 mmol/L; and 12.9 ± 4.1 mmol/L, respectively; p < 0.01). Uric acid levels increased after fructose (26.1 ± 49.9 µmol/L; p < 0.01) and reduced after glucose (-13.6 ± 9.5 µmol/L; p < 0.01). The malondialdehyde increased after fructose (1.4 ± 1.6 µmol/L; p < 0.01) and did not change after glucose solution (-0.2 ± 1.6 µmol/L; p = 0.40). Other variables did not change. Conclusions Fructose and glucose had similar sweetness, flavor and aftertaste characteristics and did not change triglycerides, lactate or glucagon levels. Although fructose resulted in lower postprandial BG than glucose, it increased uric acid and malondialdehyde levels in T1DM patients. Therefore it should be used with caution. ClinicalTrials.gov registration: NCT01713023.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Sweetening Agents/metabolism , Postprandial Period/drug effects , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/metabolism , Fructose/metabolism , Glucose/metabolism , Triglycerides/blood , Blood Glucose/analysis , Blood Glucose/drug effects , Cross-Over Studies , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drug Tolerance
11.
Salud pública Méx ; 61(2): 147-154, Mar.-Apr. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058967

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Objective: To evaluate the consumption of ultra-processed food and drink products and its association with the nutrient profile of the Colombian diet in 2005. Materials and methods: Food consumption based on 24-hour dietary records from 38 643 men and women was classified into four NOVA groups according to the extent and purpose of food processing. Results: Ultra-processed food and drink products represented 15.9% of the total energy daily intake, compared to 63.3% from minimally processed food, 15.8% from processed culinary ingredients, and 4.9% from processed food. Non-ultra-processed food items had a healthier nutritional profile compared to ultra-processed items in terms of contribution to total calories from protein, carbohydrates, total fat, saturated fat, free sugar, fiber and energy density. Conclusions: Ultra-processed food products have a less healthy nutrient profile than non-ultra-processed ones. An increase in the consumption of these foods must be prevented within Colombia.


Resumen: Objetivo: Evaluar el consumo de alimentos y bebidas ultraprocesadas y su asociación con el perfil nutricional dentro de la Encuesta Nacional de Nutrición de 2005 en Colombia. Material y métodos: El consumo de alimentos basados en registros alimentarios de 24 horas de 38 643 individuos se clasificó en cuatro grupos de NOVA. Resultados: Los productos de alimentos y bebidas ultraprocesados representaron 15.9% de la ingesta diaria total de energía, en comparación con 63.3% de los alimentos mínimamente procesados, 15.8% de los ingredientes culinarios procesados y 4.9% de los procesados. Los alimentos mínimamente procesados tenían un perfil nutricional más saludable en comparación con los artículos ultraprocesados en términos de contribución a las calorías totales, de proteínas, carbohidratos, grasa total, grasa saturada, azúcar libre, densidad de fibra y densidad de energía. Conclusiones: Los alimentos ultraprocesados tienen un perfil nutricional menos saludable que los alimentos no procesados.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Beverages , Energy Intake , Diet , Food , Nutritive Value , Sweetening Agents/administration & dosage , Dietary Carbohydrates/administration & dosage , Dietary Fats/administration & dosage , Dietary Proteins/administration & dosage , Diet Records , Nutrients , Colombia , Portion Size , Food Handling
12.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 69(1): 12-24, mar. 2019. ilus, tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1022441

ABSTRACT

El objetivo de este estudio fue medir y comparar el comportamiento inflacionario del costo de las Bebidas Habituales y del costo de la Jarra de Bebidas Recomendada para la población mexicana. Basados en información sobre el consumo de bebidas en adultos (Encuesta Nacional de Salud y Nutrición) y de los precios promedio mensuales (Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía) para cada bebida durante enero 2012 - Junio 2017, se calcularon los costos del consumo y la inflación de bebidas habitual y recomendado. El costo de las Bebidas Recomendadas es consistentemente mayor que el de las Bebidas Habituales. Las tasas de inflación son similares excepto en 2014 cuando se introdujo el impuesto a las bebidas azucaradas. Se encuentra que los precios y la inflación de las bebidas con azucares añadidos y de las bebidas habituales responden menos que proporcionalmente. Una inflación del costo de las bebidas recomendadas más alta que las habituales puede incrementar la demanda por bebidas habituales. El comportamiento de la inflación revela que el impuesto a bebidas azucaradas puede ser efectivo pero transitorio(AU)


The aim of this study was to measure and compare the inflationary behavior of the Usual Drinks Intake cost and the Recommended Drinks Intake Jar cost for the Mexican population. Based on information about the consumption of drinks in adults (National Health and Nutrition Survey) and of the average monthly prices (National Institute for Statistic and Geography) for each specific drink during January 2012-June 2017, we calculate consumption costs and inflation of usual and recommended drink intakes. The cost of the recommended drinks is consistently higher than the usual drinks cost. Inflation rates are similar in both drink intakes except in 2014, when the tax to sugary drinks was implemented. Prices and inflation of sugary drinks and usual drinks respond less than proportionally. A higher inflation of recommended drink costs compared to the usual drinks inflation could increase the demand for usual drinks. The behavior of inflation reveals that the tax to sugary drinks can be effective, but transitory(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Sweetening Agents , Carbonated Beverages , Dietary Sugars , Nutritive Value , Taxes , Diet, Food, and Nutrition
13.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 24(3): 899-906, mar. 2019. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-989598

ABSTRACT

Resumo O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o consumo regular de bebidas açucaradas e sua associação com aspectos sociodemográficos e comportamentais de adultos de uma cidade do sudoeste brasileiro. Trata-se de um estudo de base populacional com 1226 adultos de 20 a 59 anos, residentes na zona urbana do município de Viçosa-MG. Foi aplicado um questionário estruturado para medir as condições sociodemográficas e comportamentais. O consumo de bebidas açucaradas foi classificado como regular quando a frequência de ingestão foi igual ou superior a cinco vezes por semana. O consumo regular de bebidas açucaradas foi superior em homens e mulheres com idade entre 20 e 29 anos (p < 0,01). Homens com hábito de realizar refeições em frente à televisão (p = 0,03) e mulheres insatisfeitas com seu peso (p = 0,03) apresentaram maior consumo regular de bebidas açucaradas. Conclui-se que os indivíduos de maior idade apresentaram menor consumo regular de bebidas açucaradas e este consumo esteve associado a comportamentos obesogênicos, como o hábito em realizar refeições em frente à televisão, e em indivíduos insatisfeitos com o peso corporal.


Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the regular consumption of sweetened beverages and its association with sociodemographic and behavioral aspects in a city in the southwest of Brazil. It involves is a population-based study of 1,226 adults aged 20 to 59 living in the urban area of the municipality of Viçosa in the state of Minas Gerais. A structured questionnaire to measure sociodemographic and behavioral conditions was applied. The consumption of sweetened beverages was considered regular when the frequency of consumption was five or more times a week. Regular consumption of sweetened beverages was higher in men and women aged between 20 and 29 years (p < 0.01). Men with the habit of eating meals in front of the television (p = 0.03) and women dissatisfied with their weight (p = 0.03) consumed greater regular amounts of sweetened beverages. The conclusion reached is that older individuals showed less regular consumption of sweetened beverages and that the consumption of same was associated with obesogenic behaviors, such as the habit of eating meals in front of the television and among individuals dissatisfied with their body weight.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Personal Satisfaction , Sweetening Agents , Beverages/statistics & numerical data , Eating , Body Weight , Brazil , Sex Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires , Age Factors , Middle Aged
14.
Int. j. odontostomatol. (Print) ; 13(1): 93-96, mar. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-990071

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of commercial sweeteners on root dentin demineralization using a microcosm biofilm model. Bovine dentin specimens with pre-determined surface hardness were randomized into six groups according to the studied sweeteners: sucralose, stevia, saccharin, aspartame. Sucrose was used as a positive control and an untreated group as a negative control. The specimens were submitted to biofilm development from one saliva donor and the cariogenic challenge occurred on subsequent five days, twice a day. At the end, the percentage of surface hardness loss (%SHL) and biomass was determined and submitted to ANOVA followed by Tukey's test. Sucrose presented the highest rate of demineralization, however, all sweeteners tested lead to a statistically higher root demineralization compared to the negative control (p <0.05). Sucrose caused greater demineralization in root dentin, however, the sweeteners were also able to induce it under this biofilm model.


RESUMEN: El objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar el efecto de los edulcorantes comerciales en la desmineralización de la dentina radicular utilizando un modelo de biofilm microcosmo. Se asignaron al azar muestras de dentina bovina con una dureza de la superficie predeterminada de acuerdo con los edulcorantes estudiados: sucralosa, estevia, sacarina, aspartame. La sacarosa se utilizó como control positivo y un grupo no tratado como control negativo. Las muestras se enviaron al desarrollo de biopelículas de un donante de saliva y el desafío cariogénico se produjo en los siguientes cinco días, dos veces al día. Al final, se determinó el porcentaje de pérdida de dureza de la superficie (% PDS) y biomasa y se aplicó un estudio estadístico de ANOVA seguido de la prueba de Tukey. La sacarosa presentó la mayor tasa de desmineralización; sin embargo, todos los endulzantes probados condujeron a una desmineralización de la raíz estadísticamente mayor en comparación con el control negativo (p<0,05). La sacarosa causó una mayor desmineralización en la dentina de raíz, sin embargo, los edulcorantes también fueron capaces de inducirla bajo este modelo de biofilm.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Sweetening Agents/pharmacology , Tooth Root/drug effects , Cariogenic Agents/pharmacology , Tooth Demineralization/chemically induced , Dentin/drug effects , Tooth Root/microbiology , Analysis of Variance , Tooth Demineralization/microbiology , Biofilms/growth & development , Dietary Sucrose/pharmacology , Dentin/microbiology
15.
Rev. chil. endocrinol. diabetes ; 12(4): 208-215, 2019. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1088029

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: Si bien, los edulcorantes no nutritivos (ENN) estevia y D-tagatosa han sido reportados como seguros, han demostrado tener algunos efectos metabólicos tras su ingesta. OBJETIVO: Describir los efectos de la ingesta de estevia y D-tagatosa sobre el metabolismo de la glucosa y ácido úrico, y del apetito-saciedad, a partir de la evidencia disponible. MÉTODOS: Revisión descriptiva. Se realizó búsqueda en PubMed utilizando los siguientes términos y palabras clave: "stevia rebaudiana", "tagatose", "D-tagatose", "blood glucose", "insulin", "metabolic processes", "uric acid", "hyperuricemia", "appetite" o "satiety". El análisis de los estudios seleccionados fue discrecional. RESULTADOS: Existen estudios que demuestran efectos beneficiosos tras el consumo de estevia o D-tagatosa sobre el control glicémico, apetito y saciedad tanto en sujetos sanos como con alteraciones en el metabolismo de la glucosa. Por otra parte, un número importante de estudios que evalúan la ingesta de estevia reportan efectos nulos sobre dichos parámetros. En relación al ácido úrico, solo un estudio en sujetos con enfermedad renal crónica reporta aumento en la concentración de ácido úrico plasmático tras la ingesta de 500 mg/día de estevia. Pocos estudios han evaluado el efecto de la ingesta de D-tagatosa sobre uricemia, en sujetos sanos y diabéticos, reportando un aumento transitorio y significativo en los niveles de ácido úrico sérico, sin embargo, no se ha logrado demostrar un efecto hiperuricémico asociado. Es importante destacar que la metodología de los estudios revisados es heterogénea, especialmente en relación al tamaño muestral, tiempo, dosis y vía de adminitración del edulcorante. CONCLUSIÓN: La ingesta de estevia y D-tagatosa ha demostrado efectos beneficiosos sobre el metabolismo de la glucosa, el apetito y la saciedad. El efecto del consumo de D-tagatosa sobre ácido úrico sérico requiere mayor evidencia para demostrar su significancia clínica.


INTRODUCTION: No-nutritive sweeteners stevia and D-tagatose have been reported as safe according to their acceptable daily intake, however, they have been shown to have metabolic effects after their ingestion. OBJECTIVE: To describe the effects of stevia and D-tagatose intake on parameters associated to glucose, uric acid metabolism and on appetite-satiety, considering the available evidence. METHODS: Descriptive review. PubMed search was carried out to identify the totality of the published articles. The following terms and key words were used: "stevia rebaudiana", "tagatose", "D-tagatose", "blood glucose", "insulin", "metabolic processes", "uric acid", "hyperuricemia", "appetite" o "satiety". The analysis of the selected studies was discretionary. RESULTS: studies have shown beneficial effects of stevia and D-tagatose consumption on glycemic control, appetite and satiety in healthy subjects as well as subjects with impairment glucose metabolism. On the other hand, a significant number of studies evaluating estevia intake report null effects on these parameters. In relation to uric acid, only one study in subjects with chronic kidney disease reported an increase in plasmatic uric acid concentration after the intake of 500 mg/day of stevia. Several studies have evaluated the effect of D-tagatose intake on plasmatic uric acid, in healthy and diabetic subjects, reporting a transient and significant increase in serum uric acid levels, however, has not been able to demonstrate an associated hyperuricemic effect. It is important to highlight that the methodology of the studies reviewed is heterogeneous, especially in relation to sample size, dose administered, time and route of exposure to the sweetener. CONCLUSION: Stevia and D-tagatose intake has shown beneficial effects on glucose metabolism, appetite and satiety. The effects of the consumption of both sweeteners on uric acid require further study to demonstrate their clinic significance.


Subject(s)
Humans , Sweetening Agents/pharmacology , Uric Acid/metabolism , Blood Glucose/drug effects , Appetite/drug effects , Satiation/drug effects , Stevia/metabolism , Glucose/metabolism , Hexoses/pharmacology , Insulin/metabolism
16.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759638

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This research was conducted to identify the consumers' food choice factors that affect the consumers' replacement of soft drinks with carbonated water. METHODS: The present study used secondary data from a consumer panel survey conducted by the Rural Development Administration of Korea, and the data included the panel members' purchase records based on their monthly spending receipts. The survey asked the participants about their food choice factors and their personal responsibility for their health. This survey included independent variables for the consumers' food purchase factors. As a dependent variable, two types of groups were defined. The replacement group included those people who increased their purchase of carbonated water and decreased their purchase of soft drinks. The non-replacement group included those people who did not change their purchase patterns or they increased their purchase of soft drinks and they decreased their purchase of carbonated water. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine the consumers' food choice factors that were associated with replacing soft drinks with carbonated water. RESULTS: The replacement group was significantly associated with (1) a younger age (OR=0.953), (2) being a housewife (OR=2.03), (3) higher income (OR=1.001) and (4) less concern about price (OR=0.819) when purchasing food. This group also showed (5) higher enjoyment (OR=1.328) when choosing food and (6) they took greater responsibly for their personal health (OR=1.233). CONCLUSIONS: This research is the first study to mainly focus on soft drinks and carbonated water. The result of this research showed that young, health-conscious consumers with a higher income and who are more interested in food have more possibilities to replace soft drinks with carbonated water. These research findings may be applied to consumers who have characteristics that are similar to the young health-conscious consumers and the results can help to suggest ways to reduce sugar intake and improve public health. However, this research has a limitation due to the application of secondary data. Therefore, a future study is needed to develop detailed survey questions about food choice factors and to extend these factors to all beverages, including soft drinks made with sugar substitutes, so as to reflect the growth of alternative industries that use artificial sweeteners or different types of sugar to make commercially available drinks.


Subject(s)
Beverages , Carbon , Carbonated Beverages , Carbonated Water , Consumer Behavior , Humans , Korea , Logistic Models , Public Health , Social Planning , Sweetening Agents
17.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740558

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study examined the nutrient intake and dietary habits based on breakfast consumption in Korean adolescents. METHODS: The data of the 2013 ~ 2015 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) were used in this study. The analysis included 1,281 adolescents aged 12 to 18 years. The subjects were divided into two groups (EBF: eating breakfast, n = 911; SBF: skipping breakfast, n = 370). RESULTS: The EBF group was significantly younger than the SBF group. In addition, the EBF group had a significantly lower frequency of skipping dinner than the SBF group. The EBF group consumed significantly higher levels of most nutrients except for vitamin A than the SBF group. The percent of nutrient intake under the EAR (estimated average requirements) in the EBF group were also significantly lower than that in the SBF group. Moreover, the NAR (nutrient adequacy ratio) and MAR (mean adequacy ratio) of the EBF group were significantly higher than those of the SBP group. The intake of cereal, sugars and sweeteners, vegetables, and eggs in the EBF group was significantly higher than that in the SBF group. CONCLUSION: The habit of skipping breakfast in adolescents leads to a decrease in the total nutrient intake and imbalanced dietary habits. Breakfast consumption in adolescence is very important. Therefore, more studies will be needed to develop nutrition education systematically in Korean adolescents.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Breakfast , Carbohydrates , Ear , Eating , Edible Grain , Education , Eggs , Feeding Behavior , Humans , Korea , Meals , Nutrition Surveys , Ovum , Sweetening Agents , Vegetables , Vitamin A
18.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 35(11): e00010719, 2019. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039408

ABSTRACT

Resumo: O objetivo foi estimar a prevalência do uso de adoçantes pela população adulta brasileira e características dos usuários. Análise de dados da Pesquisa Nacional de Acesso, Utilização e Promoção do Uso Racional de Medicamentos (PNAUM, 2014), um inquérito nacional de base populacional. O desfecho de interesse foi o uso autorreferido de adoçantes entre brasileiros com 20 anos ou mais. As variáveis analisadas foram sexo, idade em anos completos, região do Brasil, escolaridade em anos completos e classificação econômica segundo o Critério Classificação Econômica Brasil da Associação Brasileira de Empresas de Pesquisa (ABEP). Os indicadores das condições de saúde foram: relato de doença crônica não transmissíveis (DCNT), número de DCNT e índice de massa corporal (IMC). A prevalência do uso de adoçantes na população adulta brasileira foi de 13,4% (IC95%: 12,5-14,3), sendo maior entre as pessoas do sexo feminino e no grupo com 60 anos ou mais, nas regiões Nordeste e Sudeste, entre pessoas da classe econômica A/B e entre indivíduos obesos. As pessoas com doenças crônicas (em especial diabetes) foram as que mostraram maior prevalência de uso de adoçantes, sendo o uso maior quanto maior o número de comorbidades relatadas. A prevalência de uso de adoçantes foi de 13,4% e mostrou-se associada a características sociodemográficas e de saúde.


Abstract: The objective was to estimate the prevalence of artificial sweetener use by the adult Brazilian population and users' characteristics. Analysis of data from the Brazilian National Survey on Access, Utilization, and Promotion of Rational Use of Medicines (PNAUM, 2014), a nationwide population-based survey. The target outcome was self-reported use of sweeteners by Brazilians 20 years and older. The independent variables were sex, age, major geographic region of Brazil, schooling in complete years, and economic status according to the Brazilian Economic Classification Criterion of the Brazilian Association of Research Companies (ABEP). The health condition indicators were: self-reported noncommunicable diseases (NCDs), number of NCDs, and body mass index (BMI). Prevalence of sweetener use in the Brazilian adult population was 13.4% (95%CI: 12.5-14.3), and it was higher in females and in persons 60 years or older, in the Northeast and Southeast, among individuals from economic classes A and B, and among obese individuals. Persons with chronic diseases (especially diabetes) showed the highest prevalence of use of sweeteners, and their use increased with the number of reported comorbidities. Prevalence of use of artificial sweeteners was 13.4% and was associated with sociodemographic and health characteristics.


Resumen: El objetivo fue estimar la prevalencia del uso de edulcorantes por parte de la población adulta brasileña y las características de los usuarios. Análisis de datos de la Encuesta Nacional de Acceso, Utilización y Promoción del Uso Racional de Medicamentos (PNAUM, 2014), una encuesta nacional de base poblacional. El resultado de interés fue el uso autoinformado de edulcorantes entre brasileños con 20 años o más. Las variables analizadas fueron: sexo, edad (años completados), región de Brasil, escolaridad (años completados), así como la clasificación económica según el Criterio Clasificación Económica Brasil de la Asociación Brasileña de Empresas de Investigación (ABEP). Los indicadores de las condiciones de salud fueron: informe de enfermedades crónicas (DCNT), número de DCNT e índice de masa corporal (IMC). La prevalencia del uso de edulcorantes en la población adulta brasileña fue de un 13,4% (IC95%: 12,5-14,3), siendo mayor entre las personas de sexo femenino y en el grupo con 60 años o más, en las regiones Nordeste y Sudeste, entre personas de clase económica A/B y entre individuos obesos. Las personas con enfermedades crónicas (en especial diabetes) fueron las que mostraron una mayor prevalencia de uso de edulcorantes, siendo el uso mayor, cuanto mayor fuera el número de comorbilidades informadas. Conclusiones: la prevalencia de uso de edulcorantes fue de un 13,4% y se mostró asociada a características sociodemográficas y de salud.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Sweetening Agents , Chronic Disease/classification , Chronic Disease/epidemiology , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Sex Factors , Prevalence , Health Surveys , Self Report , Middle Aged
19.
Salud pública Méx ; 60(5): 586-591, sep.-oct. 2018.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1004658

ABSTRACT

Resumen: En 2014, el gobierno mexicano implementó una política fiscal para disminuir el consumo de bebidas azucaradas y alimentos no básicos con alta densidad energética. Este documento resume y analiza los estudios que han evaluado el impacto observado y esperado de los impuestos a alimentos y bebidas no saludables en México. La implementación de impuestos ha logrado disminuir las compras de bebidas azucaradas en 7.6% y alimentos no básicos con alta densidad energética en 7.4%. La reducción de consumo de bebidas azucaradas podría reducir la obesidad en 2.5%, prevenir 20 000 casos de enfermedad cardiovascular y 189 000 casos de diabetes al año 2022, así como prevenir 2 000 muertes. Además, se espera que estos impuestos ayuden a reducir en 1 173 millones de dólares los costos de atención a la salud. Los impuestos a alimentos no saludables deben fortalecerse y permanecer como parte integral de la estrategia nacional dirigida a reducir la obesidad y las enfermedades crónicas en México.


Abstract: In 2014 the Mexican government implemented taxes to reduce the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and nonessential energy-dense foods. In this manuscript, we analyze the scientific evidence linking the consumption of these products to chronic diseases, and summarize the studies that have evaluated the observed and expected impact of food taxes in Mexico. The implementation of taxes to unhealthy foods has reduced purchases of sugar-sweetened beverages in 7.6% and nonessential energy-dense foods in 7.4%. A reduction in consumption could decrease obesity prevalence by 2.5%; prevent 20 000 cardiovascular disease events; 189 000 diabetes cases; and 20 000 cardiovascular deaths. Additionally, this impact could save nearly 1 173 million dollars from healthcare costs. Taxes to unhealthy foods should be strengthened up and remain as an integral part of the national strategy to reduce obesity and chronic diseases in Mexico.


Subject(s)
Humans , Sweetening Agents/economics , Taxes , Beverages/economics , Nutrition Policy , Food/economics , Energy Intake , Mexico
20.
Rev. Paul. Pediatr. (Ed. Port., Online) ; 36(2): 148-154, abr.-jun. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-957377

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: Verificar se o aleitamento materno associa-se a menores prevalências de consumo de bebidas ou alimentos adoçados entre lactentes. Métodos: Trata-se de um estudo transversal realizado com dados da Pesquisa de Prevalência de Aleitamento Materno em Municípios Brasileiros de 2008. Foi estudada uma amostra representativa de 14.326 lactentes, de 6 a 11,9 meses, residentes em 75 municípios do estado de São Paulo. Avaliou-se a influência do aleitamento materno sobre o consumo de bebidas ou alimentos adoçados mediante regressão de Poisson multinível. Permaneceram como variáveis de ajuste aquelas que apresentaram p<0,20 na análise bruta. Resultados: A maioria dos lactentes encontrava-se em aleitamento materno (56,1%), e 53,3% consumiram bebidas ou alimentos adoçados. O consumo de tais bebidas ou alimentos foi menos prevalente entre os lactentes amamentados, após ajustes pelas variáveis de confusão (RP 0,87; IC95% 0,83-0,91). Conclusões: A presença do aleitamento materno associou-se a menores prevalências de consumo de bebidas ou alimentos adoçados. Assim, pode-se esperar, como efeito adicional das ações de promoção ao aleitamento materno, que haja diminuição do consumo de bebidas ou alimentos adoçados entre lactentes.


ABSTRACT Objective: To verify whether breastfeeding is associated with lower prevalence of consumption of sweetened beverages or foods in infants. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study with data collected from the Survey on Prevalence of Breastfeeding conducted in Brazilian municipalities in 2008. A representative sample of 14,326 infants aged 6 to 11.9 months of age, residents of 75 municipalities in the State of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, was studied. The influence of breastfeeding on the consumption of sweetened beverages or food products was analyzed by multilevel Poisson regression. Variables with p<0.20 in the crude analysis were included in the multilevel analysis. Results: Most infants were on breastfeeding (56.1%). The prevalence of sweetened drinks or foods consumption was 53.3%. The consumption of sweetened products was shown to be less prevalent among breastfed infants after adjustment for confounding factors (PR 0.87; 95%CI 0.83-0.91). Conclusions: Breastfeeding was associated with lower consumption of sweetened beverages or foods. As an additional effect of actions aimed at promoting breastfeeding, a decrease in intake of sweetened products is expected among infants.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Sweetening Agents , Beverages , Breast Feeding/statistics & numerical data , Diet , Food , Cross-Sectional Studies
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