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1.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 30(4): e008721, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1351875

ABSTRACT

Abstract A serological, molecular and histopathological study was carried out in order to investigate occurrences of Toxoplasma gondii in pigs slaughtered with and without inspection service. Serum samples were collected from 60 pigs to detect anti-T. gondii antibody by indirect fluorescent antibody (IFAT). Tongue, masseter and diaphragm fragments were also collected for parasite DNA detection by means of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and histopathological analysis. The serological results showed that 77% (44/60) of the pigs were positive. Regarding PCR, 66.67% (40/60) were positive for T. gondii. Among the tissues evaluated, the diaphragm was the one with the highest frequency of positivity (40%; 24/60), followed by the masseter (38.33%; 23/60) and tongue (33.3%; 20/60). Histopathological changes were only observed in the diaphragm, which presented inflammatory infiltrates of lymphohistiocytic and neutrophilic types. These results not only show the potential threat of T. gondii to human health, but also demonstrate the dynamic epidemiological situation of toxoplasmosis in pigs in the city of São Luís, providing support for food security regarding pigs and for T. gondii control programs in Brazil.


Resumo Realizou-se um estudo sorológico, molecular e histopatológico com o objetivo de verificar a ocorrência de Toxoplasma gondii em suínos abatidos com e sem serviço de inspeção. Foram coletados soros de 60 suínos para a pesquisa de anticorpos anti-T. gondii pela reação de imunofluorescência indireta (RIFI). Também foram coletados fragmentos de língua, masseter e diafragma para a detecção do DNA do parasito por meio da reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR) e análise histopatológica. A análise sorológica demonstrou que 77% (44/60) dos suínos apresentaram anticorpos anti-T. gondii. Com relação ao PCR, 66,67% (40/60) foram positivos para T. gondii. Dentre os tecidos avaliados, o diafragma foi o que obteve maior frequência de positividade (40%; 24/60), seguidos de masseter (38,33%; 23/60) e língua (33,3%; 20/60). Alterações histopatológicas foram observadas apenas no diafragma, que apresentou infiltrado inflamatório do tipo linfohistiocitário e neutrofílico. Esses resultados não evidenciam apenas a ameaça potencial de T. gondii à saúde humana, mas também demonstram a dinâmica situação epidemiológica da toxoplasmose em suínos na região da cidade de São Luís, fornecendo suporte para a segurança alimentar de suínos e programas de controle de T. gondii no país.


Subject(s)
Animals , Swine Diseases/diagnosis , Swine Diseases/epidemiology , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmosis, Animal/diagnosis , Toxoplasmosis, Animal/epidemiology , Swine , Brazil/epidemiology , Antibodies, Protozoan , Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect/veterinary
2.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 30(1): e017520, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1156223

ABSTRACT

Abstract We investigated the occurrence of Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum antibodies in pigs raised in the Northeast of Pará, Brazil. At Study I, convenience sampled 151 pigs at two slaughterhouses, with and without state inspection; and Study II, which assessed 159 pigs with probabilistic sampling from nine pig farms. Serological analysis was performed using indirect fluorescent antibody test for T. gondii and N. caninum with a cutoff of 64 and 50, respectively. Overall, 6.77% pigs were seropositive for T. gondii and 5.16% for N. caninum. In Study I, pigs slaughtered with and without state inspection presented similar occurrence for both coccidia (p>0.05). Study II found an association between N. caninum seropositivity and sludge discarded into the soil, feeding pigs with animal-based protein, subsistence system, and absence of nipple drinkers. No association was found for T. gondii. Pigs from Pará are a potential source of T. gondii infection to humans. To our best knowledge, this is the first study to report anti-N. caninum antibodies in the serum of pigs in Pará State, Brazilian Amazon.


Resumo Foi investigada a ocorrência de anticorpos contra Toxoplasma gondii e Neospora caninum em suínos criados no nordeste do Pará, Brasil. No Estudo I, foram amostrados 151 porcos em dois matadouros, com e sem inspeção estadual. O Estudo II avaliou 159 suínos com amostragem probabilística de nove granjas de suínos. Para sorologia, utilizou-se o teste de imunofluorescência indireta para T. gondii e N. caninum com ponto de corte de 1:64 e 1:50, respectivamente. No geral, 6,77% dos suínos foram soropositivos para T. gondii e 5,16% para N. caninum. No Estudo I, suínos abatidos em matadouros com e sem inspeção estadual apresentaram ocorrência semelhante para ambos os coccídios (p> 0,05). Os animais amostrados de Belém, Benevides, Marituba, Bujaru, Castanhal e Igarapé-Miri foram positivos para T. gondii, enquanto os soropositivos para N. caninum foram encontrados em Belém, Bujaru, Castanhal e Santo Antônio do Tauá. O Estudo II encontrou associação entre soropositividade de N. caninum e esterco descartado no solo, alimentação dos suínos com proteína de origem animal, criação de subsistência e ausência de bebedores tipo "nipple". Não foi encontrada associação para T. gondii. A carne suína apresenta potencial risco de transmissão de T. gondii para os habitantes da região. De acordo com nosso conhecimento, este é o primeiro relato de anticorpos anti-N. caninum em suínos no estado do Pará, Amazônia brasileira.


Subject(s)
Animals , Swine Diseases/immunology , Swine Diseases/epidemiology , Coccidiosis/immunology , Coccidiosis/veterinary , Coccidiosis/epidemiology , Neospora/immunology , Swine , Toxoplasma/immunology , Brazil/epidemiology , Antibodies, Protozoan/blood , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Toxoplasmosis, Animal/epidemiology , Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect/veterinary
3.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 40(10): 739-749, Oct. 2020. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1143406

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to analyze the parasites infesting pigs and their producers on family farms in Tanguá, RJ, Brazil, and to conduct extension activities between 2018 and 2019. Fecal samples were collected from 132 pigs, as well as, skin scrapings from the ears of 125 animals. In addition, 36 stool specimens from farmers and their families were analyzed. The collected material was processed by direct examination, sedimentation and flotation techniques. Gastrointestinal parasites were detected in 88.6% of the pigs, especially coccidia (71.8%), Balantioides coli (55%), strongyles (40.2%) and Strongyloides ransomi (31.6%) which showed statistically significance (p<0.05). Ectoparasites were identified in 16% of the pigs, mostly Sarcoptes scabiei var. suis (76.2%). Parasites were detected in 19.4% of the humans, including, Entamoeba coli (19.4%), Ascaris lumbricoides (8.3%) and Trichuris trichiura (5.5%). The frequency of B. coli and S. scabiei var. suis (p<0.05) were statistically significant, when analyzing the age group of the animals, having been more detected in the older years, fatterners phase. The pig farmers participated in these activities extension, which included lecture and "field day", aimed at imparting information about parasites and their prophylaxis. The situation in Tanguá pig farms reinforces the need to carry out programs that provide technical support to these farmers, whose livelihood depends on pig farming.(AU)


Este estudo objetivou analisar os parasitos que infectam suínos e seus produtores em propriedades familiares em Tanguá, RJ, Brasil, realizando atividades extensionistas entre 2018 e 2019. Amostras fecais foram coletadas de 132 suínos, bem como raspados da pele da orelha de 125 animais. Além disso, 36 amostras fecais dos produtores e seus familiares foram analisadas. O material coletado foi processado pelo exame direto e por técnicas de sedimentação e flutuação. Parasitos gastrointestinais foram detectados em 88,6% dos suínos, principalmente coccídios (71,8%), Balantioides coli (55%), estrôngilos (40,2%) e Strongyloides ransomi (31,6%) que apresentaram significância estatística (p<0,05). Ectoparasitos foram identificados em 16% dos suínos, principalmente Sarcoptes scabiei var. suis (76,2%). Parasitos foram detectados em 19,4% das amostras fecais humanas, incluindo Entamoeba coli (19,4%), Ascaris lumbricoides (8,3%) e Trichuris trichiura (5,5%). A frequência de B. coli e S. scabiei var. suis foi estatisticamente significativa (p<0,05), quando se analisou os animais por faixa etária, tendo sido principalmente detectado nos animais mais velhos, como na fase de terminação. Os produtores de suínos participaram ativamente das atividades de extensão, incluído a palestra e a atividade "dia de campo", que tinham como objetivo mediar informações sobre parasitos e suas medidas profiláticas. A situação nas granjas familiares de Tanguá demonstra a necessidade de realização de programas que apoiem tecnicamente esses produtores, que utilizam a suinocultura como fonte de subsistência.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Strongyloides/isolation & purification , Balantidium/isolation & purification , Coccidia/isolation & purification , Sus scrofa/parasitology , Swine Diseases/epidemiology , Zoonoses , Animal Husbandry/education
4.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 40(9): 662-668, Sept. 2020. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1143421

ABSTRACT

Glässer's disease is an important infectious disorder of swine caused by Haemophilus parasuis. Although well recognized in most regions of Brazil, outbreaks of Glässer's disease have not been described in Northeastern region. For this reason, three municipalities of the Pernambuco State were visited in order to identify histories of high mortality in growing and finishing pigs. The main clinical signs consisted of dry cough, apathy, fever, anorexia, paresis, muscle tremors, motor incoordination, seizures leading to high mortality rates. Nine pigs were necropsied, and fragments of the nervous system, organs of the abdominal and thoracic cavities were collected for histological analysis. In addition, lung and brain fragments were used for DNA extraction and molecular testing by real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Grossly, the main lesions consisted of petechial hemorrhages or ecchymosis on the skin of the face, abdomen, forelimbs, and hind limbs. The main severe lesions consisted of hydropericardium, hemopericardium, fibrinous pericarditis and pleuropneumonia. Microscopically, pericarditis, epicarditis and subepicardial myocarditis, followed by a moderate to severe multifocal pleuropneumonia, fibrinosuppurative and necrotizing were the most frequent lesions observed. Real-time PCR amplified H. parasuis infB gene in all samples analyzed, confirming the presence of this etiologic agent.(AU)


A doença de Glässer é uma importante enfermidade infecciosa de suínos causada pela bactéria Haemophilus parasuis. Embora bem reconhecida na maioria das regiões do Brasil, surtos de doença de Glässer não têm sido descritos na região Nordeste. Por este motivo, três regiões do Estado de Pernambuco foram visitadas com o objetivo de se identificar históricos de alta mortalidade em leitões e suínos em fase de terminação. Nove suínos foram necropsiados e fragmentos do sistema nervoso, órgãos das cavidades abdominal e torácica foram coletados para análise histopatológica. Além disso, fragmentos de pulmão e cérebro foram utilizados para extração de DNA e realização de teste molecular por meio da Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase (PCR) em tempo real. Os principais sinais clínicos consistiram em tosse seca, apatia, febre, anorexia, paresia, tremores musculares, incoordenação motora e convulsões levando a altas taxas de mortalidade. As lesões macroscópicas mais severas consistiam em petéquias e equimoses na pele da face, abdome, membros anteriores e posteriores, além de hidropericárdio, hemopericárdio, pericardite fibrinosa e pleuropneumonia. Microscopicamente, pericardite, epicardite e miocardite subepicárdica, seguidas de pleuropneumonia multifocal moderada a grave, fibrino-supurativa e necrosante foram as lesões mais frequentes observadas. A PCR em tempo real amplificou o gene infB de H. parasuis em todas as amostras analisadas, confirmando a presença deste agente etiológico.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Pneumonia/veterinary , Swine Diseases/epidemiology , Sus scrofa/microbiology , Haemophilus parasuis , Haemophilus Infections/veterinary , Meningitis/veterinary
5.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 40(4): 254-260, Apr. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1135617

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to determine the frequency and distribution of infectious diseases diagnosed through necropsy examination and histopathological analysis in growing/finishing pigs along 12 years (2005-2016) in Southern Brazil. We evaluated 1906 anatomopathological exams of pigs at growing/finishing phases, of which the infectious diseases corresponded to 75.6% of the cases (1,441/1,906). Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) infections were the most frequent, accounting for 51.3% of the cases (739/1,441) with a higher frequency from 2005 to 2007, characterizing an epidemic distribution, with a gradual decline after 2008. Infectious diseases affecting the respiratory system were the second major cause with 30.1% of the cases. Among these, necrotizing bronchiolitis caused by swine Influenza (15.1%, 218/1,441) and bacterial pneumonia (15%, 216/1,441) were the main conditions. Influenza was mostly diagnosed from 2010 to 2013, accounting for 43.1% (167/387) of the cases. After this period, both respiratory infectious diseases were endemic. Digestive system infectious diseases accounted for 10.5% of the diagnoses (151/1,441), with the following main conditions: Salmonella spp. enterocolitis (43.7%, 66/151), Lawsonia spp. proliferative enteropathy (41.7%, 63/151), and Brachyspira spp. colitis (14.6%, 22/151). The latter had a higher incidence from 2012 to 2014 with all cases detected in this period. Polyserositis and bacterial meningitis represented, respectively, 5.8% (84/1,441) and 2.3% (33/1,441) of the cases diagnosed, with a constant endemic character.(AU)


O objetivo deste estudo consistiu em determinar a frequência e a distribuição das doenças infecciosas diagnosticadas através de exame de necropsia e análise histopatológica em suínos nas fases de crescimento/terminação ao longo de 12 anos (2005-2016) no sul do Brasil. Foram avaliados 1906 laudos anatomopatológicos de suínos nas fases de crescimento/terminação, dos quais as doenças infecciosas corresponderam a 75,6% (1441/1906) do total. As infecções por circovírus suíno tipo 2 (PCV2) foram as mais frequentes, contabilizando 51,3% (739/1441) dos casos, com uma alta frequência de 2005 a 2007 caracterizando uma distribuição epidêmica neste período, e um declínio gradual após o ano de 2008. A segunda principal causa incluiu as doenças infecciosas que afetam o sistema respiratório (30,1% dos casos). Dentre essas, destacaram-se a influenza suína (15,1%; 218/1441) e pneumonias bacterianas (15%; 216/1441). O diagnóstico de influenza apresentou uma frequência elevada de 2010 a 2013, totalizando 43,1% (167/387) dos casos. Após este período, ambas doenças infecciosas respiratórias exibiram caráter endêmico. As doenças infecciosas do sistema digestório totalizaram 10,5% (151/1441) dos diagnósticos, com as seguintes principais condições: enterocolite por Salmonella spp. (43,7%; 66/151), enteropatia proliferativa por Lawsonia spp. (41,7%; 63/151) e colite por Brachyspira spp. (14,6%; 22/151). A colite por Brachyspira spp. apresentou uma alta incidência de 2012 a 2014 com todos os casos detectados no período. As polisserosites e meningites bacterianas representaram 5,8% (84/1441) e 2,3% (33/1441) dos casos diagnosticados, respectivamente, com um caráter endêmico constante.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Swine Diseases/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases/pathology , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Circovirus , Circoviridae Infections/pathology , Circoviridae Infections/epidemiology , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/pathology , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/epidemiology , Influenzavirus A , Sus scrofa , Enterocolitis/epidemiology , Pneumonia of Swine, Mycoplasmal
6.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 29(1): e014819, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058007

ABSTRACT

Abstract Despite the global importance of the zoonotic parasite Toxoplasma gondii, little is known regarding its infection in the Democratic Republic of São Tomé and Príncipe (DRSTP). This is the first report of antibodies to T. gondii in cattle, sheep, goats and pigs from the DRSTP. Antibodies were assessed by the modified agglutination test (MAT), with a cut-off titer of 100 for cattle and 20 for sheep, goats and pigs. The present study revealed an overall seroprevalence of 55.8%; 27.1% in 48 cattle, 68.4% in 98 sheep, 70.1% in 97 goats and 43.7% in 103 pigs. The south geographical area for cattle, the central area for sheep, and adult age and living in the central region for goats were found to be risk factors for seropositivity to T. gondii. These results support the scenario of a considerable presence of sporulated oocysts as well as of infected intermediate hosts in the local environment. Consumption of raw or undercooked meat should be considered as an important potential source of infection for animals and humans in the DRSTP.


Resumo Apesar da importância global do parasita zoonótico Toxoplasma gondii, pouco se conhece sobre sua infecção na República Democrática de São Tomé e Príncipe (RDSTP). Esse é o primeiro relato de anticorpos para T. gondii em bovinos, ovinos, caprinos e suínos da RDSTP. Os anticorpos foram pesquisados pelo teste de aglutinação direta modificada (TADM), com um título de corte de 100 para bovinos e de 20 para ovinos, caprinos e suínos. O presente estudo revelou uma soroprevalência global de 55,8%: 27,1% em 48 bovinos, 68,4% em 98 ovinos, 70,1% em 97 caprinos e 43,7% em 103 suínos. A área geográfica sul para os bovinos, a área central para os ovinos, bem como a idade adulta e a região central para os caprinos foram considerados fatores de risco para soropositividade a T. gondii. Esses resultados suportam o cenário de uma considerável presença de oocistos esporulados, bem como de hospedeiros intermediários infectados no ambiente local. O consumo de carne crua ou mal passada deve ser considerado como uma importante fonte potencial de infecção para animais e seres humanos na RDSTP.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Toxoplasma/immunology , Antibodies, Protozoan/blood , Toxoplasmosis, Animal/epidemiology , Sheep Diseases/diagnosis , Sheep Diseases/epidemiology , Swine , Swine Diseases/diagnosis , Swine Diseases/epidemiology , Goats , Sheep , Cattle Diseases/diagnosis , Cattle Diseases/epidemiology , Goat Diseases/diagnosis , Goat Diseases/epidemiology , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Toxoplasmosis, Animal/diagnosis , Risk Factors , Sao Tome and Principe/epidemiology
7.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 29(4): e009120, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138135

ABSTRACT

Abstract There is great diversity in swine coccidia, which are responsible for causing intestinal disorders ranging from sporadic diarrhea to severe cases of hemorrhagic enteritis. Thus, determining the species of coccidia that affect the animals of a region and associating them with the characteristics of the farms become extremely important. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of coccidia parasites in pigs reared in a family farming production system in the Semiarid Region of the State of Paraíba, Northeast Brazil. Fecal samples for analysis were collected from 187 pigs on 51 farms. For morphological analysis, 1,590 sporulated oocysts were used. The prevalence of oocysts in fecal samples was 56.6% (106/187). The most prevalent species were Eimeria suis (21.9%), followed by Eimeria neodebliecki (16.6%), Eimeria perminuta (14.9%), Eimeria polita (12.8%), Eimeria debliecki (10.6%), Eimeria porci (10.1%), Cystoisospora suis (3.7%), Eimeria scabra (1.6%) and Eimeria cerdonis (0.5%). It can be concluded that pigs from the Semiarid Region of the State of Paraíba were parasitized by a diversity of coccidia species, mainly of the genus Eimeria, and predominantly presented with mixed infections occurring in the subclinical form.


Resumo Há uma grande diversidade de coccídios que parasitam os suínos, sendo responsáveis por causarem desordens intestinais que variam de diarreias esporádicas a casos severos de enterites hemorrágicas. Assim, determinar as espécies de coccídios que afetam os animais de uma região e associá-los com as características das fazendas torna-se extremamente importante. Objetivou-se determinar a prevalência de coccídios em suínos criados em sistema de produção de agricultura familiar no Semiárido da Paraíba, Nordeste do Brasil. Foram analisados oocistos íntegros e esporulados no período de março a setembro de 2018, oriundos de 187 suínos, em 51 propriedades. Para a análise morfológica foram utilizados 1.590 oocistos esporulados. A prevalência de oocistos de coccídios foi detectada em 56,6% (106/187) das amostras analisadas. A espécie mais prevalente foi Eimeria suis (21,9%), seguida por Eimeria neodebliecki (16,6%), Eimeria perminuta (14,9%), Eimeria polita (12,8%), Eimeria debliecki (10,6%), Eimeria porci (10,1%), Cystoisospora suis (3,7%), Eimeria scabra (1,6%) e Eimeria cerdonis (0,5%). Concluiu-se que os suínos do Semiárido da Paraíba estavam parasitados por uma alta diversidade de espécies de coccídios, principalmente do gênero Eimeria, apresentando predominantemente infeções mistas, que ocorrem sob a forma subclínica.


Subject(s)
Animals , Swine/parasitology , Swine Diseases/epidemiology , Coccidiosis/veterinary , Coccidiosis/epidemiology , Eimeria , Isospora , Swine Diseases/parasitology , Brazil/epidemiology , Feces
8.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 29(4): e015320, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138127

ABSTRACT

Abstract Backyard pigs have been associated with poor sanitary conditions and the development of parasitic diseases, often causing public health and food safety problems. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors for gastrointestinal parasites in backyard pigs. 279 animals were sampled from thirty-two backyard pig farms located in the Bucaramanga, Floridablanca, Giron and Piedecuesta municipalities, from Bucaramanga Metropolitan Area, Colombia. Fecal samples were taken directly from the rectum and processed by four coprological techniques. The overall prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites was 91%, being the highest values for Balantidium coli and Eimeria sp. Regarding the prevalence by municipalities, there was no statistical association (p ≥ 0.05) indicating that the prevalence was similar in the region under study. Floridablanca municipality, free-ranging pigs, access to latrines, and consumption of spring water showed to be a risk factor for nematodes, while Giron municipality, pigs > 7 months of age and access to latrines, increased infection risk for coccidian. We concluded that there is a high prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in backyard pigs from the Bucaramanga Metropolitan Area, and that it could be controlled by improving management practices and farm facilities.


Resumo Suínos criados em fundo de quintal têm sido associados às más condições sanitárias e ao desenvolvimento de doenças parasitárias, frequentemente causando problemas de saúde pública e segurança alimentar. Assim, o objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a prevalência e os fatores de risco para parasitos gastrointestinais em suínos criados em fundo de quintal. Foram amostrados 279 animais de 32 fazendas de suínos localizadas nos municípios de Bucaramanga, Floridablanca, Giron e Piedecuesta, da Área Metropolitana de Bucaramanga, Colômbia. As amostras fecais foram coletadas diretamente do reto e processadas por quatro técnicas coprológicas. A prevalência geral de parasitos gastrintestinais foi de 91%, sendo os maiores valores para Balantidium coli e Eimeria sp. Em relação à prevalência por municípios, não houve associação estatística (p≥ 0,05), indicando que a prevalência foi semelhante na região estudada. O município de Floridablanca, porcos caipiras, acesso a latrinas e consumo de água da nascente mostraram ser um fator de risco para os nematoides enquanto no município de Giron, porcos com mais de 7 meses de idade e acesso a latrinas, aumentou o risco de infecção por coccídios. Concluiu-se que há uma alta prevalência de parasitos gastrointestinais em suínos criados em fundo de quintal da Área Metropolitana de Bucaramanga, e que isso poderia ser controlado melhorando as práticas de manejo e as instalações agrícolas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Parasites , Swine Diseases/epidemiology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/parasitology , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic/veterinary , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic/epidemiology , Swine , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Colombia/epidemiology
9.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 28(3): 403-409, July-Sept. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042533

ABSTRACT

Abstract To estimate the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum, using an indirect immunofluorescent assay (IFA), and identify the risk factors associated, serum samples were collected from 1,070 pigs from 320 backyard pig farming in the of Mato Grosso state. The animal-level seroprevalence of T. gondii and N. caninum was 32.48% and 13.49%, respectively, with a herd seroprevalence of 55.63% for T. gondii and 27.81% for N. caninum. Feeding the animals with leftovers increases the probability of the presence of anti-T. gondii antibodies in pigs by 1.09-fold. Unlike to T. gondii, feeding with leftovers was found to be negatively associated with N. caninum seropositivity in farm-level analysis and in the animal-level model, so decreasing the chances of positivity. Yet, age was considered a risk factor for N. caninum seropositivity. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the impact of T. gondii infection on backyard pig farming production, and its importance as a source of toxoplasmosis infection in humans in the Mato Grosso state, as well as, the role of domestic pigs in the epidemiology of neosporosis.


Resumo Para estimar a soroprevalência de Toxoplasma gondii e Neospora caninum, utilizando a reação de imunofluorescência indireta (RIFI), e identificar os fatores de risco associados, foram coletadas amostras de soro de 1.070 suínos provenientes de 320 criatórios de fundo de quintal no Estado de Mato Grosso. A soroprevalência para nível animal de T. gondii e N. caninum foi de 32,48% e 13,49%, respectivamente, com uma soroprevalência de rebanho de 55,63% para T. gondii e 27,81% para N. caninum. Alimentar os animais com sobras aumenta a probabilidade da presença de anticorpos anti-T. gondii em porcos em 1,09 vezes. Ao contrário de T. gondii, a alimentação baseada em sobras foi encontrada como negativamente associada à soropositividade para N. caninum na análise em nível de fazenda e no modelo em nível animal, diminuindo assim as chances de positividade. Ainda, a idade foi considerada um fator de risco para a soropositividade para N. caninum. Mais estudos são necessários para avaliar o impacto da infecção por T. gondii na produção de suinocultura de quintal e sua importância como fonte de infecção para toxoplasmose em humanos no Estado de Mato Grosso, bem como o papel dos suínos domésticos na epidemiologia da neosporose.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Swine/parasitology , Swine Diseases/epidemiology , Toxoplasma/immunology , Antibodies, Protozoan/blood , Toxoplasmosis, Animal/epidemiology , Coccidiosis/veterinary , Neospora/immunology , Swine Diseases/diagnosis , Swine Diseases/parasitology , Brazil/epidemiology , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Toxoplasmosis, Animal/diagnosis , Risk Factors , Coccidiosis/diagnosis , Coccidiosis/epidemiology , Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect
10.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 48(2): 373-379, April.-June 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839368

ABSTRACT

Abstract Hepatitis E virus is responsible for acute and chronic liver infections worldwide. Swine hepatitis E virus has been isolated in Brazil, and a probable zoonotic transmission has been described, although data are still scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of hepatitis E virus infection in pigs from a small-scale farm in the rural area of Paraná State, South Brazil. Fecal samples were collected from 170 pigs and screened for hepatitis E virus RNA using a duplex real-time RT-PCR targeting a highly conserved 70 nt long sequence within overlapping parts of ORF2 and ORF3 as well as a 113 nt sequence of ORF2. Positive samples with high viral loads were subjected to direct sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. hepatitis E virus RNA was detected in 34 (20.0%) of the 170 pigs following positive results in at least one set of screening real-time RT-PCR primers and probes. The swine hepatitis E virus strains clustered with the genotype hepatitis E virus-3b reference sequences in the phylogenetic analysis and showed close similarity to human hepatitis E virus isolates previously reported in Brazil.


Subject(s)
Animals , Swine Diseases/epidemiology , Hepatitis E virus/isolation & purification , Hepatitis E virus/classification , Hepatitis E/veterinary , Phylogeny , Swine , Swine Diseases/virology , Brazil , RNA, Viral/analysis , RNA, Viral/genetics , Cluster Analysis , Prevalence , Hepatitis E virus/genetics , Hepatitis E/epidemiology , Hepatitis E/virology , Sequence Homology , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Feces/virology , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
11.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 25(4): 414-417, Sept.-Dec. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-830040

ABSTRACT

Abstract Mycoplasma suis, the etiological agent of swine hemoplasmosis, has been neglected in swine herds around the world. Swine hemoplasmosis is frequently associated with hemolytic anemia, disgalacty, infertility and immunosuppression, and it results in significant economic losses. This study investigates the occurrence of M. suis in non-technified swine herds in the northeastern region of Brazil using quantitative PCR (qPCR) based on the 16S rRNA gene. Between March and August 2013, blood samples from 147 swine were collected during slaughter in the city of Mossoró, state of Rio Grande do Norte, northeastern Brazil. One hundred and twelve samples (76.19%) were positive for M. suis by qPCR assays. The range of Cqs and quantification (copies of a M. suis-16S rRNA gene fragment/µL) was 20.86–37.89 and 1.64×101–6.64×107, respectively. One can conclude that M. suis infection have high occurrence (76,19%) in non-technified swine-rearing systems in Mossoró in the state of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil.


Resumo Mycoplasma suis, agente etiológico da hemoplasmose suína, tem sido negligenciado nas criações de suínos ao redor do mundo. A hemoplasmose suína é frequentemente associada à anemia hemolítica, disgalactia, infertilidade e imunossupressão, acarretando em perdas econômicas. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi investigar, por meio da PCR quantitativa (qPCR) baseada no gene rRNA 16S, a ocorrência de M. suis em amostras de sangue de suínos de criações não tecnificadas na cidade de Mossoró, Estado do Rio Grande do Norte. Entre março a agosto de 2013, foram colhidas amostras de sangue de 147 suínos de criações não tecnificadas da referida região. Cento e doze amostras (76,19%) amostras mostraram-se positivas na qPCR para M. suis. A média dos Cqs e da quantificação (número de cópias do gene 16S rRNA de M. suis por microlitro) foi de 20,86 – 37,89 e 1,64 x 101 a 6,64 x 107, respectivamente. Conclui-se que a infecção por M. suis apresenta alta ocorrência (76,19%) em criações de suínos não tecnificadas na cidade de Mossoró, estado do Rio Grande do Norte.


Subject(s)
Animals , Swine Diseases/epidemiology , Mycoplasma Infections/veterinary , Swine , Swine Diseases/microbiology , Brazil/epidemiology , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Farms , Mycoplasma/genetics , Mycoplasma Infections/epidemiology
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-180026

ABSTRACT

This study describes the first record of Globocephalus samoensis (Nematoda: Ancylostomatidae) recovered in wild boars from southwestern regions of Korea. Gastrointestinal tracts of 111 Korean wild boars (Sus scrofa coreanus) hunted from mountains in Suncheon-si, Gwangyang-si, and Boseong-gun between 2009 and 2012 were examined for their visceral helminths. G. samoensis, as identified by morphological characteristics of the head and tail, were recovered from the small intestine of 51 (45.9%) wild boars. Worms were found from 7 of 28 wild boars (25.0%) from Suncheon-si, 40 of 79 (50.6%) from Gwangyang-si, and all 4 (100%) from Boseong-gun. The length of adult females was 7.2+/-0.5 mm, and the thickest part of the body measured the average 0.47+/-0.03 mm, while those of males were 6.52+/-0.19 and 0.37+/-0.02 mm, respectively. The buccal cavity was equipped with a pair of large and bicuspid subventral lancets near the base of the capsule. The average length of spicules of males was 0.45+/-0.02 mm. By the present study, G. samoensis is recorded for the first time in southwestern regions of Korea. Additionally, morphological characteristics and identification keys provided in the present study will be helpful in the faunistic and taxonomic studies for strongylid nematodes in both domestic and wild pigs. The infection of G. samoensis apparently did not elicit pathologic lesions, as revealed by macroscopic observation during the autopsy of all wild boars in this study.


Subject(s)
Ancylostomatoidea/anatomy & histology , Animals , Biometry , Female , Gastrointestinal Tract/parasitology , Helminthiasis/epidemiology , Hookworm Infections/epidemiology , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic/epidemiology , Male , Microscopy , Prevalence , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Sus scrofa/parasitology , Swine , Swine Diseases/epidemiology
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-130550

ABSTRACT

Cryptosporidium spp., ubiquitous enteric parasitic protozoa of vertebrates, recently emerged as an important cause of economic loss and zoonosis. The present study aimed to determine the distribution and species of Cryptosporidium in post-weaned and adult pigs in Shaanxi province, northwestern China. A total of 1,337 fresh fecal samples of post-weaned and adult pigs were collected by sterile disposable gloves from 8 areas of Shaanxi province. The samples were examined by Sheather's sugar flotation technique and microscopy atx400 magnification for Cryptosporidium infection, and the species in positive samples was further identified by PCR amplification of the small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene. A total of 44 fecal samples were successfully amplified by the nested PCR of the partial SSU rRNA, with overall prevalence of 3.3%. The average prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection in each pig farms ranged from 0 to 14.4%. Species identification by sequencing of SSU rRNA gene revealed that 42 (3.1%) samples were Cryptosporidium suis and 2 (0.15%) were Cryptosporidium scrofarum. C. suis had the highest prevalence (7.5%) in growers and the lowest in breeding pigs (0.97%). C. suis was the predominant species in pre-weaned and adult pigs, while C. scrofarum infected pigs older than 3 months only. A season-related difference of C. suis was observed in this study, with the highest prevalence in autumn (5.5%) and the lowest (1.7%) in winter. The present study provided basic information for control of Cryptosporidium infection in pigs and assessment of zoonotic transmission of pigs in Shaanxi province, China.


Subject(s)
Animals , China/epidemiology , Cluster Analysis , Cryptosporidiosis/epidemiology , Cryptosporidium/classification , DNA, Protozoan/chemistry , DNA, Ribosomal/chemistry , Feces/parasitology , Molecular Sequence Data , Phylogeny , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Prevalence , RNA, Ribosomal, 18S/genetics , Seasons , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Swine , Swine Diseases/epidemiology
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-130543

ABSTRACT

Cryptosporidium spp., ubiquitous enteric parasitic protozoa of vertebrates, recently emerged as an important cause of economic loss and zoonosis. The present study aimed to determine the distribution and species of Cryptosporidium in post-weaned and adult pigs in Shaanxi province, northwestern China. A total of 1,337 fresh fecal samples of post-weaned and adult pigs were collected by sterile disposable gloves from 8 areas of Shaanxi province. The samples were examined by Sheather's sugar flotation technique and microscopy atx400 magnification for Cryptosporidium infection, and the species in positive samples was further identified by PCR amplification of the small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene. A total of 44 fecal samples were successfully amplified by the nested PCR of the partial SSU rRNA, with overall prevalence of 3.3%. The average prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection in each pig farms ranged from 0 to 14.4%. Species identification by sequencing of SSU rRNA gene revealed that 42 (3.1%) samples were Cryptosporidium suis and 2 (0.15%) were Cryptosporidium scrofarum. C. suis had the highest prevalence (7.5%) in growers and the lowest in breeding pigs (0.97%). C. suis was the predominant species in pre-weaned and adult pigs, while C. scrofarum infected pigs older than 3 months only. A season-related difference of C. suis was observed in this study, with the highest prevalence in autumn (5.5%) and the lowest (1.7%) in winter. The present study provided basic information for control of Cryptosporidium infection in pigs and assessment of zoonotic transmission of pigs in Shaanxi province, China.


Subject(s)
Animals , China/epidemiology , Cluster Analysis , Cryptosporidiosis/epidemiology , Cryptosporidium/classification , DNA, Protozoan/chemistry , DNA, Ribosomal/chemistry , Feces/parasitology , Molecular Sequence Data , Phylogeny , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Prevalence , RNA, Ribosomal, 18S/genetics , Seasons , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Swine , Swine Diseases/epidemiology
15.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 34(6): 537-541, jun. 2014. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-716344

ABSTRACT

A presente pesquisa teve como objetivo determinar a prevalência da brucelose e seus fatores de risco no rebanho suíno de Mossoró/RN. Compreendeu um estudo epidemiológico transversal e de abordagem quantitativa, no qual foram coletadas 412 amostras sanguíneas de suínos provenientes dos principais produtores do município e realizada inspeção das criações com entrevistas aos produtores. Anticorpos anti-Brucella spp. foram detectados pelo teste do antígeno acidificado tamponado (AAT) e confirmados pela reação de fixação de complemento (RFC). A prevalência da brucelose nos suínos foi de 27,0 por cento no teste de AAT e 17,5 por cento na RFC. Em 55 por cento das propriedades pesquisadas havia pelo menos um animal positivo, e a prevalência nestas variou de 6,7 por cento a 80,0 por cento. Os fatores de risco que estavam influenciando a ocorrência da doença foram: a presença de ratos nas criações, o contato com bovinos e a faixa etária jovem dos animais. Os resultados do estudo permitiram concluir que o agente etiológico da brucelose estava circulando em suínos do município de Mossoró-RN, com elevada prevalência no rebanho e nas propriedades, evidenciando o risco de transmissão desta zoonose para o homem.


The study aimed to determine the prevalence of brucellosis and its risk factors in the pig herd of Mossoró-RN. Comprised a cross-sectional quantitative approach and epidemiological study, where 412 blood samples of pigs from major producers in the municipality were collected and inspection of herds with interviews with producers were conducted. Antibodies to Brucella spp. were detected by the rose Bengal test (RBT) and confirmed by the complement fixation test (CFT). The prevalence of brucellosis in pigs was 27.0 percent in the RBT and 17.5 percent in the CFT. In 55 percent of the surveyed properties there was at least one positive animal, and these prevalence ranged from 6.7 percent to 80.0 percent. Risk factors that were influencing the occurrence of the disease were the presence of rats in the farms, contact with cattle and the young age of the animals. The study results showed that the causative agent of brucellosis was circulating in pigs in the municipality of Mossoró-RN, with high prevalence in the herd and on the properties, indicating the risk of transmission of this zoonosis to humans.


Subject(s)
Animals , Brucella suis/isolation & purification , Brucellosis/veterinary , Swine Diseases/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Disease Transmission, Infectious/veterinary
16.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 23(1): 98-100, Jan-Mar/2014. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-707199

ABSTRACT

This study is aimed to assess the prevalence and risk factors associated with T. gondii infection in pigs. We evaluated 143 pigs, in 10 randomly-chosen farms located in Southern Piauí. The pig's blood serum was analyzed through ELISA in detection of anti-T. gondii antibodies. A seroprevalence of 25.5% was observed in the pigs that reacted against T. gondii antigens. The data from the records demonstrated an association with some factors such as: age, diet, type of management, breed and presence of cats in the farms with a prevalence of T. gondii. With the exception of sex, all others features represent risk factors for T. gondii infection. Furthermore, our data contributed to the understanding of the T. gondii seroprevalence in pig farms located in Southern Piauí.


Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a soroprevalência e os fatores de risco associados a infecção por T. gondii em suínos. Foram avaliados 143 suínos em 10 propriedades localizadas no Sul do Estado do Piauí. Os soros dos suínos foram analisados para a detecção de anticorpos anti-T. gondii pela técnica de ELISA. Encontrou-se uma soroprevalência de 25,5% em suínos reativos para antígenos de T. gondii. Por meio de fichas, alguns fatores como idade, dieta, raça, sistema de criação e presença de gatos foram associados à presença de T. gondii. Com exceção do sexo, todas as outras características representaram fatores de risco para a infecção com o parasita. Os dados contribuem para a compreensão da soroprevalência de T. gondii de suínos criados no Sul do Estado do Piauí.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Male , Antibodies, Protozoan/blood , Swine Diseases/blood , Swine Diseases/epidemiology , Toxoplasma/immunology , Toxoplasmosis, Animal/blood , Toxoplasmosis, Animal/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Swine
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-104581

ABSTRACT

This study was conducted to analyze the prevalence and quantitative loads of Salmonella spp. on pig farms in Chiang Mai, Lamphun, Thailand to assess loading levels before slaughtering. The serotype diversity, antimicrobial-resistance pattern and pulse-field type of Salmonella spp. were also characterized to assess the dynamic propagation of the pathogen. The Salmonella-positive prevalence was 246/805 (30.56%), and the quantitative loads varied from 1.48~4.04 Log10MPN/g, with a mean +/- standard deviation of 2.11 +/- 0.57. AMP/S/TE (ampicillin/streptomycin/tetracycline) was the highest frequency antimicrobial resistance pattern found in this study. In addition, Salmonella Rissen was the primary serotype in this region. PFGE results indicated the occurrence of infection by cross contamination among pig farms. Our study showed that pork is easily contaminated with this pathogen. Farm control programs must be based on strict biosecurity and hygienic measures, which could further reduce the contamination pressure at slaughterhouses or retail shops.


Subject(s)
Abattoirs , Animals , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Bacterial Load/veterinary , Colony Count, Microbial/veterinary , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial/drug effects , Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field/veterinary , Feces/microbiology , Female , Male , Prevalence , Salmonella/classification , Salmonella Infections, Animal/epidemiology , Serotyping/veterinary , Swine , Swine Diseases/epidemiology , Thailand/epidemiology
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-24547

ABSTRACT

This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) in pigs, farm workers, and the environment in northern Thailand, and to assess LA-MRSA isolate phenotypic characteristics. One hundred and four pig farms were randomly selected from the 21,152 in Chiang Mai and Lamphun provinces in 2012. Nasal and skin swab samples were collected from pigs and farm workers. Environmental swabs (pig stable floor, faucet, and feeder) were also collected. MRSA was identified by conventional bacterial culture technique, with results confirmed by multiplex PCR and multi locus sequence typing (MLST). Herd prevalence of MRSA was 9.61% (10 of 104 farms). Among pigs, workers, and farm environments, prevalence was 0.68% (two of 292 samples), 2.53% (seven of 276 samples), and 1.28% (four of 312 samples), respectively. Thirteen MRSA isolates (seven from workers, four from environmental samples, and two from pigs) were identified as Staphylococcal chromosomal cassette mec IV sequences type 9. Antimicrobial sensitivity tests found 100% of the MRSA isolates resistant to clindamycin, oxytetracycline, and tetracycline, while 100% were susceptible to cloxacillin and vancomycin. All possessed a multidrug-resistant phenotype. This is the first evidence of an LA-MRSA interrelationship among pigs, workers, and the farm environment in Thailand.


Subject(s)
Animal Husbandry , Animals , Cross-Sectional Studies , Genotype , Humans , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/classification , Microbial Sensitivity Tests/veterinary , Molecular Sequence Data , Multilocus Sequence Typing/veterinary , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary , Occupational Diseases/epidemiology , Phylogeny , Prevalence , Sequence Analysis, DNA/veterinary , Staphylococcal Infections/epidemiology , Swine , Swine Diseases/epidemiology , Thailand/epidemiology
19.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 33(10): 1208-1214, Oct. 2013. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-697160

ABSTRACT

Visando-se determinar as características e frequência das doenças na população suína na região de abrangência do Laboratório de Patologia Veterinária (LPV) da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM), foi realizado um estudo retrospectivo de todos os diagnósticos de necropsias realizadas nesta espécie no período de 1964 a 2011. Foram separados 564 casos com diagnósticos conclusivos. A criação suína na região de abrangência do estudo é predominantemente familiar e as doenças diagnosticadas, refletem esta realidade. As doenças infecciosas e parasitárias foram as mais prevalentes [380(68,1%)], seguidas, em ordem decrescente, das doenças metabólicas e nutricionais [64(11,5%)], intoxicações e toxi-infecções [33(5,9%)], e distúrbios do desenvolvimento [15(2,7%)]. Outras alterações de diversas etiologias, sobretudo de trauma, foram causa de morte em pouco mais de 11% dos protocolos examinados. Doenças bacterianas foram responsáveis por mais da metade das causas de morte ou razão para eutanásia dos suínos estudados, revelando a influência de fatores de manejo, ambientais e nutricionais regional de criação de suínos. A principal doença diagnosticada em suínos na região de abrangência do estudo foi a doença do edema e juntamente com outras formas de infecção por Escherichia coli é responsável por 23% das mortes. Doenças de etiologia viral e neoplasia não são importantes causas de morte em suínos na região estudada. Hepatose nutricional e aflatoxicose são importantes doenças da região e se devem, sobretudo, a fatores de manejo nutricional.


A retrospective study of all necropsy performed in pigs in the Laboratório de Patologia Veterinária (LPV) at Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM) was carried out in order to determine the characteristics and frequency of diseases in the swine population raised in the region the region covered by the activities of LPV. Five hundred and four cases with conclusive diagnosis were found. The type of pig-raising in the area is mainly a familiar enterprise and the diseases found in this survey reflect this reality Infectious and parasitic diseases were the most prevalent [380(68.1%)], followed, in descending order of frequency, by nutritional and metabolic diseases [64(11.5%)], poisonings and toxi-infections and development disorders [15(2.7%)]. Other disorders due to varying etiologies, especially trauma, were cause of death in just over 11% of the cases. Bacterial diseases were responsible for more than half of the causes of death in pigs of the studied population, pointing to the influence of management, environmental and nutritional regional husbandry. The moist frequent disease diagnosed in pigs in the region in the region covered by the study was edema disease which along with other forms of infection by Escherichia coli was responsible for 23% of deaths. Viral diseases and neoplasm were not major causes of death in pigs in the region studied. Nutritional hepatosis and aflatoxicosis are important diseases in pigs in this region and and there causation are mainly linked to nutritional management.


Subject(s)
Animals , Autopsy/veterinary , Swine Diseases/epidemiology , Health Surveys/statistics & numerical data , Swine/growth & development , Retrospective Studies
20.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 33(supl.1): 179-184, set. 2013. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-695808

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Leptospirosis is a bacterial disease transmitted directly or indirectly from animals to humans that may result in severe hemorrhagic, hepatic/renal and pulmonary disease. There are 20 known Leptospira species and hundreds of serovars, some of which belong to different species. It is essential to identify pathogenic Leptospira serovars and their potential reservoirs to prepare adequate control strategies. Objective: To characterize the Leptospira serovars isolated from rodents, dogs, pigs and water samples in Colombia. Materials and methods: Leptospira organisms were isolated and cultured, and pathogenic strains were identified using a polymerase chain-reaction (PCR). Leptospira DNA and Salmonella Braenderup H9812 (molecular weight standard) DNA were cleaved using NotI and subjected to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The PFGE patterns were analyzed based on bacterial strain-typing criteria and Dice coefficients (DCs) between these isolates and over 200 Leptospira organisms isolated from other parts of the world. Results: All of the isolates were pathogenic strains, and five were genetically characterized. The P275 (84% DC) and P282 (95% DC) pig isolates were related to the Leptospira interrogans Pomona serovar; the I15 (DC: 100%) rat isolate was identical to the Leptospira interrogans Icterohameorrhagiae or Copenhageni serovars, while the C67 (64% DC) dog and A42 (60% DC) water isolates were not related (< 73.7% DC) to any of the 200 reference serovars; the closest serovars were the Leptospira noguchii Nicaragua and Orleans serovars, respectively. Conclusion: This was the first molecular characterization of Colombian Leptospira spp isolates; these isolates will be used to develop a Colombian diagnostic panel.


Introducción. La leptospirosis es una infección bacteriana transmitida directa o indirectamente de animales a humanos, la cual puede resultar en una enfermedad hemorrágica grave, hepática o renal y pulmonar. Hay 20 especies de Leptospira conocidas y cientos de serovariedades, algunas de las cuales pertenecen a diferentes especies. Es esencial identificar las serovariedades patógenas y sus reservorios potenciales para enfocar estrategias de control. Objetivo. Caracterizar las serovariedades de Leptospira aisladas de muestras de roedores, perros, cerdos y agua en Colombia. Materiales y métodos. Las cepas de leptospiras aisladas fueron identificadas como patógenas usando la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PRC). Sus ADN y el ADN de Salmonella Braenderup H9812 (marcador de peso molecular) fueron cortados con NotI y corridos en electroforesis de campo pulsado. Los patrones de la ECP se analizaron con base en los criterios de tipificación para cepas bacterianas y el coeficiente de Dice, cuando se compararon con 200 cepas aisladas en otras partes del mundo. Los perfiles de ADN con un coeficiente de Dice entre 73,7 % y 100 % se consideraron pertenecientes a la misma especie. Resultados. Todos los aislamientos fueron cepas patógenas y cinco se caracterizaron genéticamente. El aislamiento P275 (coeficiente de Dice: 84 %) y el P282 (coeficiente de Dice: 95 %) de cerdos, se relacionaron con Leptospira interrogans de serovariedad Pomona; el aislamiento de rata (I15) fue indistinguible de Leptospira interrogans de serovariedades Icterohaemorrhagiae o Copenhageni (coeficiente de Dice: 100 %), mientras que los aislamientos de perro (C67) y agua (A42) no se relacionaron (coeficiente de Dice <73,7 %) con ninguna de las 200 cepas de referencia; las más cercanas fueron Leptospira noguchii de serovariedades Nicaragua (coeficiente de Dice: 63 %) y Orleans (coeficiente de Dice: 60 %). Conclusiones. Esta fue la primera caracterización molecular de serotipos de aislamientos colombianos, los cuales serían los primeros miembros de un panel diagnóstico colombiano.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Humans , Rats , Disease Reservoirs/microbiology , Leptospira/classification , Water Microbiology , Colombia/epidemiology , DNA, Bacterial/genetics , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Dog Diseases/microbiology , Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field , Endemic Diseases , Kidney/microbiology , Leptospira/genetics , Leptospira/isolation & purification , Leptospirosis/epidemiology , Leptospirosis/transmission , Leptospirosis/veterinary , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length , Rodent Diseases/epidemiology , Rodent Diseases/microbiology , Serogroup , Serotyping/methods , Swine Diseases/epidemiology , Swine Diseases/microbiology , Swine/microbiology , Urine/microbiology
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