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1.
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 27(4): 381-385, Aug. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1288606

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Objective: The study of sports biomechanics in sports medicine usually requires a special image analysis system (software) to obtain 3D kinematics data. Taking the swimming project in sports medicine as an example, 3D water images in water have always been relatively complicated and difficult. As light travels in different media, it will refract and reflect. When testing underwater movements, if only a land camera or an underwater camera is used for testing, the error caused by light refraction will be larger, which will affect the accuracy of the test data even more. Methods: Taking breaststroke movement as an example, a three-dimensional measurement method based on the Kwon3D movement analysis system is introduced. This method is different from the simple underwater camera test. It is a three-dimensional test method combining a land camera and an underwater camera. Two underwater cameras and two land cameras were used to simultaneously calibrate the water and underwater space with the same calibration frame in the experiment after analyzing and verifying the accuracy of 3D reconstruction. Results: The comprehensive reconstruction error is small, and the average relative error is less than 1%. Conclusions: The application of three-dimensional image analysis technology of vision systems in sports medicine is reasonable and worth promoting. Level of evidence II; Therapeutic studies - investigation of treatment results.


RESUMO Antecedente: Objetivo: O estudo da biomecânica do esporte na medicina esportiva geralmente requer o uso de um sistema especial de análise de imagens (software) para a obtenção de dados cinemáticos 3D. Tomando o projeto de natação na medicina esportiva como exemplo, a análise de imagens 3D da água na água sempre foi um teste relativamente complicado e difícil. À medida que a luz viaja em diferentes meios, ela refratará e refletirá. Ao testar movimentos subaquáticos, se apenas uma câmera terrestre ou subaquática for usada para o teste, o erro causado pela refração da luz será maior, o que afetará a precisão dos dados de teste ainda mais. Métodos: Tomando o movimento de nado peito como exemplo, um método de medição tridimensional baseado no sistema de análise de movimento Kwon3D é introduzido. Este método é diferente do teste simples de câmera subaquática. É um método de teste tridimensional que combina uma câmera terrestre e uma câmera subaquática. No experimento, duas câmeras subaquáticas e duas câmeras terrestres foram usadas para calibrar simultaneamente a água e o espaço subaquático com o mesmo quadro de calibração. Depois de analisar e verificar a precisão da reconstrução 3D. Resultados: O erro de reconstrução abrangente é pequeno e o erro relativo médio é inferior a 1% Conclusões: A aplicação da tecnologia de análise de imagem tridimensional do sistema de visão na medicina esportiva é razoável e vale a pena promover. Nível de evidência II; Estudos terapêuticos- investigação dos resultados do tratamento.


RESUMEN Antecedente: Objetivo: El estudio de la biomecánica del deporte en la medicina deportiva generalmente requiere el uso de un sistema de análisis de imágenes especial (software) para obtener datos de cinemática 3D. Tomando como ejemplo el proyecto de natación en medicina deportiva, el análisis de imágenes de agua en 3D en el agua siempre ha sido una prueba relativamente complicada y difícil. A medida que la luz viaja en diferentes medios, se refractará y reflejará. Al probar los movimientos bajo el agua, si solo se utiliza una cámara terrestre o una cámara submarina para realizar la prueba, el error causado por la refracción de la luz será mayor, lo que afectará aún más la precisión de los datos de la prueba. Métodos: tomando como ejemplo el movimiento de la brazada, se introduce un método de medición tridimensional basado en el sistema de análisis de movimiento Kwon3D. Este método es diferente de la simple prueba de cámara subacuática. Es un método de prueba tridimensional que combina una cámara terrestre y una cámara submarina. En el experimento, se utilizaron dos cámaras submarinas y dos cámaras terrestres para calibrar simultáneamente el agua y el espacio submarino con el mismo marco de calibración. Después de analizar y verificar la precisión de la reconstrucción 3D. Resultados: el error de reconstrucción integral es pequeño y el error relativo promedio es inferior al 1%. Conclusiones: La aplicación de la tecnología de análisis de imágenes tridimensionales del sistema de visión en la medicina deportiva es razonable y vale la pena promoverla. Nivel de evidencia II; Estudios terapéuticos- investigación de los resultados del tratamiento.


Subject(s)
Humans , Swimming/physiology , Video Recording/methods , Imaging, Three-Dimensional/methods , Biomechanical Phenomena/physiology , Algorithms , Calibration , Water
2.
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 27(spe2): 58-61, Apr.-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1280095

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT As people's lives become better and better, more and more citizens are no longer satisfied with simple food-and-clothing problems, but gradually move towards the spiritual life they are yearning for. Among this, physical health is also an important part of it. So, at this stage, a lot of people will go swimming to exercise their body and mind. In this paper, the integration algorithm was used, and the self-learning ability of the integration algorithm was used. This algorithm was used to study the swimming posture model. This model can play an important role in the teaching of traditional swimming posture.


RESUMO À medida que a vida das pessoas se torna melhor, cada vez mais cidadãos já não se contentam com problemas simples como comida e vestuário, mas, gradualmente, passam a cuidar da vida espiritual que anseiam. Nesse contexto, a saúde física é também um fator importante. Então, nesse estágio, muita gente passa a fazer natação para exercitar o corpo e a mente. Neste artigo, utilizou-se o algoritmo de integração, além da capacidade de autoaprendizagem do algoritmo. Utilizou-se o algoritmo para estudar o modelo de postura na natação, que pode desempenhar um papel importante no ensino da tradicional postura de natação.


RESUMEN A medida que la vida de las personas se vuelve mejor, cada vez más ciudadanos no se contentan con problemas simples como la comida y la vestimenta, sino que gradualmente, empiezan a cuidar la vida espiritual que anhelan. En ese contexto, la salud física es también un fator importante. Entonces, en ese nivel, mucha gente comienza a hacer natación para ejercitar el cuerpo y la mente. En este artículo, se utilizó el algoritmo de integración, además de la capacidad de autoaprendizaje del algoritmo. Se utilizó el algoritmo para estudiar el modelo de postura en la natación, que puede desempeñar un papel importante en la enseñanza de la tradicional postura de natación.


Subject(s)
Humans , Posture/physiology , Programmed Instructions as Topic , Swimming/physiology , Algorithms
3.
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 27(2): 179-183, Apr.-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1280069

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: Physical exercise can bring important benefits in the areas of physical and psychological health and behavioral aspects. However, there have been few studies that link physical exercise and sleep in people with disabilities. Objective: This study aims to analyze the benefits promoted by swimming in the health and quality of sleep of visually impaired people of different levels of physical fitness. Methods: Thirty male volunteers, visually impaired, aged 16-60 years, took part in the study. The volunteers were divided into three groups: irregularly active (G1), swimming twice a week (G2), and swimming five times a week (G3). Questionnaires related to sleep pattern (Pittsburgh), sleepiness (Epworth), chronotype (Horne and Östberg) and quality of life (SF-36) were applied. Results: The main results showed that G3 presented better quality of sleep, as well as more effective sleep, compared to the other two groups. In addition, G1 showed poorer scores for quality of life compared to G3 in the domains general health, vitality, and social aspect. Conclusion: We suggest that more frequent physical activity (swimming) has a positive effect on quality of sleep and quality of life of people with visual impairments. Level of evidence III, case control study .


RESUMEN Introducción: La práctica del ejercicio físico puede traer beneficios importantes en el ámbito físico, psicológico y comportamental. Sin embargo, la literatura es escasa al relacionar ejercicio físico y sueño en las personas con discapacidad. Objetivo: Este estudio tuvo como objetivo analizar los beneficios que la natación promueve en la salud y en la calidad del sueño de discapacitados visuales con diferentes niveles de aptitud física. Métodos: Participaron en la investigación 30 voluntarios del sexo masculino, discapacitados visuales, con edad entre 16 y 60 años, divididos en tres grupos, a saber, irregularmente activos (G1), practicantes de natación 2 veces por semana (G2) y practicantes de natación 5 veces por semana (G3). Fueron aplicados los cuestionarios relacionados con el patrón de sueño (Pittsburgh), somnolencia (Epworth), cronotipo (Horne y Östberg) y calidad de vida (SF-36). Resultados: Los principales resultados mostraron que G3 presentó mejor calidad de sueño, bien como mayor eficiencia del sueño con relación a los otros dos grupos. Además, G1 demostró peores puntajes para calidad de vida con relación a G3 en los dominios estado general de salud, vitalidad y aspecto social. Conclusión: De esa forma, podemos sugerir que la frecuencia mayor en la práctica de actividad física (natación) actuó positivamente sobre la calidad del sueño y la calidad de vida de las personas con discapacidad visual. Nivel de evidencia III; Estudio de caso control .


RESUMO Introdução: A prática do exercício físico pode trazer benefícios importantes no âmbito físico, psicológico e comportamental. No entanto, a literatura é escassa ao relacionar exercício físico e sono nas pessoas com deficiência. Objetivo: Este estudo teve como objetivo analisar os benefícios que a natação promove na saúde e na qualidade do sono de deficientes visuais com diferentes níveis de aptidão física. Métodos: Participaram da pesquisa 30 voluntários do sexo masculino, deficientes visuais, com idade entre 16 e 60 anos distribuídos em três grupos, a saber, irregularmente ativos (G1), praticantes de natação 2 vezes por semana (G2); e praticantes de natação 5 vezes na semana (G3). Foram aplicados os questionários relacionados ao padrão de sono (Pittsburgh), sonolência (Epworth), cronotipo (Horne e Östberg) e qualidade de vida (SF-36). Resultados: Os principais resultados mostraram que o G3 apresentou melhor qualidade de sono, bem como maior eficiência do sono com relação aos outros dois grupos. Além disso, o G1 demonstrou piores escores para qualidade de vida com relação ao G3 nos domínios estado geral de saúde, vitalidade e aspecto social. Conclusão: Dessa forma, podemos sugerir que a frequência maior na prática da atividade física (natação) atuou positivamente sobre a qualidade do sono e a qualidade de vida de pessoas com deficiência visual. Nível de evidência III, Estudo de caso controle .


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Quality of Life , Sleep/physiology , Swimming/physiology , Visually Impaired Persons/psychology , Sleep Wake Disorders/prevention & control , Surveys and Questionnaires
4.
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 27(1): 30-35, Jan.-Mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1156104

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction Swimming starts are an important component for decreasing the total race time, especially in short events. In this phase of swimming, the aim is to increase performance using many different techniques and starting platforms. Objectives The effects of height and slope of the starting block on kick-start performance were assessed in this study. Methods Six male competitive swimmers performed 24 kick-starts using four block settings: 65 cm & 75 cm flat and 65 cm & 75 cm sloped. Two-dimensional kinetic and three-dimensional kinematic data were analyzed, including average and maximum horizontal/vertical forces and impulses; reaction times; movement and block times; and take-off vertical/horizontal velocities. Two-way within-subject design ANOVAs were implemented to test the effects of block height and slope on the kinetic and kinematic variables. Results Block slope was the main factor affecting most of the dependent variables. Shorter block and movement times, greater average and maximum vertical forces, vertical impulse, and maximum horizontal force were found for the sloped settings. An inverse relationship was found between block height and 0-5 m times. Conclusion Based on the results, blocks with height of 75 cm and slope of 10° provided better results in swimmers' performance in the block phase. Level of evidence II, Therapeutic Studies -Investigating the Results of Treatment


RESUMO Introdução As largadas de natação são um componente importante para reduzir o tempo total de competição, especialmente em eventos curtos. Nessa fase da natação, o objetivo é aumentar o desempenho usando várias técnicas e plataformas de largada distintas. Objetivos Neste estudo, foram avaliados os efeitos da altura e da inclinação da plataforma sobre desempenho da saída kick-start. Métodos Seis nadadores de competição do sexo masculino realizaram 24 largadas, usando quatro tipos de bloco de partida (65 cm e 75 cm de altura planos e 65 cm e 75 cm com inclinação). Foram analisados dados cinéticos bidimensionais e cinemáticos tridimensionais, incluindo forças e impulsos horizontais/verticais médios e máximos; tempos de reação, movimento e de bloco; e velocidades vertical/horizontal da decolagem. Empregou-se o método ANOVA bidirecional intraindivíduo para analisar os efeitos da altura e da inclinação do bloco sobre as variáveis cinéticas e cinemáticas. Resultados A inclinação do bloco foi o principal fator que afetou a maioria das variáveis dependentes. Nas plataformas de largada inclinadas, verificou-se que os tempos de bloco e movimento eram mais curtos e as forças verticais médias e máximas, o impulso vertical e a força horizontal máxima foram maiores nas configurações inclinadas. Foi encontrada uma relação inversa entre a altura do bloco e os tempos para as distâncias de 0 a 5 metros. Conclusões Com base nos resultados, os blocos com 75 cm de altura e 10 graus de inclinação forneceram melhores resultados de desempenho dos nadadores na fase de bloco. Nível de Evidência II - Investigação dos resultados do tratamento.


RESUMEN Introducción Las largadas de natación son un componente importante para reducir el tiempo total de competición, especialmente en eventos cortos. En esta fase de natación, el objetivo es aumentar el desempeño usando varias técnicas y plataformas de largada distintas. Objetivos En este estudio, fueron evaluados los efectos de la altura y de la inclinación de la plataforma sobre desempeño de la salida kick-start. Métodos Seis nadadores de competición del sexo masculino realizaron 24 largadas, usando cuatro tipos de bloque de partida (65 cm y 75 cm de altura planos y 65 cm y 75 cm con inclinación). Fueron analizados datos cinéticos bidimensionales y cinemáticos tridimensionales, incluyendo fuerzas e impulsos horizontales/verticales promedios y máximos; tiempo de reacción, movimiento y de bloque; y velocidades vertical/horizontal del despegue. Se empleó el método ANOVA bidireccional intraindividuo para analizar los efectos de la altura y de la inclinación del bloque sobre las variables cinéticas y cinemáticas. Resultados La inclinación del bloque fue el principal factor que afectó a la mayoría de las variables dependientes. En las plataformas de largada inclinadas, se verificó que los tiempos de bloque y movimiento eran más cortos y las fuerzas verticales promedio y máximas, el impulso vertical y la fuerza horizontal máxima fueron mayores en las configuraciones inclinadas. Fue encontrada una relación inversa entre la altura del bloque y los tiempos para las distancias de 0 a 5 metros. Conclusiones Con base en los resultados, los bloques con 75 cm de altura y 10 grados de inclinación proporcionaron mejores resultados de desempeño de los nadadores en la fase de bloque. Nivel de Evidencia II; Investigación de los resultados del tratamiento


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Posture/physiology , Swimming/physiology , Athletic Performance/physiology , Kinetics
5.
Rev. cuba. invest. bioméd ; 39(1): e313, ene.-mar. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1126568

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Las altitudes intermedias entre 1500-3000 m sobre el nivel del mar generan cambios en el metabolismo basal, incrementados con el entrenamiento físico en deportes donde predominan esfuerzos aerobios superiores a tres minutos. Objetivo: Determinar el umbral anaerobio para nadadores que entrenan en Bogotá a 2600 m de altitud. Métodos: Fueron evaluados treinta nadadores: 12 mujeres y 18 hombres de las categorías juvenil y mayores, entre 16-24 años, modalidades bialetas, natación de carreras y deportistas que se preparan para campeonatos nacionales, se les aplicaron las siguientes mediciones: prueba de 30 min de natación continua, medición de la frecuencia cardíaca al inicio y final de la prueba, medición de ácido láctico al finalizar, análisis corporal y máximo consumo de oxígeno. Los registros de las mediciones fueron analizados estadísticamente. Resultados: Se encontraron al final de la prueba de los 30 min de natación continua, concentraciones de ácido láctico para los hombres de hasta 14 mmol/L, 9 para las mujeres y frecuencias cardíacas máximas y submáximas. En cuanto a los porcentajes de grasa, el promedio de los mejores para las mujeres fue de 20 y para los hombres 10 y porcentajes de masa muscular 33 para las mujeres y 41 para los hombres. Conclusiones: Los registros de ácido láctico en altitudes intermedias son muy superiores a las propuestas en la bibliografía existente para determinar el umbral anaeróbico, al igual que la frecuencia cardíaca, los porcentajes de grasa corporal promedio para hombres es 10 y para mujeres 20. La prueba de 30 min puede ser adecuada para determinar la velocidad de umbral anaerobio en altitudes intermedias, el volumen de entrenamiento de dicha capacidad puede ser equivalente al obtenido en ella y puede ser fraccionado utilizando distancias de 200 m, con pausas breves entre 10 y 30 s(AU)


Introduction: Intermediate altitudes between 1 500 and 3 000 above sea level bring about changes in basal metabolism, which are increased by physical training in sports with a predominance of aerobic efforts extending for more than three minutes. Objective: Determine the anaerobic threshold of swimmers training in Bogotá at an altitude of 2 600 meters. Methods: Thirty swimmers were evaluated: 12 women and 18 men from the youth and senior categories, age 16-24 years, bifin modes, racing swimming, and sportspeople training for national championships. The following measurements were taken: 30-min continuous swimming test, heart rate at the start and end of the test, lactic acid at the end, body analysis and maximal oxygen consumption. Measurement records were analyzed statistically. Results: At the end of the 30-min continuous swimming test lactic acid concentrations were up to 14 mmol/l for men and 9 mmol/l for women, and heart rates maximal and submaximal. The best mean body fat percentages were 20 for women and 10 for men, whereas muscle mass percentages were 33 for women and 41 for men. Conclusions: Lactic acid and heart rate values at intermediate altitudes were found to be much higher than those proposed by the existing bibliography to determine the anaerobic threshold. Mean body fat percentages were 10 for men and 20 for women. The 30-min test may be appropriate to determine the anaerobic threshold speed at intermediate altitudes. The training volume for that capacity may be equivalent to the one obtained from it, and may be split up using 200-meter distances with brief pauses of 10 to 30 seconds(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Adolescent , Young Adult , Swimming/physiology , Anaerobic Threshold/physiology , Altitude
6.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(1): 43-47, Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056395

ABSTRACT

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a disease triggered by environmental and genetic factors. Research suggests that physical exercise has benefits such as delaying functional disability. In vivo studies using experimental models of arthritis can provide useful information about these benefits. to analyze the effects that different intensities of aquatic physical exercise have on the proprieties of the bones in induced arthritis in knees of Wistar rats. Male Wistar adults rats (n=20) were divided into 5 groups: Group Control Arthritis (GCA) n=4, Group control Placebo (GCP) n=4, Group Low Physical Activity (GB) n=4, Group Moderate Physical Activity (GM) n=4 and Group Intense Physical Activity (GI) n=4. The physical activity groups got an intra-articular injection of Zymosam on the right knee; the GCA received saline solution in the right knee; the GCP was submitted to the stress of the needle. The animals were submitted to aquatic activity for 30 minutes, 4 times a week for 5 weeks, and the intensity of the exercise was determined by a weight placed on their back: GB=1 %, GM=5 %, GI=15 % of their body weight. It was observed that the group GB, and the groups that did not exercise GCA and GCP, gained more weight compared to the group GM. In relation to the bone mineral content of the tibia, there was a decrease in the GM group when compared to the GCP group, whereas in the tibial bone mineral density there was a decrease in the GM group compared to the GCP, GCA, GB. As for the area of the femur, the GI group presented an increase of it compared to the GB and GM groups. It is concluded that the high intensity exercises promote better results in bone properties.


La investigación sugiere que el ejercicio físico tiene beneficios como retrasar la discapacidad funcional de la artritis reumatoide. Los estudios in vivo que utilizan modelos experimentales de artritis pueden proporcionar información útil sobre estos beneficios. Se analizaron los efectos de las intensidades del ejercicio físico acuático sobre las propiedades de los huesos, en la artritis inducida en las rodillas de ratas Wistar. Las ratas Wistar macho adultas (n = 20) se dividieron en 5 grupos: grupo de control artritis (ACG) n = 4, grupo control placebo (CGP) n = 4, grupo de actividad física baja (GB) n = 4, grupo de actividad física moderada (GM) n = 4 y grupo de actividad física intensa (GI) n = 4. Los grupos de actividad física recibieron una inyección intraarticular de Zymosam en la rodilla derecha; el GCA recibió solución salina en la rodilla derecha; el CGP fue sometido a la tensión de una aguja. Los animales fueron sometidos a actividad acuática durante 30 minutos, 4 veces a la semana durante 5 semanas, y la intensidad del ejercicio se determinó mediante un peso colocado sobre su espalda: GB = 1 %, GM = 5 %, GI = 15 % de su peso corporal. Se observó que el grupo GB, y los grupos que no ejercitaron GCA y CGP, ganaron más peso en comparación con el grupo GM. En relación con el contenido mineral óseo de la tibia, hubo una disminución en el grupo GM en comparación con el grupo GCP, mientras que en la densidad mineral del hueso tibial hubo una disminución en el grupo GM en comparación con el GCP, GCA, GB. En cuanto al área del fémur, el grupo GI presentó un aumento en comparación con los grupos GB y GM. En conclusión el ejercicio de alta intensidad promueve mejores resultados en las propiedades óseas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/pathology , Swimming/physiology , Tibia/pathology , Femur/pathology , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/physiopathology , Tibia/physiopathology , Body Weight , Exercise/physiology , Rats, Wistar , Disease Models, Animal , Femur/physiopathology
7.
Braz. j. biol ; 79(2): 257-262, Apr.-June 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-989455

ABSTRACT

Abstract Increased oxygen consumption and activation of specific metabolic pathways during or after physical exercise lead to the formation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. An investigation was made into the effects of pequi oil supplementation in protecting liver cells against injury resulting from oxidative stress. The experiments involved 20 male adult Wistar rats ( Rattus norvegicus). The animals were divided into four experimental groups: Group 1: sedentary control group; Group 2: exercise control group; Group 3: supplemented sedentary group; and Group 4: supplemented exercise group. Supplementation consisted of pequi oil administered by oral gavage (400 mg). The animals of the exercised groups were subjected to 20 swimming sessions for 5 weeks (with progressive increase of 10 minutes until exhaustion). Samples were collected from the right hepatic lobe for histopathological analysis and determination of malondialdehyde levels. The histopathological analyses revealed that the animals of the exercised control group had moderate liver damage, while the animals of the supplemented exercised group had slight tissue damage, and the sedentary control and sedentary supplemented groups showed no tissue damage. The malondialdehyde levels showed higher and statistically significant in exercise control group when compared to the other evaluated groups (p<0.05). In conclusion the supplementation with pequi oil had a protective effect on liver cells against damage caused by oxygen free radicals during strenuous exercise, as demonstrated by the indicator of lipid peroxidation.


Resumo Aumento do consumo de oxigênio e ativação de vias metabólicas específicas durante ou após a atividade física conduz para formação de espécies reativas de oxigênio e nitrogênio. Uma investigação foi realizada sobre os efeitos da suplementação com óleo de pequi na proteção das células hepáticas contra lesões resultantes do estresse oxidativo. Na realização dos experimentos foram utilizados 20 ratos machos adultos da linhagem Wistar (Rattus novergicus ). Os animais foram divididos em quatro grupos experimentais: grupo 1: grupo sedentário controle; grupo 2: grupo treinado controle; grupo 3: grupo sedentário suplementado e grupo 4: grupo treinado suplementado. Na suplementação foi utilizado o óleo de pequi ministrado por gavagem oral (400 mg). Os animais dos grupos treinados foram submetidos a 20 sessões de natação por um período de 5 semanas (com aumento progressivo de 10 minutos até a exaustão). Foram retiradas amostras do lobo hepático direito para análises histopatológicas, e dosagem de malondialdeído. As análises histopatológicas revelaram que os animais do grupo treinado controle tiveram danos hepáticos moderados; já os animais do grupo treinado suplementado tiveram danos teciduais leves; os grupos sedentário controle e sedentário suplementado não apresentaram injúrias teciduais. Os níveis de malondialdeído mostraram-se maiores e estatisticamente significativos no grupo treinado controle quando comparados aos outros grupos avaliados (p<0,05). Podemos concluir que a suplementação com óleo de pequi teve efeito protetor nas células hepáticas contra os danos causados pelos radicais livres de oxigênio durante os exercícios exaustivos, conforme demonstrado pelo indicador de peroxidação lipídica.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Swimming/physiology , Plant Oils/pharmacology , Ericales/chemistry , Liver/drug effects , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Rats, Wistar
8.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 77(1): 39-46, Jan. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-983876

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: We investigated the protective effect of the extract of the Camellia japonica L. flower on cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats. Methods: The rat ischemia-reperfusion injury was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion for 90 minutes and reperfusion for 48 hours. The animals received an intravenous injection once a day of 20, 40, 80 mg/kg extract of C. japonica for three consecutive days before the ischemia reperfusion. The learning and memory function, the infarct volume, serum malondialdehyde (MDA) level and lactate dehydrogenase activity, and extravasation of immunoglobulin G (IgG) into cerebral parenchyma were assessed as the cell damage index. Results: Pretreatment with extract of C. japonica markedly reduced the infarct volume, serum malondialdehyde level and lactate dehydrogenase activity, and markedly inhibited the extravasation of IgG. Moreover, pretreatment with extract of C. japonica may also inhibit the learning and memory deficits induced by an ischemia-reperfusion injury. Conclusion: It was concluded that pretreatment with extract of C. japonica has a protective effect on cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats.


RESUMO Objetivo: Investigamos o efeito protetor do extrato da flor de Camellia japonica L. (ECJ) na lesão de reperfusão isquêmica cerebral (I/R) em ratos. Métodos: A lesão de I/R de rato foi induzida por uma oclusão da artéria cerebral média por 90 minutos e reperfusão por 48 horas. Os animais receberam uma injeção intravenosa uma vez ao dia de 20, 40, 80 mg/kg de ECJ por três dias consecutivos antes da I/R. A função de aprendizagem e memória, o volume do infarto, o nível sérico de malondialdeído (MDA), a atividade da desidrogenase láctica e o extravasamento de imunoglobulina (IgG) no parênquima cerebral foram avaliados como índices de dano celular. Resultados: O pré-tratamento com ECJ reduziu acentuadamente o volume do infarto, o nível sérico de MDA e a atividade da desidrogenase láctica, e inibiu marcadamente o extravasamento de IgG. Além disso, o pré-tratamento com ECJ também poderia inibir os déficits de aprendizado e memória induzidos pela lesão de I/R. Conclusão: O pré-tratamento com ECJ tem um efeito protetor contra lesão cerebral de I/R em ratos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Brain Ischemia/prevention & control , Neuroprotective Agents/pharmacology , Camellia/chemistry , Swimming/physiology , Time Factors , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Nimodipine/pharmacology , Random Allocation , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Disease Models, Animal , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/analysis , Malondialdehyde/blood
9.
Acta cir. bras ; 34(5): e201900503, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1010873

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To analyze the muscle changes with high-intensity aerobic training (HIAT) in an animal model of renal disease (RD). Methods: Twenty one adult Wistar rats were divided into 3 groups: healthy sedentary (HS), RD sedentary (RDS), RD aerobic training (RDAT). RDS and RDAT were subjected to unilateral renal ischemia-reperfusion (10 min) and 21days after that, RDAT was subjected to 6 weeks HIAT (swimming). Serum creatinine (Cr) and muscle morphometry (cross-sectional area = CSA) of gastrocnemius were analyzed. Results: Cr was higher (p = 0.0053) in RDS (0.82 ± 0.04) than in the others (RDAT 0.55 ± 0.04; HS 0.55 ± 0.04). Morphometric analysis (class interval of CSA in μm2/absolute frequency of muscle fibers in each class) indicated that 50th percentile occurred in: HS 7th class (3000.00-3499.00/515), RDS, 8th class (3500.00-3999.00/484), RDAT 5th class (2000.00-2499.00/856). CSA of largest fibers in RDS, RDAT, HS was 9953.00 μm2, 9969.00 μm2,11228.00 μm2, respectively. High frequency of fibers with lower CSA occurred in 4th, 5th, 6th and 7th class in RDA, absence of fibers into 22nd, 23rd classes (RDS and RDAT). Conclusion: HIAT in an animal model of RD resulted in increased the number of muscle fibers with smaller CSA.


Subject(s)
Animals , Physical Conditioning, Animal/physiology , Muscle, Skeletal/physiopathology , Renal Insufficiency/physiopathology , Reference Values , Swimming/physiology , Body Weight/physiology , Reperfusion Injury/physiopathology , Reproducibility of Results , Rats, Wistar , Muscle Fibers, Skeletal/physiology , Creatinine/blood , Disease Models, Animal , Sedentary Behavior , Kidney/physiopathology , Kidney/blood supply
10.
Rev. bras. cineantropom. desempenho hum ; 21: e56408, 2019. graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013453

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim of this study was to analyze the inter-temporal neuromuscular and motor patterns in breaststroke technique. Five national level male swimmers performed 200 m breaststroke at maximal effort. Electromyography data onbiceps brachii, deltoid anterior, pectoralis major and triceps brachiiwere analysed. The relative duration of active and non-active phase and the average rectified value for the neuromuscular patterns were recorded. The swim bouts were videotaped in sagittal plane with a pair of cameras and the Theme software 5.0 was used toanalyse the detected patterns in each swimmer. The neuromuscular pattern revealed that by the average rectified value the biceps brachiiand triceps brachiiwere increased at the end of the test for swimmers 1 and 5, while biceps brachii. deltoid anteriorand pectoralis majorwere increased for swimmers 2 and 4. Different motor patterns between cycles, and between swimmers were observed.We found similarities between the swimmers, adjusting their style to the technical model. The absence of a neuromuscular pattern for all swimmers could be related to different technical models used by each swimmer, as presented in the motor patterns. These findings suggested that each swimmers adapted their own motor and neuromuscular pattern in a unique and distinct way.


Resumo O objetivo deste estudo consistiu em analisar a relação entre os padrões neuromusculares e motores na técnica do nado de peito. Cinco nadadores masculinos de nível nacional realizaram 200 mnado peito na máxima intensidade.Foram registrados dados de Electromiografia do bicepsbrachii, deltoid anterior, pectoralis major etricepsbrachii. A duração relativa da fase ativa e não ativa e o valor médio retificado dos padrões neuromusculares foram analisados. Os percursos de nado foram gravados no plano sagital e analisados para detectar os padrões motores de cadanadador através do software THÉME software 5.0. Os padrões neuromusculares indicaram, por meio do valor médio retificado que a atividade dos músculos bíceps brachii e tríceps brachii aumentam no final do teste para o nadador 1 e 5, enquanto que o bíceps brachii. deltoid anterior. pectoralis major aumentam para o nadador 2 e 4. Diferentes padrões motores entre ciclos e entre nadadores foram observados, indicando que existem semelhanças entre eles, levando a um ajuste do estilo e modelo técnico de nado. A ausência de um padrão neuromuscular para todos os nadadores poderá estar relacionada com os diferentes modelos técnicos utilizados por cada nadador, como demonstrado nos padrões motores. Esses resultados sugerem que cada nadador adapta o seu padrão motor e muscular de uma forma única e distinta.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Young Adult , Swimming/physiology , Feedback, Sensory , Motor Activity
11.
Int. j. morphol ; 37(1): 104-110, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-990013

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of growth hormone (GH) and muscle strength training (ST) on the composition of bone tissue of Wistar rats through Raman spectroscopy. In total, 40 male rats were randomly distributed into four groups: (N = 10) control (C), control with the application of GH (GHC), strength training (T), and strength training with the application of GH (GHT). The training consisted of four series of 10 water jumps, performed three times a week, with an overload corresponding to 50 % of body weight and duration of four weeks. GH was applied at a dose of 0.2 IU / kg in each animal three times a week and every other day. After four weeks, the animals were euthanized and the right femurs collected for analysis of the bone structure. Raman spectroscopy (ER) was used to observe the following compounds from their respective bands: Calcium Carbonate-Triglycerides (fatty acids) 1073 cm-1, Collagen type I 509 cm-1, Bone-DNA Phosphate (Protein) 589 cm-1, Phosphate Phospholipids 1078 cm-1. For the statistical analysis, the Shapiro-Wilk and ANOVA One-Way variance analysis normality tests were performed, followed by the Tukey post-test. The results showed an increase in the concentrations of calcium carbonate-triglycerides (fatty acids), type I collagen, bone phosphate-DNA (protein), and phosphate phospholipids in all experimental groups, with or without ST and/or GH , But only the isolated training group differed significantly from the control group (P <0.05). It was concluded that all treatments could promote bone tissue gain, however, only the T group demonstrated a significant difference in the mineral compounds analyzed.


RESUMEN: El objetivo del estudio fue avaluar el efecto de la aplicación de la hormona del crecimiento (GH) y entrenamiento de la fuerza muscular (EF) en la composición del tejido óseo de ratas Wistar a partir de la espectroscopía Raman. Fueron utilizadas 40 ratas machos distribuidas de forma aleatoria en cuatro grupos (n=10): control (C), control y aplicación de GH (GHC), entrenamiento de la fuerza muscular (EF) y entrenamiento de la fuerza muscular y aplicación del GH (GHE). El entrenamiento fue consistió en cuatro series de 10 saltos acuáticos, realizados tres veces en la semana, con sobrecarga correspondiente a 50 % de la masa corporal y durante cuatro semanas. El GH fue aplicado en la dosificación de 0,2 UI/kg en cada animal, tres veces en la semana y en días alternados. Después de cuatro semanas, los animales fueran eutanasiados y retirados los fémures derechos para un análisis de la estructura ósea. La espectroscopía Raman fue utilizada para observar los siguientes compuestos a partir de las respectivas bandas: Carbonato de Calcio-Triglicéridos (ácidos grasos) 1073 cm-1, Colágeno Tipo I 509 cm-1, Fosfato Óseo-DNA (Proteína) 589 cm1, Fosfato Fosfolípidos 1078 cm-1. Para el análisis estadístico, fueron realizadas las pruebas Shapiro-Wilk y el análisis de variancia ANOVA One-Way, seguida de test post hoc de Tukey. Los resultados revelaran aumento de la concentración de Carbonato de Calcio-Triglicéridos (ácidos grasos), Colágeno Tipo I, Fosfato Óseo- DNA (Proteína), Fosfato Fosfolípidos en todos los grupos experimentales, asociados o no a la realización del EF y/o aplicación del GH. Además, solamente el grupo EF mostró diferencia significativa del grupo C (p<0,05). Es posible concluir que todos los tratamientos mostraran aumentos en el tejido óseo, sin embargo, solamente el grupo T demostró una diferencia significativa en los compuestos minerales analizados.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Swimming/physiology , Bone and Bones/chemistry , Muscle Strength/physiology , Phosphates/analysis , Spectrum Analysis, Raman , Body Weight , Bone and Bones/drug effects , Calcium Carbonate/analysis , Growth Hormone/administration & dosage , Exercise/physiology , Bone Density , Analysis of Variance , Collagen/analysis , Rats, Wistar
12.
Clinics ; 74: e829, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001830

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To test whether swimming training benefits femoral neck strength in young diabetic rats under insulin therapy. METHODS: A total of 60 male Wistar rats (age: 40 days) were divided equally into the following six groups: control sedentary, control exercise, diabetic sedentary, diabetic exercise, diabetic sedentary plus insulin and diabetic exercise plus insulin. Diabetes was induced with a unique intraperitoneal injection (60 mg/kg body weight) of streptozotocin. Seven days after the injection and after 12 hours of fasting, the animals with blood glucose levels ≥300 mg/dL were considered diabetic. Seven days after the induction of diabetes, the animals in the exercise groups were subjected to progressive swimming training (final week: 90 min/day; 5 days/week; 5% load) for eight weeks. The animals in the insulin groups received a daily dose of insulin (2-4 U/day) for the same period. RESULTS: Severe streptozotocin-induced diabetes reduced the structural properties of the femoral neck (trabecular bone volume, trabecular thickness and collagen fiber content). The femoral neck mechanical properties (maximum load and tenacity) were also impaired in the diabetic rats. Insulin therapy partially reversed the damage induced by diabetes on the structural properties of the bone and mitigated the reductions in the mechanical properties of the bone. The combination of therapies further increased the femoral neck trabecular bone volume (∼30%), trabecular thickness (∼24%), collagen type I (∼19%) and type III (∼13%) fiber contents, maximum load (∼25%) and tenacity (∼14%). CONCLUSIONS: Eight weeks of swimming training potentiates the recovery of femoral neck strength in young rats with severe streptozotocin-induced diabetes under insulin therapy.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Swimming/physiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/physiopathology , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/drug therapy , Exercise Therapy/methods , Femur Neck/physiopathology , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Insulin/therapeutic use , Physical Conditioning, Animal/physiology , Time Factors , Blood Glucose/analysis , Body Weight/physiology , Reproducibility of Results , Collagen/analysis , Rats, Wistar , Streptozocin , Fractures, Bone/physiopathology , Fractures, Bone/prevention & control , Cancellous Bone/physiopathology
13.
Int. j. morphol ; 36(4): 1161-1167, Dec. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-975675

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY The objective of the present study was to analyze the effects of four different training models, two aerobic and two anaerobic models, in relation to muscular hypertrophy, by means of morphometric analysis of the muscle cells of the soleus muscle and the extensor digitorum longus muscle (EDL). The animals were divided into five groups, control (C), aerobic training in swimming (ATS), resistance training in water (RTW), aerobic training on a treadmill (ATT), and resistance training in climbing (RTC). The aerobic training was performed at 70 % of the anaerobic threshold for 30 minutes, while the RTW was composed of 3 series of 10 jumps, and the RTC 4 series of climbs, both at 80 % of the maximum load. All training protocols were performed for a total period of 4 weeks, 3 times per week. The diameters of the muscle cells were measured by means of histological slides of the EDL and soleus muscles. For the EDL muscle, there was no difference between the ATS and ATT aerobic training models (p = 0.20). However, the RTW presented greater hypertrophy when compared to the RTC (p <0.01). Regarding the soleus muscle, the ATS was responsible for generating greater hypertrophy than the ATT (p <0.01). In addition, the RTC was more efficient at producing hypertrophy than the RTW (p <0.01). In this way, it was concluded that exercise adaptation was according to exercise type, aerobic or anaerobic, and not to the modality used.


RESUMEN El objetivo del estudio fue analizar los efectos de cuatro diferentes modelos de entrenamiento, dos aeróbicos y dos anaeróbicos en la hipertrofia muscular en ratas, a través del análisis morfométrico de las células musculares de los músculos sóleo y extensor largo de los dedos (ELD). Los animales fueran divididos en cinco grupos: control (C), entrenamiento aeróbico en natación (TAN), entrenamiento resistido en medio acuático (TRA), entrenamiento resistido en escalada (TRE) y entrenamiento aeróbico en estera rodante (TRE). Los entrenamientos aeróbicos fueron realizados a 70 % del umbral anaeróbico, durante 30 minutos, en cuanto los TRA fueron realizados por 3 series de 10 saltos y el TRE, 4 series de escaladas, ambos a la intensidad de 80 % de la carga máxima. Todos los protocolos de entrenamientos fueron realizados tres veces a la semana por un período de 4 semanas. Fueron demarcados los diámetros de las células musculares de los músculos ELD y sóleo por medio de láminas histológicas. En el músculo ELD no se pudo observar diferencia entre los modelos de entrenamiento aeróbico TAN y TAE (p=0,20). Además, el TRA demostró mayor hipertrofia comparado al TRE (p<0,01). Con relación al músculo sóleo, el TAN fue responsable de generar mayor hipertrofia respecto al TRA (p<0,01). De este modo es posible concluir que la adaptación depende del tipo de ejercicio, aeróbico o anaeróbico, y no en función de la modalidad utilizada.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Exercise/physiology , Muscles/anatomy & histology , Muscles/physiology , Physical Endurance , Swimming/physiology , Body Weight , Adaptation, Physiological , Rats, Wistar , Hypertrophy
14.
Int. j. morphol ; 36(3): 937-942, Sept. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-954211

ABSTRACT

We recently reported that insulin can partially protect the knee joint against osteoarthritis (OA) development in a rat model of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). However, the combined protective effect of insulin and swim exercise against OA development secondary to diabetes has not been investigated before. Therefore, we hypothesized that swim exercise can augment the protection of the knee joint in diabetic rats treated with insulin. T1DM was induced in Sprague Dawley rats and treated with insulin and/ or swim exercise. Tissues harvested from the articular cartilage of the knee joint were examined by light microscopy, and blood samples were assayed for biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation. Treatment of diabetic rats with insulin and swim exercise substantially protected the articular cartilage and significantly (p<0.0001) inhibited the inflammatory biomarkers, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), and the oxidative stress biomarker, malondialdehyde (MDA) measured as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) comparable to control. Whereas, a lesser effective protection was observed by insulin or swim exercise alone. Thus, we demonstrate a substantial protection against OA development in rats treated with combined insulin and swim exercise possibly due to a complete inhibition of biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress.


Recientemente informamos que la insulina puede proteger parcialmente la articulación de la rodilla contra el desarrollo de osteoartritis (OA) en un modelo de diabetes tipo 1 (DM1) en ratas. Sin embargo, el efecto protector combinado de la insulina y el ejercicio de natación contra el desarrollo de OA secundario a la diabetes no se ha investigado. Por lo tanto, planteamos la hipótesis de que el ejercicio de natación puede aumentar la protección de la articulación de la rodilla en ratas diabéticas tratadas con insulina. La DM1 se indujo en ratas Sprague Dawley y se trataron con insulina y/o ejercicio de natación. Los tejidos recogidos del cartílago articular de la articulación de la rodilla se examinaron mediante microscopía óptica, y las muestras de sangre se analizaron en busca de biomarcadores de estrés oxidativo e inflamación. El tratamiento de ratas diabéticas con insulina y ejercicio de natación protegió sustancialmente el cartílago articular y significativamente (p <0,0001) inhibió los biomarcadores inflamatorios, factor de necrosis tumoral alfa (TNF-α) e interleucina-6 (IL-6) y el biomarcador de estrés oxidativo, el malondialdehído (MDA) fue medido como sustancia reactivas al ácido tiobarbitúrico (TBARS), comparable al control. Se observó una menor protección efectiva mediante la insulina o el ejercicio de natación solo. Por lo tanto, demostramos una protección sustancial contra el desarrollo de OA en ratas tratadas con insulina combinada con el ejercicio de natación, posiblemente debido a una inhibición completa de biomarcadores de inflamación y estrés oxidativo.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Swimming/physiology , Osteoarthritis, Knee/prevention & control , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/therapy , Insulin/therapeutic use , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Combined Modality Therapy , Disease Models, Animal , Knee Joint
15.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 110(4): 373-380, Apr. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888046

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Physical exercise should be part of the treatment of post-acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients. Objective: To evaluate the effects of two training prescription models (continuous x interval) and its impact on ventricular function in rats after AMI with normal ventricular function. Methods: Forty Wistar rats were evaluated by echocardiography 21 days after the AMI. Those with LVEF = 50% (n = 29) were included in the study and randomized to control group (CG n = 10), continuous training group (CTG n = 9) or interval training group (ITG, n = 10). Then, a swimming test with control of lactate production was performed. Based on its result, the lactate threshold (LT) was established to define the training intensities. After six weeks, the animals were reassessed by echocardiography and lactate production. Outcome measures were end-diastolic diameter (EDD), end-systolic diameter (ESD), left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF, %) lactate at rest, lactate without overload, and lactate with 12g and 13.5g of additional load. Group comparisons of quantitative variables of the study were performed by one-factor analysis of variance (ANOVA). The Newman-Keuls test was used for multiple comparisons of the groups. Within-group comparisons of dependent variables between the two training protocols were performed by Student's t-test. Normality of the variables was tested by the Shapiro-Wilks test. Values of p < 0.05 indicated statistical significance. Results: EDD, ESD, and LVEF before and after the training period were similar in within-group comparisons. However, EDD was significantly different (p=0.008) in the CG. Significant differences were found for L12g (p=0.002) and L13.5g (p = 0.032) in the ITG, and for L12g (p = 0.014) in the CG. No differences were found in the echocardiographic parameters between the groups. Significant differences were found in lactate without overload (p = 0.016) and L12 (p = 0.031) in the second assessment compared with the first, and between the groups - ITG vs. CG (p = 0.019) and CTG vs. CG (p = 0.035). Conclusion: Both methods produced a training effect without altering ventricular function.


Resumo Fundamento: O exercício físico deve fazer parte do tratamento de pacientes pós-infarto agudo do miocárdio (IAM). Objetivo: Avaliar os efeitos de treinamento produzidos por dois modelos distintos (contínuo x intervalado) e sua repercussão sobre a função ventricular de ratos pós-IAM com função ventricular normal. Métodos: Quarenta ratos Wistar pós-IAM foram avaliados ecocardiograficamente 21 dias após o evento. Aqueles com FEVE = 50% (n = 29) foram incluídos e randomizados: controle (GC n = 10), treinamento contínuo (GTC n = 9) e treinamento intervalado (GTI n = 10). Após, foi realizado um teste de natação com controle de lactato. A partir do resultado foi definido o limiar de lactato (LL) para determinar as intensidades do treinamento. Após seis semanas, foram reavaliados com ecocardiografia e controle de lactato. Como desfecho, foram avaliados: diâmetros diastólico e sistólico final (DDF, DSF, mL), fração de ejeção do ventrículo esquerdo (FEVE, %), lactato de repouso, livre de carga (LC), lactato com 12 g e 13,5 g de carga adicional. Para a comparação dos grupos em relação às variáveis quantitativas do estudo, foi considerado o modelo de análise da variância com um fator (ANOVA). Nas comparações múltiplas dos grupos foi usado o teste de Newman-Keuls. Na comparação entre as duas avaliações, dentro de cada grupo, foi usado o teste t de Student para amostras dependentes. A condição de normalidade das variáveis foi avaliada pelo teste de Shapiro-Wilks. Valores de p < 0,05 indicaram significância estatística. Resultados: Com relação à análise intragrupos, entre o período pré- e pós-treinamento foi identificado semelhança para DDF, DSF, FEVE, porém o GC apresentou diferença significativa para a variável DDF (p = 0,008). Houve diferença do GTI para L12g (p = 0,002) e L13,5g (p = 0,032) e para o GTC na variável L12g (p = 0,014). Não houve diferença para as variáveis ecocardiográficas entre os grupos. Houve diferença nas variáveis LC e L12g na segunda avaliação (p = 0,016 e p = 0,031, respectivamente) e entre os grupos: GTI vs. GC (p = 0,019) e GTC vs. GC (p = 0,035). Conclusão: Os dois métodos produziram efeito de treinamento sem alterar a função ventricular.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Physical Conditioning, Animal/methods , Ventricular Function, Left/physiology , High-Intensity Interval Training/methods , Myocardial Infarction/physiopathology , Reference Values , Stroke Volume/physiology , Swimming/physiology , Systole/physiology , Time Factors , Echocardiography , Random Allocation , Treatment Outcome , Rats, Wistar , Lactic Acid/blood , Diastole/physiology , Exercise Test/methods , Myocardial Infarction/diagnostic imaging
16.
Int. j. morphol ; 36(1): 327-332, Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-893230

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: The rapid rise in obesity, particularly among children is a major public health concern that adversely affects vital organs including the liver. We sought to investigate the effect of exercise on the healing of liver cells from damage induced by high fat diet (HFD) in a rat model of hepatic steatosis. Rats were randomly divided into four groups (n=6 in each group); control group fed on a low fat diet (LFD), LFD plus exercise group (LFD+EX), model group fed on HFD, and swim exercise treated group (HFD+EX). Training swim exercise started from the 11th week up until the end of week 15. Liver index and body mass index (BMI) were determined, and harvested liver tissues were examined using basic histological staining and visualised under light microscopy. In addition, collected blood samples were assayed for biomarkers of liver injury. Histological images from the model group showed accumulation of lipid droplets in the hepatocytes (steatosis) and damaged liver cells that were inhibited by swimming exercise. Compared to control groups, HFD caused an increase in BMI and liver weight but not in liver index. In addition, HFD significantly (p<0.05) increased liver injury biomarkers; high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) that were effectively (p<0.05) decreased by swimming exercise. Furthermore, a negative correlation between these biomarkers and the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory protein adiponectin was observed. Thus, HFD-induced hepatic steatosis is treated by swim exercise.


RESUMEN: El aumento de la obesidad, especialmente entre los niños, es un problema importante en la salud pública que afecta negativamente los órganos vitales, incluyendo el hígado. En este estudio se investigó el efecto del ejercicio en la curación de las células del hígado y el daño inducido por la dieta alta en grasas (HFD) en un modelo de rata de esteatosis hepática. Las ratas se dividieron aleatoriamente en cuatro grupos (n = 6 en cada grupo); grupo control, alimentado con una dieta baja en grasas (LFD); grupo de ejercicio LFD más (LFD + EX); grupo modelo alimentado con HFD; y grupo tratado con ejercicio de natación (HFD + EX). El entrenamiento con ejercicio de natación comenzó a partir de la semana 11 hasta el final de la semana 15. Se determinaron el índice hepático y el índice de masa corporal (IMC). Los tejidos hepáticos recolectados se examinaron mediante tinción histológica básica y se visualizaron con microscopía óptica. Además, se analizaron las muestras de sangre recogidas para identificar biomarcadores de lesión hepática. Las imágenes histológicas del grupo modelo mostraron acumulación de gotitas de lípidos en los hepatocitos (esteatosis) y células hepáticas dañadas que fueron inhibidas por el ejercicio de natación. En comparación con los grupos control, HFD causó un aumento en el IMC y el peso del hígado, pero no en el índice de hígado. Además, HFD aumentó significativamente (p <0.05) los biomarcadores de lesiones hepáticas; la proteína C reactiva de alta sensibilidad (hsCRP) y la fosfatasa alcalina (ALP) disminuyeron efectivamente (p <0.05) con el ejercicio de natación. Además, se observó una correlación negativa entre estos biomarcadores y la proteína antioxidante y antiinflamatoria adiponectina. Por lo tanto, la esteatosis hepática inducida por HFD puede ser tratada mediante el ejercicio de natación.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Swimming/physiology , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/pathology , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/therapy , Exercise/physiology , Weight Gain , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Disease Models, Animal , Adiponectin/analysis , Diet, High-Fat/adverse effects , Liver/pathology
17.
West Indian med. j ; 67(1): 31-38, Jan.-Mar. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1045812

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To assess obesity and metabolic risks for non-communicable diseases among adolescent swimmers. Methods: A cohort of 220 swimmers was selected at their respective swimming clubs via quota sampling and measured using various anthropometric parameters, which were then compared with standard cut-off points for the various age groups. Results: The mean body mass index (BMI) was 21.23 ± 3.85 kg/m2, the mean waist circumference was 69.8 ± 8.08 cm, and the mean body fat percentage was 21.20 ± 9.27%. These mean body composition variables fell within their respective recommended ranges according to the cut-off points. Height (p < 0.001), weight (p < 0.011), mid-upper arm circumference [MUAC] (p = 0.035) and visceral fat (p = 0.033) were statistically significant when compared between males and females. Chi-square analysis revealed that gender was statistically significantly associated with waist-to-hip ratio [WHR] (p < 0.001) and body fat percentage [BFP] (p = 0.003), while BFP was statistically significantly associated with BMI (p < 0.001), waist circumference (p < 0.001), WHR (p = 0.026), MUAC (p < 0.001) and skeletal muscle mass (p < 0.001). Conclusion: The swimmers had an overall healthy body composition and were at low risk for developing non-communicable diseases. We recommend that Trinidad and Tobago develop anthropometric cut-off points for athletes and non-athletes.


RESUMEN Objetivo: Evaluar la obesidad y el riesgo metabólicos para no-enfermedades transmisibles entre los nadadores adolescentes. Métodos: Una cohorte de 220 nadadores fue seleccionada mediante muestreo de cuotas en sus respectivos clubes de natación, y sometida a mediciones utilizando varios parámetros antropométricos, que fueron luego comparados con puntos límites estándar para los distintos grupos etarios. Resultados: El índice de masa corporal (IMC) promedio fue 21.23 ± 3.85 kg/m2, la circunferencia promedio de la cintura fue 69.8 ± 8.08 cm, y el porciento de grasa corporal promedio fue de 21.20 ± 9.27%. Estas variables promedio de la composición corporal estuvieron dentro de los rangos recomendados de acuerdo con los puntos límites. La altura (p < 0.001), el peso (p < 0.011), la circunferencia braquial medio-superior [CBMS] (p = 0.035), y la grasa visceral (p = 0.033) fueron estadísticamente significativas cuando se compararon hembras y varones. El análisis de chi-cuadrado reveló que el género se hallaba significativamente asociado estadísticamente con el índice cintura-cadera [ICC] (p < 0.001) y el porciento de grasa corporal [PGC] (p = 0.003), mientras que PGC se hallaba estadísticamente significativamente asociado con el IMC (p < 0.001), el índice cintura-cadera [ICC] (p < 0.001), la circunferencia de la cintura (p < 0.001), el ICC (p = 0.026), CBMS (p < 0.001), y la masa muscular esquelética (p < 0.001). Conclusión: Los nadadores tenían una composición corporal sana en general y presentaban bajo riesgo de desarrollar enfermedades no transmisibles. Recomendamos que Trinidad y Tobago desarrolle puntos límites antropométricos tanto para los deportistas como para los no deportistas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Young Adult , Swimming/physiology , Body Composition/physiology , Noncommunicable Diseases , Obesity/metabolism , Body Mass Index , Risk Factors , Cohort Studies , Waist-Hip Ratio , Body Fat Distribution
18.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 51(5): e7057, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889076

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of lactatemia elevation and glycemia reduction on strenuous swimming performance in fasted rats. Three rats were placed in a swimming tank at the same time. The first rat was removed immediately (control group) and the remaining ones were submitted to a strenuous swimming session. After the second rat was exhausted (Exh group), the third one was immediately removed from the water (Exe group). According to the period of time required for exhaustion, the rats were divided into four groups: low performance (3-7 min), low-intermediary performance (8-12 min), high-intermediary performance (13-17 min), and high performance (18-22 min). All rats were removed from the swimming tanks and immediately killed by decapitation for blood collection or anesthetized for liver perfusion experiments. Blood glucose, lactate, and pyruvate concentrations, blood lactate/pyruvate ratio, and liver lactate uptake and its conversion to glucose were evaluated. Exhaustion in low and low-intermediary performance were better associated with higher lactate/pyruvate ratio. On the other hand, exhaustion in high-intermediary and high performance was better associated with hypoglycemia. Lactate uptake and glucose production from lactate in livers from the Exe and Exh groups were maintained. We concluded that there is a time sequence in the participation of lactate/pyruvate ratio and hypoglycemia in performance during an acute strenuous swimming section in fasted rats. The liver had an important participation in preventing hyperlactatemia and hypoglycemia during swimming through lactate uptake and its conversion to glucose.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Hypoglycemia/physiopathology , Lactic Acid/blood , Liver/physiopathology , Pyruvic Acid/blood , Swimming/physiology , Blood Glucose/analysis , Fasting/physiology , Hypoglycemia/blood , Hypoglycemia/metabolism , Perfusion , Physical Conditioning, Animal/physiology , Rats, Wistar , Time Factors
19.
Motriz (Online) ; 24(1): e1018137, 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-895055

ABSTRACT

AIM: Taurine is considered a semi-essential amino acid characterized by having various physiological functions in the body that modulate mechanisms of action involved in the muscle contraction process, increased energy expenditure, insulin signaling pathway, carbohydrate metabolism, and scavenging free radicals. These functions are crucial for aerobic exercise performance; thus, taurine supplementation may benefit athletes' performance. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of taurine supplementation on the resting energy expenditure and physical performance of swimming athletes. METHODS: In a double-blind study, 14 male swimmers were randomized into two groups: the taurine group (n = 7) and the placebo group (n = 7), which received 3 g per day of taurine or placebo in capsules during 8 weeks. Resting energy expenditure, plasma taurine, physical performance, anthropometry, dietary consumption were measured and an incremental test was performed to determine their maximal front crawl swimming performances before and after the 8-week period. RESULTS: The levels of serum taurine (p < 0.0001) and lactate (p = 0.0130) showed a significant increase in the taurine group; however, the other variables were not different. No changes were observed in the resting energy expenditure, mean speed performed, and the anaerobic threshold of the swimmers post-supplementation period. CONCLUSION: Supplementation of taurine increased plasma concentrations of this amino acid, but did not lead to significant changes in food intake, rest energy expenditure, and athletes' performance. However, the supplemented group presented a higher lactate production, suggesting a possible positive effect of taurine on the anaerobic lactic metabolism.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Athletic Performance , Energy Metabolism/physiology , Infant Nutritional Physiological Phenomena , Swimming/physiology , Taurine
20.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 16(1): eAO4137, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-891463

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective To analyze the combined effects of the silk protein sericin and swimming exercise on histomorphometry of the plantar muscle in Wistar rats. Methods Forty adult rats were randomly allocated into 5 groups comprising 8 animals each, as follows: Control, Injury, Sericin, Swim, and Swim plus Sericin. Three days after crushing of the sciatic nerve the rats in the Swim and Swim plus Sericin Groups were submitted to swimming exercise for 21 days. Rats were then euthanized and the plantar muscle harvested and processed. Results Cross-sectional area, peripheral nuclei and muscle fiber counts, nucleus/fiber ratio and smallest muscle fiber width did not differ significantly between groups. Morphological analysis revealed hypertrophic fibers in the Swim Group and evident muscle damage in the Swim plus Sericin and Injury Groups. The percentage of intramuscular collagen was apparently maintained in the Swim Group compared to remaining groups. Conclusion Combined treatment with sericin and swimming exercise did not improve muscle properties. However, physical exercise alone was effective in maintaining intramuscular connective tissue and preventing progression of deleterious effects of peripheral nerve injury.


RESUMO Objetivo Analisar o efeito da proteína sericina associada ao exercício físico de natação na histomorfometria do músculo plantar de ratos Wistar. Métodos Foram utilizados 40 ratos adultos divididos aleatoriamente em 5 grupos, com 8 animais cada: Controle, Lesão, Sericina, Natação, Natação e Sericina. Três dias após a compressão do nervo isquiático, os Grupos Natação e Exercício e Sericina foram submetidos ao exercício físico de natação durante 21 dias. Após, os animais foram sacrificados, e o músculo plantar foi processado. Resultados Não houve diferença da área da secção transversa entre os grupos, quantidade de núcleos periféricos, quantidade de fibra, relação núcleo/fibra e diâmetro menor. A análise morfológica revelou que no Grupo Natação ocorreu hipertrofia das fibras, assim como nos Grupos Exercício e Sericina e Lesão, o dano muscular foi evidente. O percentual de conjuntivo intramuscular parece ter sido mantido no Grupo Exercício em relação aos demais grupos. Conclusão A associação da proteína sericina e exercício físico de natação não foi eficiente na melhora das propriedades musculares, embora a aplicação do exercício físico tenha sido eficiente na manutenção do conjuntivo intramuscular, e no não agravamento dos efeitos deletérios consequentes da lesão nervosa periférica.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Physical Conditioning, Animal/physiology , Swimming/physiology , Muscle, Skeletal/innervation , Lower Extremity/innervation , Sericins/pharmacology , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar , Muscle, Skeletal/injuries , Muscle, Skeletal/pathology , Lower Extremity/injuries , Lower Extremity/pathology , Disease Models, Animal , Nerve Crush
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